US Pat. No. 9,872,376

MEDICAL LINEAR ACCELERATOR SIGNAL ANALYZER AND DISPLAY DEVICE

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A linear accelerator diagnostic system comprising:
a linear accelerator comprising a local user interface;
a multiplexer circuit board comprising a plurality of input terminals, the input terminals being coupled to the linear accelerator
at a plurality of diagnosis sites within the linear accelerator, the multiplexer circuit board being operable to receive signal
data from the plurality of diagnosis sites of the linear accelerator as a plurality of inputs and to output a selection of
signal data from the signal data;

a scope board coupled to the multiplexer circuit board, and operable to receive the selection of signal data and to format
the received selection of signal data into display data by applying at least one display parameter to the display data;

a first computing device communicatively coupled to the linear accelerator and configured to receive the formatted display
data from the scope board; and

a second computing device remotely located from the linear accelerator and communicatively coupled to the first computing
device through a network, the second computing device comprising a display device, and configured to generate a second user
interface to display the display data in the display device and to receive user input corresponding to the display data,

wherein signal data from a diagnostic site of the plurality of diagnosis sites comprises at least one of: a frequency, an
amplitude, a current, and a voltage of electric activity at the diagnostic site,

further wherein, the local user interface is operable to display diagnostic messages in response to user input received from
the second user interface, the diagnostic messages comprising messages pre-programmed in the local user interface.

US Pat. No. 9,283,407

COMPACT PROTON THERAPY SYSTEM WITH ENERGY SELECTION ONBOARD A ROTATABLE GANTRY

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A radiation therapy system for irradiating an irradiation object with particle beams of a predetermined energy, said radiation
therapy system comprising:
a particle accelerator configured to provide a particle beam for a single treatment station;
a beam line assembly coupled to said particle accelerator and operable to direct said particle beam along a first direction;
an energy degrader operable to attenuate an energy of said particle beam; and
a gantry assembly coupled to said beam line assembly and comprising dipole magnets configured to generate variable magnetic
fields,

wherein said variable magnetic fields are operable to select a portion of said particle beam with said predetermined energy
for irradiating said irradiation object and redirect said portion of said particle beam to a predetermined direction.

US Pat. No. 9,198,276

SOFT-START ADAPTER FOR AC HEATED ELECTRON GUN

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A circuit to power an electron source, comprising:
a filament transformer comprising a primary side and a secondary side;
a pulse transformer coupled to the filament transformer and the electron source; and
an alternating current (AC) limiter coupled in series with the primary side or the secondary side of the filament transformer,
the AC limiter comprising a two-terminal network including:

a diode bridge; and
a current-limiting device in the diode bridge, the current-limiting device including a depletion mode field effect transistor
(FET).

US Pat. No. 9,314,160

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR REAL-TIME TARGET VALIDATION FOR IMAGE-GUIDED RADIATION THERAPY

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method of validating a target during a radiation therapy treatment session, comprising:
generating X-ray images of a target volume using the therapeutic radiation beam;
comparing the X-ray images of the target volume with corresponding previously generated reference images of a 3D scan of the
target volume to determine similarity measures between the X-ray images and the reference images, the similarity measures
comprising a measure of similarity between the radiation beam trajectories in the X-ray images and corresponding reference
images and a measure of similarity between locations of the radiation beam energies in the X-ray images and corresponding
reference images; and

determining a displacement of the target volume based on the similarity measures,
wherein when the displacement exceeds a threshold displacement a feedback signal is generated.

US Pat. No. 9,308,395

RADIATION SYSTEMS WITH MINIMAL OR NO SHIELDING REQUIREMENT ON BUILDING

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. A radiation system, comprising:
a support;
a capsule rotatably coupled to the support;
a radiation source movably coupled to the capsule, wherein the radiation source is configured to provide a treatment radiation
beam, and the radiation source is configured to be turned on or off in response to a control signal; and

a collimator located at an operative position relative to the radiation source;
wherein the capsule includes a shielding material for attenuating radiation resulting from an operation of the radiation source,
and wherein the shielding material is configured to limit a radiation exposure level to 5mR/hr or less within 3 meters from
an isocenter; and

wherein the capsule has a first capsule portion defining a first space, and a second capsule portion coupled to the first
capsule portion, the second capsule portion defining a second space, the first space and the second space together forming
a spatial region, the spatial region configured for accommodating a portion of a patient,

the spatial region configured to accommodate a portion of a patient,
wherein the capsule includes an opening configured to permit entry of the portion of the patient into the spatial region and
located on a first side of the capsule,

wherein the first capsule portion and the second capsule portion are connected to each other via a connection,
wherein the capsule also includes a cover on a second side of the capsule opposite from the first side, the cover covering
a part of the spatial region and configured to prevent the portion of the patient from exiting the spatial region, and

wherein the second capsule portion is rotatable relative to the first capsule portion and has a rigid configuration.

US Pat. No. 9,265,971

SYSTEMS, METHODS, AND DEVICES FOR REAL-TIME TREATMENT VERIFICATION USING AN ELECTRONIC PORTAL IMAGING DEVICE

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method for verifying radiation dose received by a patient from a radiation therapy system, the method comprising:
irradiating a field using a radiation beam from the radiation therapy system;
during the irradiating, acquiring a continuous stream of image frames from an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) that
is arranged to detect radiation exiting the patient;

during the irradiating, processing the stream of image frames in real-time to obtain dose measurements at the EPID in the
field as dose-to-water values;

during the irradiating, determining compliance with predetermined characteristics for the field by comparing the processed
image frames with the predetermined characteristics; and

generating an error signal in response to a determination of non-compliance based on the comparing.

US Pat. No. 9,466,455

ELECTRON EMITTERS FOR X-RAY TUBES

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

10. An x-ray tube comprising:
an evacuated enclosure;
an anode at least partially positioned within the evacuated enclosure;
a cathode at least partially positioned within the evacuated enclosure, the cathode including an electron emitter comprising:
an electron filament;
a plurality of electrical leads, wherein each lead comprises:
a substantially cylindrical portion that is positioned so as to extend through an opening defined by the electron filament;
an enlarged portion that is connected to the substantially cylindrical portion and abuts the portion of the filament through
which the substantially cylindrical portion extends; and

at least one sleeve that surrounds and is secured to the lead so as to abut the filament,
each lead being mechanically and electrically connected to the filament without the presence of braze material.

US Pat. No. 9,400,332

MULTI-ENERGY X-RAY IMAGING

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS IN...

1. An imaging system, comprising:
a first detector configured to provide a first projection data using a first radiation having high energy; and
a second detector configured to provide a second projection data using a second radiation having low energy;
wherein the first detector has a first length, the second detector has a second length, and the first length is less than
75% of the second length; and

wherein the first detector has a first imaging plane and the second detector has a second imaging plane that corresponds with
the first imaging plane.

US Pat. No. 9,248,315

TARGETING METHOD FOR MICROBEAM RADIOSURGERY

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. A method of performing microbeam radiosurgery on a patient, comprising:
exposing first opposing portions of a target tissue, within a patient, with a first plurality of microbeam envelopes which
are mutually spatially distinct and substantially mutually parallel, and have corresponding first opposing surface regions
which are mutually spaced apart and orthogonal to a first vector having a first vector direction;

exposing second opposing portions of said target tissue with a second plurality of microbeam envelopes which are mutually
spatially distinct and substantially mutually parallel, and have corresponding second opposing surface regions which are mutually
spaced apart and orthogonal to a second vector having a second vector direction distinct from said first vector direction;
and

exposing at least third opposing portions of said target tissue with a third plurality of microbeam envelopes which are mutually
spatially distinct and substantially mutually parallel, and have corresponding third opposing surface regions which are mutually
spaced apart and orthogonal to a third vector having a third vector direction distinct from said first and second vector directions;

wherein said first, second and third pluralities of microbeam envelopes comprise first, second and third pluralities of flux
of high energy quanta, respectively, said quanta comprising at least one of electromagnetic radiation and material particles;
and

wherein said first, second and at least third opposing surface regions of said first, second and third pluralities of microbeam
envelopes, respectively, define a substantially closed volume.

US Pat. No. 9,238,151

DYNAMIC/ADAPTIVE TREATMENT PLANNING FOR RADIATION THERAPY

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method in a computing system for facilitating custom radiation treatment planning, comprising:
during a first radiation treatment session associated with a first treatment plan
determing locations of a plurality of markers implanted in a patient's body using non-ionizing radiation, and
collecting data indicating positioning of a predefined treatment site of the patient relative to a target treatment location
based on the determined locations throughout the first radiation treatment session;

associating the collected positioning data with data describing a plurality of radiation treatment fields used during the
first radiation treatment session;

providing at least the associated data to a treatment planning facility to determine a second treatment plan for a future
radiation treatment session for the patient to be performed on a different date than the first treatment plan and over a period
of time; and

producing the second treatment plan by
comparing intended positioning data of the first treatment plan with the collected positioning data throughout the first radition
treatment session, and

modifying the first treatment plan based on the comparison of the intended positioning data with the collected positioning
data.

US Pat. No. 9,289,627

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR ESTIMATING AND MANIPULATING ESTIMATED RADIATION DOSE

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A method for permitting manipulation of an achievable dose distribution estimate deliverable by a radiation delivery apparatus
for proposed treatment of a subject, the achievable dose distribution estimate defined over a three-dimensional range of voxels
with a dose value for each voxel, the method comprising:
(a) determining a dose modification voxel for which it is desired to modify the dose value and determining a corresponding
magnitude of desired dose modification;

(b) receiving the achievable dose distribution estimate, the dose modification voxel and the corresponding magnitude of desired
dose modification as input to a processor;

(c) for each of a plurality of beams:
(i) characterizing, using the processor, each beam as a two-dimensional array of beamlets, wherein each beamlet is associated
with a corresponding intensity value and a ray line representing a projection of the beamlet into space; and

(ii) identifying, using the processor, one or more dose-change beamlets which have associated ray lines that intersect the
dose modification voxel;

(d) modifying, using the processor, the intensity values of the one or more identified dose-change beamlets based on the magnitude
of desired dose modification, wherein modifying the intensity values of the one or more identified dose-change beamlets comprises,
for each of the one or more identified dose-change beamlets, modifying the intensity value of each identified dose-change
beamlet by a corresponding amount, the corresponding amount based on the magnitude of the desired dose modification;

(e) updating, using the processor, the achievable dose distribution estimate to account for the modified intensity values
of the identified dose-change beamlets; and

(f) outputting, from the processor, the updated achievable dose distribution estimate.

US Pat. No. 9,275,822

LIQUID METAL CONTAINMENT IN AN X-RAY TUBE

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. An x-ray tube anode assembly comprising:
an anode hub defining an opening configured to receive a shaft;
the anode hub configured to retain a volume of a liquid metal when the anode hub rotates around the shaft; and
a diaphragm configured to substantially create a liquid metal seal across the anode hub opening when the anode hub is at rest.

US Pat. No. 9,271,673

NIR IMAGE-GUIDED TARGETING

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method for treatment, comprising:
performing a base scan to obtain relative 3D positioning of a target within a skeletal anatomy of a patient;
performing an in-treatment optical scan on said patient to determine 3D positioning of said skeletal anatomy within a treatment
system, wherein said in-treatment optical scan comprises a near infrared (NIR) energy source, and wherein said performing
an in-treatment optical scan comprises:

detecting a plurality of detected signals from said optical scan; and
filtering out signaling characteristics for skin of said patient from said plurality of detected signals to obtain signals
related to said skeletal anatomy and determine said 3D positioning of said skeletal anatomy; and

registering said 3D positioning of said skeletal anatomy from said in-treatment optical scan and said 3D positioning of said
skeletal anatomy determined from said base scan to determine relative positioning of said target within said treatment system.

US Pat. No. 9,248,003

RECEIVER USED IN MARKER LOCALIZATION SENSING SYSTEM AND TUNABLE TO MARKER FREQUENCY

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method of locating a marker associated with a patient, said marker having a marker resonant frequency, the method comprising:
(a) implanting said marker in the patient;
(b) applying an excitation at a frequency selected from a set of frequencies to said marker using an excitation source;
(c) receiving a set of plurality of inputs indicative of a magnetic flux sensed over an observation interval and induced by
said marker in response to said excitation at said one of a set of frequencies;

(d) automatically adjusting the observation interval based at least in part on the set of plurality of inputs;
(e) iteratively repeating steps (b)-(c) for all of the frequencies in said set of frequencies;
(f) identifying said marker resonant frequency based upon the multiple sets of plurality of inputs;
(g) adjusting said excitation source to provide further excitation at said marker resonant frequency;
(h) receiving a resonance set of plurality of inputs indicative of a sensed magnetic flux induced by said marker in response
to said excitation at said marker resonant frequency; and

(i) analyzing said resonance set of plurality of inputs to determine said location of said marker, wherein analyzing said
resonance set of plurality of inputs to determine said location of said marker includes comparing said resonance set of inputs
to reference measurements corresponding to known locations within a bounding volume.

US Pat. No. 9,387,345

APPARATUS AND METHOD PERTAINING TO DETERMINING A SPATIALLY-VARIANT NORMAL TISSUE CONSTRAINT AS A FUNCTION OF DOSE DISTRIBUTION

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. An apparatus comprising:
a control circuit configured to optimize a radiation-treatment plan to treat at least one target volume for a given patient
by, at least in part:

automatically determining a spatially-variant normal tissue constraint as a function, at least in part, of dose distribution.

US Pat. No. 9,289,335

DYNAMIC PATIENT POSITIONING SYSTEM

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A treatment system comprising:
a particle beam source configured to generate a therapeutic beam of particles;
a particle beam nozzle to direct the therapeutic beam of particles in a first treatment area; and
an automated patient transport configured to transport a patient from a preparation area to the first treatment area and to
position a treatment volume within the patient relative to the therapeutic beam of particles, and configured to support the
patient in receiving the therapeutic beam of particles, the automated patient transport including a position sensor providing
signals for determining positions of the sensor and configured for use in determining the relative positions of the treatment
volume and the therapeutic beam of particles.

US Pat. No. 9,269,935

BATTERY PACK WITH INTEGRAL SEAL MEMBER AND ELECTRONIC DEVICE INCLUDING THE SAME

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A radiographic image receptor, comprising:
a housing member having an interior surface and an exterior surface, the interior surface defining an interior compartment
and a portion of the exterior surface defining a recess;

an x-ray image acquisition assembly contained in the interior compartment;
a removable battery pack received in the recess and electrically connected to the x-ray image acquisition assembly; and
a seal member engaging the battery pack and the housing member along an outer circumference of the battery pack and an inner
circumference of the recess such that the seal member seals a gap between the outer circumference of the battery pack and
the inner circumference of the recess, wherein the seal member is integrated to the battery pack or the housing member.

US Pat. No. 9,202,664

FINNED ANODE

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. A finned anode suitable for use in an x-ray tube, the anode comprising:
a hub configured to attach to a bearing assembly including one or more bearings;
a front side substantially facing each bearing of the bearing assembly;
a target surface disposed on the front side;
a rear side substantially opposite the front side; and
two or more annular anode fins extending from the rear side, the annular anode fins being positioned radially outward from
the hub to an outer periphery of the rear side.

US Pat. No. 9,196,388

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR GENERATING MOLYBDENUM-99 AND METASTABLE TECHNETIUM-99, AND OTHER ISOTOPES

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method for generating metastable technetium-99 and molybdenum-99 comprising:
accelerating deuterons;
bombarding a first target material comprising molybdenum-98 by the accelerated deuterons;
generating molybdenum-99 and metastable technetium-99 in the first target material;
capturing neutrons escaping from the first target material in a second target material comprising molybdenum-98 surrounding,
at least in part, the first target material;

generating molybdenum-99 and metastable technetium-99 in the second target material; and
separating molybdenum-99 and metastable technetium-99 from the first and second target materials.

US Pat. No. 9,060,698

RADIATION SYSTEM WITH ROTATING PATIENT SUPPORT

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. A medical system, comprising:
a positioner; and
a patient support coupled to the positioner;
wherein the positioner is configured to move the patient support in a first path in correspondence with a movement of a radiation
source;

wherein the patient support and the radiation source are configured to move in correspondence with each other so that the
patient support and the radiation source are on opposite sides of a spatial region at a first time instance, and are on other
opposite sides of the spatial region at a second time instance.

US Pat. No. 9,330,458

METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR ESTIMATING SCATTER

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. A method for an imaging system to estimate scatter associated with a target object, comprising:
generating, by the imaging system, a set of original projections associated with the target object;
generating, by the imaging system, a set of reference scatter data associated with the target object at one or more selected
projection angles;

generating, by the imaging system, a first set of estimated scatter data associated with the target object by applying one
or more kernels with first values for one or more kernel parameters to a first subset of projections out of the set of original
projections at the one or more selected projection angles;

adjusting, by the imaging system, the first values for the one or more kernel parameters of the one or more kernels that reduce
a difference between the set of reference scatter data and the first set of estimated scatter data;

interpolating, by the imaging system, the adjusted first values for remaining projections out of the set of original projections
to generate second values for the one or more kernel parameters; and

generating, by the imaging system, a second set of estimated scatter data associated with the target object by applying the
one or more kernels with the adjusted first values and the second values for the one or more kernel parameters.

US Pat. No. 9,324,468

MULTILEAF COLLIMATORS WITH TRANSVERSE MOTION

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A collimation assembly for selectively blocking radiation beams having a beam axis comprising a multileaf collimator and
a motion assembly, wherein
the multileaf collimator comprises a support body and a plurality of pairs of beam blocking leaves supported by the support
body, leaves of each pair being longitudinally movable in a first direction; and

the motion assembly comprises an actuator and a guide assembly operable to move the support body thereby allowing the plurality
of pairs of beam blocking leaves to move in a second direction generally transverse to the first direction and the beam axis.

US Pat. No. 9,299,143

METHODS FOR IMAGE PROCESSING

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. An image processing method, comprising:
obtaining an image that includes a ball image and a cone image, wherein the ball image indicates an image of a ball, and the
cone image indicates an image of a cone;

converting the image to a converted image using a processor, wherein the converted image comprises a converted ball image
that looks different from the ball image in the image, and a converted cone image that looks different from the cone image
in the image;

identifying the converted ball image in the converted image;
analyzing the converted ball image to determine a score; and
determining a center of the ball image based at least in part on the score;
wherein the obtained image also includes a rod image, and the method further comprises using the processor to determine a
position of the rod image using an algorithm.

US Pat. No. 9,271,692

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR TRIGGERING AN IMAGING PROCESS BASED ON NON-PERIODICITY IN BREATHING

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. A method of triggering an imaging process, comprising:
obtaining breathing signals, the breathing signals representing a breathing of a subject that fluctuates in amplitude in response
to the subject breathing freely, wherein the breathing signals are generated in a period during which the subject is allowed
to breathe freely;

analyzing the breathing signals to identify a non-periodicity in the breathing of the subject, wherein the identified non-periodicity
is a deviation from a normal breathing pattern, the deviation being characterized as to exclude gradual breathing pattern
variation that occurs over time; and

after the non-periodicity has occurred, generating a signal to cause an imaging process to begin in response to the identified
non-periodicity;

wherein the acts of analyzing and generating are performed during a radiation treatment procedure; and
wherein the method further comprises using an image from the imaging process to verify an item for the radiation treatment
procedure.

US Pat. No. 9,138,598

METHOD AND APPARATUS PERTAINING TO OPTIMIZING A RADIATION-TREATMENT LEAF-SEQUENCE PLAN

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A method to facilitate optimizing a radiation-treatment leaf-sequence plan for use when treating a treatment target in
a given patient, comprising:by a digital processor:
determining first information regarding physical-movement limitations pertaining to at least one multi-leaf collimator;
while optimizing the radiation-treatment leaf-sequence plan, constraining individually-planned leaf positions as a function,
at least in part, of the first information and planned positions of at least some adjacent leaves, which adjacent leaves are
other than immediately adjacent, such that multi-leaf collimator leaves are at least likely to be physically capable of being
moved, during a treatment session, to a new position in order to track changes pertaining to the treatment target, wherein
the new position is similar to a position that was planned for the at least some of the adjacent leaves.

US Pat. No. 9,103,925

RADIATION SCANNING AND DISABLING OF HAZARDOUS TARGETS IN CONTAINERS

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method of examining an object, the method comprising:
determining whether a potential threat is present within the object; andif so, disabling the potential threat with at least one of a X-ray beam or an electron beam.

US Pat. No. 9,446,264

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR PATIENT-SPECIFIC MOTION MANAGEMENT

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method for management of treatment strategy, comprising:
determining, using a processing unit, a first probability density function related to a first uncertainty in hitting a target
in a treatment of the target;

determining, using the processing unit, a second probability density function related to a second uncertainty, wherein the
first uncertainty is attributable to a first source of uncertainty, and the second uncertainty is attributable to a second
source of uncertainty that is different from the first source of uncertainty;

processing at least the first probability density function and the second probability density function using the processing
unit to obtain a result for management of the treatment strategy, wherein the management of the treatment strategy is for
determining one or more parameters for controlling a treatment system; and

outputting the result of the processing.

US Pat. No. 9,327,139

RADIATION THERAPY TREATMENT PLAN IMPROVEMENT THROUGH USE OF KNOWLEDGE BASE

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method for determining a radiation therapy dose distribution, comprising:
determining an organ at risk (OAR) distance to target map, wherein the OAR distance to target map comprises distances to a
target organ for respective portions of at least one OAR as determined from at least one segmented patient organ image;

selecting and downloading a cohort average dose distance to target histogram from a database; and
assigning a dose value to each of the portions of the at least one OAR to form a first 3D dose distribution map, wherein the
assigned dose values are derived from the selected cohort average dose distance to target histogram.

US Pat. No. 9,324,152

IMAGE PROCESSING OF IMAGES THAT INCLUDE MARKER IMAGES

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. An image processing method performed during a medical procedure, comprising:
obtaining an image, wherein the image is generated using a camera, the image having marker images of markers and a background
image, the markers being for determining a position associated with a patient;

identifying presence of an object in the background image using a processor; and
providing a signal for stopping the medical procedure if the presence of the object is identified, so that the object is prevented
from being mistakenly used as a marker for determining the position;

wherein the method further comprises setting a plurality of foreground pixels in the image that are to be excluded from detection
to have a certain grayscale; and

wherein the act of providing the signal is performed using the processor.

US Pat. No. 9,324,536

DUAL-ENERGY X-RAY TUBES

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. A duel-energy x-ray tube comprising:
an evacuated enclosure;
an anode positioned within the evacuated enclosure;
an electron target inside the anode;
a first electron passageway and a second electron passageway extending through the anode, the first electron passageway defining
a portion of a first electron path to the electron target and the second electron passageway defining a portion of a second
electron path to the electron target;

a first cathode positioned within the evacuated enclosure and configured to emit electrons towards the electron target for
passage through the first electron passageway extending through the anode, wherein the first cathode is electrically insulated
from about ground; and

a second cathode positioned within the evacuated enclosure and configured to emit electrons towards the electron target for
passage through the second electron passageway extending through the anode, wherein the second cathode is electrically coupled
to about ground,

wherein the first cathode and the second cathode are configured to operate simultaneously at different voltages.

US Pat. No. 9,283,053

APPARATUS AND METHODS FOR IMPLANTING OBJECTS, SUCH AS BRONCHOSCOPICALLY IMPLANTING MARKERS IN THE LUNG OF PATIENTS

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A catheter assembly for delivering a marker into a lumen, the assembly comprising:
a catheter having a proximal end and a distal end, the distal end configured to receive a marker, the distal end of the catheter
configured to provide a rounded leading edge, wherein

the catheter is configured to be passed into a lumen for deployment of the marker, and
the distal end of the catheter has an unexpanded state and an expanded state;
at least one marker contained at the distal end of the catheter, wherein the marker comprises a signal element configured
to transmit location signals in response to an excitation energy, wherein

when the distal end of the catheter is in the unexpanded state before the marker is loaded in the catheter, the marker has
an outer diameter greater than an inner diameter of the distal end of the catheter, and

when the distal end of the catheter is in the expanded state, the distal end of the catheter releasably retains the marker
by expanding around the marker;

an actuator having a housing coupled to a proximal end of the catheter and moveable between a first position and a second
position; and

a wire fixedly attached to the actuator, wherein the wire is contained in the catheter and extends co-axially substantially
the entire length of the catheter.

US Pat. No. 9,237,860

MOTION COMPENSATION FOR MEDICAL IMAGING AND ASSOCIATED SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A system for producing image data regarding a planning target volume (PTV) within a patient's body, the system comprising:
at least one marker that is implantable at the PTV within the patient;
sensors positioned to receive an electromagnetic location signal that is broadcast by the active marker, the sensors being
spaced apart from each other in a known geometry relative to each other;

a signal processing component configured to produce real-time localization data corresponding to the location signal based
on the known geometry, the real-time localization data including a plurality of time stamps and spatial coordinates associated
with a corresponding one of the time stamps; and

a system interface operably coupled with the signal processing component, the system interface also being operably coupled
with an imaging system that scans the PTV to produce raw image data regarding the PTV, wherein the imaging system uses a processing
algorithm to construct at least one of image frames and image slices, and

wherein the system interface is configured to
concurrently receive both the real-time localization data from the signal processing component and raw image data from the
imaging system while it simultaneously scans the PTV,

bin the raw image data based on a specific window of the real-time location data while the imaging system is still scanning
the PTV,

output motion compensated image data corresponding to a particular subset of the binned raw image data,
detect a change in location of the PTV out of a detection range based on the real-time localization data, and
in response to detecting the change in location of the PTV, direct the imaging system to adjust image processing by calibrating
the processing algorithm as it is still scanning the PTV.

US Pat. No. 9,179,982

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATIC PATIENT IDENTIFICATION

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method of verifying a patient identity, comprising the steps of:
providing a reference image of a patient to whom a radiotherapy is intended;
obtaining an image of an individual who is to receive the radiotherapy;
comparing the obtained image of the individual with the reference image of the patient;
confirming or negating the individual to be the patient intended based on the comparison of the obtained image of the individual
with the reference image of the patient; and

generating an output signal confirming or negating the verification, and/or warning signal if patient's variance exceeds a
threshold,

wherein the image of the individual is acquired in a treatment room in which the radiotherapy is to be provided; and
the image of the individual is obtained using X-ray radiography, computed tomography (CT) imaging, magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging, or ultrasound
(US) imaging.

US Pat. No. 10,080,911

KNOWLEDGE-BASED SPATIAL DOSE METRICS AND METHODS TO GENERATE BEAM ORIENTATIONS IN RADIOTHERAPY

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method executed on a computing device, the method for estimating a dose and developing a radiation therapy plan, the method comprising:executing, with a processor of the computing device, a dose distribution planning tool stored as programming code in a computer-readable medium of the computing device, wherein said executing comprises:
subdividing a representation of a volume of interest into a first plurality of voxels;
determining a first distance between an origin of a first planned radiation field of a radiation beam and a first voxel of the first plurality of voxels that is traversed by the first planned radiation field;
computing a first metric based on the first distance, a prescription dose associated with a target volume outside the volume of interest, and a first field parameter; and
evaluating the first metric and determining a beam orientation for delivering the prescription dose to the target volume, wherein said determining a beam orientation comprises including the first planned radiation field in the radiation therapy plan if the first metric satisfies a dose constraint for the volume of interest.

US Pat. No. 9,844,358

IMAGING-BASED SELF-ADJUSTING RADIATION THERAPY SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND METHODS

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. A method for calibrating a radiation treatment device, the radiation treatment device including control elements configured
to control parameters of the radiation treatment device, the method comprising:
(i) acquiring, using an imaging device, one or more images representing beam fields produced by a beam source;
(ii) determining a parameter of the radiation treatment device from the one or more images, the parameter relating to an output
of a control element;

(iii) evaluating the parameter against a predefined standard;
(iv) adjusting the output of the control element based on the result of the evaluating until the parameter meets the predefined
standard; and

(v) repeating steps (i) through (iv) until the parameters are evaluated and the outputs of the control elements are adjusted,
wherein one of the parameters to be evaluated is the imaging device position from the beam source, the evaluating including:
acquiring a first and a second image in (i) with the imaging device positioned at two different locations; and
calculating the distance of the imaging device from the beam source based on an amount by which the imaging device was moved
between the two locations, and a size of the beam field at the first location of the imaging device, and a size of the beam
field at the second location of the imaging device.

US Pat. No. 9,314,486

PREPARATIVE REGIMEN FOR ENGRAFTMENT, GROWTH AND DIFFERENTIATION OF NON-HEMATOPOEITIC CELLS IN VIVO AFTER TRANSPLANTATION

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method of treating a mammalian subject having a damaged central nervous system with a reduced function by engrafting
mammalian ex vivo cells at the site of injury, the method comprising the steps of:
(a) administering to the subject an effective amount of an agent that confers a growth disadvantage to at least a subset of
endogenous nerve cells at the site of engraftment, wherein the agent is radiation;

(b) administering to the subject an effective amount of a mitogenic stimuli for the ex vivo cells; and
(c) administering the ex vivo cells to the subject, wherein the ex vivo cells engraft at the site of injury and repopulate
at least a portion of the site with the ex vivo cells, wherein the repopulated ex vivo cells supplement the function and replace
at least a subset of endogenous nerve cells,

thereby treating the subject.

US Pat. No. 9,268,037

UNIVERSAL KV-MV IMAGERS

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. An x-ray imaging device, comprising:
a detector array;
an x-ray converting layer coupled to the detector array, wherein the detector array and the x-ray converting layer are configured
such that x-rays traverse the detector array before propagating in the x-ray converting layer; and

a buildup layer behind the x-ray converting layer in a direction of x-ray propagation.

US Pat. No. 9,227,086

HIGH ENERGY MICROBEAM RADIOSURGERY

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. A method of performing high energy microbeam radiosurgery on a patient, comprising:
irradiating a target tissue, within a patient, with high energy electromagnetic radiation via one or more microbeam envelopes
which are mutually spatially distinct and each of which has a respective maximum defined beam width, wherein

said high energy electromagnetic radiation includes photons having respective energy magnitudes within a spectrum with a peak
value in excess of 200 keV,

said peak value and said maximum defined beam width yield a graded lateral dose profile having a peak dose and non-abrupt
transitions to first and second valley doses, and

each of said one or more microbeam envelopes yields a biological damage width defined by a width of said graded lateral dose
profile above a threshold dose value which is between said peak and valley doses and above which biological damage occurs.

US Pat. No. 9,089,696

TIME-RESOLVED PRE-TREATMENT PORTAL DOSIMETRY SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND METHODS

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS IN...

1. A time-dependent pre-treatment dosimetric evaluation method for a radiation therapy device, comprising:
generating a sequence of portal dose images based on images continuously acquired during beam delivery according to a treatment
plan, each portal dose image in the sequence corresponding to a measured dose delivered at a predetermined time interval of
the treatment plan;

for each predetermined time interval, comparing the generated portal dose image with a corresponding predicted portal dose
image; and

evaluating dose delivery based on the comparison.

US Pat. No. 9,082,520

MULTI LEVEL MULTILEAF COLLIMATORS

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A multileaf collimator comprising:
a first set of a plurality of pairs of beam blocking leaves arranged adjacent one another, leaves of each pair in the first
set being disposed in an opposed relationship and longitudinally movable relative to each other in a first direction; and

a second set of a plurality of pairs of beam blocking leaves arranged adjacent one another, leaves of each pair in the second
set being disposed in an opposed relationship and longitudinally movable relative to each other in a second direction generally
parallel to the first direction; wherein

the first and second sets of pairs of leaves are disposed in different planes and the first set of pairs of leaves comprises
a first quantity of pairs of leaves and the second set of pairs of leaves comprises a second quantity of pairs of leaves wherein
the first quantity and the second quantity are different.

US Pat. No. 9,047,701

4D CONE BEAM CT USING DEFORMABLE REGISTRATION

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. A method of obtaining a volumetric image, comprising:
obtaining a plurality of volumetric images, the volumetric images generated using respective sets of projection images, wherein
the volumetric images and the respective sets of projection images correspond with different respective bins for a physiological
cycle; and

determining an additional volumetric image using one or more of the projection images from each of the sets that correspond
with the different respective bins for the physiological cycle;

wherein the act of determining the additional volumetric image is performed using a processor; and
wherein the bins to which the sets of projection images correspond cover a phase or amplitude range that is at least 50% of
a complete phase or amplitude range for the physiological cycle.

US Pat. No. 9,401,051

MECHANISM FOR DYNAMICALLY PROPAGATING REAL-TIME ALTERATIONS OF MEDICAL IMAGES

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A method for editing a pre-generated image, the method comprising:
accessing a first image comprising a first plurality of structures, the first image being generated by a medical imaging device;
in a computing device, receiving an input corresponding to an adjustment of a first structure of the first plurality of structures
via a user input device communicatively coupled to the computing device;

referencing a deformation mechanism, the deformation mechanism comprising:
a first identity map mapping the first plurality of structures to each other; and
a registration map mapping the first identity map with a plurality of registered identity maps;
editing the first structure in the deformation mechanism according to the input by modifying the first identity map; and
automatically updating the plurality of registered identity maps based on the registration map in response to the adjustment
to the first structure.

