US Pat. No. 9,198,733

TREATMENT PLANNING FOR ELECTROPORATION-BASED THERAPIES

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A treatment planning system for determining a patient-specific electroporation-based treatment protocol comprising:
a processing module operably configured for performing the following stages:
receiving and processing information from medical images of a target structure and preparing a 3-D reconstruction model of
the target structure;

performing a numerical model analysis using as inputs in the analysis the 3-D reconstruction and electrical conductivity;
and

constructing one or more protocols each providing a treatment region with parameters for electroporating the target structure;
and

a processor for executing the stages of the processing module.

US Pat. No. 9,086,274

POOL CLEANER WITH LASER RANGE FINDER SYSTEM AND METHOD

Pentair Water Pool and Sp...

1. A pool cleaner control system to detect a physical distance to an object in front of the pool cleaner, the control system
comprising:
a laser range finder including a first laser line generator, a second laser line generator, and a camera, the first laser
line generator and the second laser line generator positioned to emit parallel laser lines and the camera positioned relative
to the first laser line generator and the second laser line generator to capture an image of the laser lines projected on
the object; and

a controller in communication with the laser range finder and configured to
control operation of the first laser line generator and the second laser line generator to emit the laser lines,
control the camera to capture the image of the laser lines projected on the object,
receive the image from the camera,
calculate a pixel distance between the laser lines in the image, and
calculate the physical distance between the camera and the object based on the pixel distance.

US Pat. No. 9,544,956

TWO-STAGE MULTICHANNEL LED DRIVER WITH CLL RESONANT CIRCUIT

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A power converter including
a first stage for regulating output voltage of said power converter from an input voltage in accordance with a sensed current,
and

an unregulated second stage having
a switching circuit operating at a constant frequency for providing and interrupting said output voltage of said first stage
to a primary winding of one or more transformers connected in series,

one or more rectifier circuits to provide an output from a secondary winding of each of said one or more transformers to at
least two loads, and

a single resonant circuit including said one or more transformers, an external inductor connected in series with a primary
winding of said one or more transformers connected in series and a capacitor, said transformer having a magnetizing inductance
sufficient to substantially balance currents to said at least two loads

wherein said resonant circuit further includes a further inductor having terminals connected in parallel with said external
inductor and said primary winding of said transformer wherein said resonant circuit is connected in parallel with said switching
circuit, said further inductor having a value that is lower than a value of said magnetizing inductance of said transformer
and provides zero voltage switching in said switching circuit such that the inductance value to provide zero voltage switching
is decoupled from the magnetizing inductance value that provides substantial balancing of currents to said at least two loads.

US Pat. No. 9,503,923

COOPERATIVE MODULATION OF CLASSIFICATION IN COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS

THE ARIZONA BOARD OF REGE...

9. A method for cooperative modulation classification of multiple signals in cognitive radio networks, the method comprising:
receiving a plurality of fourth order cumulants of received unknown signals, the received fourth order cumulants from a plurality
of cognitive radios; and

executing instructions stored in non-transitory computer-readable storage media, wherein execution of the instructions by
a processor combines the received plurality of fourth order cumulants through a maximum likelihood-combining algorithm using
the joint probability distribution of estimated fourth order cumulants of each transmitted signal.

US Pat. No. 9,211,324

CHIMERIC INFECTIOUS DNA CLONES, CHIMERIC PORCINE CIRCOVIRUSES AND USES THEREOF

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method of immunizing a piglet having detectable levels of maternal PCV 2 antibodies against PCV 2 or postweaning multisystemic
wasting syndrome (PMWS) caused by PCV 2, the method comprising administering to the piglet having detectable levels of maternal
PCV 2 antibodies a vaccine comprising an immunogenic amount of ORF 2 capsid protein of PCV 2, wherein the piglet develops
PCV 2 ORF 2-specific antibodies for protective immunity.

US Pat. No. 9,562,939

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENT USING SERIES AND SHUNT INJECTION

Huntington Ingalls Incorp...

1. A method of impedance measurement in a three-phase alternating current (AC) system, the method comprising:
connecting a perturbation injector to the three-phase AC system, the perturbation injector comprising a voltage source inverter
having a shunt injection circuit and a series injection circuit that are operable without active DC power addition;

connecting by the perturbation injector the shunt injection circuit to the three-phase AC system;
injecting by the shunt injection circuit a shunt perturbation signal into the three-phase AC system;
collecting by a collection circuit of an impedance measurement unit a response to the shunt perturbation signal;
switching by the perturbation injector from the shunt injection circuit to the series injection circuit;
injecting by the series injection circuit a series perturbation signal into the three-phase AC system;
collecting by the collection circuit of the impedance measurement unit a response to the series perturbation signal;
transferring by an instrumentation platform computer the response to the shunt perturbation signal and the response to the
series perturbation signal from three-phase (abc) coordinates to direct and quadrature (dq); and

calculating by a control circuit at least one impedance of the three-phase AC system based on the response to the shunt perturbation
signal and the response to the series perturbation signal.

US Pat. No. 9,618,555

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENT USING CHIRP SIGNAL INJECTION

Huntington Ingalls Incorp...

1. A method of impedance measurement for a three-phase alternating current (AC) system, comprising:
connecting an injection circuit of an impedance measurement unit to the three-phase AC system, the injection circuit comprising
a voltage source inverter configured for drawing power from the three-phase AC system to charge a capacitor and for using
discharged power from the capacitor to inject chirp signals into the three-phase AC system;

injecting by the injection circuit at least one chirp signal into the three-phase AC system;
collecting by a collection circuit of the impedance measurement unit at least one response to the at least one chirp signal;
transferring by an instrumentation platform computer the at least one response from three-phase (abc) coordinates to direct
and quadrature (dq) coordinates; and

calculating by a control circuit at least one impedance of the three-phase AC system based on the at least one response to
the at least one chirp signal.

US Pat. No. 9,071,141

TWO-STAGE SINGLE PHASE BI-DIRECTIONAL PWM POWER CONVERTER WITH DC LINK CAPACITOR REDUCTION

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A single-phase bi-directional AC/DC power converter having a DC side and an AC side for interfacing between a DC power
distribution network to which DC loads and/or DC power sources are connected and an AC power distribution grid operating at
a line frequency, comprising
a full-bridge switching circuit connected between an AC source or load and a DC link,
a DC link capacitor, and
a bi-directional synchronous rectifier (SR) DC/DC power converter in series with said full bridge switching circuit and receiving
power from or delivering power to said DC link and capable of providing DC voltage regulation in one direction of power transfer
and an increased DC voltage in another direction of power transfer, and

a DC side control loop in said DC side of said power converter for controlling duty cycle of switches of said bi-directional
SR DC/DC converter

whereby capacitance of said DC link capacitor can be reduced while limiting voltage variation at an output of said DC/DC power
converter, said DC side control loop having a transfer function that has relatively increased gain at twice the AC line frequency
to limit DC side voltage variation at a frequency which is twice said line frequency.

US Pat. No. 9,855,327

LIVE ATTENUATED CHIMERIC PORCINE CIRCOVIRUS VACCINE

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

1. A nucleic acid molecule of a chimeric porcine circovirus (PCV1-2b) comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding a nonpathogenic,
chimeric PCV1-2b derived from the genomic sequence of PCV1, wherein the ORF2 capsid gene of a wild-type, subtype PCV2b strain
replaces the ORF2 capsid gene of PCV1.

US Pat. No. 9,516,508

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR HETEROGENOUS SPECTRUM SHARING BETWEEN COMMERCIAL CELLULAR OPERATORS AND LEGACY INCUMBENT USERS IN WIRELESS NETWORKS

Federated Wireless, Inc.,...

1. A method for dynamic spectrum sharing between primary users of a spectrum band and secondary users in a cellular network
of a commercial cellular operator, the method comprising:
transmitting a spectrum request to a government entity owning a frequency band of interest, wherein the spectrum request includes
desired frequency band parameters,

receiving a spectrum band assignment in response to the spectrum request, wherein the spectrum band assignment includes a
plurality of primary resource blocks,

building a radio environment map (REM) relating to local radio conditions sensed within a cell in the cellular network of
the cellular operator, and

allocating the received spectrum band assignment via a resource optimization process that is based on:
the radio environment map, and
an average demand factor of secondary users within the cell indicative of different demands of each of the secondary users
based on usage parameters including the location of each of the secondary users in the cell in one of a plurality of zones
within the cell, the plurality of zones including at least (i) a center zone and (ii) an outer zone, the average demand factor
being calculated based on a model of rate requirements of the capacity deficient secondary users in the plurality of zones
within the cell.

US Pat. No. 9,705,538

WIRELESS COMMUNICATION DEVICE USING TIME-VARIANT ANTENNA MODULE

INTEL CORPORATION, Santa...

1. An apparatus comprising:
a sensor to sense an electrical characteristic associated with radio circuitry or time-variant antenna circuitry; and
control circuitry, coupled with the sensor, to compare the sensed electrical characteristic to a predetermined electrical
characteristic and adjust, based on said comparison, a control waveform to vary characteristic resonant frequencies of an
antenna of the time-variant antenna circuitry,

wherein the sensed electrical characteristic is an output impedance of the radio circuitry or an input impedance of the time-variant
antenna circuitry.

US Pat. No. 9,645,035

IMPARTING MOTION TO A TEST OBJECT SUCH AS A MOTOR VEHICLE IN A CONTROLLED FASHION WITH IMPROVED ACCURACY

Roehrig Engineering, Inc....

1. A method of improving the accuracy of a measured dynamic transmitted force in an apparatus which imparts motion to a test
object in a controlled fashion by applying a force to the test object, comprising the steps of:
measuring acceleration of a movable test object and generating a signal indicative of the measured acceleration of the movable
test object and transmitting the signal indicative of the acceleration of the movable test object;

filtering said signal indicative of the measured acceleration of the movable test object in a dynamic filter tuned to dynamic
characteristics of the apparatus to generate a dynamic compensation force signal;

adding the dynamic compensation force signal to a signal indicative of the force applied to the test object to generate a
compensated dynamic transmitted force signal.

US Pat. No. 9,634,673

ANTI-ISLANDING DETECTION FOR THREE-PHASE DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A phase-locked loop circuit for controlling an output voltage of a power converter interfacing with a power distribution
grid, comprising
a phase detector configured to receive as an input the output voltage of the power converter;
a feedback circuit for returning an output frequency or phase signal of the phase-locked loop circuit to the phase detector;
and

a signal alteration circuit configured to either
add a periodically varying gain signal to the output frequency or phase signal of the phase-locked loop circuit which is returned
to the phase detector by the feedback circuit, or

add a periodically varying phase delay to the output voltage of the power converter that is input to the phase detector;
wherein the phase-locked loop circuit is configured to provide the output frequency or phase signal to a current controller
for adjusting the output voltage of the power converter, and

wherein the periodically varying gain signal or the periodically varying phase delay is chosen such that when the power converter
is connected to the grid, an output frequency of the power converter tracks the grid frequency by negative feedback of a signal
in the phase-locked loop circuit and when the power converter is disconnected from the grid the output frequency of the power
converter is driven away from the grid frequency by positive feedback of a signal in the phased-lock loop circuit.

US Pat. No. 9,140,731

ALGORITHM AND IMPLEMENTATION SYSTEM FOR MEASURING IMPEDANCE IN THE D-Q DOMAIN

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. Apparatus for measuring impedances of respective phases of a multi-phase electrical power system at any system interface
between stages of said multi-phase electrical power system, said apparatus comprising
a phase locked loop for aligning a frame of reference with an input power vector and a plurality of angles,
a sweep generator responsive to said phase locked loop for applying perturbations at said angles to which said frame of reference
is aligned to respective phases of said system interface over a range of frequency whereby an angle of said perturbation is
controlled, in sequence, to said multi-phase electrical power system, said perturbations being applied through amplifiers,

voltage and current sensors for measuring amplitude and phase of the voltage and current responses to respective said perturbations,
and

a computer to compute impedances of respective phases of said interface from phase and amplitude of voltage and current responses
to said perturbations over said range of frequency of respective said perturbations.

US Pat. No. 9,318,946

OPTIMAL TRAJECTORY CONTROL FOR LLC RESONANT CONVERTER FOR SOFT START-UP

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method of operating a switching resonant power converter comprising steps of setting a current limitation band, monitoring
resonant inductor current, controlling switching times of switches of said switching resonant power converter during start-up
to occur at times when monitored inductor current equals limits of said current limitation band thereby establishing a variable
switching frequency until bias on a resonant capacitor reaches a steady state voltage, and allowing the power converter to
assume a steady state mode of frequency regulation mode operation in accordance with build-up of output voltage.

US Pat. No. 9,238,231

FLOTATION MACHINE ROTOR

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A flotation machine comprising:
at least one flotation cell, each of the at least one flotation cell comprising:
a tank that is sized to retain a slurry comprised of a liquid mixed with at least one solid material;
a rotor positioned in the tank, the rotor rotated to agitate the slurry to facilitate formation of bubbles, the rotor comprising:
a body having an inner channel and a lower opening;
a plurality of inner blades attached to the body, the inner blades being positioned inside the body adjacent the inner channel,
the inner blades at least partially defining a plurality of conduits within the body, the conduits being in communication
with the inner channel, each of the conduits being defined within the body to extend from an inlet interfacing with the inner
channel within the body to an outlet on an external surface of the body so that slurry pulled into the lower opening via rotation
of the rotor passes through the inner channel and is ejected from the external surface of the body via the conduits at locations
positioned above the lower opening; and

a plurality of outer blades attached to the body such that the outer blades rotate when the body is rotated, the outer blades
being positioned above the lower opening, the outer blades extending outwardly from the external surface of the body away
from the outlets of the conduits; and

wherein the body also has passageways separated from the conduits, each of the passageways having an inlet to receive at least
one gas and an outlet to emit the at least one gas received via the inlet, the outlet of each passageway being spaced apart
from the outlets of other passageways, the outlet of each passageway being positioned in the body between immediately adjacent
outer blades.

