1. A method of determining the number of cytokines, chemokines and inflammatory mediators exhibiting statistically significant down-regulation after contacting a candidate compound with a mucosal explant culture of a biopsy from a macroscopically diseased area of an inflamed intestinal mucosa from a subject having inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the method comprising:(a) comparing the expression levels of a panel of cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory mediators relating to IBD or treatment thereof, in the supernatant of a first mucosal explant culture and in the supernatant of a second mucosal explant culture; and,
(b) determining the number of cytokines, chemokines and inflammatory mediators, from said panel of cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory mediators, that exhibit statistically significant down-regulation in the second mucosal explant culture compared to the first mucosal explant culture;wherein said first mucosal explant culture is produced from the biopsy in the absence of a candidate compound, and said second mucosal explant culture is produced from the biopsy in the presence of the candidate compound; and,wherein said panel comprises, consists essentially of, or consists of: interleukin 17A (IL-17A), interleukin 7 (IL-7), interleukin 5 (IL-5), interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 13 (IL-13), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon gamma (IFN?), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 12 70-kDa (IL-12p70), interleukin 12 40-kDa (IL-12p40), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?), interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?), optionally further comprising, consisting essentially of, or consisting of one or more of: interleukin 3 (IL-3), interleukin 9 (IL-9), interleukin 22 (IL-22), interleukin 23 (IL-23), interleukin 25 (IL-25), interleukin 35 (IL-35), interleukin 36 (IL-36), interleukin 37 (IL-37), TNF-like ligand 1A (TL1A), LIGHT (Lymphotoxin-like Inducible protein that competes with Glycoprotein D for Herpesvirus entry on T cells) and Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta).