1. A transmitter comprising:a radio; and
a processor coupled to the radio;
wherein the radio and the processor are configured to:
represent receiver-specific control information as a plurality of frozen bits and a plurality of information bits of a polar code;
modulate at least a subset of the plurality of frozen bits based on a receiver-specific identifier to produce modulated control information, wherein at least the subset of the plurality of frozen bits are selected for modulation whereby at least the subset of the plurality of frozen bits occur within the control information after an information bit with a predetermined threshold level of reliability, wherein the plurality of information bits of the control information is not modulated based on the receiver-specific identifier;
encode the modulated control information using the polar code to obtain encoded modulated control information; and
wirelessly transmit the encoded modulated control information.