US Pat. No. 9,091,783

COMPUTING A CALIBRATION TERM BASED ON COMBINING DIVERGENCE DATA AND SEISMIC DATA

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
receiving divergence data from a divergence sensor and seismic data from seismic sensors, wherein the divergence sensor and
seismic sensors are part of a sensor assembly, and wherein the seismic data includes an inline propagating wavefield and a
crossline propagating wavefield;

determining a first product of inline horizontal slowness and the inline propagating wavefield using forward and inverse tau-p
transform or F-K transform in an inline direction;

determining a second product of crossline horizontal slowness and the crossline wavefield using forward and inverse tau-p
transform or F-K transform in the crossline direction; and

computing, by one or more processors, a calibration term by taking a ratio of the divergence data to a sum of the first and
the second products, wherein the calibration term includes a first parameter that is related to a characteristic of the sensor
assembly, and a second parameter that is related to a characteristic of a near-surface subterranean medium.

US Pat. No. 9,304,221

DETERMINING AN INDICATION OF WAVEFIELD VELOCITY

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
receiving translational data acquired by at least one translational survey sensor in response to activation of at least one
active survey source;

receiving rotation data about a first horizontal axis acquired by at least one rotational sensor; and
determining, by a computer, a representation of wavefield velocity based on the translational data and the rotation data,
the determined representation of the wavefield velocity comprising an apparent slowness of a wavefield along a second horizontal
axis or an apparent velocity of the wavefield along the second horizontal axis, the second horizontal axis orthogonal to the
first horizontal axis, the apparent slowness or the apparent velocity of the wavefield being based on an incident angle of
the wavefield with respect to a vertical axis, and an actual velocity of the wavefield, wherein determining the apparent slowness
along the second horizontal axis or the apparent velocity along the second horizontal axis comprises computing a ratio of
the rotation data about the first horizontal axis with respect to the translational data.

US Pat. No. 9,086,507

DETERMINING CHARACTERISTICS OF A SUBTERRANEAN BODY USING PRESSURE DATA AND SEISMIC DATA

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method of determining characteristics of a subterranean body, comprising:
performing a simulation using a reservoir model of the subterranean body through which a well extends to obtain simulated
pressure data;

performing pressure testing in the well, wherein the pressure testing comprises drawing down pressure in the well;
measuring pressure data in the well during the pressure testing;
comparing the simulated pressure data with the measured pressure data;
performing a seismic survey operation that includes activation of at least one seismic source outside the well;
measuring seismic data as part of the seismic survey operation; and
updating, by a processing system, the reservoir model of the subterranean body according to the comparing and according to
an architecture of the subterranean body determined based on the seismic data, wherein the reservoir model is representative
of the characteristics of the subterranean body.

US Pat. No. 9,411,060

ELECTROMAGNETICALLY DRIVEN MARINE VIBRATOR

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A marine vibrator, comprising:
a housing;
a displacement member that interacts with the housing, thereby defining an internal volume, the displacement member having
a retracted position and an extended position;

a linear electromagnetic motor that interacts with the displacement member and alternates the displacement member between
the retracted position and the extended position, wherein the linear electromagnetic motor comprises a piston and a guide
for the piston, the piston being in connection with the displacement member and the guide having incorporated therewith electromagnetic
coils and the piston having incorporated therewith magnets, so that as a magnetic field of the motor changes by direction
from a controller, the piston has forces applied thereto and moves linearly within the guide.

US Pat. No. 9,217,805

MONITORING THE QUALITY OF PARTICLE MOTION DATA DURING A SEISMIC ACQUISITION

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
acquiring particle motion data from a plurality of particle motion sensors while in tow during a seismic survey of a geologic
structure, the particle motion data representing particle motions sensed by the particle motion sensors due to at least one
seismic event;

during the seismic survey, processing the particle motion data to determine whether at least some portion of the particle
motion data is inadequate for a seismic data processing application that relies on the at least some portion of the particle
motion data; and

selectively processing the at least some portion of the particle motion data using the seismic data processing application
to determine a characteristic of the geologic structure based at least in part on the determination whether at least some
portion of the particle motion data is inadequate for the seismic data processing application.

US Pat. No. 9,329,286

SEISMIC SURVEY USING AN AUGMENTED REALITY DEVICE

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method, comprising:
determining current location data of an augmented reality (AR) device in a physical environment;
receiving one or more placement instructions for a first seismic survey equipment in the physical environment based on the
current location data; and

displaying the one or more placement instructions in combination with a view of the physical environment on the AR device.

US Pat. No. 9,171,206

WATER TABLES MAPPING

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for mapping water tables comprising:
receiving a satellite image of an area;
identifying water features on the satellite image;
identifying elevations of the water features using a digital elevation model of the area;
applying an interpolation algorithm to the elevations of the water features to identify water tables and elevations for the
water tables, wherein applying the interpolation algorithm comprises approximating the elevation of water tables by connecting
water features;

subtracting, using a computer, the elevations for the water tables from a digital representation of ground surface topography
or subsurface horizon to identify depths of the water tables; and

displaying the depths of the water tables on the satellite image.

US Pat. No. 9,117,200

METHODS AND COMPUTING SYSTEMS FOR GEOSCIENCES AND PETRO-TECHNICAL COLLABORATION

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A geosciences collaboration system, comprising:
one or more processors;
storage media storing one or more programs for execution by the one or more processors;
a network interface configured for communicating, over a data network, with a plurality of computer systems, the plurality
of computer systems including a first computer system and a second computer system, wherein the first computer system is located
remotely from the second computer system; and

a collaboration module, including a user application handling submodule configured for obtaining a first set of geosciences
information from the first computer system,

wherein the collaboration module is configured for:
distributing the first set of geosciences information from the first computer system to at least the second computer system;
receiving a user input from the second computer system, the user input entered manually by a user;
providing the user input entered manually by the user to the first computer system;
in response to providing the user input entered manually by the user to the first computer system, receiving a revised set
of geosciences information from the first computer system, wherein the revised set of geosciences information is distinct
from the first set of geosciences information; and

repeating the receiving a user input entered manually by the user, the providing the user input, and the receiving the revised
set of geosciences information until the revised set of geosciences information is determined to satisfy accuracy criteria.

US Pat. No. 9,354,338

GENERATING SYNTHETIC SEISMIC TRACES

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A computer-implemented method for fine tuning one or more seismic surveys, the method comprising:
receiving a hybrid model comprising geological data and seismic data, wherein the geological data corresponds to a zone of
interest, wherein the seismic data corresponds to the zone of interest and areas adjacent to the zone of interest and wherein
the seismic data were acquired using seismic sensors during a seismic survey;

determining, using at least one microprocessor, a plurality of reflection properties along a path for a trace location using
data from the hybrid model;

generating, using the at least one microprocessor, a synthetic seismic trace for the trace location using the plurality of
reflection properties, wherein the synthetic seismic trace corresponds to a response of seismic waves within the earth's subsurface;
and

using the synthetic seismic trace to fine tune the seismic survey.

US Pat. No. 9,341,726

PROCESSING SEISMIC DATA

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method of identifying geological structure within the Earth including processing seismic data acquired consequent to
actuation of a seismic source array, the method comprising the steps of:
(a) determining, by a computer processor, the source wavefield of the seismic source array and the uncertainty in the source
wavefield by:

(i) estimating a source wavefield from measurements acquired by at least one near-field measuring receiver and from a first
parameter set including at least one parameter indicative of the position or orientation of the seismic source array relative
to the at least one measuring receiver;

(ii) varying the value of at least one parameter of the first parameter set;
(iii) estimating the source wavefield from the measurements acquired by the at least one measuring receiver and from the varied
first parameter set; and

(iv) obtaining information about the uncertainty in the estimate of the source wavefield from the results of step (i) and
(iii); and

(b) using the determined source wavefield of the seismic source array and the uncertainty in the source wavefield to process
the seismic data to obtain information about at least one parameter of the earth's interior, wherein processing the seismic
data includes selecting, for processing, a subset of the seismic data in which the expected uncertainty is low by either:

determining a frequency range in which the effect of uncertainty is low and selecting seismic data within the frequency range
for processing; or

determining a range of take-off angles in which the effect of uncertainty is low and selecting seismic data within the range
of take-off angles for processing.

US Pat. No. 9,304,220

HANDLING EQUIPMENT FAILURE IN A SUBTERRANEAN SURVEY DATA ACQUISITION NETWORK

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
generating a data stream containing data acquired by a plurality of nodes of a subterranean survey data acquisition network,
wherein the data stream comprises a plurality of time slots, and each time slot of the plurality of time slots is associated
with a node of the plurality of nodes and is designated for communication of data for the associated node; and

introducing data into a given time slot of the plurality of time slots describing an equipment failure in the network.

US Pat. No. 9,297,923

GRAVITY MEASUREMENTS USING SEISMIC STREAMERS

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method of obtaining gravity measurements using seismic streamers, comprising:
providing at least one multi-component streamer, each multi-component streamer having a plurality of sensors;
towing the at least one multi-component streamer with a tow vessel;
accumulating gravity data with the plurality of sensors during towing;
ensemble averaging the gravity data from the plurality of sensors to enhance the precision of the gravity measurements;
processing the gravity data to correct for sensor rotation due to motion of the at least one multi-component streamer during
towing; and

determining information related to a subterranean formation based on horizontal gravity gradients determined from the gravity
data accumulated with the plurality of sensors.

US Pat. No. 9,274,238

RELIABLE BROADCAST DELIVERY OF COMMUNICATIONS IN LAND-BASED SEISMIC SURVEYING

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A computer-implemented method for use in a land-based seismic survey, comprising:
transmitting a plurality of packets to a plurality of seismic sources for a seismic survey over a VHF/IP network;
receiving a negative acknowledgement that one or more of the packets were dropped; and
managing congestion on the VHF/IP network while transmitting the plurality of packets by adjusting throughput on the VHF/IP
network in response to receiving the negative acknowledgement, and

wherein transmitting the plurality of packets over the VHF/IP network comprises broadcasting the plurality of packets on VHF
using a stateless UDP protocol.

US Pat. No. 9,207,347

DETERMINING THE STRUCTURE OF A TOWED SEISMIC SPREAD ELEMENT

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
obtaining a first set of measurements of distances between nodes located on a seismic spread element while in tow using a
first set of one or more sources;

obtaining a second set of measurements of the distances using a second set of one or more sources; and
determining a three-dimensional structure of the seismic spread element while in tow based at least in part on selectively
weighted contributions of the first and second sets of measurements, the determining comprising modeling the first and second
sets of measurements of distances as an over-determined system.

US Pat. No. 9,110,187

SENSOR ASSEMBLY HAVING A SEISMIC SENSOR AND A DIVERGENCE SENSOR

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A sensor assembly for use in surveying a subterranean structure, comprising:
a housing containing:
a divergence sensor for positioning at or below a ground surface above the subterranean structure, wherein the divergence
sensor includes a container containing a material and a pressure sensor immersed in the material; and

a single-component seismic sensor external to the container of the divergence sensor, the seismic sensor positioned inside
the housing above the divergence sensor when the sensor assembly is implanted into the ground surface.

US Pat. No. 9,052,411

METHOD TO DETERMINE THE DEVIATION OF SEISMIC EQUIPMENT FROM A PLANNED CURVED PATH

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A computer-implemented method for determining the deviation of spread array element from a planned curved path during a
towed-array marine seismic survey, the comprising:
determining a nominal position of the spread array element at a given point in the planned curved path, wherein the planned
curved path has a radius that is a function of a width of a marine spread on which the spread array element is disposed;

determining the actual position of the spread array element; and
performing an error analysis predicated on the nominal and actual positions.

US Pat. No. 9,405,027

ATTENTUATING NOISE ACQUIRED IN AN ENERGY MEASUREMENT

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
receiving data corresponding to at least one first measurement of energy produced by a first shot of an energy source, and
corresponding to at least one second measurement of energy produced by a second shot;

transforming the received data to a domain sensitive to event direction;
comparing the at least one first measurement in the domain sensitive to event direction with the at least one second measurement
in the domain sensitive to event direction, wherein comparing comprises identifying a noise based on the noise being inconsistently
located between the at least one first measurement and the at least one second measurement in the domain sensitive to event
direction; and

based at least in part on the comparison, attenuating the noise from the at least one first measurement.

US Pat. No. 9,244,186

FORWARD LOOKING SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR POSITIONING MARINE SEISMIC EQUIPMENT

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
measuring at least a horizontal component of a current velocity vector at a location using an acoustic Doppler current meter
mounted on a vessel, wherein the location is generally ahead of the vessel and at a depth between the water's surface and
the deeper of the acoustic Doppler current meter and the vessel's draft, and wherein the acoustic Doppler current meter comprises
an acoustic transducer able to move relative to the vessel; and

using the measured horizontal component of the current velocity vector to automatically control the position of a seismic
spread element.

US Pat. No. 9,229,128

ESTIMATING AND CORRECTING PERTURBATIONS ON SEISMIC PARTICLE MOTION SENSORS EMPLOYING SEISMIC SOURCE SIGNALS

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A computer-implemented method, comprising:
accessing a set of multicomponent calibration data exhibiting a plurality of polarization vectors in y and z directions at
each of a plurality of paired pressure and particle motion data points on a marine seismic survey apparatus;

determining a set of perturbations for the marine seismic survey apparatus from the polarization vectors, wherein the perturbations
comprise orientation alignment perturbation errors in the y and z directions; and

determining a set of calibration values corresponding to the perturbations.

US Pat. No. 9,146,330

SELECTING A SURVEY SETTING FOR CHARACTERIZING A TARGET STRUCTURE

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
calculating complex-valued sensitivity data structures corresponding to respective candidate survey settings, wherein the
sensitivity data structures relate measurement data associated with a target structure to at least one parameter of a model
of the target structure;

selecting, based on the sensitivity data structures, a subset of the candidate survey settings according to a criterion for
enhancing resolution in characterizing the target structure; and

configuring survey equipment according to at least one survey setting in the subset of the candidate survey settings to perform
a survey operation of the target structure.

US Pat. No. 9,097,817

SEISMIC SENSOR CABLE

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. An apparatus comprising:
a cable;
seismic sensors disposed in the cable; and
spacers distributed in the cable such that each seismic sensor is disposed in an interval of the cable separating a different
adjacent pair of the spacers,

wherein the spacers of each pair are separated by at least twenty-five centimeters.

US Pat. No. 9,417,346

SEISMIC VIBRATOR DEVICE AND METHOD WITH ROTATION SENSOR

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A seismic land vibrator, comprising:
a baseplate being a substantially flat, rigid member having one side that is adapted for contact with the ground;
at least one driven member that is connected with the baseplate and extends in a direction that is substantially perpendicular
to the baseplate;

a rotation sensor that is coupled to the baseplate and adapted to provide a signal that is indicative of rotational movement
of at least a portion of the baseplate.

US Pat. No. 9,128,207

COMPENSATING SEISMIC DATA FOR SOURCE VARIATIONS

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
processing data indicative of a ground force measurement in a processor-based machine to model a fundamental component of
a vibroseis sweep injected into the earth based at least in part on the ground force measurement and a reference sweep signal,
the modeling comprising comparing the ground force measurement to the reference sweep signal to determine a filter to apply
to the ground force measurement and applying the filter to the ground force measurement to determine the fundamental component;

determining an operator to compensate seismic data acquired in response to the injected vibroseis sweep based at least in
part on the reference sweep and the fundamental component; and

applying the operator to the seismic data.

US Pat. No. 9,158,015

SEISMIC STREAMER PLATFORM

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. An apparatus comprising:
a streamer having multi-component seismic sensors and having a bending stiffness greater than fifty Nm2 to cause a vibration noise to not be significantly aliased into signals acquired by the sensors.

