1. A vehicle with an internal combustion engine and a crankshaft for translating motion of pistons of the internal combustion engine into rotation, comprising:a firing level modulation module arranged to operate the internal combustion engine at a reduced effective displacement that is less than full displacement of the internal combustion engine by selectively modulating torque outputs of a cylinder, the modulated torque outputs including either or both of:
(a) no torque output by intentionally skipping and not firing the cylinder; and
(b) one or more torque output level(s) generated by controlling firing of the cylinder; and
a machine learning module arranged to detect a misfire of the cylinder by learning to differentiate between an actual misfire of the cylinder versus either or both of:
(c) the no torque output resulting from the intentional skipping and not firing of the cylinder; and
(d) the one or more torque output level(s) resulting from controlling the firing of the cylinder.