US Pat. No. 9,786,832

ENERGY HARVESTER

SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., ...

1. An energy harvester for converting vibration energy into electrical energy and harvesting the electrical energy, the energy
harvester comprising:
a base;
a clamping structure which is supported by the base and is spaced apart from the base;
an elastic member which is disposed between the base and the clamping structure and allows the clamping structure to be elastically
moved substantially vertically relative to the base; and

a cantilever structure comprising:
a cantilever beam having one side which is fixed to the clamping structure and the other side which is elastically bendable;
and

a mass body which is disposed on the other side of the cantilever beam.
US Pat. No. 9,228,242

PORCINE TORQUE TENO VIRUS VACCINES AND DIAGNOSIS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. An immunogenic composition comprising a biologically functional plasmid or baculovirus expression vector comprising an
open reading frame (ORF); wherein said ORF encodes a protein comprising amino acids 310-625 of SEQ ID NO:16.

US Pat. No. 9,048,756

DC-SIDE LEAKAGE CURRENT REDUCTION FOR SINGLE PHASE FULL-BRIDGE POWER CONVERTER/INVERTER

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A full-bridge single phase bidirectional AC/DC power converter having two phase legs on an AC side thereof and a capacitor
connected between said two phase legs, said converter including
a plurality of switches connected in a full bridge configuration,
a choke comprising magnetically coupled windings connected in series in respective ones of said two phase legs,
a split capacitor connected between said two phase legs and in parallel with said capacitor connected between said two phase
legs, and

a connection between a mid-point of said split capacitor and a mid-point of a split capacitor connected between DC voltage
rails on a DC side of said power converter,

wherein said switches in said full bridge configuration are driven by a pulse width modulated signal that is modified from
sinusoidal modulation to provide active filtering of common mode voltage variation on said two phase legs by said full bridge
configuration.

US Pat. No. 9,812,978

CIRCUIT AND METHOD FOR DRIVING SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIERS FOR HIGH-FREQUENCY FLYBACK CONVERTERS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A transformer isolated power converter comprising
a transformer,
a synchronous rectifier connected in series with a secondary winding of said transformer,
a series connected resistance and capacitance connected in parallel with said synchronous rectifier, and
a circuit responsive to a voltage developed across said capacitor for developing a signal to control said synchronous rectifier
wherein a waveform of said voltage developed across said capacitor is substantially identical in shape and phase and of a
same or different amplitude as a magnetizing inductance current waveform of said transformer.

US Pat. No. 9,262,632

USING POWER FINGERPRINTING (PFP) TO MONITOR THE INTEGRITY AND ENHANCE SECURITY OF COMPUTER BASED SYSTEMS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method for performing real-time integrity assessment of execution of a routine in a computer processing platform, comprising:
monitoring execution of the routine by tracing power consumption of a processor by sampling with one or more sensors during
execution of the routine;

using a platform characterization technique that further comprises
detecting sections of traces sampled by the one or more sensors that display the largest dependence on state transitions in
the processor;

using said sections to select features carrying the most information;
obtaining from a characterization of selected features of the routine contained in said sections a set of trusted power fingerprints
of the routine;

establishing a threshold for a specific false alarm rate based on the probability distribution of distance from a signature
comprised of said trusted fingerprints;

comparing a library of said trusted fingerprints to features extracted from traces from the execution of untrusted code;
determining a distance between said fingerprints and the extracted features; and
reporting an exception if the distance exceeds the threshold.
US Pat. No. 9,132,185

MODIFIED LIVE-ATTENUATED VACCINES (MLV) CREATED BY DNA SHUFFLING AGAINST PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS (PRRSV)

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. An infectious chimeric PRRSV comprising proteins that are chimeric of a plurality of genetically distinct strains, wherein
the chimeric proteins are GP2, GP3, GP4, GP5, and M.

US Pat. No. 9,861,324

HYBRID DETECTOR MODULES AND DYNAMIC THRESHOLDING FOR SPECTRAL CT

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. An energy-sensitive or spectral computed tomography system comprising:
an X-ray source configured to emit X-ray beams at an object;
one or more detectors configured to receive attenuated beams of the X-rays from an object for measuring projection data to
generate spectral images in terms of energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients; and

said one or more detectors comprising one or more energy-integrating detector elements and one or more photon counting detector
elements in one or more detector arrays; and

at least one of said photon counting elements count the photons within a window and out of a window, and said window defined
by one or more dynamically changeable thresholds to capture spectral information in one or more dynamically changeable windows,
said windows defined by said thresholds during a scanning process.

US Pat. No. 9,444,511

PLUG-AND-PLAY TIME-VARIANT ANTENNA MODULE FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATION DEVICES

INTEL CORPORATION, Santa...

1. An antenna module configured to communicate a radio frequency (RF) signal with a transceiver, the antenna module comprising:
an antenna;
an impedance tuning component coupled to the antenna, the impedance tuning component to match an impedance of the antenna
to the transceiver at a plurality of operating frequencies;

a waveform generator coupled to the antenna, the waveform generator to generate a control waveform; and
a calibration control module coupled with the transceiver and the waveform generator, the calibration control module to control
the waveform generator to selectively provide the control waveform to vary a response of the antenna, and to selectively tune
the impedance tuning component.

US Pat. No. 9,350,394

WIRELESS COMMUNICATION DEVICE USING TIME-VARIANT ANTENNA MODULE

INTEL CORPORATION, Santa...

1. A system comprising:
antenna circuitry having:
an antenna;
an impedance varying component coupled with the antenna; and
a waveform generator coupled with the antenna and the impedance varying component;
radio circuitry coupled with the antenna circuitry by a signaling interface, the radio circuitry to communicate a radio-frequency
(RF) signal with the antenna circuitry;

control circuitry coupled with the waveform generator and the radio circuitry, the control circuitry to receive status information
and to control the waveform generator to vary a response of the antenna based on the status information; and

a filter coupled with the waveform generator and the impedance varying component, the filter to pass a control waveform to
the impedance varying component and to block a radio frequency signal from the waveform generator.

US Pat. No. 9,266,121

FLOTATION MACHINE ROTOR

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A flotation machine comprising:
at least one flotation cell, each of the at least one flotation cell comprising:
a tank that is sized to retain a slurry comprised of a liquid mixed with at least one solid material;
a rotor positioned in the tank, the rotor rotated to agitate the slurry to facilitate formation of a bubbly flow used to generate
a froth, the rotor attached to a column, the rotor comprising:

a body having:
a plurality of outer blades that extend outwardly from the body, each of the outer blades having an outer edge, the outer
edge extending outwardly from an upper portion of the rotor to an outermost position located below the upper portion of the
rotor, the outer edge extending inwardly from the outermost position to which the outer edge extends to a lower portion of
the rotor, the lower portion of the rotor located below the outermost position to which the outer edge extends and is positioned
inward relative to the outermost position of the outer edge;

wherein the outer edge extends along a curved path defined by the formulas:
y=10.974*x6+10.512*x5?43.377*x4+28.863*x3?4.6993*x2+0.3068*x+0.5459 when x is valued from 0 to 0.7;

y=1 when x is valued from 0.7 to 0.96;
y=134.46*x5?712.12*x4+1500*x3?1572.6*x2+821.19*x ?169.93 when x is from 0.96 to 1.37; and

wherein x and y are normalized by a maximum radius of the rotor.

US Pat. No. 9,116,432

MULTIPLE EXPOSURE WITH IMAGE REVERSAL IN A SINGLE PHOTORESIST LAYER

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

19. A structure including
a substrate or layer of material having a surface,
a layer of image reversal resist applied to said surface, said layer of image reversal resist having been exposed by a patterned
exposure in selected areas and subjected to image reversal processing and another patterned exposure which at least partially
overlaps said selected area exposed by said paltered exposure such that said selected areas of said layer of image reversal
resist exposed by said patterned exposure, upon development, respond to said patterned exposure as a negative resist and areas
of said layer of image reversal resist not exposed by said another patterned exposure, upon development, respond to said another
patterned exposure as a positive resist.

US Pat. No. 9,789,492

CLEANING AND DEWATERING FINE COAL

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

1. A method of removing water and mineral matter impurities from an aqueous slurry containing fine coal particles of 1.0 mm
in diameter and smaller, said water, and said mineral impurities, comprising the steps of:
mixing a hydrophobic liquid with said aqueous slurry, said mixing step allowing said fine coal particles to be transferred
into said hydrophobic liquid along with the small water droplets formed during said mixing step, while said mineral matter
impurities remain in said aqueous slurry, and thereby producing a mixture;

phase separating said mixture produced in said mixing step, said phase separating step producing a first phase containing
said hydrophobic liquid, said fine coal particles, and said water droplets, and a second phase containing said aqueous media
and said mineral matter impurities;

retrieving said first phase after said phase separating step;
separating said water droplets from said hydrophobic liquid in said first phase, along with the residual mineral matter impurities
dispersed in said water droplets; and

removing said hydrophobic liquid from said fine coal particles to obtain a clean coal product with reduced mineral impurities
and moisture content.

US Pat. No. 9,660,643

METHOD AND APPARATUS TO IMPROVE POWER DEVICE RELIABILITY

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A power device, comprising:
an upper power module coupled to a first node, a second node and a first control node via first interconnections, the upper
power module being controlled by a first driving signal at the first control node to turn on/off a first current path between
the first node that receives a first supply voltage and the second node;

a lower power module coupled to the second node, a third node and a second control node via second interconnections, the lower
power module being controlled by a second driving signal at the second control node to turn on/off a second current path between
the second node and the third node that receives a second supply voltage that is lower than the first supply voltage, wherein
the first interconnections are inductively coupled to prevent a turn-on of the upper power module when the first driving signal
is at a first voltage level to turn off the upper power module and the second driving signal is at a second voltage level
to turn on the lower power module.

US Pat. No. 9,516,947

LADDER CHAIR

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A multi-functional, convertible furniture system comprising:
a plurality of panels, each of said panels having a first working edge and an opposingly located second working edge;
two adjacent panels connected by at least a first strap and a second strap, the first and second straps being spaced apart,
each of said straps having an end connected to a first working edge of one panel and an opposing end of said strap connected
to the second working edge of the other adjacent panel;

a third strap interlaced between said spaced apart first and second straps, said third strap having an end connected to a
first working edge of one panel and an opposing end of said strap connected to the second working edge of the other adjacent
panel;

said interlaced first, second, and third straps permitting adjacent panels to act as if hinged to one another at either said
first or said second working edges; and

said panels adapted to be converted from a folded configuration to a functional configuration.

US Pat. No. 9,394,914

CAGE POSITIONED TILTING PAD BEARING

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A tilting pad bearing for a high speed rotary machines comprising:
a cage formed by two annular rings separated by a plurality of spacers as an integral metal structure; and
a plurality of bearing pads of bearing metal inserted between the spacers of the cage,
wherein outer surfaces of the spacers have a plurality of grooves, and outer surfaces of each of the bearing pads have matching
grooves, a first one of the grooves is an oil groove the oil groove of the spacers communicating with oil inlet holes in the
spacers.

US Pat. No. 9,119,881

METHOD OF SYNERGISTICALLY ENHANCING THE THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF MEDICATION THROUGH A COMBINATION THERAPY

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method of enhancing the efficacy of a thiazolidinedione (TZD) in increasing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
? (PPAR?) activity, said method comprising: administering the TZD in combination with abscisic acid.

US Pat. No. 10,032,732

SEMICONDUCTOR MODULE ARRANGEMENT

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A semiconductor module arrangement includinga insulating substrate,
at least two electronic switches mounted on said insulating substrate and connected to respective input voltage power rails,
a further insulating substrate,
a conductive layer between said insulating substrate and said further insulating substrate forming a capacitance across said insulating substrate,
a further capacitance across said further insulating substrate and in series with said capacitance across said insulating substrate said further capacitance being smaller than said capacitance across said insulating substrate, and
a connection arrangement for diverting current capacitively coupled to said conductive layer to at least one of said input voltage power rails through at least one decoupling capacitor.

US Pat. No. 9,792,985

RESISTIVE VOLATILE/NON-VOLATILE FLOATING ELECTRODE LOGIC/MEMORY CELL

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method of operating an atomic switch comprising steps of
applying a threshold voltage across said atomic switch to form a conductive filament that renders said atomic switch conductive,
limiting current through said atomic switch to a level less than a current level required to rupture said filament and render
said atomic switch substantially non-conductive and of relatively higher resistance than in said conductive state to maintain
said atomic switch in said conductive state, and

terminating said step of limiting current while said voltage applied to said atomic switch is equal to or greater than a threshold
voltage required to render said atomic switch substantially non-conductive and of said relatively high resistance due to rupturing
of said filament.

US Pat. No. 9,518,241

METHOD OF SEPARATING AND DE-WATERING FINE PARTICLES

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

1. A process for separating a hydrophobic particulate material and its hydrophilic contaminant dispersed in an aqueous slurry,
the process comprising the steps of
a. agitating the aqueous slurry under conditions of high-shear agitation in the presence of a first hydrophobic liquid to
form agglomerates of the hydrophobic particulate material;

b. separating the agglomerates from the aqueous liquid;
c. dispersing the agglomerates in a second hydrophobic liquid, so that water trapped in between the hydrophobic particulate
material constituting the agglomerates is liberated from the hydrophobic particulate material; and

d. separating the hydrophobic particulate material from the second hydrophobic liquid and the water liberated from the agglomerates,
thereby obtaining hydrophobic particles substantially free of hydrophilic contaminant and water, wherein the first hydrophobic
liquid and the second hydrophobic liquid are the same or different.

US Pat. No. 9,461,875

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR DYNAMICALLY OBSCURING ADDRESSES IN IPV6

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method for obscuring network and transport layer addresses in communication between two hosts, comprising:
rotating host portions of packet addresses based upon a frequently changing nonce known only to the two communicating hosts;
and

dynamically obscuring port numbers of sending and receiving hosts.

