1. A method of transmitting, by a user equipment including a processor and a transmitter, control information to a base station in a wireless communication system, the method comprising:determining, by the processor, an information symbol s representing an acknowledgement (ACK)/negative acknowledgement (NACK), for an Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ)-based protocol, that is to be transmitted to the base station;

determining, by the processor, a frequency direction sequence c(k)={c(0), c(1), . . . , c(Nk?1)} having a length Nk that corresponds to a number of subcarriers included in a resource block allocated for an uplink control channel;

generating, by the processor, Nk information symbols s(k) that correspond to a product of the information symbol s with the frequency direction sequence c(k), where s(k)=s*c(k), for k=0, . . . , Nk?1;

determining, by the processor, a time direction sequence x(n)={x(0), x(1), . . . , x(Nn?1)} having a length Nn, that corresponds to a number of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) symbols allocated for transmission of the ACK/NACK in a transmission time interval on the uplink control channel;

generating, by the processor, Nk*Nn information symbols s(k, n) that correspond to a product of the Nk information symbols s(k) with the time direction sequence x(n), where s(k, n)=s(k)*x(n), for n=0, . . . , Nn?1;

mapping, by the processor, the Nk*Nn information symbols s(k,n) to Nk*Nn frequency-time resources, respectively, that are provided by Nk subcarriers in a frequency domain and Nn OFDM symbols in a time domain; and

transmitting, by the transmitter to the base station, the Nk*Nn information symbols s(k, n) using the Nk*Nn frequency-time resources through the uplink control channel in the transmission time interval.