US Pat. No. 9,268,042

CHARACTERIZING RADIOTHERAPY BEAMS BASED ON IMAGE DETECTION ARRAY DATA

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A method for determining parameters of a beam, said method executed by a system comprising a processor and electrical components
under control of computer-readable and computer-executable instructions, said method comprising:
determining values associated with at least one of a plurality of parameters of a beam by integrating information for said
beam supplied from an image detection device that receives said beam and generates and collects charge corresponding to the
fluence of said beam;

displaying said values in a graphical interface as a three-dimensional (3D) representation of a first fluence map of said
beam, said graphical interface also displaying a first set of values for symmetry, flatness, and field size associated with
said beam;

providing adjustments to parameters that affect said fluence of said beam to produce an adjusted beam, said image detection
device receiving information for said adjusted beam by collecting charge corresponding to the fluence of said adjusted beam;
and

determining a second set of values for symmetry, flatness, and field size for said adjusted beam by integrating said information
for said adjusted beam supplied from said image detection device, wherein said adjustments are made automatically by said
system so that said second set of values for symmetry, flatness, and field size is improved relative to said first set of
values.

US Pat. No. 9,084,888

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR SEGMENTATION OF RADIOPAQUE STRUCTURES IN IMAGES

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method of determining a model of a marker, comprising:
obtaining projection images, each of the projection images having an image of a marker that indicates a shape of the marker,
the marker being a physical object implanted inside a patient;

determining binary images of the marker for respective ones of the projection images; and
constructing, using a processing unit, a three-dimensional model of the marker using the binary images, the three-dimensional
model comprising a set of voxels in a three-dimensional space that collectively indicates an actual three-dimensional shape
of the marker.

US Pat. No. 9,052,265

METHOD AND APPARATUS TO FACILITATE DETERMINATION OF A PARAMETER THAT CORRESPONDS TO A SCANNING GEOMETRY CHARACTERISTIC

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method comprising:
providing an energy source and a corresponding detector array comprising multiple detector channels;
providing an object;
causing relative movement of at least one of the energy source and the corresponding detector array with respect to the object
about an axis of rotation;

using the energy source and the corresponding detector array while causing the relative movement to scan the object to obtain
object projection data;

using the object projection data for a plurality of the multiple detector channels to determine a parameter as corresponds
to at least one scanning geometry characteristic as corresponds to using the energy source and the corresponding detector
array while causing the relative movement to scan the object, such that the parameter is determined even when the object comprises
an object other than a calibration object and is being projected to facilitate a study of the object other than solely as
part of calibrating usage of the energy source and the corresponding detector array, wherein the scanning geometry characteristics
comprises a value that corresponds to a sample pitch.

US Pat. No. 9,440,094

TREATMENT COUCH FOR SMALL ISOCENTRIC ROTATIONS

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS IN...

1. A treatment system for a patient, comprising:
a radiation delivery apparatus;
a gantry configured to rotate the radiation delivery apparatus about a horizontal axis, thereby defining an isocenter; and
a treatment couch to position the patient, comprising:
a couch top;
a pitch and roll stage configured to pitch and roll the couch top about pitch and roll axes;
a lateral and longitudinal translation stage to translate the couch top along lateral and longitudinal translation axes;
an angular stage to rotate the couch top about a first vertical rotation axis; and
a vertical stage to translate the couch top along a vertical translation axis; and
a controller programmed to perform a rotation of the treatment couch about a second vertical rotation axis by dynamically
moving both the angular stage and the lateral and longitudinal translation stage to rotate the couch top about the first vertical
rotation axis and translate the couch top along the lateral and the longitudinal translational axes, wherein the first vertical
rotation axis is proximal to a first end of the couch top away from the radiation delivery apparatus, and the second vertical
axis is proximal to a second end of the couch top near the radiation delivery apparatus.

US Pat. No. 9,409,039

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR AUTOMATIC CREATION OF DOSE PREDICTION MODELS AND THERAPY TREATMENT PLANS AS A CLOUD SERVICE

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A method for selecting a set of data for a dose prediction model, the method comprising:
receiving a set of patient anatomy data and a set of training data, the training data comprising a plurality of treatment
plans selected from a treatment plan database based on a similarity of the plurality of treatment plans with the set of patient
anatomy data;

performing an analysis on the set of patient anatomy data and the set of training data;
training a dose prediction model based on the analysis; and
predicting a plurality of dose parameters for a radiation therapy treatment plan by applying the dose prediction model to
the set of patient anatomy data;

wherein the receiving, the performing, the training, and the predicting are performed in an application executed by a processor
of a computing device.

US Pat. No. 9,338,875

INTERLACED MULTI-ENERGY BETATRON WITH ADJUSTABLE PULSE REPETITION FREQUENCY

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method of operating a betatron device having swing coils for accelerating electrons and having bias coils to provide
electron pulses at different energies, the method comprising:
operating the swing coils to generate a swing component of a total magnetic field at the electron orbit over a plurality of
cycles, the electron orbit being a circular path in which accelerated electrons travel;

operating the bias coils to generate a bias component of the total magnetic field at the electron orbit;
operating the bias coils such that the bias magnetic component has a constant first magnitude during a first acceleration
portion of a first cycle of the plurality of cycles;

accelerating, with the swing coils, a first packet of electrons with a first swing in flux subject to the total magnetic field
during the first acceleration portion of the first cycle to have a first energy, wherein the first packet of electrons is
in a stable orbit during the first acceleration portion of the first cycle;

expanding an electron orbit of the first packet of electrons at an end of the first acceleration portion;
operating the bias coils such that the bias magnetic component has a constant second magnitude during a second acceleration
portion of a second cycle of the plurality of cycles, the second magnitude being different than the first magnitude; and

accelerating, with the swing coils, a second packet of electrons with a second swing in flux subject to the total magnetic
field during the second acceleration portion of the second cycle to have a second energy, the second energy being different
than the first energy.

US Pat. No. 9,317,969

CONSTRUCTIVE ANATOMIC GEOMETRY

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method involving a medical image, comprising:
obtaining a medical image;
obtaining a program instruction from a user for creating an object, wherein the program instruction is based on a constructive-anatomic-geometry
(CAG) language;

executing the program instruction to create the object, wherein the act of executing the program instruction is performed
using a processor that is configured to process the CAG language;

outputting graphical data representing the object that is created based on the program instruction for display in the image;
and

storing information regarding the object in a non-transitory medium;
wherein the CAG language is any language having a plurality of commands that can be selectively combined for allowing one
or more object-creation actions to be defined.

US Pat. No. 9,155,907

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR COMBINING MACHINE LIMITATIONS INFORMATION WITH TARGET MOTION BOUNDARY INFORMATION

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. An apparatus comprising:
a memory having stored therein machine limitations information as regards a radiation-treatment delivery apparatus and target
motion boundary information as regards a volume within which a radiation target may possibly move during a radiation treatment
session via the radiation-treatment delivery apparatus;

a control circuit operably coupled to the memory and configured to act with respect to a radiation treatment plan based on
a combination of the machine limitations information and the target motion boundary information.

US Pat. No. 9,480,860

SYSTEM AND METHODS FOR PROCESSING IMAGES TO MEASURE MULTI-LEAF COLLIMATOR, COLLIMATOR JAW, AND COLLIMATOR PERFORMANCE UTILIZING PRE-ENTERED CHARACTERISTICS

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method for image processing for collimator positioning, the method comprising:
a. receiving image data corresponding to an image generated by an imaging system comprising a multi-leaf collimator (MLC),
a detector, and a radiation source;

b. calculating an expected position of an edge of a first leaf of the MLC based on pre-entered characteristics corresponding
to the imaging system and the image data;

c. deriving a minimum position and a maximum position based on the expected position for the edge of the first leaf, the minimum
and maximum positions corresponding to a width of the first leaf and along an axis corresponding to an orientation of the
MLC;

d. verifying an availability of the minimum and maximum positions;
e. interpolating a minimum pixel value based on the minimum position and a maximum pixel value based on the maximum position;
f. generating a target pixel value based on an average pixel value of the minimum pixel value and the maximum pixel value;
and

g. determining a target position based on the target pixel value.

US Pat. No. 9,463,334

RADIATION THERAPY PLANING USING INTEGRATED MODEL

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A computer implemented method of automatically generating a radiation treatment plan for a patient, said method comprising:
accessing patient information pertaining to planning a radiation treatment for said patient;
automatically selecting one or more predictive models based on said patient information in accordance with a hierarchical
model comprising a plurality of predictive models arranged in a hierarchy, wherein a respective predictive model of said plurality
of predictive models is established based on training data and operable to generate a radiation treatment prediction, wherein
said hierarchical model is automatically generated through a machine training process, and wherein said respective predictive
model represents a correlation between a set of input variables representing patient information features and a set of output
variables; processing said patient information in accordance with said one or more predictive models; and

outputting one or more radiation treatment predictions.

US Pat. No. 9,384,935

CATHODE STRUCTURES FOR X-RAY TUBES

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. An apparatus comprising:
a cylindrical cathode filament to function as a cathode of an X-ray tube, the cathode filament comprising a top surface and
an oppositely positioned bottom surface, the top surface configured to emit electrons and comprising a non-selected portion
and a selected portion, wherein a work function of the selected portion of the top surface of the filament is lower than a
work function of the non-selected portion of the top surface, wherein the selected portion comprises a first material, and
the non-selected portion comprises a second material, and wherein one of: (1) the first material comprises thoriated ditungsten
carbide (W2C/ThO2) and the second material comprises thoriated tungsten (W/ThO2), (2) the first material comprises ceriated
ditungsten carbide (W2C/CeO2 or W2C/Ce2O3) and the second material comprises ceriated tungsten (W/CeO2 or W2/Ce2O3), or (3)
the first material comprises lanthanaized ditungsten carbide (W2C/LaO or W2C/La2O3) and the second material comprises lanthanized
tungsten (W/LaO or W/La2O3).

US Pat. No. 9,177,754

X-RAY TUBE COOLING BY EMISSIVE HEAT TRANSFER

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. An x-ray tube, comprising:
an evacuated envelope;
a cathode assembly disposed in the evacuated envelope, the cathode assembly comprising a cathode shield, a supporting body
disposed inside the cathode shield, and an electron source attached to the supporting body and partially enclosed by the cathode
shield; and

an anode assembly disposed in the evacuated envelope, the anode assembly comprising a target configured to produce x-rays
upon impingement by electrons produced by the electron source;

wherein the cathode shield comprises a shield base material, and at least a portion of the cathode shield comprises a first
layer converted from the shield base material, the first layer possesses a first emissivity greater than an emissivity of
the shield base material.

US Pat. No. 9,153,034

IMAGE PROCESSING OF IMAGES THAT INCLUDE MARKER IMAGES

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. An image processing method, comprising:
obtaining an image, the image having marker images and a background image;
identifying presence of an object in the background image using a processor; and
providing a signal for stopping a procedure if the presence of the object is identified;
wherein the method further comprises reducing gradient variation across the image by (1) sampling a set of points in the image,
(2) generating a gradient image with grayscale gradient that corresponds with the sampled set of points, and (3) subtracting
the gradient image from the image.