US Pat. No. 9,283,051

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR ESTIMATING A TREATMENT VOLUME FOR ADMINISTERING ELECTRICAL-ENERGY BASED THERAPIES

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A system for estimating a target ablation zone for a medical treatment device that applies electrical treatment energy
through a plurality of electrodes defining a target treatment area, the system comprising:
a memory;
a display device;
a processor coupled to the memory and the display device; and
a treatment planning module stored in the memory and executable by the processor, the treatment planning module adapted to:
receive a baseline electrical flow characteristic (EFC) in response to delivery of a test signal to tissue of a subject to
be treated;

determine, based on the baseline EFC, a second EFC representing an expected EFC during delivery of the electrical treatment
energy to the target treatment area;

estimate the target ablation zone for display in the display device based on the second EFC.

US Pat. No. 9,136,773

METHOD OF EVALUATING AND ENSURING STABILITY OF AC/DC POWER SYSTEMS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method of assessing stability of a combination of an AC power source and an active front end (AFE) power converter, said
method comprising steps of
applying a synchronized frame of reference to a model of the AC source and power converter,
approximating loci of eigenvalues or characteristic gains of a return ratio matrix of said model by the loci of the d-d and
q-q impedance elements of said synchronous frame of reference applied to said model, and

determining stability of said combination of said AC power source and said power converter at an interface thereof by application
of a standard Nyquist stability criterion.

US Pat. No. 9,531,378

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DRIVING A POWER DEVICE

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

1. A circuit, comprising:
a first circuit configured to provide a charging current to charge a control terminal of a power switch;
a second circuit configured to provide a discharging current to discharge the control terminal of the power switch;
an inductive component coupled to the control terminal of the power switch and directly grounded; and
a control circuit configured to provide control signals to the first circuit and the second circuit to activate/deactivate
the first circuit and the second circuit, at least one of the charging current and the discharging current ramping from a
first level to a second level at a rate.

US Pat. No. 9,418,503

3D PRINTING VENDING MACHINE

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A vending machine for creating a three-dimensional object comprising:
an enclosure having an exterior and interior, said interior adapted to receive and house at least one three-dimensional printer,
said interior further sized to allow said printer to move vertically and horizontally to deposit material on a build platform
to print an object layer-by-layer;

an interface for accepting an instruction associated with an object and transmitting said instruction to said at least one
three-dimensional printer;

said build platform positioned to cooperate with a movable arm, said moveable arm adapted to dislodge and remove an object
from said build platform; and

at least one storage section for storing a printed object.

US Pat. No. 9,797,821

METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING THE BIOMECHANICAL PERFORMANCE OF HELMETS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method of testing the performance of a helmet comprising the steps of:
providing a headform for receiving a helmet to be tested, an adaptor for mounting said headform and helmet to a neck on the
center of gravity of the headform;

testing for each helmet the ability to reduce concussion risk by using the following risk function:

wherein L represents head impact locations; ? represents different impact energy levels defined by the angle of impact to
the helmet; E represents exposure, or the number of times per season a player is expected to experience an impact similar
to a particular condition as a function of location and impact energy; and R is the risk of concussion as a function of linear
(a) and angular (?) head acceleration.

US Pat. No. 9,610,344

LIVE ATTENUATED CHIMERIC PORCINE CIRCOVIRUS VACCINE

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

1. A method of immunizing a pig against PCV2 viral infection, comprising administering to the pig an immunologically effective
amount of a viral vaccine comprising a physiologically acceptable carrier and an immunogenic amount of a chimeric PCV1-2b
comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a chimeric, nonpathogenic PCV1-2b derived from the genomic sequence of PCV1 wherein
the open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of a wild-type PCV2b strain having the genomic sequence of SEQ ID NO: 2 replaces the ORF2
capsid gene of PCV1.

US Pat. No. 9,558,350

USING POWER FINGERPRINTING (PFP) TO MONITOR THE INTEGRITY AND ENHANCE SECURITY OF COMPUTER BASED SYSTEMS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method, comprising:
receiving a signal representing power consumption of a first electronic device measured with one or more sensors during operation
associated with authorized code;

identifying a portion of the signal corresponding to a user-inserted marker associated with the authorized code, the portion
of the signal being associated with a signature portion from a signature representing power consumption of a second electronic
device during operation associated with the authorized code and associated with the user-inserted marker; and

synchronizing the portion of the signal with the signature portion based on the user-inserted marker.

US Pat. No. 10,038,460

WIRELESS COMMUNICATION DEVICE USING TIME-VARIANT ANTENNA MODULE

INTEL CORPORATION, Santa...

1. An apparatus comprising:an antenna to receive or transmit a radio frequency (RF) signal;
an impedance varying circuit coupled with the antenna; and
control circuitry to control application of a control waveform to a signal output to tune a resonance response of the antenna with the impedance varying circuit,
wherein the signal output is at the antenna.

US Pat. No. 9,685,790

MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING FOR SOLAR PANELS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

5. A solar panel comprising:
a plurality of strings of photovoltaic cells,
a first power converter having an input connected to an output of a first one of said plurality of strings of photovoltaic
cells and an output connected in series with a second power converter having an input connected to an output of a second string
of said plurality of strings of photovoltaic cells, said series connected outputs of said first and second power converters
being connected to a load, said first and second power converters including first and second controllers, respectively, and

a maximum power point tracking controller that outputs a control signal to control said first and second controllers of said
first power converter and said second power converter such that said first and second strings of photovoltaic cells output
equal voltages to said first and second power converters.

US Pat. No. 9,585,951

LIVE ATTENUATED CHIMERIC PORCINE CIRCOVIRUS VACCINE

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

1. A chimeric PCV1-2b virus comprising a recombinant PCV1 that encodes the capsid protein of PCV2b subtype in place of the
capsid protein of PCV1, wherein the capsid protein of the PCV2b subtype is encoded by the ORF2 capsid gene of a wild-type
PCV2b strain having the full-length genomic nucleotide sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 2.

US Pat. No. 9,558,349

USING POWER FINGERPRINTING (PFP) TO MONITOR THE INTEGRITY AND ENHANCE SECURITY OF COMPUTER BASED SYSTEMS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method, comprising:
receiving a signal representing power consumption of a first electronic device measured with one or more sensors during operation;
defining a plurality of signal sections based on the signal, each signal section from the plurality of signal sections being
less than a total size of the signal, each signal section from the plurality of signal sections associated with one signature
section from a plurality of signature sections representing power consumption of a second electronic device during operation,
the second electronic device being a trusted device; and

comparing, for at least one signal section from the plurality of signal sections, that signal section to the associated signature
section from the plurality of signature sections to extract a feature.

US Pat. No. 9,533,254

CROSSLINKED POLYMER COMPOSITIONS, GAS SEPARATION MEMBRANES OF SUCH CROSSLINKED POLYMER COMPOSITIONS, METHODS OF MAKING SUCH MEMBRANES, AND METHODS OF SEPARATING GASES USING SUCH MEMBRANES

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A composition for a gas separation membrane, wherein the composition comprises at least one crosslinked polymer having
the structure of formula (I):
-(A-O—B—O)n—  (I)
wherein in formula (I):
A is selected from the group consisting of:
—Ar1-Q-Ar2—, —Ar1—, and —Ar1—Ar2—

B is selected from the group consisting of:
—Ar1?-Q?-Ar2?—, —Ar1?—, and —Ar1?—Ar2?—;

Ar1, Ar2, Ar1?, and Ar2? are each independently a bivalent C5-C24 arylene or a bivalent C5-C24 heterocyclic ring, and wherein the arylene or heterocyclic ring is independently optionally substituted with at least one
R1 group;

each occurrence of R1 is independently selected from the group consisting of H, halo, —CN, —SO3H or a salt thereof, —CO2H or a salt thereof, —C1-C10 alkyl, —C1-C10 alkoxy, —C1-C10 haloalkyl, —C1-C10 haloalkoxy, phenyl, and cyclohexyl, wherein the alkyl, phenyl, and cyclohexyl groups are optionally substituted; or two or
more R1 groups may be joined together to form a ring; or two R1 groups may be covalently bonded to Y;

Y is selected from the group consisting of —O—, —S—, —C(?O), —CH(OH)—, —S(?O)2—, —Si(CH3)2—, —(CH2)p—, —(CF2)q—, —C(CH3)2—, —C(CF3)2—, and —C(?O)NR1—;

Q and Q? are each independently selected from the group consisting of —O—, —S—, —C(?O), —CH(OH)—, —S(?O)2—, —Si(CH3)2—, —(CH2)p—, —(CF2)q—, —C(CH3)2—, —C(CF3)2—, —C(R1)(R1)—, C(?O)NH—, —P(?O)C6H5—, —C(CH3)(CF3)—, —C(?O)C6H4C(?O)—, —C(R1)(R1)—C6H4—C(R1)(R1)—, -phenyl- (C1-C6)alkyl, -phenyl-(C1-C6)haloalkyl, phenyl, cycloalkyl, and heterocyclyl, wherein the phenyl, cycloalkyl, and heterocyclyl groups are optionally substituted;
or the two R1 groups in —C(R1)(R1) may be joined together to form a ring, wherein the ring is optionally substituted;

p is an integer from 1 to 10; and
q is an integer from 1 to 10;
wherein at least one occurrence of Ar1, Ar2, Ar1?, or Ar2? is substituted with an R1 group comprising a benzylic hydrogen, and at least one occurrence of Q or Q? includes a UV activator, wherein the UV activator
is a carbonyl group.

US Pat. No. 9,101,573

LANTHIONINE SYNTHETASE COMPONENT C-LIKE PROTEINS AS MOLECULAR TARGETS FOR PREVENTING AND TREATING DISEASES AND DISORDERS

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

7. A method for treating inflammation, diabetes, or obesity comprising the steps of administering to an individual in need
thereof a compound effective to bind LANCL2 and to activate PPAR?, wherein the compound is NSC61610 and wherein the inflammation
is gastrointestinal tract inflammation, lung inflammation, or inflammation caused by influenza A or B virus, respiratory syncytial
virus, Streptoeoecuspneumoniae, parainfluenza, rhinoviruses, Staphylococcus aureus, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Bacillus anthraces, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

US Pat. No. 9,847,710

UNIVERSAL SYSTEM STRUCTURE FOR LOW POWER ADAPTERS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A power converter architecture including
a first stage comprising a totem pole circuit and a controller for switches in said totem pole circuit,
a second stage comprising a resonant direct current transformer (DCX) circuit and connected to said first stage by a voltage
bus,

a feedback circuit connecting an output of said DCX to said controller of said totem pole circuit whereby said totem pole
circuit provides output voltage regulation as well as rectification of AC input power,

a comparator in said feedback circuit for comparing an output voltage with a reference voltage, and
a voltage adder for injecting at least one harmonic of an AC input voltage into a control signal output by said comparator.

US Pat. No. 9,735,238

AVOIDING INTERNAL SWITCHING LOSS IN SOFT SWITCHING CASCODE STRUCTURE DEVICE

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A cascode switching device including:
a high voltage, normally-on transistor formed of silicon carbide or a nitride of a Group III material, said high voltage,
normally-on transistor having a switching threshold voltage, a drain-source parasitic capacitance, a gate-source parasitic
capacitance and a gate-drain parasitic capacitance;

a control transistor for controlling conduction of said high voltage, normally-on transistor, said control transistor having
an avalanche breakdown threshold voltage, a drain-source parasitic capacitance, a gate-source parasitic capacitance and a
gate-drain parasitic capacitance; and

a charge balancing capacitor directly and continuously connected to a first node connecting a source terminal of said high
voltage, normally-on transistor and a drain terminal of said control transistor, the first node to be in series with said
drain-source parasitic capacitance of said high voltage normally-on transistor, the charge balancing capacitor being directly
and continuously connected to a second node connecting a source terminal of said control transistor and a gate terminal of
said high voltage, normally on transistor, the charge balancing capacitor further directly connected in parallel with a parallel
connection of said gate-source parasitic capacitance of said high voltage, normally-on transistor and said drain-source parasitic
capacitance of said control transistor to form a capacitive voltage divider, said charge balancing capacitor having a value
such that:

a voltage on said drain-source parasitic capacitance of said control transistor cannot reach said avalanche breakdown threshold
voltage when said drain-source parasitic capacitance of said high voltage, normally-on transistor is charged when said high
voltage, normally-on transistor is turned off; and

when a voltage across said capacitive voltage divider is reduced, said drain-source parasitic capacitance of said high voltage,
normally-on transistor is fully discharged when the voltage on said drain-source parasitic capacitance of said control transistor
is reduced to said switching threshold voltage of said high voltage, normally-on transistor, whereby said high voltage, normally-on
transistor is switched to a conductive state with near-zero voltage applied across the drain and the source terminals of said
high voltage, normally-on transistor.

US Pat. No. 9,564,264

HIGH FREQUENCY INTEGRATED POINT-OF-LOAD POWER CONVERTER WITH EMBEDDED INDUCTOR SUBSTRATE

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A power converter comprising
a switching circuit,
a capacitor, and
an inductor formed of a body of magnetic material embedded in a laminated printed circuit board structure and windings formed
by vias connected to areas of cladding on surfaces of said laminated printed circuit board structure, wherein said body of
magnetic material is formed of flakes of magnetic material in an insulating binder.

US Pat. No. 9,732,377

MICROFLUIDIC SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR CHROMATIN IMMUNOPRECIPITATION (CHIP)

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A microfluidic chromatin immunoprecipitation system, comprising:
at least one microfluidic chamber having an inlet and an outlet and sized to accommodate a plurality of magnetic immunoprecipitation
(IP) beads and a chromatin-containing fluid;

one or more solenoid valves in fluid communication with said inlet and said outlet of said at least one microfluidic chamber;
and

a controller configured to actuate said one or more solenoid valves to cyclically alternate pressure pulses at a selected
frequency so as to oscillate one or more of said plurality of magnetic IP beads and a fluid between said inlet and said outlet
of said at least one microfluidic chamber.