US Pat. No. 9,151,856

SEPARATING INTERFERING SIGNALS IN SEISMIC DATA

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for processing seismic data, comprising:
receiving seismic data acquired by at least one seismic sensor;
applying a first operator to the received seismic data in a first domain to generate a first set of seismic data that corresponds
to the received seismic data due to a first seismic source, wherein the first domain is an encoding domain for the first seismic
source;

applying a second operator to the first set of seismic data in a second domain to generate a second set of seismic data that
corresponds to residual seismic data due to a second seismic source, wherein the second domain is an encoding domain for the
second seismic source;

applying the first operator to the received seismic data in the second domain to generate a third set of seismic data that
corresponds to the received seismic data due to the second seismic source;

applying the second operator to the third set of seismic data in the first domain to generate a fourth set of seismic data
that corresponds to residual seismic data due to the first seismic source;

determining an estimate of the received seismic data due to the first seismic source, wherein the estimate of the received
seismic data due to the first seismic source is a sum of the first set and the fourth set and this sum is subtracted by the
second set; and

processing the estimate of the received seismic data due to the first seismic source to determine the presence of hydrocarbon
deposits in a subterranean area of the earth.

US Pat. No. 9,128,206

REMOVING NOISE FROM A SEISMIC MEASUREMENT

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A system comprising:
an interface to receive data indicative of a signal derived from a seismic acquisition; and
a processor to:
decompose a signal derived from a seismic acquisition into a plurality of signals such that each signal is associated with
a different frequency band;

for each signal of the plurality of signals performing the following:
decompose the signal into subbands in successive stages, the subbands being associated with at least different frequency ranges
of the signal;

selectively apply adaptive noise attenuation during the decomposition of the signal such that the stages decompose noise-attenuated
subbands; and

reconstruct the signal from the subbands resulting from the decomposition; and
combine the reconstructed signals,
wherein:
some of the subbands resulting from the decomposition are associated with lower wavenumbers than the remaining subbands resulting
from the decomposition, and

the processor is further adapted to apply the adaptive noise attenuation to the subbands that are associated with the lower
wavenumbers and not apply the adaptive noise attenuation to the remaining subbands.

US Pat. No. 9,400,338

SEISMIC ACQUISITION SYSTEM-BASED UNMANNED AIRBORNE VEHICLE

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A system comprising:
a seismic acquisition system, comprising a plurality of nodes; and
an unmanned airborne vehicle to be used with the seismic acquisition system to conduct a seismic survey, wherein the unmanned
airborne vehicle comprises:

a radio to wirelessly communicate with the plurality of nodes; and
a processor to use the radio to communicate positions of the nodes to the nodes.

US Pat. No. 9,354,341

DEGHOSTING MEASURED SURVEY DATA

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
simulating, by a system comprising a processor, propagation of wavefields along paths in a survey environment, wherein the
simulated propagation includes an influence of a reflection at an interface that causes ghost data in measured survey data
collected by survey receivers, wherein the influence of the reflection at the interface that causes ghost data in measured
survey data is simulated by applying a reflection operator at a position corresponding to a location of the interface, wherein
the reflection operator represents the reflection as a function of at least one parameter selected from among water density,
water salinity, and solubility of air in water; and

performing, by the system, deghosting of the measured survey data using the simulated propagated wavefields.

US Pat. No. 9,279,899

SYSTEM AND TECHNIQUE TO ESTIMATE PHYSICAL PROPAGATION PARAMETERS ASSOCIATED WITH A SEISMIC SURVEY

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
determining a noise covariance from seismic signal measurements acquired in a seismic survey of a geologic structure in which
energy propagates to and from the geologic structure through a medium; and

estimating propagation parameters associated with the medium based at least in part on the seismic signal measurements and
the determined noise covariance.

US Pat. No. 9,442,892

REPRESENTING A FUNCTION BANDLIMITED WITHIN A POLYGONAL SPACE

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method of a computer system comprising:
determining, based at least in part on one or more characteristics relating to a physical measurement system that acquires
survey data regarding a target structure, a polygonal space in a Fourier domain;

computing a representation of a function that is bandlimited within the polygonal space, the function producing a valid output
in a frequency range and a wavenumber range of the polygonal space; and

performing a computation on measurement data collected by the physical measurement system, the computation using the representation
of the function.

US Pat. No. 9,341,724

SWEEP SEQUENCE DETERMINATION FOR OVERLAPPING SWEEPS

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
determining a first drive signal to generate a first sweep for a first seismic source and to suppress cross-correlation noise
between the first sweep and a second sweep in a suppression window offset from a listening time for the first sweep; and

determining the first drive signal based on (a) subsurface velocities corresponding to the first and second sweeps, (b) starting
times corresponding to the first and second sweeps, and (c) a distance between the first and second sources during the first
and second sweeps;

wherein the first and second sweeps overlap but begin at different times and the second sweep corresponds to a second seismic
source.

US Pat. No. 9,201,153

METHODS AND DEVICES FOR TRANSFORMATION OF COLLECTED DATA FOR IMPROVED VISUALIZATION CAPABILITY

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method, comprising:
propagating a first wavefield to obtain a first wavefield history;
propagating the first wavefield to obtain a second wavefield history, wherein the propagation includes integration of one
or more Q-effects;

estimating a first attenuated traveltime history based at least in part on the first and second wavefield histories;
calculating a first Q-model filter based at least in part on the first estimated attenuated traveltime history;
generating a first adjusted wavefield based at least in part on application of the first Q-model filter to the first wavefield;
and

generating an image based at least in part on the first adjusted wavefield and a second wavefield.

US Pat. No. 9,423,522

COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS FOR WATER VEHICLES

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method of performing a seismic survey, comprising:
deploying a plurality of wave gliders in a seismic survey area, wherein the plurality of wave gliders has one or more seismic
sensors coupled thereto for acquiring seismic data, wherein the plurality of wave gliders are unmanned and each operate independently
of one another;

deploying at least one source vessel in the seismic survey area, the at least one source vessel having one or more sources
coupled thereto and a central communication unit disposed thereon;

sending positioning data from the central communication unit to a first wave glider of the plurality of wave gliders via a
first communication system; and

sending the positioning data from the first wave glider to a second wave glider of the plurality of wave gliders by relaying
the positioning data through one or more of the plurality of wave gliders disposed between the first wave glider and the second
wave glider, wherein the positioning data is sent from the first wave glider to the second glider via a second communication
system different from the first communication system.

US Pat. No. 9,127,543

ACTIVE SEISMIC MONITORING OF FRACTURING OPERATIONS

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for managing a fracturing operation, comprising:
positioning a first seismic source and at least one seismic receiver near a hydrocarbon reservoir;
pumping a fracturing fluid into a first well bore of the hydrocarbon reservoir, wherein the fracturing fluid comprises an
additive that enhances acoustic impedance contrast between the fracturing fluid and subsurface formations in which the hydrocarbon
reservoir is located, wherein the additive produces a foam;

performing a seismic survey with the first seismic source and the at least one seismic receiver during the fracturing operation;
and

identifying locations of the fracturing fluid within the subsurface formations in which the hydrocarbon reservoir is located.

US Pat. No. 9,366,774

USING CAMERAS IN CONNECTION WITH A MARINE SEISMIC SURVEY

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
towing a seismic source, the seismic source comprising an air gun;
towing at least one seismic streamer including seismic sensors;
obtaining data indicative of at least one image of a marine seismic source event created by the air gun, the data being acquired
by at least one underwater camera; and

processing the data to determine an attribute associated with the seismic source event,
wherein the seismic source event comprises an air bubble and the processing comprises determining an attribute of the seismic
source event based at least in part on a volume of the air bubble.

US Pat. No. 9,304,216

SEISMIC ACQUISITION SYSTEM AND TECHNIQUE

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
receiving particle motion data acquired in measurements by particle motion sensors of a particle motion sensor array and rotation
rate data acquired in measurements by rotation rate sensors of a rotation rate sensor array;

characterizing a wavefield based at least in part on the particle motion data;
characterizing a gradient of the wavefield based at least in part on the rotation rate data; and
processing the particle motion and rotation rate data in a processor-based machine based at least in part on the characterization
of the wavefield and the characterization of the gradient of the wavefield to construct a subsurface image.

US Pat. No. 9,207,348

COLLISION AVOIDANCE FOR INSTRUMENTED PROBES DEPLOYED FROM A SEISMIC VESSEL

WESTERNGECO L.L.C, Houst...

1. A method comprising:
towing a probe assembly, which includes a probe and a probe cable, and a seismic array from a seismic vessel underway in a
body of water, wherein (a) the probe cable, which couples the probe to the seismic vessel, is deployed into the body of water
via a cable guide that couples to the seismic vessel near the water surface of the body of water and below the lowest outside
deck included in the stern of the seismic vessel, and (b) the seismic array includes cables and at least one of streamers
and seismic source guns that couple to the seismic vessel via the cables;

acquiring water characteristic data, via the probe while the seismic vessel is advancing, under the seismic vessel's own power,
and actively towing the seismic array;

determining a location of a portion of the probe assembly while the seismic array is being actively towed and the probe is
submerged below the water surface; and

based on the determined location of the portion of the probe assembly, altering a navigation module, included in the probe,
to consequently steer the probe away from a portion of the seismic array;

wherein acquiring the water characteristic data via the probe includes (a) repeatedly allowing the probe to free-fall below
the water surface for longer than five minutes per free-fall and then raising the probe towards the water surface while (b)
determining the location of the probe and automatically altering the navigation module to maintain the probe at least a predetermined
distance away from the seismic array.

US Pat. No. 9,091,784

DETERMINING AN OUTPUT REPRESENTING A TARGET STRUCTURE BASED ON ENCODED SOURCE AND RECEIVER DATA

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
computing, by a system including a processor, a source wavefield from encoded source data calculated by performing phase and
amplitude encoding of source wavelets with noise, the source wavelets representing signals generated by survey sources;

computing, by the system, a receiver wavefield from encoded receiver data calculated by encoding of measured receiver data
with the noise, the measured receiver data measured by at least one survey receiver; and

producing, by the system, an output representing a target structure based on the source wavefield and the receiver wavefield.

US Pat. No. 9,310,503

METHODS TO PROCESS SEISMIC DATA CONTAMINATED BY COHERENT ENERGY RADIATED FROM MORE THAN ONE SOURCE

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
receiving data representing energy sensed by receivers in response to energy being produced by a plurality of seismic sources;
determining a dependence of at least one directional propagation attribute of the sensed energy on at least one of time and
space;

processing data in a processor-based machine to sort the data based at least in part on the determined dependence and attributing
a portion of the sensed energy to a given seismic source of the plurality of seismic sources based at least in part on the
sorted data; and

processing the sorted data to determine information about a geological formation,
wherein processing the data in the processor-based machine to sort the data based at least in part on at least one directional
propagation attribute and attributing a portion of the sensed energy to the given seismic source of the plurality of seismic
sources comprises:

using a matching pursuit-based technique to determine the at least one directional propagation attribute; or
determining the at least one directional propagation attribute based on an inline and a crossline slowness.

US Pat. No. 9,207,337

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR SEISMIC DATA ACQUISITION EMPLOYING CLOCK SOURCE SELECTION IN SEISMIC NODES

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A seismic data acquisition system comprising:
one or more seismic sources;
a sensor system for acquiring and/or monitoring analog seismic sensor data, the sensor system comprising a plurality of sensor
modules, each module comprising a comparing unit comprising software;

wherein the software in each module tests clock quality by running a sigma-delta modulator from two different clock sources
and compares a noise-floor of the modulator when using the different clock sources.

US Pat. No. 9,182,512

PROCESSING MULTI-COMPONENT SEISMIC DATA

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
receiving first data indicative of pressure measurements and measurements of components of a particle motion vector acquired
by sensors disposed on at least one cable, the components comprising at least a cross-line component relative to a direction
in which the at least one cable extends;

processing the first data on a machine to construct an in-line component of the particle motion vector based at least in part
on the cross-line component of the particle motion vector and the pressure measurements, the in-line component being represented
by second data and the in-line component being associated with the direction in which the at least one cable extends; and

processing the first and second data in a geophysical processing operation that relies on at least three components of the
particle motion vector.

US Pat. No. 9,103,933

ESTIMATING A PROPERTY BY ASSIMILATING PRIOR INFORMATION AND SURVEY DATA

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
receiving prior information describing a distribution of values of a parameter relating to a physical characteristic of a
target structure, where the prior information includes a rock physics probability structure, wherein the rock physics probabilistic
structure describes a probability distribution of values of a rock model parameter;

receiving acquired survey data of the target structure; and
assimilating, using a probabilistic technique, the prior information and the survey data, to produce an estimated property
of the target structure.

US Pat. No. 10,094,944

SEPARATING SURVEY DATA FOR A PLURALITY OF SURVEY SOURCES

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method of separating survey data for a plurality of seismic sources, comprising:activating the plurality of seismic sources;
receiving signal from the seismic sources via a seismic sensor for transmission to a system including a processor, wherein the seismic sources are located at respective different azimuths with respect to the seismic sensor;
receiving, by the system including the processor, first survey data along a first axis measured by the seismic sensor, the first survey data generated by the activating of the plurality of seismic sources;
receiving, by the system including the processor, second survey data, wherein the second survey data comprises one or more of gradient data measured by the seismic sensor, gradient data computed based on measurement data from the seismic sensor, or horizontal translational data;
rotating, by the system including the processor, the second survey data towards a first azimuth of a first of the plurality of seismic sources; and
using, by the system including the processor, the rotated second survey data as a model of interference caused by a subset of the plurality of seismic sources excluding the first seismic source, wherein the using comprises subtracting a component based on the rotated second survey data from the first survey data, to separate survey data for the first seismic source.

US Pat. No. 9,052,412

DETERMINING AN ORIENTATION ANGLE OF A SURVEY SENSOR

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
determining, by a system comprising a processor, a first orientation angle component of an orientation angle relating to angular
rotation of a sensor with respect to a reference coordinate system;

determining, by the system, a second orientation angle component of the orientation angle based on estimating torsional vibrational
noise in measurement data, wherein the second orientation angle component varies at a higher rate than the first orientation
angle component; and

aggregating, by the system, the first and second orientation angle components to provide the orientation angle.

US Pat. No. 9,651,691

METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR LAND SEISMIC SURVEYING

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for land seismic surveying comprising:
deploying composite point sources at respective spaced source points, each composite point source comprising a plurality of
spaced sources wherein the spacing between the sources in each composite point source is less than one third of the wavelength
of the seismic wavefield and allows source side spatial derivatives of a seismic wavefield to be calculated;

deploying receivers at respective spaced receiver points;
activating the sources to produce the seismic wavefield;
recording corresponding seismic data measured by the receivers;
calculating the source side spatial derivatives at individual composite point sources; and
interpolating, regularizing or extrapolating the recorded seismic data using the calculated source side spatial derivatives,
and thereby reconstructing seismic data for data points spaced from the composite point sources.

US Pat. No. 9,213,094

IN-FIELD CONFIGURATION OF LAND SURVEY SENSORS

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for configuring land survey sensors, comprising:
receiving one or more planned positions of the sensors;
determining one or more actual positions of the sensors; sending the actual positions to radio-frequency identification (RFID)
transceivers of the sensors receiving one or more serial numbers of the sensors from the RFID transceivers of the sensors
forwarding the one or more serial numbers to a data center using the handheld device; and

forwarding the actual positions to the data center.

US Pat. No. 9,121,964

PARAMETERIZING A GEOLOGICAL SUBSURFACE FEATURE

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method, comprising:
receiving, by a system including a processor, acquired data corresponding to a subsurface geological formation, wherein the
acquired data includes data corresponding to a subsurface body having a geometry and a subsurface region, wherein the subsurface
body comprises a geological formation body, and the subsurface region comprises a sediment region;

directly inverting, by the system, into an inversion domain at least part of the subsurface body geometry, wherein the direct
inverting comprises:

partitioning the inversion domain into a first partitioned region and a second partitioned region, wherein the first partitioned
region corresponds at least in part to the geological formation body, and the second partitioned region corresponds at least
in part to the sediment region;

using a level set representation to parameterize the subsurface body geometry;
defining an implicit model using a level set function;
generating an objective function using the level set function;
determining a gradient of the objective function;
at an iteration of the direct inverting, perturbing a level set boundary by evolving the level set function using the gradient;
and

stopping an evolution of the level set function responsive to at least one predetermined criterion being satisfied; and
determining the geometry of the subsurface body based on the direct inverting.

US Pat. No. 9,594,178

SEISMIC DATA ACQUISITION AND SOURCE-SIDE DERIVATIVES GENERATION AND APPLICATION

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A seismic data acquisition system, comprising:
at least two marine seismic sources that are adapted to be deployed in a body of water from a vessel;
a source controller coupled to the at least two seismic sources, wherein the source controller is configured to activate the
at least two seismic sources in a plurality of firing sequences during a seismic survey, at least one firing sequence having
a different time delay between the firing of the seismic source and the start of the seismic recording; and

a recording device adapted to record the seismic data in response to activating the at least two marine seismic sources.

US Pat. No. 9,234,978

METHOD FOR POSITIONING THE FRONT END OF A SEISMIC SPREAD

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A seismic spread, comprising:
a vessel having a first radar disposed thereon;
a seismic streamer coupled to the vessel; and
a buoyancy element disposed at a front end of the seismic spread and coupled to the seismic streamer, the buoyancy element
having a passive radar reflecting material disposed thereon that is configured for detection by the first radar.

US Pat. No. 9,158,019

ENHANCING LOW FREQUENCY CONTENT IN MARINE SIMULTANEOUS VIBROSEIS ACQUISITION

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method of seismic surveying, comprising:
towing a pair of marine vibrator arrays to conduct a seismic survey;
providing each marine vibrator array with at least one low frequency marine vibrator to emit low-frequency signals of 15 Hz
or less and at least one high-frequency marine vibrator to emit high-frequency signals of greater than 15 Hz;

using the at least one low-frequency marine vibrator of each marine vibrator array to emit the low-frequency signals simultaneously
and in phase during a sweep of a given duration; and

employing the at least one high-frequency marine vibrator of each marine vibrator array to emit the high-frequency signals
according to a flip-flop pattern alternating between the marine vibrator arrays.

US Pat. No. 9,140,814

SYSTEM AND METHOD OF USING AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLE TO FACILITATE SEISMIC DATA ACQUISITION

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for facilitating seismic data acquisition, comprising:
utilizing an autonomous underwater vehicle to obtain data on water column characteristics in a seismic survey area;
directing the autonomous underwater vehicle along a water column characteristic interface by changing the path along which
the autonomous underwater vehicle moves through the seismic survey area while obtaining the data;

transmitting the data to a collection location; and
employing the data to correct inaccuracies of seismic data obtained during a seismic survey of the seismic survey area.

US Pat. No. 9,103,930

SENSOR ASSEMBLY

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A multiple axis sensor assembly, comprising:
an enclosure;
encapsulated microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensors, the encapsulated sensors being disposed inside the enclosure and
mounted in different orientations corresponding to different axes of the sensor assembly; and

a controller disposed in the enclosure and electrically coupled to the MEMS sensors.

US Pat. No. 9,103,927

PROVIDING A TOW CABLE HAVING PLURAL ELECTROMAGNETIC RECEIVERS AND ONE OR MORE ELECTROMAGNETIC SOURCES

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method of characterizing a subsurface marine environment, comprising:
deploying a surveying assembly in a body of water, said surveying assembly comprising a tow cable, one or more streamers coupled
to the tow cable, and a plurality of EM sources and a plurality of EM receivers attached to a first streamer of the one or
more streamers, wherein at least two of the EM receivers are arranged between a pair of the EM sources, wherein each of the
at least two EM receivers is a multi-component receiver to measure electric fields in plural directions;

activating at least one of the EM sources; and
in response to activation of the at least one EM source, acquiring measurement data from the EM receivers.

US Pat. No. 9,599,734

FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT RAY TRACING THROUGH AN INTERFACE

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for seismic data processing, comprising:
computing, using a computer, a wave path for a wave propagating through a sub-surface region; and
determining an outgoing ray direction for the wave at an interface in the sub-surface region using a boundary integral based
at least in part on one or more frequencies of the wave and an incoming ray direction of the wave.

US Pat. No. 9,459,362

MARINE VIBRATOR SWEEPS WITH REDUCED SMEARING AND/OR INCREASED DISTORTION TOLERANCE

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for operating a marine seismic vibrator as a moving source in a marine seismic survey, the method comprising:
selecting smearing error criteria;
selecting a downward-sweeping nonlinear sweep function, based on a smearing error criteria;
activating the marine seismic vibrator according to the sweep function; and
acquiring marine seismic data.

US Pat. No. 9,158,018

WAVEFORM INVERSION USING A RESPONSE OF FORWARD MODELING

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
performing forward modeling to compute a response of a target structure that includes a reflector, the forward modeling using
reflection information relating to the reflector and accounting for distortion, caused by a wave associated with at least
energy that travels parallel to the reflector, of a reflected signal reflected from the reflector, wherein performing the
forward modeling comprises performing WKBJ (Wentzel, Kramer, Brillouin, and Jeffreys) forward modeling that accounts for the
distortion caused by the wave associated with at least the energy that travels parallel to the reflector; and

performing waveform inversion using the response of the WKBJ forward modeling and using each of pre-critical survey data,
near-critical survey data, and post-critical survey data.

US Pat. No. 9,069,091

GENERATING SWEEP SEQUENCES

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
generating a plurality of broadband pseudorandom sweep sequences for seismic vibrators for a seismic survey;
perturbing the sequences to provide a candidate perturbed state of the sequences;
evaluating a cost for the perturbed state of the sequences;
selectively reverting the sequences back to a previous state or accepting the candidate perturbed state based at least in
part on the cost;

continue perturbing, evaluating and selectively reverting or accepting until the cost is within a limit or a maximum number
of perturbations is reached; and

actuating a plurality of vibrators, each following one of the sweep sequences.

US Pat. No. 9,268,049

SEISMIC ACQUISITION USING SOLID STREAMERS

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for manufacturing a seismic streamer for acquiring marine seismic data, the seismic streamer having improved noise
attenuating properties, the method comprising:
providing a streamer body comprising:
a streamer body length;
one or more channels; and
a solid streamer core disposed within the one or more channels of the streamer body;
inserting a seismic sensor within a first channel of the streamer body;
inserting a liquid gel within at least a portion of the first channel, the liquid gel comprising a thermo-reversible polymer
dissolved in a fluid, wherein a concentration of the thermo-reversible polymer dissolved in the fluid is between the range
of about 10% and about 20% by weight of the gel, and wherein the liquid gel is configured to have a complex viscosity between
the range of about 100 Pascals and about 800 Pascals; and

cooling the liquid gel so that the liquid gel at least partially solidifies.

US Pat. No. 9,057,800

MARINE SEISMIC ACQUISITION SYSTEM

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for computing a pressure signal gradient, comprising:
receiving a plurality of pressure signals recorded at a pressure signal gradient measuring device coupled to at least one
seismic sensor disposed on a streamer, wherein the pressure signal gradient measuring device comprises a first hydrophone
substantially vertically disposed above a second hydrophone; and

computing the pressure signal gradient between the pressure signals recorded at the first hydrophone and the pressure signals
recorded at the second hydrophone.

US Pat. No. 9,618,636

SEISMIC ACQUISITION USING PHASE-SHIFTED SWEEPS

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
towing a plurality of seismic sources in connection with a survey of a geologic structure;
operating the plurality of seismic sources to fire respective shots at substantially the same time, wherein each shot is associated
with a frequency sweep; and

varying phases of the frequency sweeps among the plurality of seismic sources from shot to shot according to a predetermined
phase sequence such that shots fired by respective seismic sources at substantially the same time are associated with frequency
sweeps having different phases to allow noise in an energy sensed by seismic sensors to be source separated.

US Pat. No. 9,274,239

WAVEFIELD DEGHOSTING

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
receiving sensor acquired data including pressure data representative of at least one pressure measurement of a wavefield
and particle motion data representative of at least one particle motion measurement of the wavefield, wherein the wavefield
results from energy from at least one energy source, the energy propagating into a subsurface three-dimensional geologic formation;

filtering the pressure data and the particle motion data with a plurality of directional filters to provide a plurality of
filtered datasets, the filtered datasets being associated with different directional ranges;

estimating an angle of incidence for at least one of the directional ranges based at least in part on at least one of the
filtered datasets;

scaling at least one dataset of the plurality of filtered datasets based at least in part on the angle of incidence estimated
for at least one of the directional ranges; and

processing the acquired data to determine at least one of an upgoing component of the wavefield and a downgoing component
of the wavefield based at least in part on the at least one estimated angle of incidence and based at least in part on a result
of the scaling.

US Pat. No. 9,188,689

REVERSE TIME MIGRATION MODEL DIP-GUIDED IMAGING

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method, comprising:
obtaining vertical seismic profile data for a subsurface geological formation;
obtaining one or more dip estimates corresponding to the subsurface geological formation;
determining one or more model dip-guided reverse time migration imaging conditions;
applying the one or more model dip-guided reverse time migration image conditions to the obtained vertical seismic profile
data, thereby producing processed vertical seismic profile data; and

producing an image using the processed vertical seismic profile data.

US Pat. No. 9,103,942

METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR SURVEY DESIGNS

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method, comprising:
towing an array of marine streamers, wherein:
the array includes a plurality of receivers,
the array includes a plurality of steering devices, and
the array is towed along a first portion of a coil sail path;
steering the array of marine streamers along two or more depths; and
steering the array of marine streamers to a slant angle along a crossline direction while maintaining the array of marine
streamers at their respective two or more depths.

US Pat. No. 9,857,485

METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR MARINE SURVEY ACQUISITION

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A marine survey acquisition system, comprising:
at least one vessel for towing a marine survey spread comprising:
a plurality of streamers;
a plurality of marine vibrators;
a cable coupled to a respective streamer in the plurality of streamers and at least one of the marine vibrators, wherein the
cable is configured for powering the respective streamer and the at least one of the marine vibrators, and wherein the at
least one of the marine vibrators is configured to emit energy at a high frequency range; and

wherein the marine survey spread further comprises a crossline source spacing for the marine vibrators, and wherein the crossline
source spacing is configured to achieve a crossline shot sampling in a seismic survey greater than the Nyquist frequency for
the high frequency range.

US Pat. No. 9,513,390

COMPENSATING FOR SPACE AND SLOWNESS/ANGLE BLURRING OF REFLECTIVITY

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for compensating for spatial and slowness or angle blurring of plane-wave reflection coefficients in imaging,
comprising:
determining one or more source wave fields at a reference depth proximate to a reflector for one or more shot records;
determining one or more receiver-side blurring functions at the reference depth;
constructing an aggregate blurring function based at least partially on the one or more source wave fields and the one or
more receiver-side blurring functions; and

determining, using a processor, one or more plane-wave reflection coefficients based at least partially on the aggregate blurring
function.

US Pat. No. 9,513,393

SYSTEM AND TECHNIQUE TO SUPPRESS THE ACQUISITION OF TORQUE NOISE ON A MULTI-COMPONENT STREAMER

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
distributing a plurality of particle motion sensors along a longitudinal axis of a seismic streamer,
wherein:
each particle motion sensor of the plurality of particle motion sensors is associated with a first axis and a second axis;
the first axis has an associated angle about the longitudinal axis of the seismic streamer;
the second axis is orthogonal to the first axis; and
each particle motion sensor of the plurality of particle motion sensors acquires a measurement along the second axis; and
mounting the plurality of particle motion sensors to suppress torque noise in the measurements, comprising substantially varying
the associated angles, the torque noise being a function of an angular acceleration of the streamer about the longitudinal
axis of the streamer.

US Pat. No. 9,506,339

ACTIVE SEISMIC MONITORING OF FRACTURING OPERATIONS AND DETERMINING CHARACTERISTICS OF A SUBTERRANEAN BODY USING PRESSURE DATA AND SEISMIC DATA

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method of determining characteristics of a subterranean body, comprising:
performing pressure testing in a well, wherein the pressure testing comprises drawing down pressure in the well;
measuring pressure data in the well during the pressure testing;
acquiring survey data during a survey operation by activating one or more sources, wherein the survey data comprises survey
data affected by pressure changes in the subterranean body due to drawing down the pressure in the well, and wherein the survey
operation is performed coincidentally with the pressure testing; and

determining, using a microprocessor, the characteristics of the subterranean body based on the pressure data and the survey
data.

US Pat. No. 9,207,344

COMBINING GEOMECHANICAL VELOCITY MODELING AND TOMOGRAPHIC UPDATE FOR VELOCITY MODEL BUILDING

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for updating a velocity model of a subsurface of the earth, comprising:
performing, using a processor, a tomographic update to the velocity model of the subsurface of the earth to generate a tomographic
velocity model update, wherein the tomographic velocity model update is based at least in part on an eigendecomposition of
survey data regarding the subsurface of the earth, wherein the tomographic update to the velocity model comprises survey data
regarding the subsurface of the earth acquired using one or more seismic receivers;

calculating a geomechanical velocity model update of the subsurface of the earth, wherein the calculating comprises:
constructing a first geomechanical earth model, having salt geometry, of the subsurface of the earth using the survey data,
constructing a second geomechanical earth model, without the salt geometry, of the subsurface of the earth using the survey
data, and

updating the first geomechanical earth model using a stiffness tensor change calculated between the first and second geomechanical
earth models based on and induced by the salt geometry; and

combining the geomechanical velocity model update with the tomographic velocity model update to produce a first combination.

US Pat. No. 9,110,191

MULTIPLE ATTENUATION FOR OCEAN-BOTTOM SEISMIC DATA

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
processing seismic data acquired by an ocean bottom cable in a machine to separate a common receiver gather into a first upgoing
wavefield and a first downgoing wavefield and discarding the first upgoing wavefield;

processing the seismic data in a machine to separate a common shot gather into a second upgoing wavefield and a second downgoing
wavefield;

muting at least one direct arrival in the second downgoing wavefield;
extrapolating the second downgoing wavefield for a round trip through a geologic subsurface to form a prediction of multiples
using Wavefield Extrapolation Multiples Modeling (WEMM); and

determining a primary, wherein determining the primary comprises adaptively subtracting the prediction of multiples from the
second upgoing wavefield.

