1. A method for forming synthetic aperture beams of a sonar over R pings of the sonar, the sonar being intended to move along a first axis, the sonar comprising an emitting device configured to emit, in each ping of successive pings, at least one acoustic pulse toward an observed zone in a set of sectors, a first physical receiving antenna extending along the first axis allowing measurements of backscattered signals generated by said at least one acoustic pulse and backscattered by the observed zone; a processing device configured to form, over R pings, for each sector of the set of sectors, synthetic aperture beams from measurements of signals backscattered by the observed zone and generated by acoustic pulses emitted in said sector, and at least one gyrometer that obtains rotation measurements of the first receiving antenna, the method comprising:forming, for each sector over R pings, synthetic aperture beams from measurements of signals backscattered by the observed zone and generated by acoustic pulses emitted in said sector, wherein variations in the movement of the first receiving antenna during the formation of the synthetic aperture beams of said set of sectors are corrected for by carrying out an autocalibration by intercorrelation of the successive pings using rotation measurements of the first receiving antenna, which measurements are obtained with said at least one gyrometer, and using estimations of the elevation angles of the backscattered signals to determine image planes of the backscattered signals; and to project said rotation measurements onto said image planes, the projections obtained being used to carry out the autocalibration, and wherein,
during the forming of the synthetic aperture beams of the first sector and of a second sector of the set of sectors, estimations of elevation angles are obtained from a bathymetric chart comprising the three-dimensional positions, defined in a terrestrial reference frame having three axes fixed to the earth, of a plurality of points of the observed zone,
the emitting device being configured to emit, in each ping, in the first sector and in the second sector, distinguishable acoustic pulses toward an observed zone, along a first sighting axis and a second sighting axis having different bearing angles, respectively, and the bathymetric chart being obtained from measurements of first elevation angles of first backscattered signals generated by acoustic pulses emitted in said first sector,
the sonar comprising an array of transducers comprising a plurality of elementary transducers distributed along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis, said transducers forming the array of transducers being dimensioned and configured so that their receiving lobes cover the first sector but so that said at least one second sector is located at least partially beyond their receiving lobes, the first backscattered signals being acquired by means of the array of transducers, the method comprising, for each ping, measuring first elevation angles of first backscattered signals by means of the array of transducers, calculating estimations of first elevation angles, consisting in transposing the measurements of first elevation angles to the terrestrial reference frame, the method comprising producing the bathymetric chart from the estimations of the first elevation angles, the bathymetric chart comprising three-dimensional coordinates, in the terrestrial reference frame, of probe points having backscattered the first backscattered signals,
the method comprising estimating, from the bathymetric chart, the elevation angles of the backscattered signals generated by pulses emitted in the first sector and in the second sector, comprising, for each of the backscattered signals, calculating the position of that point Mp of the bathymetric chart which is closest to a section of a circle Cp obtained by rotating, about the first axis, a point B located on the other sighting axis at a distance from the antenna corresponding to the distance separating the antenna from a probe point having generated the backscattered signal, calculating a first point of intersection Ip between the bathymetric chart and the section of the circle Cp on the basis of the closest point Mp, and calculating, in the terrestrial reference frame, the elevation angle of the point of intersection.