1. A resistive random access memory comprising:
a first electrode layer;
an oxygen-poor layer disposed on the first electrode layer, with the oxygen-poor layer formed by indium tin oxide, indium
oxide, tin dioxide, or zinc oxide;
an insulating layer disposed on the oxygen-poor layer, with the insulating layer formed by silicon dioxide or hafnium oxide;
a second electrode layer disposed on the insulating layer,
wherein the second electrode layer is formed by indium tin oxide.