US Pat. No. 9,091,787

SEPARATION OF SIMULTANEOUS SOURCE DATA

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for separating simultaneous source composite data containing data responses to at least two sources, the method
comprising:
receiving composite data from a plurality of seismic receivers, wherein the composite data is generated by the at least two
sources in a seismic survey;

using a computer to read a computer readable non-transitory medium having a computer program stored thereon, wherein the computer
program comprises computer readable instructions for:

1) sorting the composite data into gathers aligned with a first source of the at least two sources in a time-space domain;
2) transforming the composite data from the time-space domain into a frequency-space domain;
3) setting a reference frequency to a first frequency in the composite data in the frequency-space domain and selecting a
plurality of adjacent frequencies to the reference frequency;

4) forming multi-frequency basis functions, one set for each of the at least two sources;
5) forming an operator matrix A from the basis functions, wherein operator matrix A contains matrices AS1 and AS2 corresponding to the first source and a second source of the at least two sources respectively;

6) solving an optimization problem of Am?d to derive model vector m, wherein:
the optimization problem of Am?d comprises
min?m?1 or min?m?0 subject to ?Am?d?2??; and

d is the data, and model vector m contains mS1 and mS2 representing each of the at least two sources;

7) deriving separated source data for the first source, wherein the separated data is the product of the source vector mS1 and the operator matrix AS1;

8) repeating 3) to 7) until each frequency in the composite data in the frequency-space domain are used as a reference frequency;
and

9) transforming the separated data from frequency-space domain into time-space domain.

US Pat. No. 9,075,163

INTERFEROMETRIC SEISMIC DATA PROCESSING

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for processing seismic data, comprising:
receiving the seismic data from two sensors in a seismic survey;
classifying the seismic data below and equal to a predetermined frequency as low-frequency seismic data;
calculating a set of low-frequency Green's functions using interferometry on the low-frequency seismic data;
processing high-frequency seismic data of the seismic data to create a set of high-frequency Green's functions at one or more
source locations of the seismic survey;

merging the set of low-frequency Green's functions and the set of high-frequency Green's functions to create a set of broad-band
Green's functions at the source locations; and

generating a seismic image using the set of broad-band Green's functions.

US Pat. No. 9,594,174

COMPUTING ROTATION DATA USING A GRADIENT OF TRANSLATIONAL DATA

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method of seismic surveying, comprising:
actuating a seismic source to transmit impulses into an earth subsurface;
receiving, by a seismic sensor system, translational data in a first direction measured by particle motion sensors contained
in an elongated housing of a seismic sensor device provided at a ground surface, wherein at least one of the particle motion
sensors is proximate the ground surface, the particle motion sensors spaced apart along a second, different direction along
a longitudinal axis of the elongated housing, and receiving translational data in a third direction measured by additional
particle motion sensors in the elongated housing, the translational data in the first and third directions corresponding at
least partially to the impulses; and

recording the translational data in the first direction and the translational data in the third direction, wherein for the
translational data in the first direction and the translational data in the third direction that are measured by the particle
motion sensors where at least one of the particle motion sensors is proximate the ground surface, a relationship applies where
a rotation data around the third direction is based on a gradient of the translational data in the first direction with respect
to the second direction, and a rotation data around the first direction is based on a gradient of the translational data in
the third direction with respect to the second direction.

US Pat. No. 9,594,181

FILTERING AND PRESENTATION OF HEADING OBSERVATIONS FOR COIL SHOOTING

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method, comprising:
acquiring a set of heading data for a seismic spread while the seismic spread traverses a curved path; and
normalizing the acquired heading data into converted heading data, wherein the converted heading data is referenced to a dynamic
frame of reference defined relative to the seismic spread.

US Pat. No. 9,291,731

NOISE REDUCTION IN PARTICLE MOTION SENSING SEISMIC STREAMER

WESTERNGECO L.L.C, Houst...

1. A seismic streamer comprising:
pressure sensors;
particle motion sensors;
a solid core inner cable and an outer skin surrounding the solid core inner cable; and
a fluid containing layer between the outer skin and the solid core inner cable,
wherein at least one of the particle motion sensors is connected with the seismic streamer such that the at least one particle
motion sensor is static with respect to the solid core inner cable.

US Pat. No. 9,103,934

METHOD FOR REDUCING MARINE SOURCE VOLUME WHILE MAINTAINING IMAGE QUALITY

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method of acquiring seismic data, comprising:
conducting a seismic survey with a reduced source output to acquire seismic data via a receiver system;
replacing lost, low frequency data of the seismic data with complementary seismic data acquired separately from a receiver-side
acquisition method;

using the complementary seismic data to improve the signal-to-noise achieved by the receiver system in the low-frequency data;
and

combining the seismic data and the complementary seismic data acquired from the receiver-side acquisition method to obtain
a comprehensive seismic survey image.

US Pat. No. 9,046,626

PERFORMING REVERSE TIME IMAGING OF MULTICOMPONENT ACOUSTIC AND SEISMIC DATA

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
performing reverse time imaging to determine an image in a region of interest, the performing comprising modeling a pressure
wavefield and a gradient wavefield in the region of interest based at least in part on measurement data comprising particle
motion data and pressure data acquired by sensors in response to energy being produced by at least one source,

wherein performing the reverse time imaging comprises:
modeling an output of at least one monopole pressure source disposed at a boundary of the region of interest based on the
measurement data; and

modeling an output of at least one dipole pressure source disposed at the boundary based on the measurement data.

US Pat. No. 9,638,830

OPTIMIZING DRILLING OPERATIONS USING PETROTECHNICAL DATA

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for optimizing drilling operations, comprising:
providing an earth model of a volume having a well;
creating a scenario plan for a drilling operation of the well;
obtaining petrotechnical data about the volume during the drilling operation;
comparing the petrotechnical data with the earth model, the scenario plan, or combinations thereof;
updating the earth model with the petrotechnical data based on the comparison with the earth model, the scenario plan, or
combinations thereof, wherein the earth model is updated using a migration imaging process that comprises:

creating a 3D anisotropic depth model;
comparing the 3D anisotropic depth model to the petrotechnical data;
updating the earth model using the petrotechnical data to create a first updated earth model when a deviation between the
3D anisotropic depth model and the petrotechnical data exceeds a first predetermined value;

performing a prestack depth migration using the first updated earth model; and
updating the first updated earth model by performing a tomographic anisotropic properties update to create a second updated
earth model when a quality of an output of the prestack depth migration falls below a second predetermined value;

determining at least one action from a set of actions from the scenario plan to be performed based on the second updated earth
model;

performing the at least one action from the scenario plan; and
modifying a drilling plan of the well using the updated earth model.

US Pat. No. 9,551,798

SEISMIC VIBRATOR TO PRODUCE A CONTINUOUS SIGNAL

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
receiving, by a control unit of a seismic vibrator, a non-frequency-swept pilot signal having a predetermined waveform;
in response to the pilot signal, the control unit causing vibrational actuation of at least one moveable element of the seismic
vibrator; and

generating, by the seismic vibrator due to the vibrational actuation of the at least one moveable element, a first continuous
seismic signal having content in a first frequency bandwidth of multiple frequencies.

US Pat. No. 9,348,041

PHASE MODULATION AND NOISE MINIMIZATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS VIBROSEIS ACQUISITION

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
simultaneously conducting a first seismic sweep with a first seismic source and a second seismic sweep with a second seismic
source, different from the first seismic source, at a relative phase offset from the first seismic sweep;

wherein the phase offset varies during the simultaneous sweeping,
determining a first phase for the first sweep and second and third phases for the second sweep; and
conducting the first sweep at the first phase while simultaneously conducting the second sweep at the second phase and then,
while the first sweep is still being conducted, simultaneously conducting the second sweep at the third phase.

US Pat. No. 9,341,728

METHODS OF ANALYZING SEISMIC DATA

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method of analysing seismic data from a geological volume divided into a plurality of voxels, for each voxel a respective
neighbourhood being defined that includes that voxel and a predetermined arrangement of neighbouring voxels, the method including
the steps of:
calculating, for each voxel, the respective normal vectors of a seismic attribute vector field derived from the seismic data;
calculating, for each voxel, a respective local structure tensor based on the normal vectors of the voxels of the respective
neighbourhood;

displaying a barycentric map having vertices corresponding to different anisotropy shape metrics of eigenvalues of the respective
local structure tensor;

calculating, for each voxel, the values of the anisotropy shape metrics for the eigenvalues of that voxel, such that each
voxel has a corresponding location on the map; and

showing a population density distribution of the corresponding locations of the voxels on the map.

US Pat. No. 9,310,502

METHOD OF REPRESENTING SEISMIC SIGNALS

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for seismic surveying, the method comprising the steps of:
performing a seismic survey using one or more seismic sources, wherein performing the seismic survey comprises using a plurality
of seismic receivers disposed at a plurality of irregularly spaced locations to record multichannel seismic data generated
by the one or more seismic sources, wherein the plurality of seismic receivers measure seismic signals at the plurality of
irregularly spaced locations and the plurality of irregularly spaced locations comprise discrete points spread in space and/or
time, and wherein the measured seismic signals comprise a time series of waves and the multichannel seismic data comprises
the measured seismic signals and a first order derivative of the measured seismic signals;

receiving the multichannel seismic data from the plurality of seismic receivers;
using a processor to regularize the received multichannel seismic data, wherein the processor executes a series of instructions
stored thereon, the instructions comprising:

selecting a set of iterative basis functions to model said multichannel seismic data, wherein each of the set of iterative
basis functions is fully defined by n unknown parameters;

producing a representative model of the multichannel seismic data by iteratively estimating the n unknown parameters, wherein
the step of producing the representative model of the multichannel seismic data, comprises:

(a) applying an estimate of the n unknown parameters to each of the set of iterative basis functions;
(b) combining results of the application of the estimate of the n unknown parameters to each of the set of iterative basis
functions to produce an iterative representative model of the multichannel seismic data;

(c) comparing the iterative representative model of the multichannel seismic data with the measured seismic signals and the
derivatives of the measured seismic signals at said discrete points;

(d) adjusting the estimate of the n unknown parameters and repeating steps (a), (b) and (c) until a difference between the
iterative representative model of the multichannel seismic data and the measured seismic signals and the derivatives of the
measured seismic signals at said discrete points is minimized; and

(e) determining the representative model of the measured seismic signals from the set of iterative basis functions and values
of the adjusted n unknown parameters when the difference between the iterative representative model of the multichannel seismic
data and the measured seismic signals and the derivatives of the measured seismic signals at said discrete points is minimized;

transforming the multichannel seismic data received from the plurality of seismic receivers disposed at the plurality of irregularly
spaced locations in the seismic survey into regularized seismic signals, wherein the transforming of the multichannel seismic
data from the seismic survey to regularized seismic signals comprises using the representative model of the multichannel seismic
data to regularize the measured seismic signals by interpolating values for the measured seismic signals at regularized positions;
and

using the regularized seismic signals to obtain an image of a subsurface of the Earth.

US Pat. No. 10,088,583

DITHERED SLIP SWEEP VIBROSEIS ACQUISITION SYSTEM AND TECHNIQUE

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:generating, using at least one actuator, vibroseis sweeps for a vibroseis survey to produce seismic data acquired in response to seismic signals produced by the sweeps, the generating including temporally arranging the sweeps into time-overlapping groups;
regulating a timing of the groups relative to each other based on a slip time;
processing the seismic data based on a slip time separation technique to separate the data into first datasets that are each associated with a different group;
regulating a timing of the sweeps of each group such that consecutive sweep firings of each group are spaced apart by a time substantially less than the slip time; and
processing the first datasets based on a source dithering separation technique to separate each first dataset into second datasets that are each associated with a different one of the sweeps.

US Pat. No. 9,453,928

METHODS AND COMPUTING SYSTEMS FOR PROCESSING DATA

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method, comprising:
receiving an input dataset that comprises seismic data collected from a subsurface three-dimensional geologic formation, wherein:
the input dataset is a simultaneous-source acquired dataset that includes a plurality of shots, and
one or more shots in the plurality of shots includes data corresponding to a plurality of source activations;
separating the input dataset into a plurality of separated shots, wherein respective shots in the plurality of separated shots
correspond to respective shots in the plurality of shots in the input dataset;

for one or more separated shots in the plurality of separated shots:
interpolating respective separated shots to form respective interpolated shots, and
encoding the respective interpolated shots to form respective simulated simultaneous shots;
forming a hybrid simultaneous-source dataset based at least in part on the simulated simultaneous shots and the input dataset;
and

separating the hybrid simultaneous-source dataset into a second plurality of separated shots, wherein respective shots in
the second plurality of separated shots correspond to respective shots in the hybrid simultaneous-source dataset.

US Pat. No. 9,658,353

REGULATING COHERENT BOUNDARY REFLECTIONS DURING GENERATION OF A MODELED WAVEFIELD

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
receiving data indicative of a wavefield in a processor-based system; and
processing the data using at least one processor to generate a modeled wavefield, the processing including varying boundary
conditions of the modeled wavefield with respect to time to regulate coherent boundary reflections in the modeled wavefield,
the coherent boundary reflections being attributable to reflections of the modeled wavefield from outer boundaries of a modeled
space used to generate the modeled wavefield.

US Pat. No. 9,581,714

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR SEISMIC STREAMER CONTROL

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for performing a seismic survey, comprising:
towing a seismic spread comprising two outer deflectors and two outer streamers in a substantially straight course in a first
direction for a predefined distance;

after completing towing along a first distance, traveling through a turn wherein the deflectors each travel along a predefined
curved path for a radial turn of approximately 180 degrees;

after the turn, traveling along a substantially straight course that is substantially parallel to the first course, and towing
in an opposite direction to the first direction; and

predefining a track for each deflector to travel and, using a control system, automatically adjusting a position of the deflector
to maintain the deflector on the predefined track wherein the track of each deflector being separated by a first lateral distance
outside of the turn, and being separated by a second lateral distance that is smaller than the first lateral distance when
in the turn.

US Pat. No. 9,753,167

CALIBRATING ROTATION DATA AND TRANSLATIONAL DATA

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
placing a plurality of seismic sensors proximate to the earth surface, each of the seismic sensors having a first translational
motion sensor, a first rotation sensor and a second rotation sensor;

receiving ground-roll rotation data based on measurement by the rotation sensors;
receiving translational data from the translational seismic sensors; and
determining a calibration operator based on the ground-roll rotation data and translational data, wherein the calibration
operator is useable to relatively calibrate the ground-roll rotation data and the translational data.

US Pat. No. 9,703,000

MULTI-VESSEL COIL SHOOTING ACQUISITION

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A marine seismic acquisition system, comprising:
a first vessel having a seismic streamer array disposed thereon; and
one or more controllers programmed to cause the first vessel to travel along a first coil path during a multivessel coil shoot;
wherein the multivessel coil shoot comprises an acquisition configuration having a second vessel travelling along a second
coil path.

US Pat. No. 9,638,816

ATTENUATING NOISE ACQUIRED IN AN ENERGY MEASUREMENT

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
receiving sensor data;
sorting the sensor data into a gather representation that corresponds to a plurality of shots of an energy source;
determining a signal cone based at least in part on an additional travel path between traces for different shots of the plurality
of shots by the energy source; and

processing the sensor data in a processor-based machine to attenuate noise to generate data representing a signal based at
least in part on the determined signal cone and the gather representation.

US Pat. No. 9,612,349

AIRGUN OPERATING CHAMBER LINERS

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for performing a seismic survey, comprising:
providing an airgun, wherein the airgun includes an initial operating chamber liner configured to generate an initial acoustic
output for the seismic survey, wherein the target acoustic output is different from the initial acoustic output;

receiving a target acoustic output for the seismic survey;
selecting an operating chamber liner for the airgun to be used in the seismic survey that corresponds to the target acoustic
output;

replacing the initial operating chamber liner with the selected operating chamber liner in the airgun in order to generate
the target acoustic output; and

performing the seismic survey using the airgun having the selected operating chamber liner.

US Pat. No. 9,411,061

METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING A STREAMER CABLE

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for manufacturing a streamer cable, comprising:
connecting seismic devices using slacked wire; and
disposing a polymer body having a channel defined therein around the seismic devices and the wire, such that the wire extends
through the channel;

wherein the polymer body is provided in two halves and the disposing the polymer body comprises disposing a first half of
the polymer body around a portion of the seismic devices and the wire and disposing a second half of the polymer body around
the remaining portion of the seismic devices and the wire.