US Pat. No. 9,142,016

METHODS FOR IMAGE PROCESSING

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. An image processing method, comprising:
obtaining an image that includes a ball image and a cone image;
obtaining an estimate of a center of the ball image;
converting the image to a converted image using a processor based at least in part on the estimate of the center of the ball
image, wherein the converted image comprises a converted ball image that looks different from the ball image in the image,
and a converted cone image that looks different from the cone image in the image;

identifying the converted ball image in the converted image; and
analyzing the converted ball image to determine a score that represents an accuracy of the estimate of the center of the ball
image;

wherein the image is converted to the converted image using a polar-to-rectangular coordinate conversion scheme.

US Pat. No. 9,086,496

FEEDBACK MODULATED RADIATION SCANNING SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR REDUCED RADIOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method of examining an object comprising:
scanning a portion of an object by a first radiation beam having a first value of a beam characteristic;
detecting the first radiation beam after interaction with the object by a first detector having a first resolution;
determining whether to change the first value of the beam characteristic to a second value different from the first value
based, at least in part, on the first radiation beam detected by the first detector;

scanning the portion of the object by a second radiation beam having the first value or the second value of the beam characteristic
based, at least in part, on the determination; and

detecting the second radiation beam after interacting with the object at a second location different from the first location,
by a second detector having a second resolution greater than the first resolution.

US Pat. No. 9,387,342

EXTERNAL BEAM RADIOTHERAPY AND IMAGING WITH RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPE

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method of delivering external radiation beams to a target volume in a body portion, comprising the steps of:
positioning one or more radioactive isotope source(s) at a plurality of locations around the body portion; and
collimating radiation beams of the one or more radioactive isotope source(s) from the plurality of locations, whereby the
target volume in the body portion is deposited with a predetermined dose distribution;

wherein the plurality of locations are coplanar and spaced apart substantially evenly along a generally circular orbit surrounding
the body portion such that the collimated radiation beams are directed to the target volume from the plurality of the coplanar
locations surrounding the body portion along the generally circular orbit and a combined dose deposited to the body portion
has a dose distribution with a substantially lower dose at a skin surface of the body portion than in the target volume.

US Pat. No. 9,380,239

PIXEL CIRCUIT WITH CONSTANT VOLTAGE BIASED PHOTODIODE AND RELATED IMAGING METHOD

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. An imaging system having a pixel array that includes a plurality of pixel circuits, each pixel circuit comprising:
a photodiode configured to generate charges in response to light or radiation;
a biasing circuit configured to provide a constant bias voltage across the photodiode so as to drain the charges generated
by the photodiode; and

a first charge-to-voltage converter configured to accumulate the charges drained by the biasing circuit and convert the accumulated
charges into a corresponding output voltage.

US Pat. No. 9,119,281

CHARGED PARTICLE ACCELERATOR SYSTEMS INCLUDING BEAM DOSE AND ENERGY COMPENSATION AND METHODS THEREFOR

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A stabilized radio-frequency (“RF”) accelerator system, comprising:
an RF accelerator to accelerate charged particles;
an RF source coupled to the accelerator to provide RF power into the accelerator;
a charged particle source coupled to the accelerator to inject charged particles into the accelerator;
an electric power source coupled to the RF source and the charged particle source to provide electric power thereto; and
a controller coupled to the electric power source to control operation of the electric power source, the controller configured
to generate a compensated control voltage based, at least in part, on a nominal control voltage and a compensation voltage,
and to provide the compensated control voltage to the electric power source, the compensation voltage compensating for dose
and/or energy instability in the respective acceleration system;

wherein:
the electric power provided to the RF source by the electric power source is based, at least in part, on the compensated control
voltage; and

the compensated control voltage is based, at least in part, on past performance of the system determined by testing of the
system.

US Pat. No. 9,048,064

CATHODE ASSEMBLY FOR A LONG THROW LENGTH X-RAY TUBE

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. A cathode assembly for an x-ray tube comprising:
an electron emitter including a curved emitting surface configured to emit an electron beam having a y-dimension that is greater
than an x-dimension at the electron emitter;

an acceleration region defined adjacent to the electron emitter and configured such that when the electron beam propagates
within the acceleration region, the electron beam accelerates in a z-direction substantially normal to a midpoint of the curved
emitting surface; and

a drift region defined between the acceleration region and an anode and configured such that the combined lengths of the drift
region and the acceleration region are sufficient for the y-dimension of the electron beam to be less than the x-dimension
of the electron beam at the anode.

US Pat. No. 9,392,962

PREDICTION OF BREATHING SIGNAL AND DETERMINING NON-PERIODICITY OF BREATHING USING SIGNAL-PHASE HISTOGRAM

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. A method of processing breathing signals of a subject, comprising:
obtaining breathing signals of a subject using a breathing monitoring device;
obtaining a signal-phase histogram using the breathing signals, wherein the signal-phase histogram comprises a plurality of
data points, each of the data points having at least a phase value and a signal value;

determining, by a processing unit, a first reference value using at least some of the plurality of data points from the signal-phase
histogram;

determining, by the processing unit, a difference between the first reference value and a signal value that is associated
with a current respiratory cycle;

predicting, by the processing unit, a future signal value by:
determining, by the processing unit, a second reference value using at least some of the data points in the histogram corresponding
with a future phase value, and adding the difference and the second reference value to predict the future signal value; and

providing, by the processing unit,
a control signal to a controller for controlling a component of a radiation system based at least in part on the future signal
value that is predicted by the processing unit.

US Pat. No. 9,326,907

PATIENT POSITIONING AND SUPPORT SYSTEMS

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A patient positioning system, comprising:
an arm having a first portion and a second portion;
a first positioning device coupled to the first portion of the arm, the first positioning device providing support for the
arm and rotatable on a first axis, thereby allowing the arm to rotate with the first positioning device;

a second positioning device coupled to the second portion of the arm, the second positioning device being operable to rotate
a patient support at least on a second axis;

a third positioning device coupled to the arm and operable to extend and/or retract the second portion of the arm relative
to the first portion of the arm along a longitudinal axis of the arm; and

a control system coupled to the first, the second, and/or the third positioning devices to control operations of the first,
the second, and/or the third positioning devices,

wherein the first positioning device is operable to pivot the arm on a third axis.

US Pat. No. 9,091,391

SIX DEGREES OF FREEDOM MOTION PLATFORM

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A motion platform, comprising:
a base comprising a first section and a second section horizontally separated by an intermediate section between the first
and the second sections, the first, the second, and the intermediate sections being fixed relative to each other;

a platform;
a suspension supporting the platform to enable a range of motion of the platform above the first section of the base but not
the second section of the base;

actuators located at the second section of the base to be horizontally offset from the platform above the first section of
the base; and

flexible links connecting the actuators to the platform to provide motion in multiple degrees of freedom to the platform.

US Pat. No. 9,083,103

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PREVENTING ACCESS TO ELECTRICAL CONTACTS

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. An electrical contact device, comprising:
a first body having a first surface;
a plurality of electrical contacts received in the first body and protruding a distance from the first surface, wherein the
plurality of electrical contacts are arranged in a single row;

a second body comprising a first side wall and a second side wall, the first and second side walls being configured such that
the plurality of electrical contacts protruding from the first surface are interposed between the first and second side walls;

wherein the first and second side walls each defines a height from the first surface greater than the distance of the plurality
of electrical contacts protruding from the first surface, and the first and second side walls define a width smaller than
a dimension of an object, thereby preventing the object from accessing to the plurality of electrical contacts protruding
from the first surface.

US Pat. No. 9,588,235

X-RAY IMAGER WITH CMOS SENSOR EMBEDDED IN TFT FLAT PANEL

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. An x-ray imaging device, comprising:
a scintillator layer configured to generate light from x-rays, said scintillator layer comprises a first surface and a second
surface;

a first detector at the first surface configured to detect light generated in the scintillator layer, said first detector
comprises a plurality of first detection pixels configured to generate a first image with a first resolution; and

a second detector at the second surface configured to detect light generated in the scintillator layer, said second detector
comprises a plurality of second detection pixels configured to generate a second image with a second resolution, wherein the
second detection pixels are different from the first detection pixels, and the first resolution of the first image differs
from the second resolution of the second image.

US Pat. No. 9,558,561

SEMIAUTOMATIC DRAWING TOOL FOR IMAGE SEGMENTATION

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS IN...

1. A computer-implemented method for segmenting an image, the method comprising:
calculating, by a processor, a direction vector based on a first point of an image segmentation contour and a second point
of the image segmentation contour, wherein the image segmentation contour at least partially separates a first region of the
image from a second region of the image; and

constructing, by the processor, a luminance intensity profile for a portion of the image that intersects the direction vector
at an intersection point, wherein the first region of the image has a first average luminance associated therewith, the second
region has a second average luminance associated therewith, and the first average luminance is different from the second average
luminance.

US Pat. No. 9,517,036

RADIATION IMAGING USING VERY SLOW ROTATIONAL TECHNIQUE

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. An imaging system, comprising:
a radiation source;
a positioner configured to rotate the radiation source along an arc path at a rate that is equal to or less than Rmax, Rmax being calculated from ? and T using a processing unit, and being equal to ?/T, wherein the rate is a speed of rotation of
the radiation source when the radiation source is rotating;

an imager in operative position relative to the radiation source, wherein the radiation source and the imager are configured
to obtain a plurality of images while the radiation source is at different positions along the arc path; and

a processor configured to determine a digital tomosynthesis image using a subset of the plurality of images;
where ? is an angular spacing between a subset of the images that belongs to a same bin, and T is a period of a physiological
motion, wherein at least two images in the subset of the images belonging to the same bin correspond with two different respective
positions of the radiation source.

US Pat. No. 9,381,376

SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND METHODS FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE OF RADIATION THERAPY

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS IN...

13. A system for verifying quantities of interest of a radiation beam in an arc-based radiation therapy device including a
gantry, comprising:
a portal dose imaging device adapted to measure incident radiation dose from each predetermined radiation field, each radiation
field corresponding to a predetermined arc segment of the gantry, the portal dose imaging device being further configured
generate two-dimensional (2D) portal images for each arc segment; and

a processing device operably connected to the portal dose imaging device and being configured to convert the 2D portal images
to 2D portal dose images and to store a plurality of measured 2D portal dose image data in a first 3D data array including
3D position information of points in the measured 2D portal dose images, and having spatial and angular locations of the delivered
beams (X, Y, ?) as dimensions, the processing device being further configured to store a plurality of predicted 2D portal
dose image data in a second 3D data array including 3D position information of points in the predicted 2D portal dose images,
and having spatial and angular locations of the predicted beams (X, Y, ?) as dimensions;

the processing device being further configured to compare the points in the first 3D data array with corresponding points
in the second 3D data array using a 3D gamma evaluation method, the gamma evaluation method including calculating dose differences,
spatial differences, and angular differences between corresponding points in the first and second 3D data arrays as parameters;

the processing device being further configured to evaluate the calculated differences using a gamma error function, the gamma
error function determining minimums of a metric comprising the calculated dose, spatial, and angular differences for the points
evaluated in the generated image, and to determine acceptability of a quantity of interest based on a result of the evaluation,

wherein errors in the quantities of interest are determined based on the comparison.