US Pat. No. 9,343,964

I2 AVERAGE CURRENT MODE (ACM) CONTROL FOR SWITCHING POWER CONVERTERS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. An average current mode controller for a power converter comprising
a current sensor connected to sense current in an inductor of said power converter and output a signal corresponding to said
current in said inductor, and, in combination,

an integrating feedback path to provide an integrated error signal to a modulator, said integrated error signal corresponding
to said current signal output by said current sensor, and

a current sensor direct feedback path to provide a signal corresponding to said output of said current sensor directly to
said modulator.

US Pat. No. 9,825,653

COGNITIVE RECONFIGURABLE RF TECHNOLOGY

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A signal detection method comprising the steps of:
providing a RF front-end configured to have at least one flexible main radio path, said at least one flexible main radio path
having a plurality of configurable parameters, and at least one sensing radio path;

said flexible main radio path is tuned to a desired frequency band;
said sensing path monitors a spectrum around said desired frequency band to create spectrum sensing data; and
providing said spectrum sensing data to a cognitive engine configured to determine the optimal values of said configuration
parameters in terms of minimizing the distortion of a desired signal at the output of said flexible main radio path.

US Pat. No. 10,100,022

SPHINGOSINE KINASE INHIBITORS

University of Virginia Pa...

1. A compound of formula (IA)whereinX is phenyl;
R1 and R2 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, OH, —(C1-C6)alkyl-OH, halo, NH2, NOH, NHOH, and CN;
or R1 and R2, if bound to adjacent carbon atoms, in combination with the existing carbon-carbon bond represent a double bond between the adjacent carbon atoms;
R3 is selected from the group consisting of (C1-C6)alkyl, (C3-C8)cycloalkyl, (C1-C6)haloalkyl, CN, and halo;
R4 is selected from the group consisting of H, (C1-C6)alkyl, (C3-C8)cycloalkyl, (C1-C6)haloalkyl, CN, and halo,
wherein one of R3 and R4 —CF3;
m=0 or 1;
W is CH2, O or, NH;
V is selected from the group consisting of H, (C1-C10)alkyl, (C2-C12)alkenyl, —(C1-C10)alkyl-(C6-C10)aryl, —(C2-C12)alkenyl-(C6-C10)aryl, —(C1-C10)alkyl-(C6-C10)aryl-(C1-C10)alkyl, —(C1-C10)alkyl-(C3-C8)cycloalkyl, and —(C1-C10)alkyl-heterocyclyl containing from 1 to 3 ring heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S;
wherein any aryl is optionally fused to (C6-C10)aryl, (C3-C8)cycloalkyl, or heterocyclyl containing from 1 to 3 ring heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S
wherein any alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkyl, heterocyclyl, or aryl is optionally substituted by 1-4 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of F, Cl, Br, (C1-C6)alkyl, —O—(C1-C6)alkyl, (C2-C6)alkenyl, (C1-C6)haloalkyl, and CN;
Y1, Y2, and Y3 are independently selected from the group consisting of C, N, NH, O, and S;or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

US Pat. No. 9,601,997

V^2 POWER CONVERTER CONTROL WITH CAPACITOR CURRENT RAMP COMPENSATION

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A power converter comprising
an output or filter capacitor having an equivalent series resistance similar to that of a ceramic capacitor,
a control circuit including a direct output voltage feedback path,
a current sensor for measuring current in said output or filter capacitor to produce a voltage signal proportional to current
in said output or filter capacitor, wherein said current sensor includes a branch circuit in parallel with said output or
filter capacitor,

an arrangement for combining said signal proportional to current in said output or filter capacitor with a signal in said
direct output voltage feedback path,

a comparator for automatically calibrating said branch circuit to have a time constant substantially equal to a time constant
of said output or filter capacitor, wherein said comparator compares a signal representing current in said branch circuit
to a signal representing inductor current to develop a signal for adjusting said time constant of said branch circuit, and

a transfer function circuit for said signal that is proportional to current in said output or filter capacitor whereby said
transfer function circuit automatically adjusts damping of transient response of said power converter to a level that provides
an optimal a desired settling time.

US Pat. No. 9,598,691

IRREVERSIBLE ELECTROPORATION TO CREATE TISSUE SCAFFOLDS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method of making an engineered tissue by electrical ablation comprising:
positioning at least one electrode in a target region containing tissue cells;
applying a plurality of electrical pulses through the electrode in an amount sufficient to induce cell death by electrical
ablation of the tissue cells in the target region in vivo to create an engineered tissue scaffold, wherein the step of applying
leaves intact vascular structures present in the target region; and

seeding the ablated target region in vivo or in vitro and allowing seeded cells to proliferate to create the engineered tissue.

US Pat. No. 9,584,116

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CURRENT/POWER BALANCING

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A power circuit, comprising:
a first switch circuit in parallel with a second switch circuit, the first switch circuit and the second switch circuit being
coupled to a first driving node, a second driving node, a source node and a drain node via interconnections, the power circuit
receiving a control signal between the first driving node and the second driving node to control a current flowing from the
drain node to the source node through the first switch circuit and the second switch circuit, wherein a first interconnection
and a second interconnection of the interconnections are inductively coupled to balance the current flowing through the first
switch circuit and the second switch circuit.

US Pat. No. 9,249,192

INFECTIOUS GENOMIC DNA CLONE AND SEROLOGICAL PROFILE OF TORQUE TENO SUS VIRUS 1 AND 2

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. An infectious nucleic acid molecule comprising at least two concatemeric or tandem copies of a full-length genome of TTsuV2.

US Pat. No. 9,867,652

IRREVERSIBLE ELECTROPORATION USING TISSUE VASCULATURE TO TREAT ABERRANT CELL MASSES OR CREATE TISSUE SCAFFOLDS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method of ablating target tissue cells comprising:
inserting a first device with a first electrode into an artery such that the first electrode is in contact with fluid inside
the artery;

inserting a second device with a second electrode into a vein such that the second electrode is in contact with fluid inside
the vein;

and
applying electrical energy between the first electrode and the second electrode so as to deliver ablation energy to target
tissue cells using the fluid inside the artery and the fluid inside the vein as an electrical conduit.

US Pat. No. 9,773,967

PROCESSING METHOD FOR GRAIN-ORIENTED LEAD-FREE PIEZOELECTRIC NA0.5BI0.5TIO3—BATIO3 CERAMICS EXHIBITING GIANT PERFORMANCE

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A composition comprising a NBT-BT ceramic with NBT seeds oriented within the ceramic to a desired degree, wherein the NBT
seeds have an aspect ratio of greater than 1, and wherein the composition has a degree of grain orientation that is greater
than 90%.

US Pat. No. 9,708,415

ESTERS OF CELLULOSIC MATERIALS AND DIACIDS AND METHOD OF MAKING THEREOF

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A compound comprising units of an ester of a cellulosic material and a diacid, each unit represented by Formula I

wherein for each unit represented by Formula I, R1, R2, and R3 are the same or different, and each of which is selected from
—H, —COR?, —R??, or —COR?COOH, with the proviso that the compound contains at least one type of —COR?COOH, and at least one
type of —COR?; further wherein R? is an alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, or aromatic group;

R? is an alkyl, alkenyl, or alkynyl group having 4 or more carbon atoms;
R?? is an alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, polyol, or aromatic group, and
wherein a degree of substitution is not less than 0.33 for —COR?COOH.

US Pat. No. 9,663,835

CELLULOSE-SOLVENT-BASED LIGNOCELLULOSE FRACTIONATION WITH MODEST REACTION CONDITIONS AND REAGENT CYCLING

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A process for fractionating lignocellulosic biomass, the process comprising:
(i) providing lignocellulosic biomass with an amount of hemicellulose present in the biomass in its native form at an amount
ranging from 15-35 wt % of the biomass;

(ii) providing a first solvent and combining with the lignocellulosic biomass, wherein the first solvent dissolves at least
some of the cellulose present in the lignocellulosic biomass; and

(iii) providing a second solvent and combining with the material from step (ii), wherein at least some of the cellulose that
is dissolved by the first solvent in step (ii) precipitates out of the liquid phase;

wherein the first solvent is chosen from one or more of hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, phosphoric acid, polyphosphoric
acid, acetic acid, sulfur dioxide, zinc chloride, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, ammonia, lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide,
1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, dimethylsulfoxide/tetrabutylammonium fluoride trihydrate, and N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide.

US Pat. No. 10,048,222

MINIATURIZED HELIUM PHOTOIONIZATION DETECTOR

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. An ionization detector comprising:a base having an enclosed chamber, said enclosed chamber having an upstream end and a downstream end;
a channel having an outlet, said outlet comprising a source of an excitable medium and an analyte;
an ionization source for creating an ionizing discharge from said excitable medium;
a bias electrode;
a collector electrode;
said ionization source having a center that is disposed between said upstream end and said bias electrode, said distance between said bias electrode and said center of said ionizing source comprising a first predetermined distance;
said collector electrode disposed between said downstream end and said bias electrode, said distance between said bias electrode and said collector electrode comprising a second predetermined distance and defining a collector volume in which the analyte is ionized by said ionizing discharge;
said channel and outlet extend into said chamber from said upstream end of said chamber;
said collector electrode generates a current from interaction with the analyte ionized by said ionizing discharge; and
wherein said ionizing source is formed by two opposing electrodes that create a gap where said ionizing discharge is generated by a voltage of 700 V, said first predetermined distance is 1.5 mm, said second predetermined distance is 1 mm, said bias electrode has a voltage of 24 V, and said detector has minimum limit of detection of 60 pg and a power consumption of 3.3 mW.

US Pat. No. 10,013,007

HYBRID INTERLEAVING STRUCTURE WITH ADAPTIVE PHASE LOCKED LOOP FOR VARIABLE FREQUENCY CONTROLLED SWITCHING CONVERTER

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A multi-phase power converter includingtwo single phase power converters connected in parallel between a source of input power and output, wherein each of said single phase power converters includes
a switch connected in series with an inductor between said source of input power and said output,
an error amplifier for comparing a voltage at said output with a reference voltage and providing a control voltage,
a comparator for comparing a signal representing ripple of voltage or current at said output and said control voltage, and
an on-time generator responsive to an output of said comparator to determine a duty cycle at which said switch is conductive,
wherein said multi-phase power converter further includes
an adaptive phase-locked loop (PLL) arrangement including a phase-frequency detector wherein said adaptive phase-locked loop arrangement maintains a bandwidth at a point of phase margin such that said phase locked loop is unconditionally stable over changes in said duty cycle and provides interleaving of on-time periods and pulse frequency modulated signal outputs of said two single phase power converter.
US Pat. No. 9,642,371

COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS COMPRISING COLLETOTRICHUM FOR CONTROLLING PLANT SPECIES

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method of controlling at least one plant, comprising contacting at least one plant or plant part with at least one strain
of Colletotrichum fioriniae, wherein the plant is a plant selected from the group consisting of Toxicodendron acuminatum, Toxicodendron diversilobum, Toxicodendron orientale, Toxicodendron parviflorum, Toxicodendron potaninii,
Toxicodendron pubescens, Toxicodendron radicans, Toxicodendron rydbergii, Toxicodendron striatum, Toxicodendron succedaneum,
Toxicodendron sylvestre, Toxicodendron vernicifluum, Toxicodendron vernix, Schinus engleri, Schinus latifolius, Schinus lentiscifolius,
Schinus molle, Schinus pearcei, Schinus polygamus, Schinus terebinthifolius, Schinus venture, Schinus weinmanniifolius, and combinations thereof.

US Pat. No. 9,589,718

METHOD FOR REDUCING OR ELIMINATING CONDUCTED COMMON MODE NOISE IN A TRANSFORMER

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method for reducing or eliminating conducted common mode noise in a transformer having primary and secondary windings,
said method comprising steps of:
interposing a shield member between said primary and secondary windings of said transformer to form a parasitic capacitance
between said shield member and said secondary winding or a further shield member;

developing a voltage distribution in said secondary winding or said further shield member interposed between said shield member
and said secondary winding; and

connecting said shield member to said primary winding such that a voltage distribution is developed in said shield member
wherein said voltage distribution developed in said shield member and said voltage distribution developed in said secondary
winding or said further shield member are substantially equal or cause substantially complementary currents in said parasitic
capacitance between said shield member and said secondary winding or said further shield member such that net common mode
current in said parasitic capacitance is substantially eliminated.

US Pat. No. 9,998,111

POWER SWITCH DRIVERS WITH EQUALIZERS FOR PARALLELED SWITCHES

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A power switch comprising,a plurality of power transistors, each having conduction terminals connected in parallel and a plurality of capacitors connected between control terminals of said plurality of power transistors,
a power transistor driver for each of said power transistors,
a gate driver for controlling said power transistor drivers,
a plurality of sensors for sensing an operational parameter of each said power transistor, and
a circuit responsive to each of said plurality of sensors for disabling respective ones of said power transistor drivers to assume a high impedance state such that respective ones of said plurality of capacitors are charged to a voltage that equalizes said operational parameter of each of said plurality of power transistors.

US Pat. No. 9,944,618

INHIBITING NEUROTRANSMITTER REUPTAKE

Mayo Foundation for Medic...

1. A compound of formula I:whereinR1 is selected from naphthalen-2-yl, and phenyl substituted at the 3- or 4-position or 3- and 4-positions with a substituent selected from halogen and lower alkyl;
R2 is a 5- or 6-membered aromatic heterocycle each of which is substituted with substituents selected from halo, methylsulfanyl, methanesulfonyl, hydroxyl, methyl, ethyl, alkoxy, dimethylamino, and 1,1,1-trifluoromethanesulfonamide;
optionally, two adjacent alkoxy groups are connected to form a 5- or 6-membered ring;
R3 is hydrogen, hydroxyl, lower alkoxy, or halo; and
R4 is hydrogen or lower alkyl.

