1. A system for sintering materials, said system comprising:
a flashlamp configured to generate a plurality of electromagnetic emission pulses for irradiating a film on a substrate in
ambient air in order to sinter said film on said substrate such that the conductivity of said film on said substrate increases
by at least two-fold, wherein said substrate includes a material having at least one dimension less than 1 micrometer, wherein
said film includes at least one metal; and
a control circuit for controlling said flashlamp to limit an areal energy density of each of said electromagnetic emission
pulses to within the order of 1 Joules/cm2, and to limit a duration of each of said electromagnetic emission pulses to be between one microsecond and one hundred milliseconds.