US Pat. No. 9,242,120

TIME-RESOLVED PRE-TREATMENT PORTAL DOSIMETRY SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND METHODS

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS IN...

1. A dosimetric evaluation method, comprising:
generating a sequence of portal dose images, the portal dose images in the sequence corresponding to measured radiation doses
delivered according to a radiation treatment plan;

comparing the portal dose images generated with corresponding predicted portal dose images using a time-dependent gamma evaluation
method; and

evaluating radiation dose delivery based on the comparison.

US Pat. No. 9,119,541

EYEWEAR FOR PATIENT PROMPTING

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. A method of providing information to a patient that is being supported on a patient support, comprising:
providing a screen for viewing by the patient; and
providing an image on the screen using a device, wherein the image has (1) a first object indicating a desired inhale level
to be achieved and (2) a patient-controlled item that moves in response to a breathing movement of the patient;

wherein the first object comprises a discrete block that moves relative to the screen in a first direction, the patient-controlled
item being moveable relative to the screen in a second direction that is different from the first direction; and

wherein the patient-controlled item is moveable in the second direction to intercept the first object that moves in the first
direction.

US Pat. No. 9,530,528

X-RAY TUBE APERTURE HAVING EXPANSION JOINTS

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. In an x-ray tube having a cathode and an anode, an electron shield configured to intercept backscattered electrons from
the anode, the electron shield comprising:
a body extending from a first end to a second end, the body defining an aperture and an electron collection surface, the aperture
extending from the first end to the second end and configured to allow electrons generated at the cathode to pass to the anode
in a direction extending perpendicularly from the cathode; and

one or more expansion joints formed in the electron collection surface, the one or more expansion joints extending radially
outward from the aperture, wherein no line passing through the one or more expansion joints is parallel to the direction extending
perpendicularly from the cathode.

US Pat. No. 9,472,371

FILAMENT FOR X-RAY CATHODE

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. An x-ray cathode filament comprising:
a substrate comprising a planar substrate of a substrate material; and
a coating comprising carburized tungsten (W2C) and thoria (ThO2) disposed upon a first surface the substrate;

wherein a first electron beam emits from the coating through a thermionic effect at a first temperature, wherein a second
electron beam emits at the first temperature from uncoated surfaces of the substrate that the thorium diffuses to.

US Pat. No. 9,421,399

MULTI-MODE CONE BEAM CT RADIOTHERAPY SIMULATOR AND TREATMENT MACHINE WITH A FLAT PANEL IMAGER

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. A method to perform a clinical treatment, comprising:
receiving a treatment plan at a computer of a radiation treatment machine;
storing reference image data on said computer;
positioning a patient at an initial position on a treatment couch of the radiation treatment machine;
rotating a gantry coupled to a frame of the radiation treatment machine;
emitting cone-beam radiation from a radiation source coupled to the gantry;
transmitting at least a portion of the cone-beam radiation through said patient;
capturing first image projection data using a flat-panel kV imager coupled to the gantry, wherein capturing the first image
projection data includes capturing at least a portion of the portion of the cone-beam radiation transmitted through said patient;

generating cone-beam computed tomography (CT) volumetric image data from the first image projection data;
registering said cone-beam computed tomography (CT) volumetric image data with said reference image data;
repositioning the patient based on the cone-beam computed tomography (CT) volumetric image data, wherein repositioning the
patient comprises moving said treatment couch prior to beginning the clinical treatment;

applying therapeutic radiation to a target volume using the treatment plan;
capturing second image projection data using a flat-panel MV imager coupled to the gantry, wherein capturing the second image
projection data includes capturing at least a portion of the therapeutic radiation applied to the target volume; and

changing the speed of rotation of the gantry during rotation of the gantry.

US Pat. No. 9,072,895

GUIDED RADIATION THERAPY SYSTEM

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method for providing radiation treatment for a patient during a radiation treatment session, comprising:
during the radiation treatment session, initially delivering therapeutic radiation energy to a machine isocenter in accordance
with initial radiation energy delivery parameters;

throughout the radiation treatment session, tracking the location of a predefined treatment site of the patient relative to
the machine isocenter by energizing or exciting a marker implanted in the patient's body via an excitation source positioned
exterior to the patient to determine the location of the marker, wherein the marker resonates at a unique frequency to produce
an identifiable signal when energized or excited by the excitation source; and

altering the radiation energy delivery parameters in accordance with which radiation energy is delivered in the radiation
treatment session in a manner responsive to the location tracking.

US Pat. No. 9,232,928

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR PREDICTIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL GATING

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. A method for use in a radiation procedure, comprising:
obtaining a first set of data representative of a respiratory motion of a patient;
obtaining a second set of data representative of a reference respiratory motion;
performing an analysis using the first and the second sets of data to compare the respiratory motion with the reference respiratory
motion, wherein the analysis is performed using a processor; and

generating a signal to control a treatment machine in a radiation procedure based at least on a result of the step of performing;
wherein a portion of the respiratory motion and a portion of the reference respiratory motion are parts of a same breathing
cycle; and

wherein the processor comprises a respiratory motion comparison module configured to perform the analysis using the first
and second sets of data to compare the respiratory motion with the reference respiratory motion.

US Pat. No. 10,026,517

MULTILEAF COLLIMATOR ASSEMBLY WITH REDUCED EXTRA-FOCAL LEAKAGE

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A multileaf collimator assembly, comprising:a plurality of pairs of beam shaping leaves, leaves of each pair being movable relative to each other in a longitudinal direction, the plurality of pairs of beam shaping leaves comprising a first outermost pair of leaves and a second outermost pair of leaves opposite to the first outermost pair of leaves, leaves of each pair being driven by drive motors; and
a first static block adjacent to the first outermost pair of leaves, the first static block being unmovable in the longitudinal direction relative to the plurality of pairs of beam shaping leaves and being constructed from a radiation attenuating material comprising tungsten or lead.

US Pat. No. 9,498,167

SYSTEM AND METHODS FOR TREATING PATIENTS USING RADIATION

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

25. A radiation method, comprising:
delivering radiation towards a patient, wherein the delivering of the radiation is performed using a radiation machine, wherein
the radiation machine comprises a structure having a first side, a second side, a first opening located on the first side,
and a bore that extends from the first opening in a direction that is towards the second side, and wherein the radiation machine
further comprises a radiation source coupled to the structure; and

moving a portion of the patient from a first operative position that is associated with the radiation machine to a second
operative position that is outside the bore, or vice versa, the first operative position being in the bore;

wherein the first operative position comprises a treatment space aimed at by the radiation source, and wherein the second
operative position comprises an imaging space.

US Pat. No. 9,500,752

PIXEL ARCHITECTURE FOR IMAGING DEVICES

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. An imaging apparatus comprising a plurality of detector pixels, wherein each detector pixel comprises:
a detector element configured to generate a first current in response to x-ray photons incident thereon;
a current mirror configured to generate a second current representative of the first current;
a switching transistor configured to allow the second current and/or the first current to be transferred out from the detector
pixel; and

a switch controllable by a global select signal and connected to the current mirror, wherein when the switch is turned on,
the first and second currents are transferred out from the detector pixel, and when the switch is turned off, the first current
is transferred out from the detector pixel.

US Pat. No. 9,589,188

METHOD AND APPARATUS PERTAINING TO IDENTIFYING OBJECTS OF INTEREST IN A HIGH-ENERGY IMAGE

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method comprising:
by a control circuit having access to at least one high-energy image of a scene, wherein the at least one high-energy image
is formed by a superimposing image-forming method:

assessing the at least one high-energy image of the scene to identify candidate obfuscators, the assessing including, at least
in part, determining a composition of a material that comprises at least one of the candidate obfuscators;

assessing the at least one high-energy image of the scene to identify candidate obfuscated objects, this assessing including,
at least in part, determining a composition of a material that comprises at least one of the candidate obfuscated objects;

processing information regarding the candidate obfuscated objects to identify objects of interest wherein objects are identified
as being of interest as a function, at least in part, of the material composition of both the object and the obfuscator that
at least partially obfuscates that object; and

wherein the candidate obfuscators and the candidate obfuscated objects are superimposed in the at least one high-energy image.

US Pat. No. 9,530,196

REDUCING HEEL EFFECT IN DUAL ENERGY X-RAY IMAGES

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. A method for reducing heel effect distortion in dual energy x-ray images, the method comprising:
receiving a first flood field image generated by x-rays at a first energy level;
receiving a second flood field image generated by x-rays at a second energy level;
generating a normalize image based on the first flood field image and the second flood field image;
receiving a first x-ray image generated by x-rays at the first energy level;
receiving a second x-ray image generated by x-rays at the second energy level;
applying the normalize image to the second x-ray image to generate a normalized second x-ray image; and
combining the first x-ray image with the normalized second x-ray image to generate a dual energy x-ray image.

US Pat. No. 9,776,018

SYSTEM AND METHODS FOR PROCESSING IMAGES TO MEASURE COLLIMATOR JAW AND COLLIMATOR PERFORMANCE

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method for image processing for jaw positioning, the method comprising:
a. receiving image data corresponding to an image generated by an imaging system comprising a plurality of jaws, a detector,
and a radiation source;

b. calculating an expected position of an edge of a first jaw of the plurality of jaws based on pre-entered characteristics
corresponding to the imaging system and the image data;

c. deriving a minimum position and a maximum position based on the expected position for the edge of the first jaw;
d. verifying an availability of the minimum and maximum positions;
e. interpolating a minimum pixel value based on the minimum position and a maximum pixel value based on the maximum position;
f. generating a target pixel value based on an average pixel value of the minimum pixel value and the maximum pixel value;
and

g. determining a target position based on the target pixel value.

US Pat. No. 9,763,315

BEAM CURRENT VARIATION SYSTEM FOR A CYCLOTRON

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS PA...

1. A beam current variation system for a cyclotron, arranged in the inner centre of the cyclotron, downstream from an ion
source generating a charged particle beam, the system comprising a deflector system powered by a voltage for deflecting the
beam and a collimator, characterized in that the beam is dumped in the collimator, when the deflector system is not powered,
and in that the beam is switched on by powering the deflector system with a voltage.

US Pat. No. 9,579,526

RADIATION THERAPY DEVICE WITH FREELY CUSTOMIZABLE SOURCE AND IMAGER MOTION TRAJECTORY

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A radiation therapy device comprising:
a gantry;
a first radiation source mounted on the gantry;
a plurality of robotic arms mounted to the gantry, the plurality of robotic arms including a first robotic arm and a second
robotic arm;

a second radiation source attached to the first robotic arm;
an imager attached to the second robotic arm; and
a computing device, communicatively coupled to the plurality of robotic arms, the computing device executing a flexible motion
control system,

wherein the radiation therapy device is configured to maneuver each of the plurality of robotic arms to acquire a plurality
of three dimensional images taken along at least one acquisition trajectory of the plurality of acquisition trajectories programmed
and customized for the patient via an interface of the flexible motion control system.

US Pat. No. 9,539,442

PROTON IRRADIATION USING SPOT SCANNING

Varian Medical Systems Pa...