US Pat. No. 9,888,030

DETECTION OF STEALTHY MALWARE ACTIVITIES WITH TRAFFIC CAUSALITY AND SCALABLE TRIGGERING RELATION DISCOVERY

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A computer system for distinguishing user-initiated network traffic from malware-initiated network traffic, the system
comprising:
at least one central processing unit (CPU);
memory communicatively coupled to the CPU, the memory comprising program code executable by said at least one CPU to perform
the following steps:

monitoring a plurality of unknown individual network events and identifying a traffic dependency among them, said dependency
used to detect anomalies by confirming the legitimacy of the mot-trigger events;

converting a plurality of individual network events and a plurality of root-trigger events into a plurality of event pairs
with comparable pairwise attributes, said pairwise attributes comprising one of the following: similarities in event's time
stamps, domain names, host names, IP addresses, process IDs (PID), HTTP request's referral fields, network requests types,
network requests content, network requests flags, to determine if there is a parent-child relationship between said one network
event and one of its subsequent events wherein said root-trigger events are said parent, said individual network events are
said child and said parent and said child are not identical;

said parent-child relationships between said individual network events and said root-trigger events are unknown when said
individual network events and said root-trigger events are converted into event pairs;

determining for an individual child network event whether said individual child event has a legitimate parent root-trigger
event; and

identifying malware-initiated traffic as an individual network event that does not have a legitimate parent root-trigger event.

US Pat. No. 10,075,083

MULTI-STEP SIMPLIFIED OPTIMAL TRAJECTORY CONTROL (SOTC) BASED ON ONLY VO AND I LOAD

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A resonant power converter, comprising: a resonant circuit; a driving circuit generating a switching signal to connect a power source to said resonant circuit; a transformer for coupling the resonant circuit to a load; a voltage monitoring circuit coupled with said load to measure a voltage output at the load; a current monitoring circuit coupled with said load to measure a current output at the load: and a micro-controller incorporating two digital feedbacks, one digital feedback using voltage output and one digital feedback using current output, operable as a controller to sample the voltage output and current output every several switching period, to settle the resonant circuit determined from said voltage output and current output, wherein the micro-controller uses a pre-calculated table, which is derived based on a current limiting band to limit resonant current, for the sampling times and the switching frequency is based on said voltage output.

US Pat. No. 9,923,560

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CURRENT/POWER BALANCING

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

1. A power circuit, comprising:
a first switch circuit having at least a first transistor;
a second switch circuit having at least a second transistor;
first interconnections configured to couple the first switch circuit to driving nodes, a source node and a drain node of the
power circuit; and

second interconnections configured to couple the second switch circuit parallel with the first switch circuit to the driving
nodes, the source node and the drain node of the power circuit, wherein the first interconnections and the second interconnections
are configured to be a dominant source for causing current/power unbalance among the first switch circuit and the second switch
circuit such that a polarity of the current/power unbalance is consistent with configurations of the first and second interconnections
in spite of other source including at least transistor parameter variations causing current/power unbalance.

US Pat. No. 9,889,187

CHIMERIC INFECTIOUS DNA CLONES, CHIMERIC PORCINE CIRCOVIRUSES AND USES THEREOF

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A vaccine comprising a nontoxic, physiologically acceptable carrier, one or more adjuvants and an immunogenic amount of
a member selected from the group consisting of:
(a) a chimeric nucleic acid molecule of porcine circovirus (PCV1-2) comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a nonpathogenic
PCV1 which contains the ORF2 gene of pathogenic PCV2 in place of the ORF2 gene of the PCV1 nucleic acid molecule;

(b) a chimeric nucleic acid molecule having a nucleotide sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 2, its complementary strand or a
nucleotide sequence having at least 95% homology to the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 2;

(c) a plasmid or viral vector containing a chimeric nucleic acid molecule of porcine circovirus (PCV1-2) comprising a nucleic
acid molecule encoding a nonpathogenic PCV1 which contains the ORF2 gene of pathogenic PCV2 in place of the ORF2 gene of the
PCV1 nucleic acid molecule, a chimeric nucleic acid molecule having a nucleotide sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 2, a complementary
strand of the nucleotide sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 2 or a nucleotide sequence having at least 95% homology to the nucleotide
sequence of SEQ ID NO: 2;

(d) a chimeric porcine circovirus made from a chimeric nucleic acid molecule of PCV1-2 wherein the ORF2 gene of PCV1 is replaced
with the ORF2 gene of PCV2, a chimeric nucleic acid molecule having a nucleotide sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 2, a complementary
strand of the nucleotide sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 2 or a nucleotide sequence having at least 95% homology to the nucleotide
sequence of SEQ ID NO: 2;

and, optionally, an immunogenic amount of at least one additional porcine antigen.
US Pat. No. 9,897,605

PORCINE TORQUE TENO VIRUS VACCINES AND DIAGNOSIS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A vaccine comprising at least one adjuvant in an immunologically effective amount and a Porcine Torque Teno Virus open
reading frame 1 (ORF1) protein according to SEQ ID NO: 16, or an immunogenic fragment of the ORF1 protein according to SEQ
ID NO: 16 that comprises subtype specific hypervariable regions (HVR) represented by amino acids 363 to 375 and 388 to 423
of SEQ ID NO: 16.

US Pat. No. 9,914,362

ENERGY STORAGE FOR POWER FACTOR CORRECTION IN BATTERY CHARGER FOR ELECTRIC-POWERED VEHICLES

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

14. An electrically powered vehicle including an electric motor, a battery, a battery charger and a switching circuit for
controlling connection of at least one winding of said motor to said battery for normal operation of said electrically powered
vehicle wherein said battery charger includes a controller for generating signals to control said switching circuit such that
said at least one winding is connected to said battery charger as an inductor in parallel with said battery for storing low
frequency second order ripple power appearing at an output of a power factor correction circuit and power converter and periodically
reversing a direction of current flow in said inductor.

US Pat. No. 10,117,707

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR ESTIMATING TISSUE HEATING OF A TARGET ABLATION ZONE FOR ELECTRICAL-ENERGY BASED THERAPIES

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method of treating a tissue with a medical treatment device that applies electrical treatment energy through one or more electrodes defining a target treatment area of the tissue and comprises a display device, the method comprising:providing one or more parameters of a treatment protocol for delivering one or more electrical pulses to a tissue through one or more electrodes;
modeling heat distribution and/or the electric field distribution in a tissue surrounding the electrodes based on the one or more parameters and a treatment protocol-related change in electrical conductivity for the target treatment are, which is a ratio of a maximum electrical conductivity that is reached during treatment to a baseline, non-electroporated, tissue-specific electrical conductivity;
displaying a graphical representation of the heat and/or electric field distribution based on the modeled heat and/or electric field distribution in the display device;
modifying one or more of the parameters of the treatment protocol based on the graphical representation of the heat and/or electric field distribution; and
implanting the electrodes in the tissue and delivering one or more electrical pulses to the tissue through the electrodes by way of a voltage pulse generator based on the one or more modified parameters.

US Pat. No. 9,931,784

3D PRINTING PART REMOVAL AND INTERFACE FOR A 3D PRINTING VENDING MACHINE

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

1. A system for fabricating a three-dimensional object comprising:a build platform defining a build area and having a print bed within said build area;
an extruder that extrudes build material;
an ejector, said ejector having at least one arm having two opposing ends, said first end adapted to travel in a vertical direction and said second end adapted to travel in a horizontal direction and having a scraper portion; and
said scraper portion extends horizontally, parallel to said print bed from a retracted position to an extended position when said first end travels in a vertical direction towards said print bed.
US Pat. No. 9,916,416

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR GENOTYPING USING INFORMED ERROR PROFILES

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

1. A method of genotyping comprising:
obtaining a sequence-read mapping, the sequence-read mapping comprising sequence reads from a subject polynucleotide sequence
mapped to a reference sequence;

selecting flanking reads from the sequence reads, wherein each flanking read spans a repeat in the reference sequence in addition
to one or more flanking bases on each of two ends of the repeat, and wherein the selecting the flanking reads from the sequence
reads results in a flanking-read mapping comprising the repeat and the flanking reads that map thereto;

extracting sequence attributes from the flanking-read mapping, the sequence attributes comprising at least repeat length,
repeat unit size, repeat purity, and average base quality score of the flanking read;

associating the extracted sequence attributes with a genotyping error rate, comprising matching the extracted sequence attributes
with one of a plurality of bins of partitioned sequence attribute values with known, corresponding genotyping error rates,
each bin encompassing a single, known corresponding genotyping error rate for a range of sequence attribute values for each
of repeat length, repeat unit size, repeat purity, and average base quality score of the flanking read;

calculating a genotype probability for each flanking read from the genotyping error rate; and
assigning a genotype to the subject polynucleotide sequence based on the genotype probabilities calculated for the flanking
reads.

US Pat. No. 10,067,130

INFECTIOUS GENOMIC DNA CLONE AND SEROLOGICAL PROFILE OF TORQUE TENO SUS VIRUS 1 AND 2

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

1. A method for diagnosing a Torque Teno Sus Virus (TTsuV) infection in a pig, or determining whether a pig has been exposed to one or more TTSuV genotypes or subtypes, comprising:immobilizing an immunogenic fragment or a complete protein of a recombinantly expressed and purified polypeptide sequence of an ORF1 protein of one or more TTsuV genotypes or subtypes wherein the immunogenic fragment or complete polypeptide sequence comprises one or more of: amino acids 363 to 375 of a TTSuV2 ORF1 represented by SEQ ID NO: 16, and amino acids 388 to 423 of a TTSuV2 ORF1 represented by SEQ ID NO: 16;
contacting a serum sample from a pig suspected of TTsuV infection with the immobilized immunogenic fragment or complete protein; and
detecting captured antibody specific to the immunogenic fragment.

US Pat. No. 9,966,874

POWER-CELL SWITCHING-CYCLE CAPACITOR VOLTAGE CONTROL FOR MODULAR MULTI-LEVEL CONVERTERS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A power converter having an upper arm and a lower arm, each said upper and lower arm comprising a switch constituted by a series connected pair of transistors and a capacitor, said power converter module being operated using at least two main switching states which cause currents that deliver power from a source to a load for controlling average value of phase current and two further switching states which cause circulating currents in said power converter that do not deliver power from said source to said load and which are interleaved alternately between said main switching states during which said capacitor is either bypassed or connected to a voltage such that said capacitor is charged to an offset voltage value and voltage across said capacitor is controlled toward a reference voltage by resonance of said capacitor with a small inductance in said power converter during a following one of said main switching states.

US Pat. No. 10,153,712

CIRCULATING CURRENT INJECTION CONTROL

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

1. A power converter, comprising:a modular multilevel converter (MMC) electrically coupled between a first power system and a second power system, the MMC comprising:
an arrangement of switching submodules, at least one of the switching submodules comprising an arrangement of switching power transistors and capacitors, the switching power transistors comprising high-current, high-frequency medium-voltage semiconductor switches; and
a controller comprising a proportional-integral control loop and a proportional-resonant control loop, the controller being configured to inject a high frequency common mode signal into a circulating current control loop of the MMC, wherein:
based on the high frequency common mode signal injected into the circulating current control loop, the controller is configured to switch the switching power transistors at a higher frequency to reduce at least one low frequency component in power used for charging the capacitors and increase a power density of the MMC; and
the controller is configured to inject the high frequency common mode signal into the circulating current control loop of the controller to reduce a magnitude of voltage ripple in the capacitors.

US Pat. No. 10,116,303

PARALLEL DEVICES HAVING BALANCED SWITCHING CURRENT AND POWER

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

1. A system comprising:a power source that provides electrical power;
two driving transistors disposed in parallel and receiving electrical power from the power source, wherein each of the two driving transistors includes a gate terminal, a source connection, and a kelvin source connection; and
a control voltage source having a first terminal and a second terminal, wherein:
the control voltage source provides a control signal to the two driving transistors to activate the two driving transistors,
the first terminal is connected to the gate terminal of a first of the two driving transistors via a common inductor and a first inductor,
the first terminal is connected to the gate terminal of a second of the two driving transistors via the common inductor and a second inductor, and
the second terminal is connected to the kelvin source connections of the two driving transistors;
wherein the kelvin source connections of the two driving transistors are inductively coupled.

US Pat. No. 10,135,650

TIME VARIANT ANTENNA FOR TRANSMITTING WIDEBAND SIGNALS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A circuit for tuning a resonance frequency of an electrically small antenna, the circuit comprising:a first source configured for providing a modulation signal;
a second source configured for providing a periodic electrical signal;
an antenna; and
a tuning circuit comprising:
a first capacitive device;
a second capacitive device; and
a switch configured for alternately coupling the first capacitive device and the second capacitive device to the antenna for modulating a resonance frequency of the antenna between a first resonant frequency and a second resonant frequency and only between the first resonant frequency and the second resonant frequency in response to the modulation signal,
wherein the first source is configured for providing the modulation signal to the tuning circuit so that the switch alternately couples one of the first capacitive device and the second capacitive device to the antenna while decoupling the other one of the first capacitive device and the second capacitive device from the antenna when a voltage across the other one of the first capacitive device and the second capacitive device is zero.

US Pat. No. 10,097,217

TRANSMITTING WIDEBAND SIGNALS THROUGH AN ELECTRICALLY SMALL ANTENNA USING ANTENNA MODULATION

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. An electrically small device configured to radiate wideband signals, comprising:a tunable high Q narrowband antenna having a plurality of ports including a feed port and a tuning port;
a tuning element coupled to the tuning port of said antenna;
a voltage source supplying energy to said antenna for radiating a radio frequency signal;
a modulating signal generator for generating a high data rate signal coupled at the tuning element for modulating the tuning element;
said tuning element comprises a plurality of capacitors coupled to the tuning port of said antenna with a plurality of switches; and
said plurality of switches alternately couple said voltage source to the plurality of capacitors and said plurality of switches couple said plurality of capacitors to the tuning port of said antenna with a modulating signal generator controlling the plurality of switches according to a high data rate signal for modulating the tuning element while supplying energy to said antenna for radiating the radio frequency signal.