US Pat. No. 10,082,589

METHOD TO DETERMINE THE DEVIATION OF SEISMIC EQUIPMENT FROM A PLANNED CURVED PATH

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A computer-implemented method for determining a deviation of a spread array element from a planned curved path during a towed-array marine seismic survey, comprising:towing a seismic survey spread using a survey vessel wherein the seismic survey spread includes the spread array element associated therewith:
determining a nominal position of the spread array element at a given point in the planned curved path, wherein the planned curved path is selected from at least one of a coil path, a circular path, an ovoid path, an elliptical path, and a figure-eight path;
determining an actual position of the spread array element; and performing an error analysis based on the nominal position and the actual position; and
correcting an error in the actual position of the spread array element based on the error analysis.

US Pat. No. 10,061,045

VIBROSEIS ACQUISITION METHOD

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for processing slip sweep seismic survey data, the method comprising:(a) receiving slip sweep survey data D, wherein the slip sweep survey data D comprises reflected signals from an interior section of the Earth generated by a series of sweep signals input into the interior section of the Earth by repeatedly activating vibratory sources, and wherein the series of sweep signals input into the interior section of the Earth comprises at least a current sweep produced by the vibratory sources at time T0 and a later sweep produced by the vibratory sources at time T1, and a fundamental component of the current sweep overlaps with harmonics of the later sweep, wherein the slip sweep survey includes:
at least two vibratory sources, wherein a first source produces a sweep and a second source produces another sweep; and
a plurality of seismic sensors receive responses of Earth interior;
(b) obtaining overlapping frequencies or equivalent overlapping time intervals thereof, wherein the overlapping frequencies comprise frequencies at which the fundamental component of the current sweep overlaps with the harmonics of the later sweep;
(c) using survey data D as an input to compute non-overlapping harmonic weight ratios for frequencies of the fundamental component that do not overlap with the harmonics of the later sweep;
(d) using a data set representative of the fundamental component undistorted by harmonics to compute overlapping harmonic weight ratios for the overlapping frequencies;
(e) combining the non-overlapping and the overlapping harmonic weight ratios and computing a harmonic prediction operator (HPO) filter for a second harmonic of the later sweep;
(f) using the HPO filter to obtain the second harmonic of the later sweep; and
(g) subtracting the obtained second harmonic from the survey data D.

US Pat. No. 10,054,701

SEISMIC DATA RECORDER CHARGING AND DATA OFFLOAD

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A system for storing a plurality of seismic data recording units, comprising:a storage unit for storing the plurality of seismic data recording units, wherein the storage unit is not a room;
a storage container having a removable compartment configured to be disposed inside the storage unit, wherein the storage container defines a volume of space in which the plurality of seismic data recording units are stored;
single antenna coupled to the storage unit, wherein the single antenna is configured to receive seismic data from the plurality of seismic data recording units, wherein the single antenna is disposed inside the storage container; and
wherein the storage container comprises an enclosure of conducting material that is configured to prevent at least a portion of signals transmitted from the plurality of seismic data recording units from escaping the storage container.

US Pat. No. 9,857,491

MULTI-VESSEL COIL SHOOTING ACQUISITION

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A marine seismic acquisition system, comprising:
a first vessel towing a first source array and a first plurality of streamers, wherein the first vessel is configured to travel
along a first coil path;

a second vessel towing a second source array and a second plurality of streamers, wherein the second vessel is configured
to travel along a second coil path;

a third vessel towing a third source array and a third plurality of streamers, wherein the third vessel is configured to travel
along a third coil path; and

a fourth vessel towing a fourth source array and a fourth plurality of streamers, wherein the fourth vessel is configured
to travel along a fourth coil path.

US Pat. No. 9,852,373

PROPERTIES LINK FOR SIMULTANEOUS JOINT INVERSION

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
training an artificial neural network based at least in part on clustered geologic property input values wherein the trained
artificial neural network approximates at least one probability density function with a shape governed by a cross-property
covariance matrix;

receiving data for a geologic environment as acquired by field equipment;
based on the data, estimating relationships for multiple properties of the geologic environment via the trained artificial
neural network;

based at least in part on the relationships, performing simultaneous joint inversion for at least one property of the geologic
environment; and

based at least in part on at least one of the at least one property, identifying a location of hydrocarbons in the geologic
environment.

US Pat. No. 9,759,828

DETERMINING A STREAMER POSITION

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
receiving seismic measurements acquired by at least one sensor on a spread of at least one streamer, the seismic measurements
being indicative of a seismic source signature produced by a seismic source to penetrate into the Earth to acquire geophysical
information in connection with a seismic survey;

determining a plurality of positions on the streamer relative to a reference position not disposed on the streamer based at
least in part on the seismic measurements; and

processing the seismic measurements to determine at least part of the geophysical information.

US Pat. No. 9,726,772

ITERATIVE STACKING OF SEISMIC IMAGE PARTITIONS

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for processing seismic data, comprising:
receiving a plurality of partial image partitions of a migrated seismic image;
stacking the plurality of partial image partitions such that a first image is generated;
aligning the plurality of partial image partitions based at least partially on the first image, wherein aligning comprises
adjusting at least one of the plurality of partial image partitions and generating a displacement field, and wherein during
the alignment of the plurality of image partitions, the first image is constructed for individual offsets, azimuth bins, or
a combination thereof;

based at least in part on the displacement field, stacking the plurality of aligned partial image partitions to generate a
second image; and

based at least in part on the second image, realigning the plurality of aligned partial image partitions.

US Pat. No. 9,753,163

SIMULTANEOUS MARINE VIBRATORS

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
receiving data representing earth responses recorded due to energies emitted by a first marine seismic vibrator and a second
marine seismic vibrator while the first marine seismic vibrator and the second marine seismic vibrator are being towed in
a marine seismic survey,

wherein during the seismic survey:
the first marine seismic vibrator is towed at a spatial offset relative to the second marine seismic vibrator;
the first marine seismic vibrator fires a first time sequence of shots, each shot of the first time sequence being associated
with a sweep of seismic frequencies and a shot time, and the shots of the first time sequence being associated with a first
phase;

the second marine seismic vibrator fires a second time sequence of shots, each shot of the second time sequence being associated
with a sweep of seismic frequencies and being associated with one of the shot times, and the shots of the second time sequence
being associated with a second phase;

the second phase varying from shot to shot of the second time sequence of shots;
the second phase varying with respect to the first phase; and
processing the data to source separate the earth responses, comprising:
time separating the earth responses to correspond to sets of adjacent shot times and stacking together the earth responses
of each set; and

using results of the processing to determine at least one property of a subterranean section of the earth.

US Pat. No. 9,753,164

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR SEISMIC DATA ACQUISITION EMPLOYING ASYNCHRONOUS, DECOUPLED DATA SAMPLING AND TRANSMISSION

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A seismic data acquisition system comprising:
one or more seismic sources;
a plurality of sensor modules configured to asynchronously sample seismic data, each sensor module comprising an analog seismic
sensor, an A/D converter (ADC) for generating digitized seismic data, a digital signal processor (DSP), and a sensor module
clock;

a seismic data recording station; and
a high precision clock,
wherein each sensor module is configured to:
periodically receive a reference clock signal from the high precision clock,
calculate an amount of drift of a clock signal of the sensor module relative to the reference clock signal,
use an interpolation technique to adjust for the drift;
wherein each DSP is configured to upsample digitized seismic data at a first fixed sampling rate relative to the high precision
clock; and

wherein the digitized seismic data is upsampled by each DSP using the interpolation technique selected from linear and nonlinear
interpolation, based on the amount of drift of each sensor module clock relative to the high precision clock, to increase
each sensor module's effective sampling rate.

US Pat. No. 9,709,687

SENSOR ASSEMBLY

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A seismic marine streamer comprising:
a multiple axis sensor assembly having an enclosure;
encapsulated microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensors, the encapsulated sensors being disposed inside the enclosure and
mounted in different orientations corresponding to different axes of the sensor assembly; and

a controller disposed in the enclosure and electrically coupled to the MEMS sensors.

US Pat. No. 9,618,638

SEISMIC STREAMER PLATFORM

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. An apparatus comprising:
a seismic streamer cable, wherein the cable has a bending stiffness of at least fifty Nm2;

at least one seismic sensor; and
at least one rigid mount to secure said at least one seismic sensor to the streamer cable, the at least one rigid mount having
a natural frequency higher than 150 Hertz.

US Pat. No. 9,541,659

NOISE REMOVAL FROM 3D SEISMIC REPRESENTATION

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method, comprising:
receiving seismic data acquired in a seismic survey using seismic sensors;
organizing the acquired seismic data into a three-dimensional representation of the acquired seismic data, comprising:
constructing the three-dimensional representation of the acquired seismic data using an interpolation process, wherein the
three-dimensional representation is substantially unaliased with respect to at least a crossline direction, wherein the interpolation
process comprises:

determining a measurement function representing the acquired seismic data, the measurement function comprising basis functions;
selecting a new basis function;
applying a ghosting operator to the new basis function to generate a transformed basis function; and
adding the transformed basis function to the measurement function; and
based on at least one criterion, removing noise from the three-dimensional representation of the acquired seismic data.

US Pat. No. 9,244,181

FULL-WAVEFORM INVERSION IN THE TRAVELTIME DOMAIN

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for processing seismic data, comprising:
a) predicting seismic data based on an earth model in traveltime representing seismic properties of subterranean formations
in the earth;

b) determining a difference between seismic data acquired from one or more seismic receivers and the predicted seismic data;
c) projecting the difference into an earth model descent direction in depth;
d) projecting the earth model descent direction in depth, using at least one processor, into an earth model descent direction
in traveltime; and

e) updating, using the at least one microprocessor, the earth model in traveltime according to the earth model descent direction
in traveltime.

US Pat. No. 10,345,473

MULTI-DIMENSIONAL FOLDING SEISMIC SENSOR ARRAY

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A device, comprising:an unmanned marine vessel;
a multi-dimensional seismic sensor array configured to couple to the unmanned marine vessel and configured to float beneath the unmanned marine vessel at a pre-determined depth, wherein the multi-dimensional seismic sensor array is configured to acquire seismic survey data, and wherein the multi-dimensional seismic sensor array comprises:
four seismic streamers; and
a frame for coupling the four seismic streamers together, wherein the frame is configured to hold the four seismic streamers in a multi-dimensional cuboid type lattice structure in a substantially expanded position; and
wherein the frame comprises members that are configured to rotatably pivot with respect to each other in moveable x-shaped crossing configurations.

US Pat. No. 10,191,170

SEISMIC DATA ACQUISITION USING WATER VEHICLES

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A seismic acquisition system, comprising:at least one unmanned water vehicle;
at least one seismic streamer having a first end and a second end, wherein the first end is coupled to the at least one unmanned water vehicle, and wherein the at least one seismic streamer has one or more seismic sensors coupled thereto for recording data in a survey area; and
a buoyancy compensation mechanism coupled proximate to an end of the at least one seismic streamer, wherein the second end of the at least one seismic streamer is not attached to a secondary vessel, and wherein:
the buoyancy compensation mechanism is configured to change an orientation of the at least one seismic streamer between a substantially vertical direction and a substantially horizontal direction through a water column;
the buoyancy compensation mechanism is configured to orient the at least one seismic streamer towards the substantially vertical direction using at least the weight of the buoyancy compensation mechanism as a ballast; and
the first end of the at least one seismic streamer is disposed closer to a water surface than the second end of the at least one seismic streamer is oriented in the substantially vertical direction.

US Pat. No. 9,971,053

USING CROSSLINE MEASUREMENT DATA FOR AN ACTION RELATING TO SURVEY OF A TARGET STRUCTURE

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:receiving, by a system comprising a processor, crossline measurement data measured by at least one survey receiver;
based at least in part on an amount of crossline energy of the crossline measurement data, selecting, by the system, an option from among a plurality of candidate options, wherein selecting the option includes adjusting at least one parameter associated with performing a survey of a target structure; and
performing the survey with survey equipment operated according to the adjusted at least one parameter.

US Pat. No. 9,835,749

ROTATIONAL MOTION COMPENSATED SEISMIC SENSORS AND METHODS OF USE IN SEISMIC DATA ACQUISITION

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method, comprising:
acquiring seismic data using a seismic sensor;
measuring one or more rotational motions of the seismic sensor;
correcting the seismic data for the one or more rotational motions of the seismic sensor;
modeling the one or more rotational motions of the seismic sensor under expected environmental conditions including a non-flat
seabed;

storing the modeled sensor rotational motion data; andusing the modeled sensor rotational motion data in quality control methods, correcting the seismic data, or both.

US Pat. No. 9,759,825

NOISE REDUCTION IN A PARTICLE MOTION SENSING SEISMIC STREAMER

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. An apparatus comprising:
particle motion sensors; and
a streamer containing the particle motion sensors to be towed in connection with a seismic survey, the towing of the streamer
producing a turbulent flow and the streamer comprising:

an inner cable comprising a solid material to circumscribe and extend along a longitudinal axis of the streamer and circumscribe
at least one of the particle motion sensors such that the at least one particle motion sensor is embedded in the solid material;
and

a fluid containing layer to surround the inner cable to reduce noise otherwise sensed by the particle motion sensors due to
the turbulent flow.

US Pat. No. 9,709,688

DEGHOSTING USING MEASUREMENT DATA FROM SEISMIC SENSORS

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
seismic surveying with first, second, third and fourth seismic sensors on a streamer towed by a marine vessel, wherein the
first and the second seismic sensors are pressure sensors, and the third and fourth seismic sensors are acceleration sensors;

wherein the first and second seismic sensors each comprise a piezo element responsive to pressure and acceleration and a backside
that faces radially inwardly from the piezo element toward a center of the streamer, wherein the backsides are spaced apart
from one another by a distance;

the third and fourth seismic sensors each have a piezo element responsive to acceleration and a backside that faces radially
inwardly from the piezo element toward a center of the streamer in a direction different from one another;

electrically connecting the first and second pressure sensors to one another to combine signals from the first seismic sensor
and the second seismic sensor, the combining comprising;

subtracting an acceleration signal of the first seismic sensor from an acceleration signal of the second seismic sensor to
thereby substantially cancel out acceleration when the acceleration signals are combined so as to produce in aggregate a pressure
signal.

US Pat. No. 9,575,193

METHODS AND COMPUTING SYSTEMS FOR SURVEY DATA ENHANCEMENT

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A survey system, comprising:
a plurality of actual sources activatable to emit seismic energy, the plurality of actual sources disposed in a first subzone
within a survey zone that includes a surface and a subsurface region underneath the surface,

a plurality of receivers disposed on the surface in the survey zone, wherein:
a first receiver of the plurality of receivers is configured to be designated a virtual source, wherein the first receiver
is disposed in a second subzone within the first subzone, the second subzone being free of actual sources; and

a second receiver of the plurality of receivers is configured to be designated a virtual source estimation receiver, the second
receiver disposed in the second subzone,

wherein the plurality of actual sources on the surface are arranged to surround the first and second receivers in the second
subzone along the surface.