1. A method for irradiating a target comprising the steps of:
generating a proton beam using a cyclotron, said proton beam being comprised of a plurality of protons;
providing a first information to an energy selection system, said first information comprising a depth of said target;
selecting an energy level for said set of protons using said energy selection system based on said first information;
routing said proton beam from said cyclotron through a beam transfer line to a scanning system;
providing a second information to said scanning system, said second information comprising a pair of transversal coordinates
and a target dose;

guiding said proton beam using a magnet structure to a location on said target determined by said second information, the
magnet structure comprising a plurality of bi-directional magnet sets and a separate magnet power supply corresponding to
each set of the plurality of bi-directional magnet sets;

irradiating said target based on said second information; and
controlling the separate power supplies for said magnet structure based on a beam position in said target.

US Pat. No. 10,143,076

SHIELDING STRUCTURES FOR LINEAR ACCELERATORS

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. An apparatus, comprising:an accelerator guide comprising an electron source at a first end, a target at a second end, and a plurality of accelerating cavities coupled in series along a longitudinal axis between the first end and the second end, the accelerator guide having a contour as viewed in the longitudinal axis;
a shielding structure enclosing at least the electron source and the plurality of accelerating cavities of the accelerator guide, the shielding structure having an inner wall surface defining a contour as viewed in the longitudinal axis generally conformal to the contour of the accelerator guide.

US Pat. No. 9,848,835

VARIABLE-SPEED COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY SCANNING

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A method for obtaining a tomogram of an anatomical structure comprising the steps of:
monitoring a periodic motion signal of said anatomical structure;
determining a plurality of intervals indicative of a position of said anatomical structure based on said periodic motion signal;
scanning said anatomical structure using a scanning source and a scanning detector at a scanning frame rate, said scanning
source and said scanning detector being coupled to a gantry; and

altering a speed of said gantry during said scanning to be synchronized with said plurality of intervals such that said speed
of said gantry is substantially decreased as said periodic motion signal leaves said plurality of intervals and is substantially
increased as said periodic motion signal approaches said plurality of intervals; and

adjusting a speed of said scanning frame rate to be synchronized with said plurality of intervals such that said scanning
frame rate is increased when said periodic motion signal is inside said plurality of intervals and decreased when said periodic
motion signal is outside said plurality of intervals.

US Pat. No. 9,731,147

METHOD AND APPARATUS PERTAINING TO THE OPTIMIZATION OF RADIATION-TREATMENT PLANS USING AUTOMATIC CHANGES TO TREATMENT OBJECTIVES

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A method to facilitate optimizing a radiation-delivery treatment plan, comprising:
by a control circuit:
before delivering radiation treatment to a target volume in a patient using a resultant radiation-delivery treatment plan:
accessing a set of rules that control a radiation-delivery treatment plan optimization process as a function of detected changes
to a treatment condition;

loading initial radiation-delivery treatment plan parameters for the target volume with respect to a least one predetermined
treatment objective comprising a dose volume histogram objective for a not-yet developed radiation-delivery treatment plan;

beginning optimization of a radiation-delivery treatment plan using the initial radiation-delivery treatment plan parameters;
detecting a change with respect to a treatment condition;
prior to concluding optimization of the radiation-delivery treatment plan, using the set of rules to automatically change
the predetermined treatment objective in response to detecting the change with respect to the treatment condition to provide
at least one changed treatment objective;

using the set of rules to continue to optimize the radiation-delivery treatment plan using the at least one changed treatment
objective to provide a resultant radiation-delivery treatment plan;

detecting a predetermined state as regards the optimization of the radiation-delivery treatment plan;
in response to detecting the predetermined state, automatically changing a size of the target volume and continuing to radiation-delivery
treatment plan to provide a resultant radiation-delivery treatment plan;

after providing the resultant radiation-delivery treatment plan;
using the resultant radiation-delivery treatment plan to delivery the radiation treatment to the patient.

US Pat. No. 9,757,592

COMPACT PROTON THERAPY SYSTEM WITH ENERGY SELECTION ONBOARD A ROTATABLE GANTRY

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A radiation therapy system for irradiating an irradiation object with particle beams of a predetermined energy, said radiation
therapy system comprising:
a particle accelerator configured to provide a particle beam for a single treatment station;
a beam line assembly coupled to said particle accelerator and operable to direct said particle beam along a first direction;
an energy degrader operable to attenuate an energy of said particle beam; and
a gantry assembly coupled to said beam line assembly and comprising multiple sets of dipole magnets configured to generate
variable magnetic fields,

wherein said variable magnetic fields are operable to select a portion of said particle beam with said predetermined energy
for irradiating said irradiation object and redirect said portion of said particle beam to a predetermined direction.

US Pat. No. 9,620,256

X-RAY IMAGING DEVICE INCLUDING ANTI-SCATTER GRID

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. An x-ray imaging device, comprising:
a housing comprising a cover plate;
an x-ray detector placed inside the housing;
an anti-scatter grid placed inside the housing adjacent to the x-ray detector; and
a compressible foam between the cover plate and the x-ray detector,
wherein the compression foam comprises a first piece and a second piece, and the anti-scatter grid is sandwiched between the
first and second pieces.

US Pat. No. 10,052,500

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR ESTIMATING AND MANIPULATING ESTIMATED RADIATION DOSE

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A method, performed on a computer system, for permitting manipulation of an achievable dose distribution estimate deliverable by a radiation delivery apparatus for proposed treatment of a subject, the achievable dose distribution estimate defined over a three-dimensional range of voxels with a dose value for each voxel, the method comprising:(a) receiving, at the computer system, the achievable dose distribution estimate;
(b) determining a dose modification voxel for which it is desired to modify the dose value and a corresponding magnitude of desired dose modification;
(c) for each beam from among a plurality of beams:
(i) characterizing, by the computer system, the beam as a two-dimensional array of beamlets, wherein each beamlet is associated with a corresponding intensity value and a ray line representing a projection of the beamlet into space; and
(ii) identifying, by the computer system, one or more dose-change beamlets which have associated ray lines that intersect the dose modification voxel;
(d) modifying, by the computer system, the intensity values of at least one of the dose-change beamlets; and
(e) updating, by the computer system, the achievable dose distribution estimate to account for the modified intensity values of the at least one of the dose-change beamlets.

US Pat. No. 9,687,676

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR THE PLANNING AND DELIVERY OF RADIATION TREATMENTS

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A system for planning delivery of radiation dose to a target region within a subject, the system comprising a processor,
the processor configured to:
iteratively optimize a simulated dose distribution relative to a set of one or more optimization goals comprising a desired
dose distribution in the subject over a first plurality of control points located on a trajectory, the trajectory comprising
relative movement between a treatment radiation source and the subject;

reach one or more initial termination conditions, and after reaching the one or more initial termination conditions:
specify a second plurality of control points along the trajectory, the second plurality of control points comprising a larger
number control points than the first plurality of control points; and

iteratively optimize a simulated dose distribution relative to the set of one or more optimization goals over the second plurality
of control points to thereby determine a radiation delivery plan;

the radiation delivery plan capable of causing a radiation delivery apparatus to deliver radiation in accordance with the
radiation delivery plan.

US Pat. No. 9,682,253

INTEGRATED RADIATION THERAPY SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR TREATING A TARGET IN A PATIENT

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method for assessing a treatment fraction in radiation therapy, the method comprising;
irradiating a patient with a radiation beam according to desired radiation dosage levels associated with a predetermined treatment
plan;

while irradiating the patient, producing target data indicative of at least one of size and shape of a target within the patient
without acquiring images of the target within the patient, wherein producing the target data includes—

periodically locating one or more of a plurality of markers positioned within the patient relative to an external reference
frame using a localization modality, and

determining the relative distances between the periodically located markers within the patient;
using the target data to produce an assessment of radiation dosage levels to which the patient was exposed while irradiated;
and

producing an adapted treatment plan based on differences between the desired radiation dosage levels and the assessment of
radiation dosage levels.

US Pat. No. 9,642,999

BRACHYTHERAPY APPLICATOR

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A gynecological brachytherapy applicator, comprising:
an elongate cylindrical body having a proximal end and a distal end in a longitudinal axis, the elongate body comprising a
modular support matrix comprising a plurality of discreet units having a plurality of source lumens extending at least partially
through the plurality of discreet units, and the plurality of discreet units collectively defining an arrangement of the source
lumens within the elongate body, wherein the plurality of discreet units are radially expandable, providing the elongate body
an unexpanded configuration and a radially expanded configuration;

wherein the plurality of discreet units comprise a plurality of modular segments assembled around the longitudinal axis to
collectively define a central lumen, wherein each of the plurality of modular segments has a shape in the unexpanded configuration
of the elongate body and retains the shape in the radially expanded configuration of the elongate body.

US Pat. No. 9,662,256

PATIENT POSITIONING AND SUPPORT SYSTEMS

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS UK...

1. A patient support system, comprising:
a first section providing a first support surface;
a second section providing a second support surface, the second section removably couples with the first section providing
a combined support surface for a patient including the first support surface and the second support surface;

wherein the first section is configured to attach to a positioning system providing an interface between the removable second
section and the positioning system and providing support for the removable second section; and

a first latching mechanism comprising a first latching member at an end of the first section and a second latching member
at an end of the second section, the first and second latching members allow coupling of the second section to the first section
and removing of the second section from the first section,

wherein the first latching member comprises a bar member at an end of the first section, and the second latching member comprises
a hook member at an end of the second section, and the bar member and the hook member are configured to engage each other
when the second section is coupled with the first section.

US Pat. No. 9,630,025

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR THE PLANNING AND DELIVERY OF RADIATION TREATMENTS

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A method for planning delivery of radiation dose to a target area within a subject, the method comprising:
defining a set of one or more optimization goals for delivery of radiation via a radiation delivery apparatus, the set of
one or more optimization goals comprising a desired dose distribution in the subject;

specifying an initial plurality of control points along an initial trajectory, the initial trajectory involving movement of
the radiation deliver apparatus and corresponding relative movement between a radiation source and the subject in a source
trajectory direction; and

iteratively optimizing a simulated dose distribution relative to the set of one or more optimization goals to determine one
or more radiation delivery parameters associated with each of the initial plurality of control points;

wherein, for each of the initial plurality of control points, the one or more radiation delivery parameters comprise positions
of a plurality of leaves of a multi-leaf collimator (MLC) of the radiation delivery apparatus, the plurality of leaves moveable
in a leaf-translation direction;

effecting movement of the radiation delivery apparatus and corresponding relative movement between the radiation source and
the subject along the initial trajectory in the source trajectory direction;

while effecting movement of the radiation delivery apparatus and corresponding relative movement between the radiation source
and the subject, moving the plurality of leaves of the multi-leaf collimator in the leaf-translation direction so that the
positions of the leaves at each of the initial plurality of control points meet the one or more radiation delivery parameters
determined in the iterative optimization; and

wherein during relative movement between the radiation source and the subject along the initial trajectory, the leaf-translation
direction is oriented at a MLC orientation angle ? with respect to the source trajectory direction and wherein an absolute
value of the MLC orientation angle ? satisfies 0°<|?|<90°;

wherein the initial trajectory comprises first and second locations wherein a first beam directed from the radiation source
toward the subject from the first location and a second beam directed from the radiation source toward the subject from the
second location are substantially parallel but opposing one another.