US Pat. No. 10,333,353

OMNIDIRECTIONAL WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER SYSTEM

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. An omnidirectional wireless power transfer system, comprising:a plurality of resonant tank circuits electrically coupled to a power generator;
a receptacle comprising a plurality of coils arranged for omnidirectional power transfer to an electronic device placed with the receptacle, each of the plurality of coils being electrically coupled to one of the plurality of resonant tank circuits; and
a controller configured to activate individual ones of the resonant tank circuits with different voltages or currents to wirelessly transmit power through one or more of the plurality of coils to provide omnidirectional power transfer to the electronic device.

US Pat. No. 10,305,553

ENCODING AND DECODING OF INFORMATION FOR WIRELESS TRANSMISSION USING MULTI-ANTENNA TRANSCEIVERS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method performed by at least one processor to train at least one machine-learning network to communicate using multiple transmit antennas and multiple receive antennas over a multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) communication channel, the method comprising:determining a transmitter and a receiver, at least one of which is configured to implement at least one machine-learning network;
determining a MIMO channel model that represents transmission effects of a MIMO communication channel;
determining first information for transmission over the MIMO channel model;
using the transmitter to process the first information and generate a plurality of first RF signals representing inputs to the MIMO channel model;
determining a plurality of second RF signals representing outputs of the MIMO channel model, each second RF signal of the plurality of second RF signals representing aggregated reception of the plurality of first RF signals having been altered by transmission through the MIMO channel model;
using the receiver to process the plurality of second RF signals and generate second information as a reconstruction of the first information;
calculating a measure of distance between the second information and the first information; and
updating the at least one machine-learning network based on the measure of distance between the second information and the first information.

US Pat. No. 10,291,109

CRITICAL-MODE-BASED SOFT-SWITCHING TECHNIQUES FOR THREE-PHASE BI-DIRECTIONAL AC/DC CONVERTERS

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

1. A power converter, comprising:a converter electrically coupled between an alternating current (AC) power system and a direct current (DC) power system, the converter comprising a number of phase legs; and
a control system for the converter configured, during a portion of a whole line cycle of the AC power system, to:
clamp a first phase leg of the converter from switching; and
during a first cycle in the portion of the whole line cycle, operate a second phase leg of the converter in critical conduction mode (CRM) and operate a third phase leg of the converter in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM).

US Pat. No. 10,217,559

MULTIPHASE COUPLED AND INTEGRATED INDUCTORS WITH PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD (PBC) WINDINGS FOR POWER FACTOR CORRECTION (PFC) CONVERTERS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A power converter including a plurality of switches wherein said switches are controlled in a manner to provide a switching cycle, and an inductor structure including at least two inductors wherein said at least two inductors are magnetically coupled with each other to present one or more equivalent inductance values which vary during different portions of a switching cycle and differing from an inductance value of respective ones of said at least two inductors, said at least two inductors being connected in series with said plurality of switches during said switching cycle and wherein respective windings of each of said at least two inductors are placed on outer legs of a core, said at least two inductors being formed of printed circuit board layers, said printed circuit board layers being interleaved to provide at least one layer of each winding between said printed circuit board layers of another winding of said at least two inductors, wherein a board layer configuration of one leg is opposite that of another leg.

US Pat. No. 10,200,138

METHOD FOR JOINTLY ADAPTING AN OFDM WAVEFORM AND THE DEMODULATOR FOR INTERFERENCE MITIGATION AND HARSH CHANNELS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method of processing a multi-carrier signal to create a spectral correlation across multiple antennas, comprising:configuring one or more multi-carrier signals to have cyclostationary properties that permit a plurality of the same mufti-carrier signals to be used in the same spectrum and said signals are designed to be separated at predetermined receivers;
receiving a plurality of bits;
creating a plurality of symbols, each symbol representing one or more bits from said plurality of bits;
providing one or more filters having a series of delay lines, said delay lines used to store said signals in memory, allowing repeated symbols to be jointly filtered in time and frequency, said one or more filters learn a previously unknown repetition pattern by adapting to the cyclostationary properties of the signal;
creating a plurality of repetition patterns, each pattern containing a copy of said symbols and used for channel equalization;
each repetition pattern comprising a combination of said symbols that varies in time, frequency and space;
said repetition patterns transmitted over one or more separate antennas;
receiving said repetition patterns over one or more separate antennas;
demodulating said received repetition patterns; and
linearly combining each repeated symbols across time, frequency and space to estimate said transmitted symbol.

US Pat. No. 10,110,122

TRANSIENT PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT FOR CONSTANT ON-TIME POWER CONVERTERS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A power converter includinga power stage including a switching arrangement and an inductor,
a circuit for providing variable frequency constant on-time or variable frequency adaptive on-time control of said switching arrangement,
a detector for detecting a step-up or step-down load transient, and
a control generator responsive to said detector for interrupting operation of said circuit providing variable frequency constant on-time or variable frequency adaptive on-time control of said switching arrangement for a duration of said step-up or step-down transient, wherein said detector includes
a filter, and
a comparator circuit applying a threshold to a detected step-up or step-down load transient whereby said duration of said step-up or step-down transient is determined.

US Pat. No. 10,527,708

ESTIMATING THE LOCATION OF A WIRELESS TERMINAL BASED ON COOPERATIVE MEASUREMENTS

Polaris Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method comprising:receiving, at a data processing system, a measurement of a first location-dependent trait of a first radio signal that is transmitted between a first base station and a first wireless terminal;
receiving, at the data processing system, a measurement of a second location-dependent trait of a second radio signal that is transmitted between the first wireless terminal and a second wireless terminal that are at unknown locations;
generating a first candidate estimate of a location of the first wireless terminal based on the measurement of the first location-dependent trait of the first radio signal;
generating a second candidate estimate of the location of the first wireless terminal based on the measurement of the first location-dependent trait of the first radio signal; and
generating an improved estimate of the location of the first wireless terminal based on:
(i) the first candidate estimate of the location of the first wireless terminal,
(ii) the second candidate estimate of the location of the first wireless terminal, and
(iii) the measurement of the second location-dependent trait of the second radio signal;
wherein the improved estimate of the location of the first wireless terminal is selected to be either:
(i) the first candidate estimate of the location of the first wireless terminal, or
(ii) the second candidate estimate of the location of the first wireless terminal,
based on the measurement of the second location-dependent trait of the second radio signal.
US Pat. No. 10,286,108

IRREVERSIBLE ELECTROPORATION TO CREATE TISSUE SCAFFOLDS

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

1. An in vitro method of making an engineered tissue scaffold, said method comprising:engineering a tissue scaffold by treating, in vitro, a tissue comprising cells and a native extracellular matrix with an electrical field;
applying the electrical field in a manner and for a sufficient time at a sufficient power to cause irreversible electroporation of the cells; and
producing an engineered tissue scaffold as a result of the irreversible electroporation.

US Pat. No. 10,218,540

TRANSMITTER FOR TRANSMITTING A HIGH-RATE DATA TRANSMISSION THROUGH DIRECT EXCITATION

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A circuit for tuning a resonance frequency of an electrically small antenna and directly exciting the electrically small antenna, the circuit comprising:a first source configured for providing a constant voltage;
an antenna; and
a switched capacitor configured for being alternately coupled to the first source to be charged thereby and to the antenna for exciting the antenna.

US Pat. No. 10,187,050

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR BALANCING CURRENT AND POWER

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A power circuit, comprising:a first switch circuit in parallel with a second switch circuit, the first switch circuit and the second switch circuit being coupled to a first control node, a second control node, a first power node and a second power node via interconnections, the power circuit receiving a control signal between the first control node and the second control node to control a current flowing from the first power node to the second power node through the first switch circuit and the second switch circuit, wherein at least one of a first source terminal of the first switch circuit and a second source terminal of the second switch circuit is coupled to the second control node with a resistive element having a specific resistance, the second control node and the second power node being separated by one or more interconnection components.

US Pat. No. 10,109,404

LOW PROFILE COUPLED INDUCTOR SUBSTRATE WITH TRANSIENT SPEED IMPROVEMENT

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A coupled inductor having a conductor forming two inversely coupled windings comprising vias in a lamina of magnetic material and cladding on said lamina of magnetic material or material surrounding said lamina of magnetic material, said lamina of magnetic material including a slot extending in a direction between two vias of respective ones of said two inversely coupled windings, said slot having a width, length and permeability to control leakage inductance between said inversely coupled windings in said lamina of magnetic material such that variation of inductance of said coupled inductor with load is eliminated or tailored.

US Pat. No. 10,658,928

SWITCHED CAPACITOR CONVERTERS WITH MULTI RESONANT FREQUENCIES

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A multi resonant switched-capacitor converter (MRSCC), comprising:a series of switches coupled between an input voltage and an output connection;
a pair of diodes coupled across the output connection; and
a resonant circuit coupled at a first end between first and second switches of the series of switches and at a second end between the pair of diodes, the resonant circuit comprising a resonant tank including a first capacitor and a resonant inductor, and a resonant component in parallel with at least a portion of the resonant tank.

US Pat. No. 10,561,964

APPARATUS FOR DEWATERING AND DEMINERALIZATION OF FINE PARTICLES

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. An apparatus for dispersion of agglomerates of hydrophobic particles, comprising:a container including:
a tube attached to the container, wherein the tube is in communication with either one of 1) a compressed air injector or 2) a diaphragm pump to provide a pulsation;
a first discharge port closest to a longitudinal axis of the container;
a second discharge port farthest from the longitudinal axis of the container;
a feed port located between the first and second discharge ports; and
a hydrophobic liquid present in said container; and
a packing material or ragging material contained in the container, wherein said packing material or ragging material provides a tortuous path.

US Pat. No. 10,296,831

LEARNING RADIO SIGNALS USING RADIO SIGNAL TRANSFORMERS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method for training a machine learning system to process one or more radio signals, the method comprising:providing a first set of input data representing one or more radio signals to a first neural network that is configured to generate output data representing an estimation of one or more characteristics of a radio signal;
obtaining first output data generated by the first neural network based on the first neural network processing the first set of input data;
receiving, by a signal transformer, a second set of input data that includes (i) the first set of input data and (ii) the first output data generated by the first neural network;
generating, by the signal transformer and based on the second set of input data, data representing a transformed radio signal by applying one or more transforms of a set of predetermined transforms to the first set of input data representing the one or more radio signals;
providing the data representing the transformed radio signal to a second neural network that is configured to generate output data describing the one or more radio signals based on processing the data representing the transformed radio signal;
obtaining second output data generated by the second neural network based on the second neural network processing the data representing the transformed radio signal;
determining a target loss that is based on (i) the second output data generated by the second neural network and (ii) target information describing the one or more radio signals; and
adjusting the respective parameters of the first neural network and the second neural network based on the target loss.

US Pat. No. 10,292,755

HIGH FREQUENCY ELECTROPORATION FOR CANCER THERAPY

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

1. A method of ablating tissue cells by non-thermal irreversible electroporation comprising:positioning one or more electrodes near a target area containing target tissue cells to be ablated;
applying a plurality of electrical pulses to the target area through the positioned electrodes by applying pulses at a frequency rate of 50 kHz or higher with each electrical pulse having a pulse width of 10 microseconds or less, so as to ablate the target tissue cells by non-thermal irreversible electroporation.
US Pat. No. 10,287,402

POLYCARBONATE-POLYOLEFIN BLOCK COPOLYMERS AND METHODS OF MAKING THEM

ExxonMobil Chemical Paten...

1. A process comprising:polymerizing a di-hydroxyaryl monomer and a di-substituted carbonyl monomer in the presence of a hydroxyaryl-polyolefin moiety to form a polycarbonate-polyolefin block copolymer;
the hydroxyaryl-polyolefin moiety comprising the product from contacting a hydroxyaryl compound with a vinyl and/or vinylidene terminated polyolefin having a number average molecular weight (Mn) of greater than 300 g/mole, and a weight average molecular weight (Mw) of greater than 500 g/mole, to form the hydroxyaryl-polyolefin moiety comprising the polyolefin covalently bonded to the hydroxyaryl compound;
the hydroxyaryl compound having the formula:
R?—(OH)x,
wherein x is 1 or 2; and
R? comprises an unsubstituted or substituted aromatic moiety having from 6 to 20 carbon atoms.

US Pat. No. 10,243,733

PROCESS AND SYSTEM FOR ESTABLISHING A MOVING TARGET CONNECTION FOR SECURE COMMUNICATIONS IN CLIENT/SERVER SYSTEMS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A secure communication network, comprising:at least one server connected to the network and accessing a Distributed Hash Table (DHT), the server having a private and public cryptographic key pair (Spri, Spub);
a plurality of clients connected to the network and in communication with the server, each client having a unique private and public cryptographic key pair (Cpri, Cpub);
the server and a communicating client implementing a randomly generated key that changes at some predetermined interval, the server publishing a descriptor dT calculated using the server's private key Spri and the client's public key Cpub and storing the descriptor dT in the DHT, and the client querying for the descriptor dT stored in the DHT to obtain configuration information;
wherein when the server publishes to the DHT, the server generates a descriptor for time period T, dT, and a message m, where dT is calculated by the server using the following equation: dT=H(Spri·Cpubi)?T)0?159 where H is a strong hashing algorithm, Spri is the server's private key, Cpubi is the public key for client Ci, and T defines the time period, and the message, m, is calculated by using the following equation:where SeedIPv6S is an Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) address which is the concatenation of the server's IPv6 subnet and a randomly generated seed Interface Identifier (IID), K is a symmetric key, Rot is an address rotation period, and Nonce and MAC are generated by encryption algorithms; andwherein the time period, T, is used as a component within the DHT descriptor and is varied in duration to provide the capability to dynamically and securely exchange configuration information depending on a detected environment.