US Pat. No. 10,545,252

DEGHOSTING AND INTERPOLATING SEISMIC DATA

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A seismic streaming method for providing an interpolated and unbiased estimate of an upgoing wavefield comprising: placing one or more seismic sensors along one or more unevenly spaced receiver positions in a cross-line direction of a seismic streamer;receiving seismic data indicative of measurements acquired by the one or more unevenly spaced seismic sensors, the measurements being associated with a measurement noise; estimating at least one characteristic of the measurement noise;
deghosting the seismic data, the deghosting producing a wavefield corresponding to a propagation direction based at least in part on a weighted least-squares estimate of the upgoing wavefield causing at least one noisier component of the estimate to be de-emphasized; and
simultaneously interpolating the wavefield and performing the deghosting, wherein the simultaneously interpolating comprises processing the seismic data on a processor-based machine and wherein processing the seismic data includes processing to determine an interpolated and unbiased estimate of the upgoing wavefield as a product of the deghosting and concurrently interpolate the upgoing wavefield with the deghosting.

US Pat. No. 10,353,098

REMOVING NOISE FROM A SEISMIC MEASUREMENT

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for conducting a seismic survey using a survey vessel comprising:acquiring a signal using a seismic streamer attached to the survey vessel, wherein acquiring the signal is performed using a multi-component sensor having particle motion sensing capabilities associated therewith;
decomposing, at the seismic streamer or onboard the survey vessel, the signal derived from a seismic acquisition into subbands in successive stages, the subbands being associated with at least different frequency ranges of the signal;
selectively applying, using a low pass spatial filter, at the seismic streamer or onboard the survey vessel, adaptive noise attenuation in between the successive stages such that the stages decompose noise-attenuated subbands, wherein the low pass spatial filter is configured to adjust a filter length based upon, at least in part, a frequency being filtered; and
reconstructing, at the seismic streamer or onboard the survey vessel, the signal from the subbands resulting from the decomposition.

US Pat. No. 10,281,602

SYSTEM AND METHOD TO ACQUIRE ULTRA-LONG OFFSET SEISMIC DATA FOR FULL WAVEFORM INVERSION (FWI) USING UNMANNED MARINE VEHICLE (UMV)

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A system for acquiring seismic streamer data during a seismic streamer survey, comprising:an unmanned marine vessel having a power source configured to drive and provide propulsion to the unmanned marine vessel;
a multi-dimensional seismic sensor array coupled with the unmanned marine vessel, wherein the multi-dimensional seismic sensor array is configured to acquire ultra-long seismic survey data, wherein ultra-long seismic survey data includes data having an offset greater than 20 km; and
a float associated with the unmanned marine vessel including a global positioning system (“GPS”) receiver and a recording system configured to store and transmit the seismic survey data for a full waveform inversion (“FWI”).

US Pat. No. 10,126,452

WAVEFIELD GENERATION USING A SEISMIC VIBRATOR ARRAY

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A marine seismic survey method comprising:at one or more spatial locations, activating two or more seismic vibrators in a seismic vibrator array where the relative phase of each vibrator is chosen such that the seismic vibrator array physically emits a source gradient wavefield for surveying a target structure; and
at one or more other spatial location, activating two or more seismic vibrators in the seismic vibrator array where the relative phase of each vibrator is chosen such that the seismic vibrator array physically emits a monopole wavefield for surveying the target structure.

US Pat. No. 10,048,395

COMPUTING A GRADIENT BASED ON DIFFERENCES OF PLURAL PAIRS OF PARTICLE MOTION SENSORS

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A seismic sensor system comprising:a seismic sensor device comprising:
an elongated housing for placement at an earth surface;
a plurality of particle motion sensors contained in the elongated housing to measure translational data in a first direction while the elongated housing is placed at the earth surface, the plurality of particle motion sensors comprising plural pairs of particle motion sensors, wherein the particle motion sensors of each pair of the plural pairs of particle motion sensors are spaced apart along a second, different direction along a longitudinal axis of the elongated housing; and
at least one processor configured to compute a gradient based on respective differences of the measured translational data of the corresponding plural pairs of the particle motion sensors, and compute one or more of rotation data and divergence data using the gradient, the respective differences of the measured translational data comprising a first difference of the measured translational data of a first pair of the plural pairs of particle motion sensors, and a second difference of the measured translational data of a second pair of the plural pairs of particle motion sensors.

US Pat. No. 10,031,247

USING A ROTATION SENSOR MEASUREMENT TO ATTENUATE NOISE ACQUIRED BY A STREAMER-DISPOSED SENSOR

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A system comprising:a seismic streamer comprising a longitudinal axis, a rotation sensor and a particle motion sensor,
wherein:
the rotation sensor for measuring torque comprises a measurement axis that is eccentrically offset with respect to the longitudinal axis of the seismic streamer;
the rotation sensor measures the torque along the measurement axis of the rotation sensor;
the particle motion sensor acquires a second measurement comprising a particle motion component and a torque noise component; and
the torque measurement associated with the torque noise component such that an estimate of the torque noise component may be derived from the torque measurement.

US Pat. No. 9,766,359

MULTI-VESSEL COIL SHOOTING ACQUISITION

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A marine seismic acquisition system, comprising:
a first vessel towing a streamer, wherein the first vessel is configured to travel along a first coil path;
three or more source only vessels, wherein respective source only vessels of the three or more source only vessels are configured
to travel along a plurality of coil paths; and

one or more controllers programmed to conduct a multivessel coil shoot using the first vessel and the three or more source
only vessels;

wherein respective coil paths in the plurality of coil paths are different.

US Pat. No. 9,581,711

INTERBED MULTIPLE PREDICTION

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for predicting one or more interbed multiples, comprising:
generating, based on a target trace, one or more trace geometries for one or more desired traces, the desired traces comprising
one or more desired shot-side traces, one or more desired receiver-side traces, and one or more desired interbed multiple
generator traces;

extracting one or more sets of reflections with respect to an interbed multiple generator layer from one or more recorded
traces closest to the one or more desired traces; and

estimating the interbed multiples for the target trace based on the one or more sets of reflections, the estimated interbed
multiples aiding in preventing obscuring of the one or more desired traces, the one or more desired traces providing information
related to at least a portion of an interface.

US Pat. No. 9,575,196

COHERENT NOISE ATTENUATION

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for attenuating coherent ground roll noise while preserving reflection signals in seismic data, the method comprising:
(a) transforming the seismic data from time-space domain into frequency-space domain;
(b) designing the fan filters with basis functions wherein the step of designing the filters comprises:
selecting an operator length, a velocity band of the signals, a velocity band of the noises, and a frequency range;
selecting a primary trace and adjacent traces to the primary trace within the operator length;
computing fan filters for the signals and fan filters for the noise for a frequency;
computing weighing factors;
(c) decomposing the data using the fan filters into the signals and the noise at the frequency;
(d) filtering the noise from the decomposed data;
(e) repeating steps (c) and (d) for a plurality of frequencies for the primary trace;
(f) repeating steps (c), (d) and (e) one or more adjacent traces; and
(g) transforming the filtered data from the frequency-space domain into the time-space domain.

US Pat. No. 10,545,261

GEOMECHANICAL MODELING USING DYNAMIC BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FROM TIME-LAPSE DATA

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for characterizing a subsurface volume of interest, the method comprising:performing an injection operation in a reservoir;
building a geomechanical model of a volume of interest of said reservoir;
processing at least two time-lapse seismic cubes, wherein the at least two time-lapse seismic cubes are either from or within the volume of interest;
determining a shift to align one or more events in a first of the at least two time-lapse seismic cubes with one or more events in a second of the at least two time-lapse seismic cubes;
processing a displacement at a boundary of the geomechanical model from the determined shift, the displacement at the boundary being generated by reading the determined shift at the boundary and correcting for a velocity change effect by dividing by 1+R_average, where R_average is an average of local R factors for the geomechanical model, wherein the local R factors are estimated on one or more of a cell by cell basis or a lithological layer by lithological layer basis;
obtaining a simulated displacement and/or a simulated strain from a geomechanical simulator for parts of the geomechanical model where time-lapse shifts are available using the displacement at the boundary as a displacement increment;
comparing the simulated displacement and/or the simulated strain with time lapse observations, wherein the time lapse observations comprise one or more of a time shift or a time strain;
using the comparison between the simulated displacement and/or the simulated strain and the time lapse observations to update respective R factors for the geomechanical model, wherein the R factors comprise a relationship between relative velocity change and rock strain; and
repeating one or more of the preceding steps until at least one of the simulated displacement and/or the simulated strain converges to at least one of the time shift or the time strain, respectively.

US Pat. No. 10,422,898

SEISMIC DATA PROCESSING

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for seismic data processing, comprising:receiving seismic data for a region of interest, wherein the seismic data comprises a seismic wavefield and was acquired during a seismic survey;
calculating a summation based at least in part on a particle motion velocity component of the seismic wavefield in a vertical direction and a pressure component of the seismic wavefield, wherein the summation comprises a weight for the particle motion velocity component and a weight for the pressure component;
predicting an upgoing pressure component of the seismic wavefield for the region of interest based at least in part on a model of an upgoing pressure component of the seismic wavefield;
determining a measurement vector based in part on the weights of the summation and the seismic wavefield;
determining a ghosting operator for the measurement vector;
determining an upgoing pressure component based at least in part on the measurement vector and the ghosting operator;
comparing the predicted upgoing pressure component to the calculated summation;
updating the model based at least in part on the comparison, wherein updating the model comprises constructing the predicted upgoing pressure component as a linear combination of a plurality of basis functions that approximately match the received seismic data; and
generating a seismic image of the region of interest based in part on the model to provide imaging of the region of interest for identifying subterranean geological formations.

US Pat. No. 10,345,461

SEISMIC DATA APPARITION FROM PHASE SHIFTED SOURCES

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for generating a seismic data apparition from one or more phase shifted sources comprising:receiving seismic data acquired by sensors, the seismic data representing energy sensed by the sensors at least partially simultaneously, resulting from source energy from a plurality of seismic sources interacting with a structure, wherein the plurality of seismic sources are operated to fire shots, the plurality of seismic sources fire respective shots that have different phases;
processing seismic information derived from the seismic data by a processor-based machine in an application to source separate the energy sensed by the sensors;
causing an apparition related to the seismic data that appears on a computer visual display showing frequency-wavenumber domain of the seismic data; and
displaying the image on the visual display so that the seismic data from one source in the frequency-wavenumber domain is separate from seismic data from another source in the frequency-wavenumber domain, and such separation results from a phase shift between the sources.

US Pat. No. 10,288,754

SEISMIC NOISE REMOVAL

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A computer-implemented method for removing seismic noise from an input seismic trace, comprising:receiving the input seismic trace, wherein the input seismic trace depicts a structure of a subsurface volume;
receiving one or more noise references for the input seismic trace;
determining independent components from the input seismic trace, wherein determining the independent components comprises:
estimating a de-mixing matrix for the input seismic trace using an independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm; and
applying the de-mixing matrix to the input seismic trace to obtain the independent components;
determining one or more non-similar independent components using a similarity criterion by comparing the independent components to the one or more noise references, wherein determining the one or more non-similar independent components comprises:
determining an amount of correlation between a first independent component of the independent components from the input seismic trace and at least one of the one or more noise references is above a predetermined threshold;
in response, identifying the first independent component as similar component;
determining an amount of correlation between a second independent component of the independent components from the input seismic trace and each of the one or more noise references is below the predetermined threshold; and
in response, identifying the second independent component as a non-similar component; and
combining the non-similar independent components to produce a filtered seismic trace, wherein the filtered seismic trace depicts the subsurface volume, and the filtered seismic trace contains less noise than the input seismic trace.

US Pat. No. 9,632,194

ESTIMATING AND USING SLOWNESS VECTOR ATTRIBUTES IN CONNECTION WITH A MULTI-COMPONENT SEISMIC GATHER

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method, comprising:
receiving multi-component seismic data corresponding to a region of interest of a geologic formation, wherein:
the multi-component seismic data includes pressure data and data representing particle motion, and
the pressure data and the data representing particle motion correspond to a seismic wavefield;
calculating a slowness vector based at least in part on the received multi-component seismic data;
calculating a vertical wavenumber based at least in part on the slowness vector;
based on the vertical wavenumber, separating the seismic wavefield into an upgoing seismic wavefield and a downgoing seismic
wavefield; and

processing a result of separating the seismic wavefield into the upgoing seismic wavefield and the downgoing seismic wavefield
to identify at least one characteristic of the geologic formation.

US Pat. No. 10,288,751

MIGRATION VELOCITY ANALYSIS USING SEISMIC DATA

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:receiving seismic data acquired by an array of seismic sensors during a towed marine survey of a subsurface; and
processing the seismic data in a processor-based machine to perform migration velocity analysis to determine a background velocity model of the subsurface based at least in part on an indication of particle motion derived from the seismic data, a covariance indicative of errors in the indication of the particle motion and a covariance indicative of errors in a current version of the model,
wherein the act of processing the seismic data to perform the migration velocity analysis comprises determining differences between particle motion measurements indicated by the seismic data and particle motion measurements calculated based on a current version of the model.

US Pat. No. 10,281,605

COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS FOR WATER VEHICLES

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method of performing a seismic survey, comprising:deploying a plurality of wave gliders in a seismic survey area, the plurality of wave gliders having one or more seismic sensors coupled thereto for acquiring seismic data;
deploying at least one source vessel in the seismic survey area, the at least one source vessel having one or more sources coupled thereto and a central communication unit disposed thereon;
positioning the plurality of wave gliders according to an initial navigation plan;
monitoring a relative position of a respective wave glider in the plurality of wave gliders with respect to other wave gliders in the plurality of wave gliders and with respect to the at least one source vessel; and
transmitting a copy of seismic data between a first of the plurality of wave gliders to a second of the plurality of wave gliders for backup using a medium-range, non-satellite, communication system.

US Pat. No. 10,241,219

SENSOR DEVICE HAVING ELONGATED HOUSING

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A sensor device comprising:an elongated housing containing particle motion sensors spaced apart along a longitudinal axis of the elongated housing, wherein the elongated housing has a length that is greater than a width of the elongated housing, wherein the particle motion sensors in the elongated housing are spaced apart by a distance along the longitudinal axis, without providing particle motion sensors spaced apart in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis; and
a second portion including communication circuitry to communicate over a communication medium, the second portion coupled to the elongated housing and having a width that is greater than the width of the elongated housing, wherein the second portion includes an impact button that includes a protruding portion that protrudes above a top surface of the second portion, the impact button to receive an impact force for deploying the sensor device into a ground surface, and wherein the second portion is mechanically connected to the elongated housing using a connector structure, and wherein the protruding portion allows for force to be applied to the impact button without also impacting a top part of the second portion.

US Pat. No. 10,162,070

CONVERTING A FIRST ACQUIRED DATA SUBSET TO A SECOND ACQUIRED DATA SUBSET

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method, comprising:receiving, by a system comprising a processor, acquired data that corresponds at least in part to a target structure;
forming, by the system, one or more vector image partition (VIP) gathers from at least part of the acquired data, wherein the one or more VIP gathers comprise bins of the acquired data, the bins partitioned based on different values of an offset between a source location of a seismic source and a surface image location, the surface image location on a surface and projected from an image location within the target structure;
converting, by the system, the one or more VIP gathers into one or more angle gathers, the converting comprising mapping the one or more VIP gathers to the one or more angle gathers using a source direction of a source seismic wave; and
performing, by the system, tomography processing using the one or more angle gathers to produce an image relating to the target structure.

US Pat. No. 9,869,787

METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR EFFICIENTLY ACQUIRING TOWED STREAMER SEISMIC SURVEYS

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method, comprising:
deploying a towed streamer marine seismic spread comprising one or more sources and a streamer tow vessel towing one or more
marine seismic streamers comprising a plurality of acoustic receivers;

while towing the one or more seismic streamers through a first linear course having a first direction, into a turn, and into
a second linear course having a second direction that is different from the first direction:

steering the one or more seismic streamers with at least one streamer steering device; and
shooting at least one source and recording reflections using at least some of the receivers from a sub-sea geologic feature
during the first linear course, the turn and the second linear course.

