1. A vehicle, comprising:an internal combustion engine having a cylinder;
a direct fuel injector; and
an engine controller configured to:
(a) deactivate the cylinder and operating the cylinder as a Low Pressure Exhaust Spring (LPES) during a first working cycle;
(b) activate the cylinder during a second working cycle that follows the first working cycle; and
(c) direct the direct fuel injector to directly inject two or more pulses of fuel into the cylinder during the second working cycle, the engine controller making a decision to direct the fuel injector to directly inject the two or more pulses of fuel during the second working cycle at least partially based on a cooling profile of the cylinder while operated as the LPES type gas spring, wherein the direct injection of the two or more pulses reducing particulate emissions compared to the direct injection of a single pulse of fuel.