US Pat. No. 10,238,447

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR ABLATING A TISSUE SITE BY ELECTROPORATION WITH REAL-TIME MONITORING OF TREATMENT PROGRESS

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

1. A medical system for ablating a tissue site with real-time monitoring during an electroporation treatment procedure, comprising:at least two electrodes adapted to be introduced near a target region of a tissue site;
a pulse generator configured to generate and apply between the electrodes a plurality of electroporation pulses for ablation of tissue in the target region, a pre-treatment (PT) test signal having a frequency of at least 1 MHz prior to the treatment procedure and intra-treatment (IT) test signals during the treatment procedure;
a treatment control module adapted to determine impedance values from the PT test signal and IT test signals and to determine a progress of electroporation based on the determined impedance values.

US Pat. No. 10,541,765

PROCESSING OF COMMUNICATIONS SIGNALS USING MACHINE LEARNING

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method for processing cellular signals using a machine-learning network, the method comprising:receiving, at a cellular base station in a cellular communications system, an input radio frequency (RF) signal, wherein the cellular base station includes a plurality of radio stages and a plurality of controllers, each controller of the plurality of controllers configured to control a particular radio stage of the plurality of radio stages;
processing, using one or more radio stages of the plurality of radio stages, the input RF signal;
in response to the processing, generating, at an output of the plurality of radio stages, an output RF signal for transmission in the cellular communications system;
obtaining, by the cellular base station, one or more observations about the output RF signal;
determining, by the cellular base station, one or more metrics of the output RF signal;
adjusting, using the one or more observations and the one or more metrics, one or more policies implemented using one or more machine-learning networks by the cellular base station, wherein adjustments to the one or more policies correspond to updates in processing performed by at least one radio stage to achieve at least one target objective; and
in response to adjusting the one or more policies, updating actions performed by at least one controller that is configured to control the at least one radio stage.

US Pat. No. 10,396,919

PROCESSING OF COMMUNICATIONS SIGNALS USING MACHINE LEARNING

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method performed by one or more processors to control processing of radio frequency (RF) signals using a machine-learning network, the method comprising:receiving a first representation of an RF signal input to a radio communications apparatus;
processing the first representation of the RF signal using one or more radio stages of the radio communications apparatus;
in response to the processing, outputting a second representation of the RF signal from the one or more radio stages;
obtaining one or more observations about the second representation of the RF signal;
measuring one or more metrics of the second representation of the RF signal;
accessing past observations and metrics from a storage coupled to the radio communications apparatus;
adjusting, using (i) the one or more observations, (ii) the one or more metrics and (iii) the past observations and metrics that are accessed from the storage, parameters of a machine-learning network that implements one or more policies to process RF signals by controlling the one or more radio stages;
in response to adjusting the parameters of the machine-learning network, updating one or more actions performed by one or more controllers corresponding to the one or more radio stages, wherein a controller performs actions to control a respective radio stage; and
processing a representation of a subsequent RF signal input to the radio communications apparatus using the one or more radio stages that are controlled based on actions including the updated one or more actions.

US Pat. No. 10,312,805

CURRENT MODE CONTROL DC-DC CONVERTER WITH SINGLE STEP LOAD TRANSIENT RESPONSE

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

1. A power converter comprisinga pulse generator for generating switching pulses for controlling duration of connection of said power converter to a power source based on a comparison of an output voltage of said power converter with a reference voltage,
a circuit for developing a control voltage corresponding to a combination of signals representing a reference voltage, output voltage and inductor current of said power converter,
a detector receiving a threshold voltage bounding said control voltage during steady-state operation of said power converter for determining when said control voltage corresponding to said combination of threshold voltage, output voltage and inductor current of said power converter represents a step-up load transient by comparison of said control voltage with said threshold voltage, and
a control circuit responsive to an output of said detector for maintaining a switching pulse state from said pulse generator and connection of said power converter to said power source for a duration that said output of said detector indicates said step-up load transient.

US Pat. No. 10,290,587

COOLER WITH EMI-LIMITING INDUCTOR

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

1. A power device package, comprising:a dielectric substrate including an upper conductor layer and a lower conductor layer;
a semiconductor die coupled to the upper conductor layer of the dielectric substrate via conductive adhesive;
a cooler including a protruding hillock having a top surface and outer sides, the lower conductor layer of the dielectric substrate attached to the top surface of the protruding hillock via an adhesive; and
magnetic material coupled to the protruding hillock, the magnetic material includes inner sides abutting the outer sides of the protruding hillock.

US Pat. No. 10,281,307

SYSTEM AND METHOD OF NON-INTRUSIVE ANEMOMETRY

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

1. A method for non-intrusive anemometry comprising:positioning an acoustic transmitter proximate to a boundary of a flowing medium having a velocity;
positioning a first acoustic receiver downstream of the acoustic transmitter and proximate to the boundary of the flowing medium and positioning a second acoustic receiver proximate the boundary and downstream of the first acoustic receiver, wherein the first and second acoustic receiver and the acoustic transmitter define a plane substantially parallel to the flow of the flowing medium;
transmitting from the acoustic transmitter an acoustic signal across the flowing medium;
receiving the acoustic signal at the first acoustic receiver;
receiving the acoustic signal at the second acoustic receiver;
determining a first transit time for the acoustic signal from the acoustic transmitter to the first acoustic receiver and a second transit time for the acoustic signal from the acoustic transmitter to the second acoustic receiver; and,
determining the velocity of the flowing medium based at least on the first and second transit times.

US Pat. No. 10,274,364

ANALYSIS OF COMPONENT HAVING ENGINEERED INTERNAL SPACE FOR FLUID FLOW

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method for analyzing an internal characteristic of a component, the component having an engineered internal space, a fluid entrance and a fluid exit to allow fluid flow through the internal space past a portion of the component for which the internal characteristic is determined, the method comprising:operating the component using a process control parameter;
receiving, by a processor, operational time-dependent acoustic data signals produced by the component during the fluid flow through the internal space at one or more controlled flow rates in response to operating the component using the process control parameter, wherein the one or more controlled flow rates are based on a type of the component;
converting, by the processor, the operational time-dependent acoustic data signals to an operational frequency-dependent spectrum;
extracting, by the processor, operational frequency and acoustic intensity values from the operational frequency-dependent spectrum;
identifying, by the processor, an operational frequency in the operational frequency-dependent spectrum that corresponds to the internal characteristic of the component by identifying the frequency that corresponds to a maximum operational acoustic intensity value in the extracted operational acoustic intensity values;
predicting, by the processor, based on the identified operational frequency, based on the maximum operational acoustic intensity value associated with the identified operational frequency, and based on the one or more controlled flow rates, at least one of an operational state or an operational source of the component by comparing the extracted operational frequency and acoustic intensity values in the operational frequency-dependent spectrum to a predetermined set of reference frequency and acoustic intensity values for the one or more controlled flow rates, wherein each of the set of reference frequency and acoustic intensity values is associated with a maximum reference acoustic intensity value for a sample component of a reference state or source; and
updating the process control parameter, based on the at least one of the operational state or the operational source of the component, in response to predicting the at least one of the operational state or the operational source of the component.

US Pat. No. 10,250,053

OPTIMAL BATTERY CURRENT WAVEFORM FOR BIDIRECTIONAL PHEV BATTERY CHARGER

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A battery charger including a power converter for outputting a DC voltage, comprising:a Full Bridge (FB) AC-DC switching circuit comprising a first plurality of switches for receiving an AC source and a DC link capacitor, the first plurality of switches providing an AC source component signal at double line frequency to the DC link capacitor;
a Dual Active Bridge (DAB) converter comprising second switching circuits including a second plurality of switches; and
an interface circuit for receiving a waveform responsive to the AC source for driving one or more of the second plurality of switches of at least said second switching circuit for a reduced DAB converter loss with a reduced DC link capacitor;
said interface circuit comprises a modulation circuit;
said modulation circuit provides the waveform as the AC source and further comprises a Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) zero-off charging circuit for providing driving pulses to drive one or more of the second plurality of switches at a duty cycle for a reduced DAB convertor loss with a reduced DC link capacitor, to turn off said second switching circuit when the DAB convertor is not delivering power to avoid hard switching; and
wherein the capacitance of the DC link capacitor is reduced in relation to an increased efficiency of the DAB convertor based on the waveform from the modulation circuit.

US Pat. No. 10,245,105

ELECTROPORATION WITH COOLING TO TREAT TISSUE

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

1. A method of treating tissue with electrical energy, the method comprising:performing electroporation of target tissue using one or more electroporation devices comprising one or more electrodes and one or more hollow chambers with a fluid disposed therein; and
flowing the fluid disposed in one or more of the hollow chambers to provide cooling during the electroporation to cause non-thermal cell death of the target tissue.

US Pat. No. 10,568,104

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR HETEROGENOUS SPECTRUM SHARING BETWEEN COMMERCIAL CELLULAR OPERATORS AND LEGACY INCUMBENT USERS IN WIRELESS NETWORKS

FEDERATED WIRELESS, INC.,...

1. A method for dynamically sharing a spectrum having a plurality of spectrum bands that may be allocated to one or more primary and secondary users of the spectrum, the method comprising:receiving a request for an assignment of at least one spectrum band for allocation to one or more secondary users of the spectrum;
receiving at least one sensed data indicative of a radio condition at a location where the sensed data was obtained;
updating a database based on the received sensed data, wherein the database is a data structure configured to store temporal data corresponding to spectrum usage by the one or more primary users;
identifying at least one spectrum band that is available for allocation to the one or more secondary users of the spectrum, to thereby maintain interference to the one or more primary users below a predetermined threshold;
allocating, based on the updated database, the at least one identified spectrum band to at least a subset of the secondary users of the spectrum; and
revoking the allocation of the at least one identified spectrum band to the subset of the secondary users in response to determining that the interference to the one or more primary users exceeds the predetermined threshold.
US Pat. No. 10,507,238

CHIMERIC INFECTIOUS DNA CLONES, CHIMERIC PORCINE CIRCOVIRUSES AND USES THEREOF

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

1. A recombinant porcine circovirus type 1 encoding the ORF2 capsid protein of a porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV1-2).

US Pat. No. 10,396,684

COUPLED INDUCTOR FOR INTERLEAVED MULTI-PHASE THREE-LEVEL DC-DC CONVERTERS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A multi-phase three-level power converter having a plurality of phase legs connected to a load through a common node wherein the conduction angles of respective ones of said phase legs are interleaved, said multi-phase three-level power converter includingan inductor in each phase leg of said multi-phase three-level power converter wherein said inductor of any given phase leg is positively or not significantly coupled magnetically to any corresponding inductor of another phase leg of said multi-phase three level power converter, and
a group of additional inductors having one inductor of said group of additional inductors inversely coupled magnetically and connected in series with said inductor in said given phase leg and another inductor of said group of additional inductors inversely coupled magnetically and connected in series with said inductor in said another phase leg and also in series with said inductor of said given phase leg in a circulating current path through said given phase leg, said common node and said another phase leg of said multi-phase three-level power converter, whereby circulating current in said circulating current path resulting from said interleaving of said conduction angles of respective phases of said multi-phase three-level power converter is reduced by a voltage generated through mutual inductance between said inductor of any given phase and said additional inductor of said group of inductors of any other phase which are inversely coupled magnetically and connected in series in said circulating current path.

US Pat. No. 10,217,047

LEARNING AND DEPLOYMENT OF ADAPTIVE WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method performed by at least one processor to train at least one machine-learning network to communicate over a communication channel, the method comprising:determining first information;
using an encoder machine-learning network to process the first information and generate a first RF signal for transmission through a communication channel;
determining a second RF signal that represents the first RF signal having been altered by transmission through the communication channel;
using a decoder machine-learning network to process the second RF signal and generate second information as a reconstruction of the first information;
calculating a measure of distance between the second information and the first information; and
updating at least one of the encoder machine-learning network or the decoder machine-learning network based on the measure of distance between the second information and the first information, wherein the updating comprises:
determining an objective function comprising the measure of distance between the second information and the first information;
calculating a rate of change of the objective function relative to variations in at least one of the encoder machine-learning network or the decoder machine-learning network;
selecting, based on the calculated rate of change of the objective function, at least one of a first variation for the encoder machine-learning network or a second variation for the decoder machine-learning network; and
updating at least one of the encoder machine-learning network or the decoder machine-learning network based on the at least one of the selected first variation for the encoder machine-learning network or the selected second variation for the decoder machine-learning network.

US Pat. No. 10,381,921

SOFT-SWITCHING TRIANGULAR CURRENT MODE CONTROL FOR THREE PHASE TWO-LEVEL CONVERTERS WITH POWER FACTOR CONTROL

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

1. A power converter, comprising:a bidirectional converter electrically coupled between an alternating current (AC) power system and a direct current (DC) power system, the bidirectional converter comprising a number of phase legs; and
a control system for the bidirectional converter configured, during a portion of a line cycle of the AC power system, to:
clamp a first phase leg of the bidirectional converter from switching; and
operate each of a second phase leg of the bidirectional converter and a third phase leg of the bidirectional converter independently in either discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) or triangular current mode (TCM).

US Pat. No. 10,326,602

GROUP SIGNATURES WITH PROBABILISTIC REVOCATION

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

1. A computer-implemented method, comprising:receiving, by at least one computing device, a signature including an alias token;
mapping, by the at least one computing device, the alias token to an alias code comprising a plurality of orthogonal alias code segments;
receiving, by the at least one computing device, a revocation code comprising a plurality of revocation code segments, each of the revocation code segments corresponding to a respective one of the alias code segments, wherein the revocation code comprises a sum of at least one revoked alias code;
probabilistically determining, by at least one computing device, a revocation status of the alias token based at least in part on at least one of the alias code segments and a corresponding at least one of the revocation code segments, wherein probabilistically determining the revocation status includes cross-correlating a subset of the alias code segments and a corresponding subset of the revocation code segments over a number of iterations, each iteration including a cross-correlation of one of the alias code segments and a corresponding one of the revocation code segments; and
accept or discard a message based on the revocation status.