US Pat. No. 9,829,595

PARTICLE MOTION SENSOR-BASED STREAMER POSITIONING SYSTEM

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:
disposing a particle motion sensor on a spread of at least one towed streamer;
using the particle motion sensor to acquire a measurement of a signal transmitted from an acoustic transmitter, the measurement
representing orthogonal particle motions; and

based at least in part on the orthogonal particle motions, determining a heading of at least one measurement axis of the particle
motion sensor, wherein determining the heading comprises:

based at least in part on the measurement, determining a first direction of the signal in a local reference system; and
determining the heading based at least in part on the first direction and a second direction of the signal in a global reference
system.

US Pat. No. 9,702,994

WAVEFORM INVERSION BY MULTIPLE SHOT-ENCODING FOR NON-FIXED SPREAD GEOMETRIES

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A computer-implemented method for use in processing seismic data for indications of hydrocarbon deposits, the method comprising:
receiving acquired seismic data as a plurality of common shot gathers for a subterranean geologic formation;
simulating seismic data that represents a common multisource gather for the subterranean geologic formation that correspond
to a plurality of shots;

for shot separated simulated seismic data, eliminating the simulated seismic data that are unmatched in the acquired seismic
data to generated conformed simulated seismic data;

performing, via a processor, a waveform inversion between the acquired seismic data and the conformed simulated seismic data;
and

based at least in part on the waveform inversion, estimating seismic velocities that indicate hydrocarbon deposits in the
subterranean geologic formation.

US Pat. No. 10,656,296

PROCESSING OF SEISMIC DATA

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for characterizing a subterranean section of the earth, the method comprising:placing one or more seismic sources at one or more known locations;
placing one or more seismic receivers at varying distances from the one or more seismic source locations;
obtaining seismic data from the subterranean section of the earth by triggering the one or more seismic sources and recording reflected seismic energy from the subterranean section of the earth with the one or more seismic receivers;
determining, by a computer, a rock fabric attribute of the subterranean section of the earth from the seismic data obtained from the subterranean section of the earth, wherein the rock fabric attribute is given by a rotation of normal vectors of a 3D gradient field extracted from a seismic cube of the seismic data;
using the rock fabric attribute to determine properties of and/or to generate an image of the subterranean section of the earth; and
using the determined properties and/or the generated image in designing increased reservoir contact area during hydraulic fracturing and/or in real-time by reducing out of zone hydraulic fracturing.

US Pat. No. 10,551,517

MULTIPLES MITIGATION AND IMAGING WITH INCOMPLETE SEISMIC DATA

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:receiving, by a system including a processor, observed survey data containing primaries and free-surface multiples;
generating, by the system, synthetic survey data using a wave propagator based on a current model of a target structure;
modifying, by the system, the current model to reduce a difference between the synthetic survey data and the observed survey data, while maintaining unchanged a velocity component of the current model, wherein the modifying of the current model produces a modified model; and
using, by the system, the modified model as an image of the target structure that is illuminated by both the primaries and free-surface multiples to reduce an effect of multiples in the target structure.

US Pat. No. 10,509,139

REMOVING NOISE FROM A SEISMIC MEASUREMENT

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:performing a seismic survey using a towed streamer having at least one sensor;
acquiring a measurement using the at least one sensor during the seismic survey;
using a filter having filtering parameters based at least in part on a dispersion curve of at least one vibration mode of the towed streamer to filter the measurement acquired by the at least one sensor of the streamer; and
using results of the filtering to suppress vibration noise present in the measurement, wherein using the filter and using results of the filtering includes convolving the measurement in a time-spatial domain to suppress the vibration noise, wherein using the results of the filtering further includes generating a vibration noise suppressed signal and applying frequency subband-based decomposition and reconstruction filtering to the vibration noise-suppressed signal.

US Pat. No. 9,696,446

ACTIVE STEERING FOR MARINE SEISMIC SOURCES

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method of positioning a source array in tow behind a vessel, comprising:
determining the position of the source array; and
independently steering a deflector device coupled to the source array to move the source array to a desired position, wherein
the deflector device has a body and one or more wings that are positioned at a lateral distance from the body in a crossline
direction.

US Pat. No. 9,575,198

SEISMIC DATA ACQUISITION USING SELF-PROPELLED UNDERWATER VEHICLES

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for surveying subterranean formations, comprising:
providing at least one self-propelled underwater vehicle, the vehicle having at least one sensor disposed therein, an outer
shell or hull that is hydrodynamically designed to have a low coefficient of drag, a control unit electrically connected to
a battery, wings extending from the outer shell or hull, and a ballast adjusting device to adjust the balance and inclination
of the vehicle;

lowering the self-propelled underwater vehicle into the sea;
deploying the self-propelled underwater vehicle to a first location on the seafloor to gather seismic data via the at least
one sensor, the first location having a first depth;

retrieving the seismic data from the self-propelled underwater vehicle while the self-propelled underwater vehicle remains
in the sea at a surface of the sea; and

deploying, after the retrieving, the self-propelled underwater vehicle to a second location different from the first location
and on the seafloor to further gather seismic data.

US Pat. No. 10,343,844

STORING SENSOR DEVICES

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A sensor storage system comprising:a first moveable rail attached to hangers to hang respective sensor devices; and
a station through which at least one of the sensor devices is to pass in response to movement of the moveable rail, the station to perform a task with respect to the at least one sensor device, wherein the station is at least one of a cleaning station comprising a nozzle to deliver cleaning fluid to the at least one sensor device, a battery charging station comprising a receptacle to receive the at least one sensor device to charge the at least one sensor device, or a maintenance station to perform maintenance or quality control of the at least one sensor device.

US Pat. No. 10,295,688

ATTENUATING INTERNAL MULTIPLES FROM SEISMIC DATA

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for processing seismic data having internal multiples, wherein the internal multiples are generated from a plurality of rock layer horizons in earth and acquired by a seismic survey for determining the structure of subterranean formations in the earth, comprising:receiving the seismic data wherein at least a portion of the internal multiples represent noise;
predicting internal multiples for each horizon in the seismic data in one pass;
creating a separate model of internal multiples for each horizon based on the predicted internal multiples for each horizon;
iteratively subtracting each separate model of internal multiples for each horizon from the seismic data to generate noise attenuated seismic data; and
using a processor, processing the noise attenuated seismic data from which each separate model of internal multiples for each horizon has been subtracted to output analysis results of rock layers in the earth to a display that indicate the presence or absence of probable locations of hydrocarbon deposits;
wherein creating the separate model of internal multiples for each horizon comprises adaptively subtracting predicted internal multiples of shallower horizons from the predicted internal multiples for each horizon; and
wherein adaptively subtracting the predicted internal multiples of shallower horizons from the predicted internal multiples for each horizon comprises:
(a) identifying internal multiples of each shallower horizon in one or more predicted internal multiples for an ith horizon;
(b) removing the identified multiples; and
(c) repeating steps (a)-(b) for each subsequent horizon.

US Pat. No. 10,274,621

SEISMIC RECEIVERS AS SEISMIC SOURCES

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method of carrying out a seismic survey, the method comprising:providing a seismic array which comprises a plurality of seismic receiver-sources selectively operable via function control to emit or receive seismic signals;
driving a set of seismic receiver-sources in the plurality of seismic receiver-sources according to a sequence to produce a seismic signal in the Earth, the signal being other than and distinguishable from a point source signal;
using at least one of the seismic receiver-sources in the plurality of seismic receiver-sources, other than those seismic receiver-sources in the set, to receive seismic data generated by the seismic signal, wherein the seismic data comprise reflections of the seismic signal from a section of a subsurface of the Earth; and
using the received seismic data to determine properties of the section of the subsurface of the Earth.

US Pat. No. 10,054,704

PREDICTING MULTIPLES IN SURVEY DATA

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method executed by a computer system, comprising:applying, using a multidimensional model, a multidimensional wavefield extrapolation on a first survey data gather for a target physical structure, to predict data representing a first multiple, the multidimensional model being of a layer in which the first multiple occurs;
producing modified survey data by performing a subtraction of the predicted data representing the first multiple from the first survey data gather;
applying, using the multidimensional model, a multidimensional wavefield extrapolation on a second survey data gather generated from the modified survey data, to predict data representing a second multiple, wherein the first survey data gather is one of a common shot gather and a common receiver gather, and the second survey data gather is a different one of the common shot gather and the common receiver gather;
combining the first multiple and the second multiple to produce data representing total multiples; and
subtracting the total multiples from the first survey data to produce survey data with the total multiples attenuated, the survey data with the total multiples attenuated representing reflections from the target physical structure.

US Pat. No. 9,581,710

THREE-DIMENSIONAL ROCK PROPERTIES USING CROSS WELL SEISMIC

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method, comprising:
receiving three-dimensional (3D) seismic data acquired in a seismic survey of a region of interest;
receiving cross well seismic data acquired in a cross well seismic survey of the region of interest;
determining a first set of rock properties of the region of interest based on the cross well seismic data;
determining one or more variograms based on the first set of rock properties; and
determining one or more 3D rock properties of the region of interest based on the one or more variograms and the 3D seismic
data.

US Pat. No. 10,571,583

SEISMIC INTERFEROMETRY FOR GRAND ROLL AND NOISE ATTENUATION

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method of carrying out a seismic survey to acquire seismic data suitable for ground-roll noise attenuation, the method comprising:deploying at least one seismic source which is a seismic vibrator at a source location and deploying at least one seismic receiver at a receiver location;
deploying a plurality of derivative sensors at derivative sensor locations distributed on a boundary, the source location and the receiver location located inside the boundary;
operating the at least one seismic source to transmit vibrational energy and receiving responses which are vibrational energy at the at least one seismic receiver and the derivative sensors;
recording data from the at least one seismic receiver and the derivative sensors wherein the data comprises measurements of velocity at the at least one seismic receiver and measurements of velocity and a spatial derivative of velocity at each derivative sensor location;
computing an interferometric estimate of ground-roll wavefield using two correlation products; and
removing the computed estimate of ground-roll wavefield from the seismic data.

US Pat. No. 10,401,516

TRAVEL-TIME OBJECTIVE FUNCTION FOR FULL WAVEFORM INVERSION

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for seismic processing to generate a seismic image of a subterranean area using full-waveform inversion, comprising:receiving seismic data comprising acquired seismic waveforms that were acquired from a seismic receiver and represent a subterranean area;
generating synthetic waveforms based on an initial model of the subterranean area;
determining a model error, wherein determining the model error comprises:
determining a travel time shift objective function;
determining a local travel time shift error by minimizing the travel time shift objective function;
determining an unwrapped instantaneous phase error based on the local travel time shift error;
determining an instantaneous phase objective function relation based on the unwrapped instantaneous phase error; and
determining the model error based on the local travel time shift error and the instantaneous phase objective function relation;
adjusting the initial model based on the model error to generate an adjusted model;
performing a full waveform inversion using the adjusted model to generate inverted data representing the subterranean area; and
generating a seismic image of the subterranean area using the inverted data.

US Pat. No. 10,605,599

GRADIENT SENSOR DEVICE

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A system comprising:a plurality of sensor devices, wherein a given one of the sensor devices comprises:
a support structure providing a surface; and
at least three particle motion sensors coupled with the support structure to measure translational data in a first direction, the particle motion sensors are arranged at positions which form corners of a triangle and enable calculation of spatial gradients of the translational data in second and third directions, both of which are perpendicular to the first direction and to each other; and
a computer configured to:
receive the measured translational data from the at least three particle motion sensors; and
compute from the measured translational data the spatial gradients of the translational data in the second and third directions which are perpendicular to the first direction and to each other.

US Pat. No. 10,422,906

MODELING AND FILTERING COHERENT NOISE IN SEISMIC SURVEYS

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:obtaining seismic information of a region resulting from a source waveform applied to the region;
obtaining an estimate of one or more visco-elastic properties of a near-surface layer of the region;
determining, using a computing device, an estimate of propagation of guided waves in the region based on the estimate of one or more visco-elastic properties of the near-surface layer of the region, wherein determining the estimate of propagation of guided waves comprises using a sum of laterally propagating modes, and wherein using the sum of laterally propagating modes comprises determining a first modal amplitude based on a depth of a seismic receiver, frequency, and a horizontal position of the seismic receiver;
determining an estimate of the source waveform based on the estimate of propagation of the guided waves, wherein the estimate of the source waveform represents the source waveform after being applied to the region by a seismic source, as modified by the region;
determining, using the computing device, a model of the guided waves in the near-surface layer of the region using the estimate of the source waveform; and
determining, using the computing device, a filtered output of the seismic information by removing the model of the guided waves from the seismic information.

US Pat. No. 10,637,641

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PULSE SYNCHRONIZATION

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:receiving, by a sensor node comprising a sensor to measure survey data of a target structure, a wireless synchronization signal, wherein the wireless synchronization signal is received from a transmitter located on an airborne vehicle;
synchronizing, by the sensor node, an operation of the sensor node based on the wireless synchronization signal;
determining, based on the wireless synchronization signal, an amount of drift of a clock or oscillator of the sensor node; and
synchronizing the clock or oscillator, based on the determined amount of drift, by adjusting a frequency of the clock or oscillator, and
re-sampling using interpolation, the measured survey data, wherein re-sampling using interpolation, includes:
up-sampling the measured survey data to a fixed sampling rate determined from the wireless synchronization signal;
increasing an effective sample rate of the measured survey data; and
decimating the measured survey data to the fixed sampling rate as determined from the wireless synchronization signal.

US Pat. No. 10,539,695

WAVEFIELD RECONSTRUCTION

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for reconstructing a seismic wavefield, comprising:receiving data over one or more channels of a plurality of channels from a plurality of stations, wherein:
the data are recorded by a plurality of seismic receivers and represent measurements of properties of the seismic wavefield;
each station of the plurality of stations comprises a region in space including one or more seismic receivers of the plurality of seismic receivers;
each channel of the plurality of channels either measures a property of the seismic wavefield or a property of the seismic wavefield after the seismic wavefield has undergone a known transformation; and
at least one channel of the plurality of channels is derived as a function of one or more other channels of the plurality of channels; and
using a processor based machine to process the data to:
model the seismic wavefield as a sum of basis functions;
apply to the basis functions forward transformations describing the measurements received over the one or more channels of the plurality of channels; and
determine optimum basis functions based at least in part on the measurements.

US Pat. No. 10,520,623

METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR MARINE SURVEY ACQUISITION

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method, comprising:deploying a marine seismic spread comprising:
at least one streamer having at least one receiver;
a first seismic source that is connected to and towed by a vessel; and
a second seismic source that is connected to and towed by the vessel and is disposed at a distance from the first seismic source in an inline direction, wherein the distance is selected to produce one or more pairs of shot points during a seismic survey, wherein the shot points within a pair are disposed within a predetermined range that is configured to be used to calculate a pressure source gradient between the shot points within the pair;
shooting the first seismic source and the second seismic source substantially simultaneously;
recording seismic data associated with shooting the first seismic source and the second seismic source; and
calculating the pressure source gradient for respective pairs of shot points, wherein calculating the pressure source gradient comprises determining a difference between wavefield measurements at the shot point locations for at least one of the respective pairs, and wherein the difference is determined with respect to a change in location between shot points in the at least one of the respective pairs.

US Pat. No. 10,502,850

INTERFEROMETRY-BASED DATA REDATUMING AND/OR DEPTH IMAGING

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for processing measurements at a datum, the method comprising:receiving at least two sets of measurements of a wavefield generated by at least one source emitting waves, the waves being disturbed by a subsurface target and received by at least one receiver;
constructing a Joint Point Spread Function system using the at least two sets of measurements;
obtaining reflectivity data by multi-dimensional deconvolution of the Joint Point Spread Function system;
from the obtained reflectivity data, constructing or refining a physical model or image defining multiple subsurface structures; and
from the model or image, identifying a location of a hydrocarbon deposit.

US Pat. No. 10,429,530

DEGHOSTING WITH ADAPTIVE OPERATORS

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A computer implemented method for processing marine seismic data with combined deghosting and sparse i-p transformation, the method comprising:(a) having marine seismic data dtx in a time-offset (t-x) domain;
(b) having a model x comprising a set of coefficients of basis functions;
(c) having a set of adaptive filters Cf comprising a set of coefficients of filters;
(d) computing differences between synthesized data and the marine seismic data dtx, wherein the synthesized data is derived from the model x and the set of adaptive filters Cf;
(e) setting up and solving an optimization problem, wherein:
an objective function is a weighted sum of two norms;
a first norm is an Lp norm of the differences;
a second norm is an Lq norm of the model x;
the variables and solutions are coefficients of the model x and coefficients of filters Cf; and
p and q are non-negative numbers;
(f) using the solutions of the coefficients of model x and the coefficients of filters Cf to derive a deghosted wavefield; and
(g) processing the deghosted wavefield to generate an image of the Earth subsurface structures.

US Pat. No. 10,408,954

SEISMIC SENSOR COUPLING

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method of seismic surveying, comprising:placing at least partially into an earth surface, a seismic sensor coupling device that has a screw shape that when rotated digs into the earth, by rotating the coupling device;
after the seismic sensor coupling device has been rotated and placed at least partially into the earth surface, placing a seismic sensor system into the coupling device so that the seismic sensor is coupled to the coupling device so as to receive seismic signals reverberating through the earth subsurface, wherein the coupling device includes an inner design configured to generally match a shape of the seismic sensor system; wherein the sensor coupling device is rotatable with respect to the sensor to provide for screwing the sensor coupling device into the earth while the sensor remains essentially stationary;
actuating a seismic source to transmit impulses into the earth subsurface;
receiving, by the seismic sensor system, translational data in a first direction measured by particle motion sensors contained in an elongated housing of a seismic sensor device provided proximate the earth surface, the particle motion sensors spaced apart along a second, different direction along a longitudinal axis of the elongated housing, and receiving translational data in a third direction measured by additional particle motion sensors in the housing, the translational data in the first and third directions corresponding at least partially to the impulses; and
recording the translational data in the first direction and the translational data in the third direction, wherein a gradient of the translational data in the first direction with respect to the second direction is used to compute rotation data around the third direction, and wherein a gradient of the translational data in the third direction with respect to the second direction is used to compute rotation data around the first direction.

US Pat. No. 10,261,215

JOINT INVERSION OF GEOPHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method, comprising:via an interface of a computing system, receiving seismic data as acquired by seismic receivers for a region of interest in a subsurface of the earth and receiving electromagnetic data as acquired by sensor electrodes for the region of interest wherein at least a portion of the seismic data or at least a portion of the electromagnetic data is received during one or more drilling operations;
via the computing system, obtaining seismic attributes through an inversion of the seismic data and separately obtaining electrical attributes through an inversion of the electromagnetic data;
receiving a selection of an isotropic or anisotropic rock physics model for the region of interest, wherein the region of interest is represented by multi-dimensional cells;
calculating, via at least one processor of the computing system, values of rock parameters for the selected rock physics model, individually for each of a plurality of the multi-dimensional cells, at least in part by iteratively solving a closed-form equation that linearizes a nonlinear relation that links cross-properties between the seismic attributes and the electrical attributes for the region of interest and that estimates variance of the rock parameters based at least in part on a covariance matrix of the attributes and a covariance matrix of the rock physics model;
determining the position of hydrocarbon deposits in the region of interest in the subsurface of the earth using the calculated values of at least a portion of the plurality of the multi-dimensional cells; and
performing a drilling operation based on the position of hydrocarbon deposits.

US Pat. No. 10,557,955

RECONSTRUCTING IMPULSIVE SOURCE SEISMIC DATA FROM TIME DISTRIBUTED FIRING AIRGUN ARRAY DATA

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for seismic surveying, the method comprising:using first and second time-distributed firing source arrays that each include a plurality of source elements to acquire time-distributed seismic data in a seismic survey that includes data from the first and second time-distributed seismic firing sources when activated simultaneously;
determining a time-distributed source signature that includes signatures of the first time-distributed firing source array and of the second time-distributed firing source array;
selecting a window of frequencies in the time-distributed source signature;
defining basis functions with multiple frequencies within the window of frequencies;
convolving the time-distributed source signature with the basis functions to form a basis for the acquired time-distributed seismic data;
obtaining weighting factors by using an inversion method that solves for the weighting factors from the acquired time-distributed seismic data and the basis for the acquired time-distributed seismic data;
selecting an impulsive source signature that includes source signatures of two impulsive sources;
convolving the impulsive signature with the basis functions and applying the weighting factors to form impulsive seismic data from the acquired time-distributed seismic data, which includes convolving the source signatures of the two impulsive sources with the basis functions and applying the weighting factors to form two sets of impulsive data from the time-distributed seismic data; and
processing the formed impulsive seismic data to determine properties of an interior section of the Earth.

US Pat. No. 10,481,297

FLUID MIGRATION PATHWAY DETERMINATION

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method of determining a migration pathway of a subterranean fluid through a geological volume, the method comprising:placing sources at one or more source locations;
placing surface receivers at varying distances and azimuths from the one or more source locations;
carrying out seismic testing by imparting energy to the earth from the sources at the one or more source locations and measuring return energy to the receivers;
analyzing seismic testing results to generate data points distributed through a geological volume, each data point being associated with values of one or more geological attributes derived from the results of the seismic testing and at least some of which are indicative of possibility for fluid migration at the data point;
identifying a starting object within the geological volume, wherein the starting object defines an initial position of a fluid boundary at a plurality of the data points;
defining an expression which determines a change in position of the fluid boundary at the data points from forces acting on the object at the fluid boundary, wherein the forces are determined from the values of the one or more geological attributes associated with the data points and the forces are (i) force normal to the object boundary, (ii) directional force on the object, and (iii) curvature force which minimizes curvature of the object boundary; and
applying the expression at the data points for successive iterations to evolve the position of the fluid boundary over the successive iterations, whereby the migration pathway of the subterranean fluid through the geological volume can be determined from the evolution of the position of the fluid boundary.

US Pat. No. 10,739,478

SEISMIC DATA PROCESSING

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method for seismic data processing, comprising:receiving seismic data for a region of interest, wherein the seismic data were acquired in a seismic survey;
determining, using a processor, sparse seismic data by selecting shot points in the acquired seismic data using statistical sampling, wherein determining the sparse seismic data comprises determining at least one exclusion criterion that includes one or more rules for selecting the shot points in the acquired seismic data based on a location of an individual shot point relative to other shot points, wherein the shot points are selected based on the at least one exclusion criterion, and wherein other shot points not selected based on the at least one exclusion criterion;
determining, using the processor, simulated seismic data based at least in part on an earth model for the region of interest, a reflection model for the region of interest, and the selected shot points;
determining, using the processor, an objective function that represents a mismatch between the simulated seismic data and the sparse seismic data;
updating, using the processor, the reflection model based at least in part on the objective function; and
determining, using the processor, a presence of a hydrocarbon in the region of interest based at least in part on the updated reflection model.

US Pat. No. 10,613,139

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR ELECTRIC CURRENT LEAKAGE DETECTION IN A LAND SEISMIC SYSTEM

WesternGeco L.L.C, Houst...

8. A land seismic system for electric current leakage detection comprising:digital to analog converter “DAC” circuitry configured to generate at least one test signal, wherein the DAC circuitry includes an output operatively connected to earth ground;
analog to digital converter “ADC” circuitry, wherein the system is configured to alternately ground a positive path to the ADC circuitry during a first time window and a negative path to the analog to digital converter during a second time window while measuring an ADC signal; and
a computing device configured to determine an average amplitude of the first time window and the second time window and to determine a leakage resistance based upon, at least in part, the average amplitude of the first time window and the second time window.

US Pat. No. 10,578,759

QUALITY CONTROL AND PRECONDITIONING OF SEISMIC DATA

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method, comprising:receiving particle motion data from a plurality of particle motion sensors disposed on a plurality of seismic streamers;
performing quality control (QC) processing on the particle motion data, wherein performing the QC processing includes at least one of determining one or more orientation angle errors of the particle motion sensors based on low frequency noise of the particle motion data and identifying one or more first analog spikes in the particle motion data based on one or more blocks of traces of the particle motion data and identifying one or more second analog spikes in the particle motion data based on one or more estimated gravity vectors for the plurality of particle motion sensors;
performing preconditioning processing on the QC-processed particle motion data; and
attenuating noise in the preconditioning-processed particle motion data.

US Pat. No. 10,451,753

MEMS-BASED ROTATION SENSOR FOR SEISMIC APPLICATIONS AND SENSOR UNITS HAVING SAME

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A seismic data acquisition system, comprising:one or more sources for generating seismic waves; and
one or more sensor units for recording seismic waves generated by the sources, the one or more sensor units having a first seismic sensor for measuring a vertical wavefield of the seismic waves, and a second seismic sensor for measuring a gradient of the vertical wavefield, wherein the second sensor is a MEMS-based rotation sensor including first and second electrodes, wherein at least one of the first and second electrodes being configured to generate an electrical signal having an amplitude corresponding with a degree of angular movement of the first electrode relative to the second electrode, wherein the MEMS-based rotation sensor includes a substrate, an anchor disposed on the substrate, and a proof mass coupled to the anchor via one or more flexural springs, the proof mass having the first electrode coupled to and extending from the proof mass and wherein the second electrode is fixed to the substrate, wherein one of the first and second electrodes are configured to receive an actuation signal.

US Pat. No. 10,451,755

PROCESSING WAVEFIELD DATA INCORPORATING LARGE TIMESTEPS AND UPSCALED MEDIUM PROPERTIES

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method of processing data representing a wavefield propagating through an inhomogeneous medium, the method comprising:a) defining a desired timestep and a desired spatial step for a discrete operator, the desired timestep and desired spatial step being based on one or more properties of a region of the inhomogeneous medium and of the wavefield therein;
b) defining a plurality of discrete seed operators having an initial timestep and an initial spatial step less than the desired timestep and the desired spatial step respectively;
c) compounding two or more of the seed operators to obtain a discrete operator having a timestep greater than the initial timestep;
d) upscaling the operator obtained in step (c) to obtain a spatial step greater than the initial spatial step;
e) repeating steps (c) and (d) until an operator having the desired timestep and the desired spatial step is obtained;
f) applying the operator having the desired timestep and the desired spatial step to the data representing the wavefield propagating through the inhomogeneous medium to propagate the data backwards in time thereby to recreate the wavefield at one or more earlier times; and
g) using the recreated wavefield to determine a wavefield parameter relating to a physical property of the inhomogeneous medium;
wherein the data representing the wavefield propagating through the inhomogeneous medium is produced by an energy source emitting waves into the inhomogeneous medium and one or more sensors measuring return waves.

US Pat. No. 10,353,100

PROCESSING SEISMIC DATA TO ATTENUATE VIBRATION NOISE

WESTERNGECO L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:receiving first data acquired by at least one particle motion gradient sensor or at least one rotation sensor of a streamer, the streamer being subject to vibration due to towing of the streamer;
receiving second data representing a particle motion measurement acquired by at least one particle motion sensor of the streamer, wherein the particle motion measurement represents a summation of at least a particle motion component and a vibration noise component; and
processing the second data in a processor-based machine to, based at least in part on the first data, attenuate the vibration noise component to generate third data representing the particle motion component, wherein the first data comprises data acquired by the at least one particle motion gradient sensor, wherein the processing includes applying a multi-channel interpolation technique to derive data indicative of an interpolated particle motion and an interpolated vibration noise and attenuating the vibration noise based at least in part on the interpolated vibration noise.

US Pat. No. 10,816,683

SEISMIC DATA RECORDING UNITS

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A seismic data recording unit for use in a seismic spread, comprising:a housing having an exterior shape that approximates a polygon, the polygon having three or more corners and including at least one of a rectangle and a triangle; and
a plurality of seismic sensors, wherein each of the plurality of seismic sensors is affixed to the polygon at one or more retractable arms at each of the three or more corners of the polygon, wherein the plurality of seismic sensors are within the same plane, wherein each of the plurality of seismic sensors is used to determine a pressure gradient in a vertical direction, wherein each of the plurality of seismic sensors is separated from each other by a predetermined distance configured to span one or more desired wavelengths in a seismic bandwidth.

US Pat. No. 10,809,403

SURVEYING USING AN UNMANNED MARINE SURFACE VESSEL

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method of marine surveying, comprising:deploying an unmanned marine surface vessel connected to a three-dimensional array of sensors positioned in a proximity of an obstruction area of a survey environment, the three-dimensional array of sensors comprising a plurality of rigid elongated supports, wherein a plurality of sensors of the three-dimensional array of sensors are mounted on a respective rigid elongated support of the plurality of rigid elongated supports, and the plurality of sensors of the three-dimensional array of sensors is spaced apart from another in three dimensions, and wherein a portion of the plurality of rigid elongated supports is substantially parallel to one another; and
recording, by the three-dimensional array of sensors positioned in the proximity of the obstruction area of the survey environment, a plurality of signals that is affected by a target structure, wherein the plurality of signals is recorded by the three-dimensional array of sensors deployed on an opposite side of a survey source with respect to the obstruction area, and wherein only the plurality of signals is used to infill holes in recorded data by an additional plurality of sensors on a marine streamer that is unable to be deployed in the obstruction area.

US Pat. No. 10,746,896

POSITIONING SURVEY SENSORS USING AN AIRBORNE VEHICLE

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. An airborne vehicle comprising:a positioning system to acquire information relating to a position of the airborne vehicle, wherein the positioning system comprises a satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS);
a light source to emit light;
a measurement system to receive signals of survey sensors of a survey arrangement used to survey a target structure, wherein the measurement system receives the signals from one or more of the survey sensors, wherein the received signals indicate positions of the respective survey sensors, wherein the received signals include optical signals and wherein the optical signals are reflected from one or more reflectors on the survey sensors; and
one or more of an infrared camera and an acoustic measurement subsystem for use in determining the positions of the respective survey sensors.

US Pat. No. 10,620,330

ESTIMATING TRANSLATIONAL DATA

WesternGeco L.L.C., Hous...

1. A method comprising:deploying a survey arrangement comprising at least one gradient sensor and an array of a first density of seismic sensors;
receiving translational data acquired by the seismic sensors of the array;
receiving gradient sensor data acquired by the at least one gradient sensor, wherein receiving the gradient sensor data comprises receiving divergence data acquired by a divergence sensor; and
computing, by a computer, estimated horizontal translational data at a given position away from positions of the seismic sensors of the array, the computing being based on the gradient sensor data and the translational data, the estimated horizontal translational data at the given position corresponding to horizontal translational data of a non-existent seismic sensor, the estimated horizontal translational data providing for denser sampling of measurement data than available with the array of the first density of seismic sensors, wherein computing the estimated horizontal translational data comprises one of interpolating the horizontal translational data and extrapolating the horizontal translational data, and wherein the estimated horizontal translational data is at the given position where no seismic sensor is present; and
identifying, by the computer using the estimated horizontal translational data and the translational data acquired by the seismic sensors of the array, a subterranean element in a subterranean structure.