US Pat. No. 10,562,038

CLEANING AND DEWATERING FINE COAL

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method for separating a first hydrophilic particulate material from a second hydrophilic particulate material dispersed in aqueous phase, the first hydrophilic particulate material being different than the second hydrophilic particulate material, the method comprising the steps of:adding a hydrophobizing agent to said aqueous phase to render the first hydrophilic particulate material selectively hydrophobic;
agitating a mixture of the selectively-hydrophobized first particulate material and the second hydrophilic particulate material in the presence of a hydrophobic liquid to allow the selectively-hydrophobized first particulate material to be dispersed in said hydrophobic liquid, while the second hydrophilic particulate material remains dispersed in aqueous phase;
phase separating a first phase containing said aqueous phase which includes the second hydrophilic particulate material dispersed therein from a second phase containing said hydrophobic liquid and said selectively-hydrophobized first particulate material, said second phase also containing water entrained by said selectively-hydrophobized first particulate material;
providing mechanical energy to said second phase to detach said selectively-hydrophobized first particulate material from said entrained water; and
separating said hydrophobic liquid from said selectively-hydrophobized first particulate material.
US Pat. No. 10,543,639

METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING A THREE-DIMENSIONAL OBJECT

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method for manufacturing a three-dimensional object, the method comprising steps of:a) providing a digital description of the object as a set of voxels;
b) sequentially creating an actual set of voxels corresponding to the digital set of voxels;
a. wherein at least one voxel comprises a polymer derived from:
i. a polyol, wherein the polyol has a number average molecular weight of at least 2,000 g/mol; and
ii. an ionic monomer;
iii. wherein a calculated charge density of the resulting polymer is 0.01 to 0.7 mEq/g.

US Pat. No. 10,471,254

SELECTIVE MODULATION OF INTRACELLULAR EFFECTS OF CELLS USING PULSED ELECTRIC FIELDS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method of selectively treating cells, comprising:applying to a tissue a plurality of electrical pulses with a delay between successive pulses, wherein the length of each pulse and the delay between successive pulses are optimized to produce a first treatment zone and a second treatment zone;
wherein only selected cells are affected in the second treatment zone, such that the selected cells are cancer cells which are inhibited:
by way of slowed or arrested cell division, or
by way of slowed or arrested migration, or
by way of reduced transport of blood and nutrients.

US Pat. No. 10,429,526

ANTINEUTRINO DETECTION BASED ON HETEROGENEOUS SCINTILLATION LATTICE

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A radiation detector, comprising:a plurality of antineutrino capture sections, said antineutrino capture sections comprised of a plurality of cells, said cells having planar surfaces and pairwise parallel surfaces;
said cells including hydrogen as a target for an antineutrino;
said cells act as scintillators and contain a wavelength shifter;
said pairwise parallel surfaces separated by a medium of a lower index of refraction;
a plurality of neutron capture sections containing a neutron capture agent that emits a radiation emission that remains within the neutron capture section upon the capture of a neutron;
said antineutrino capture sections disposed between said neutron capture sections;
said neutron capture sections act as scintillators to convert the radiation emission of a neutron capture to light for transmission to at least one of said cells; and
said cells and said neutron capture sections have different scintillation time constants.

US Pat. No. 10,404,064

MODULAR MULTILEVEL CONVERTER CAPACITOR VOLTAGE RIPPLE REDUCTION

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A power converter, comprising:a modular multilevel converter (MMC) electrically coupled between a first power system and a second power system, the MMC comprising:
a phase leg comprising a cascade arrangement of switching submodules, the switching submodules comprising an arrangement of switching power transistors and capacitors; and
a controller to reduce voltage ripple on the capacitors in the switching submodules, the controller comprising:
a differential control loop configured to generate a differential control signal for switching the switching power transistors based on a target modulation index; and
a common mode control loop configured to generate a common mode control signal for switching the switching power transistors based on an injection of a 2nd order harmonic current as an input to the controller according to a power factor of the MMC.

US Pat. No. 10,470,822

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR ESTIMATING A TREATMENT VOLUME FOR ADMINISTERING ELECTRICAL-ENERGY BASED THERAPIES

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A device for estimating a target ablation zone, the device comprising:one or more probes with one or more electrodes for delivering electrical energy;
a voltage pulse generator in operable communication with the one or more probes;
a treatment planning module and one or more computer processor, the treatment planning module in operable communication with the voltage pulse generator, the treatment planning module configured to:
receive a first electrical flow characteristic (EFC);
determine a second EFC of a tissue in the target ablation zone based on the first EFC;
estimate the target ablation zone based on the second EFC; and
display the estimated target ablation zone on a display device.

US Pat. No. 10,423,207

USING POWER FINGERPRINTING (PFP) TO MONITOR THE INTEGRITY AND ENHANCE SECURITY OF COMPUTER BASED SYSTEMS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method, comprising:observing power consumption of a processor using a sensor during execution of a first routine of software that has a first layer and a second layer, the first routine associated with the first layer and not the second layer;
observing power consumption of the processor using a sensor during execution of a second routine of software, the second routine associated with the second layer and not the first layer;
using the power consumption characterization of the first routine as a first fingerprint for comparison against observed execution of the first routine of the software to determine a first deviation;
using the power consumption characterization of the second routine as a second fingerprint for comparison against observed execution of the second routine of the software to determine a second deviation;
triggering an incident response associated with an attack on the first routine when the first deviation is determined; and
triggering an incident response associated with an attack on the second routine when the second deviation is determined.
US Pat. No. 10,407,681

PLANT-MEDIATED SILENCING OF A FATTY ACID AND RETINOID BINDING PROTEIN IN PRATYLENCHUS PENETRANS

The United States of Amer...

1. A double-stranded ribonucleic acid (dsRNA) comprising a first strand comprising a sequence with at least 95% identity to a portion of at least 19 consecutive nucleotides of SEQ ID NO:1 or SEQ ID NO:3 and a second strand complementary to the first strand.

US Pat. No. 10,572,830

LEARNING AND DEPLOYING COMPRESSION OF RADIO SIGNALS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method of training at least one machine-learning network to learn compact representations of radio frequency (RF) signals, the method performed by at least one processor executing instructions stored on at least one computer memory coupled to the at least one processor, the method comprising:determining a first RF signal to be compressed;
using an encoder machine-learning network to process the first RF signal and generate a compressed signal;
using a decoder machine-learning network to process the compressed signal and generate a second RF signal that represents a reconstruction of the first RF signal;
calculating a measure of distance between the second RF signal and the first RF signal;
obtaining a measure of compression in the compressed signal; and
updating at least one of the encoder machine-learning network or the decoder machine-learning network based on (i) the measure of distance between the second RF signal and the first RF signal, and (ii) the measure of compression in the compressed signal, wherein the updating comprises:
determining an objective function that comprises at least: (i) the measure of distance between the second RF signal and the first RF signal, and (ii) the measure of compression in the compressed signal,
calculating a rate of change of the objective function relative to variations in at least one of the encoder machine-learning network or the decoder machine-learning network,
selecting, based on the calculated rate of change of the objective function, at least one of a first variation for the encoder machine-learning network or a second variation for the decoder machine-learning network, and
updating at least one of the encoder machine-learning network or the decoder machine-learning network based on the selected at least one of the first variation or the second variation.
US Pat. No. 10,406,219

MULTIVALENT BRUCELLA VACCINE FOR PROTECTION AGAINST MYCOBACTERIAL INFECTIONS AND METHODS OF USING THE SAME

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A multivalent vaccine or immunogenic composition, comprisingat least one Brucella strain transformed with a vector expressing at least one M. tuberculosis antigen, wherein said at least one M. tuberculosis antigen is codon optimized for expression in said at least one Brucella strain and wherein said at least one M. tuberculosis antigen comprises at least one of Ag85B and Rv2660c, and
a vehicle or carrier suitable for administration to a subject.
US Pat. No. 10,400,019

KERATIN NANOMATERIALS AND METHODS OF PRODUCTION

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A keratin nanomaterial comprising two (2) Type I and Type II monomer pairs, wherein the nanomaterial has a molecular size of approximately 50 nm in length and approximately 1 nm to 5 nm in diameter.

US Pat. No. 10,220,124

FIBER ARRAY FOR OPTICAL IMAGING AND THERAPEUTICS

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

1. A microneedle device comprising:one or more hollow core optical fiber microneedle having a core capable of conducting fluid and a tip adapted for piercing human tissue;
a light source;
and one or more solid core optical fiber;
wherein the light source and the solid core optical fiber are together disposed in a manner to deliver light into and through the hollow core optical fiber microneedle;
one or more fluid pump and one or more fluid reservoir disposed in a manner to facilitate aspiration of and delivery of fluids;
wherein the device is adapted to aspirate fluid into and to deliver fluid out through the tip and core of the hollow core optical fiber microneedle.

US Pat. No. 10,537,379

IRREVERSIBLE ELECTROPORATION USING TISSUE VASCULATURE TO TREAT ABERRANT CELL MASSES OR CREATE TISSUE SCAFFOLDS

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A device for ablating target tissue cells comprising:a first connection device adapted for connection with a first blood vessel;
a first electrode having an exposed portion disposed within the first connection device and adapted to be in contact with fluid inside the first blood vessel;
a voltage source adapted to apply a plurality of electrical pulses to the first electrode so as to deliver ablation energy to target tissue cells using the fluid inside the first blood vessel an electrical conduit;
a second connection device adapted for connection with a second blood vessel; and
a second electrode adapted to be in contact with fluid inside the second blood vessel;
wherein the first blood vessel is an artery and the second blood vessel is a vein; and
whereby the plurality of electrical pulses are applied between the first and second electrodes.

US Pat. No. 10,452,493

MICROPROCESSOR FAULT DETECTION AND RESPONSE SYSTEM

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A microprocessor fault detection and response system, comprising:a microprocessor configured to operate in an normal mode and a safe mode; and
a hardware-based fault-attack aware microprocessor extension (FAME) coupled to the microprocessor, the hardware-based FAME configured to:
detect a fault injection on the microprocessor when the microprocessor operates in the normal mode to execute one or more instructions in an instruction datapath based on a clock signal having repeating clock cycles;
store fault recovery information in a fault recovery register (FRR);
switch the microprocessor from the normal mode to the safe mode; and
instruct the microprocessor to invoke a software-based trap handler in the safe mode;
wherein the software-based trap handler is configured to:
retrieve the fault recovery information from the FRR; and
restore the microprocessor to a fault-free state based on the fault recovery information.

US Pat. No. 10,448,989

HIGH-FREQUENCY ELECTROPORATION FOR CANCER THERAPY

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A medical device for killing tissue cells by non-thermal irreversible electroporation comprising:one or more electrodes adapted to be positioned near a target area containing target tissue cells to be killed;
a power supply adapted to generate and deliver electrical pulses to the electrodes; and
a controller in operable connection with and comprising programming of predetermined pulse parameters configured to control the power supply to output one or more bursts of the electrical pulses, each burst containing multiple electrical pulses at a frequency rate of 50 kHz or higher and capable of killing the target tissue cells by non-thermal irreversible electroporation, and each electrical pulse having a pulse width of 10 microseconds or less so as to kill the target tissue cells by non-thermal irreversible electroporation;
wherein the controller comprises programming for independent selection of width and amplitude of positive and negative pulses within one or more of the bursts and to allow for a delay between each burst of pulses; and
wherein the controller comprises programming to control the power supply to output the negative pulses with an amplitude of between 500-4,000 V/cm.

US Pat. No. 10,661,908

PASSIVE ANTI-FROSTING SURFACE COMPRISED OF MICROSCOPIC WETTABILITY PATTERNS CONTAINING SACRIFICIAL ICE

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method of reducing ice and frost on a surface comprising the steps of:providing a wettable pattern on said surface;
wetting said pattern with water;
freezing said water to form ice on said pattern;
said ice on said pattern creates overlapping hygroscopic zones;
said hygroscopic zones overlap to cover the surface of said substrate; and
wherein said wettable pattern is in fluid communication with a water reservoir.

US Pat. No. 10,643,153

RADIO SIGNAL IDENTIFICATION, IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM LEARNING, AND IDENTIFIER DEPLOYMENT

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A method of training at least one machine-learning network to classify radio frequency (RF) signals, the method performed by at least one processor executing instructions stored on at least one computer memory coupled to the at least one processor, the method comprising:determining an RF signal that is configured to be transmitted through an RF band of a communication medium;
extracting one or more features of the RF signal using prior knowledge about the RF signal;
determining first classification information associated with the RF signal based on the RF signal and the extracted one or more features of the RF signal, the first classification information comprising a representation of at least one of a characteristic of the RF signal or a characteristic of an environment in which the RF signal is communicated;
using at least one machine-learning network to process the RF signal and generate second classification information as a prediction of the first classification information;
calculating a measure of distance between (i) the second classification information that was generated by the at least one machine-learning network as the prediction of the first classification information, and (ii) the first classification information that was associated with the RF signal; and
updating the at least one machine-learning network based on the measure of distance between the second classification information and the first classification information.

US Pat. No. 10,457,883

METHOD OF SEPARATING AND DE-WATERING FINE PARTICLES

Virginia Tech Intellectua...

1. A process of upgrading a low-rank coal comprising the steps ofa. heating said low-rank coal in a hydrothermal reactor in the presence of CO2,
b. displacing water released during the hydrothermal process with liquid CO2, and
c. transporting the dewatered coal under a CO2 atmosphere, thereby minimizing the possibility of spontaneous combustion.

US Pat. No. 10,224,476

LOW-TEMPERATURE CO-FIRING OF MULTILAYER TEXTURED PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS WITH INNER ELECTRODES

VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUA...

1. A composition comprising a co-fired multilayer textured PMN-PZT or a co-fired multilayer textured PMN-PT ceramic with BaTiO3 platelets oriented within the ceramic to a desired degree, wherein the ceramic has a piezoelectric coefficient d33 ranging from 1000-3000 pC/N and a degree of orientation of 90% or more;wherein the PMN-PZT ceramic comprises the formula 0.4Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.25PbZrO3-0.35PbTiO3 (40PMN-25PZ-35PT).