US Pat. No. 9,855,445

RADIATION THERAPY SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR DELIVERING DOSES TO A TARGET VOLUME

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A radiation therapy system, comprising:
an accelerator that accelerates particles in a beam;
a nozzle that receives the beam of particles downstream of the accelerator, the nozzle configured to affect energies of the
particles in the beam to create a first adjusted beam that delivers a first dose with a first Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP)
along a first target line segment in a target volume and to create a second adjusted beam that delivers a second dose with
a second SOBP along a second target line segment in the target volume, wherein the second target line segment is displaced
from the first target line segment; and

a focusing magnet along the path of the beam that adjusts the energies of the particles in the beam to vary sizes of spots
where the beam intersects a layer of the target volume.

US Pat. No. 9,849,306

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR GENERATING BEAM-SPECIFIC PLANNING TARGET VOLUME DESIGN OUTPUTS

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS IN...

1. A system comprising:
a beam generator configured to generate at least one beam to treat a patient;
at least one computing device coupled to the beam generator, wherein said at least one computing device is configured to:
obtain at least one three-dimensional image of a target structure and surrounding tissue of the patient, wherein the target
structure is configured to move and be repositioned with respect to the surrounding tissue;

create a treatment plan that includes at least one first three-dimensional probability distribution of a position of the patient
and at least one second three-dimensional probability distribution of an internal position of the repositioned target structure;

combine the at least one first three-dimensional probability distribution with the at least one second three-dimensional probability
distribution to generate a joint distribution of the position of the patient and the internal position of the repositioned
target structure;

select a probability level from the joint distribution such that the probability level defines an enclosed surface, wherein
a distance defined between a portion of the enclosed surface and a point of origin in at least one direction is at least equal
to a predefined threshold value of a parameter of the repositioned target structure in the at least one direction; and

project the enclosed surface to a plane that is positioned relative to a direction of the at least one beam to facilitate
the generation of at least one beam-specific planning target volume design output.

US Pat. No. 9,616,248

INTEGRATED RADIATION THERAPY SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR TREATING A TARGET IN A PATIENT

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method for treating a target in a patient with an ionizing radiation beam, wherein a marker is positioned within the
patient relative to the target, the method comprising:
acquiring first target data by locating the marker in a first reference frame external to the patient using a portable localization
unit having a marker localization modality and while the patient and the portable localization system are positioned at a
treatment planning area;

obtaining second target data by locating the marker in a second reference frame of a radiation delivery device via the portable
localization unit while irradiating the patient with an ionizing radiation beam of the radiation delivery device according
to a radiation treatment plan, and while the patient is positioned at a radiation delivery area, wherein the radiation delivery
area is at a location that is separate from the treatment planning area;

acquiring hardware data related to the radiation delivery device; and
at least one of—
aligning a position of the patient at the radiation delivery area using the second target data and according to the first
target data, and

adjusting the radiation treatment plan using the first target data, the second target data, and the hardware data.

US Pat. No. 9,563,817

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR RECONSTRUCTING AN IMAGE USING HIGH-ENERGY-BASED DATA

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. An apparatus for reconstructing an image using high energy-based data regarding a scene, the apparatus comprising:
a data interface configured to provide access to:
first image-capture data regarding the scene formed using a first image-capture modality;
second image-capture data regarding the scene formed using a second image-capture modality that is different from the first
image-capture modality;

a control circuit operably coupled to the data interface and configured to execute an iterative image reconstruction process
by, at least in part:

establishing a first image-representation channel;
establishing a second image-representation channel;
establishing a fidelity error measure that, for any image containing first image-representation channel data and second image-representation
channel data, measures inconsistency of the image as compared to the first image-capture data and the second image-capture
data;

establishing a prior-penalty term that, for any image containing first image-representation channel data and second image-representation
channel data, scores the image based on a priori likelihood or desirability using, at least in part, for each of a plurality
of pixels for that image that contains the first image-representation channel data and the second image-representation channel
data, a non-separable matrix-penalty of a Jacobian-matrix of the image at that pixel;

using an iterative process to generate a reconstructed image for which the reconstructed image at least approximately minimizes
a combination of the fidelity error measure and the prior-penalty term.

US Pat. No. 9,558,427

SHAPE SIMILARITY MEASURE FOR BODY TISSUE

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A method of determining an accuracy of shape-determining processes for identifying shapes of a body tissue in one or more
images of a patient, the method comprising:
receiving first data that defines a first boundary of a first shape of the body tissue in at least a portion of the one or
more images, the first shape being determined by a first shape-determining process, wherein the one or more images are diagnostic
images of the patient;

receiving second data that defines a second boundary of a second shape of the body tissue in at least a portion of the one
or more images, the second shape being determined by a second shape-determining process;

placing the first shape and the second shape within a coordinate space;
determining, by a computer system, an intersection shape of the first shape and the second shape in the coordinate space;
determining, by the computer system, a union shape of the first shape and the second shape in the coordinate space;
calculating, by the computer system, a difference between the union shape and the intersection shape;
computing, by the computer system, a shape similarity metric based on the difference; and
providing the shape similarity metric for determining an accuracy of the second shape-determining process relative to the
first shape-determining process.

US Pat. No. 9,524,845

X-RAY TUBE CATHODE WITH MAGNETIC ELECTRON BEAM STEERING

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. An x-ray tube cathode comprising:
an evacuated enclosure;
a magnetic yoke extending between a first portion inside and open to the interior of the evacuated enclosure, and a second
portion outside of the evacuated enclosure;

a cathode head comprising electrically conductive and non-magnetic material integrated with a first magnetic material portion
and a second magnetic material portion, the cathode head defining an emitter slot in a portion of the electrically conductive
and non-magnetic material positioned between the first magnetic material portion and the second magnetic material portion,
the first magnetic material portion and the second magnetic material portion coupled to the second portion of the magnetic
yoke outside of the evacuated enclosure via the first portion of the magnetic yoke inside and open to the interior of the
evacuated enclosure; and

an electron emitter positioned within the emitter slot, the electron emitter configured to emit a beam of electrons, the beam
of electrons configured to be both focused by the electrically conductive and non-magnetic material and steered during beam
formation by the first magnetic material portion and the second magnetic material portion.

US Pat. No. 10,092,251

PROSPECTIVE EVALUATION OF TUMOR VISIBILITY FOR IGRT USING TEMPLATES GENERATED FROM PLANNING CT AND CONTOURS

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method to optimize a treatment delivery that includes tracking of a target, comprising:simulating, using a processor, a treatment time image from treatment planning images and data to obtain a simulated treatment time image, wherein the processor comprises an input configured to receive the treatment planning images and the data, and is configured to simulate the treatment time image based at least in part on the treatment planning images and the data;
generating, using the processor, a template from the planning images and data;
template matching, using the processor, between the template and the simulated treatment time image to determine a value of a trackability measure as part of treatment planning, the trackability measure indicating a trackability of the target and being a function of imaging angle; and
determining, using the processor, a treatment plan based on the value of the trackability measure;
wherein the treatment plan determined based on the value of the trackability measure, is executable by a treatment machine to cause the treatment machine to deliver less or no dose from a treatment delivery angle for which one of a plurality of values of the trackability measure is lower compared to another one of the plurality of values of the trackability measure for another treatment delivery angle.

US Pat. No. 9,839,795

PROTON IRRADIATION USING SPOT SCANNING

Varian Medical Systems Pa...

1. A method for irradiating a target comprising the steps of:
generating a proton beam using a cyclotron, said proton beam being comprised of a set of protons;
providing a first information to an energy selection system, said first information comprising a depth of said target;
selecting an energy level for said set of protons using said energy selection system based on said first information;
routing said proton beam from said cyclotron through a beam transfer line to a scanning system;
providing a second information to said scanning system, said second information comprising a pair of transversal coordinates
and target dose;

guiding said proton beam using a magnet structure to a location on said target determined by said second information; and
irradiating said target with said proton beam,
wherein said magnet structure comprises a magnet power supply powering said magnet structure, said magnet power supply being
controlled based on an energy of said proton beam and a beam position at a target of said proton beam.

US Pat. No. 9,833,636

MULTI-AXIS DYNAMIC TRACKING FOR RADIATION THERAPY

Varian Medical Systems, I...

8. A method of operating a radiation device, said method comprising:
detecting movement of a target relative to an incident beam of radiation, said beam projected from a moveable radiation source
and adjustable using variable beam controls comprising a variable control for setting beam shape and a variable control for
setting beam intensity, said target supported by a moveable surface that is adjustable using variable surface controls comprising
a variable control for setting surface position and a variable control for setting a speed for moving the surface;

selecting controls from said variable beam controls and from said variable surface controls including selecting the variable
control for setting the speed for moving the surface by, at least in part, use of a multi-axis dynamic tracking scheme that
includes selecting a most appropriate axis to be adjusted as a function of a type of target movement; and

adjusting the selected controls concurrently and cooperatively while the beam of radiation is on to compensate for said movement
of said target.

US Pat. No. 9,764,163

METHOD AND DEVICE FOR EFFICIENTLY IRRADIATING A TARGET FROM MULTIPLE IRRADIATION ANGLES IN A PARTICLE THERAPY SYSTEM

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method for controlling a particle therapy device, the method comprising:
receiving user input corresponding to a request for control of a particle beam to irradiate a plurality of beam fields;
receiving user input corresponding to a grouping of a subset of beam fields of the plurality of beam fields;
verifying a compatibility of the subset of beam fields;
automatically transmitting instructions to the particle therapy device to emit the particle beam as a beam for the subset
of beam fields in a target subject in a contiguous beam application;

receiving a second user input corresponding to an ungrouping of the subset of beam fields;
disassociating the subset of beam fields into a plurality of discrete beam fields in response to the second user input; and
automatically updating the instructions to the particle therapy device to irradiate the plurality of discrete beam fields
separately.

US Pat. No. 9,767,380

IMAGE COMPARISON TOOL TOLERANT TO DEFORMABLE IMAGE MATCHING

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A method of training a machine learning system to generate an image comparison tool, the method comprising:
accessing a first medical image including first pixel data depicting first structures;
accessing a second medical image including second pixel data depicting second structures;
deforming the second medical image using a deformation vector, wherein deforming the second medical image causes the second
pixel data to more closely match the first pixel data;

establishing a similarity value based on a comparison of the first and second pixel data;
extracting a first features group from a first subset of the first pixel data, and a second features group from a second subset
of the second pixel data;

training a machine learning system by using the first and second features groups as inputs to the machine learning system
and using the similarity value as an expected output of the machine learning system; and

generating an image comparison tool based on the training.

US Pat. No. 9,727,975

KNOWLEDGE-BASED AUTOMATIC IMAGE SEGMENTATION

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method for segmenting an image data set, the method comprising:
accessing, from a knowledge-base, a plurality of reference image sets in a cohort;
creating a cohort average reference image set that includes an average of each reference image set in the plurality of reference
image sets in the cohort;

deformably or affinely registering the cohort average reference image set to a first medical image set;
generating a statistical model based on the deformably or affinely registered cohort average reference image set, the statistical
model comprising contours and segmentation of a plurality of structures of interest in the first medical image set; and

determining a segmentation for the plurality of structures of interest in a second medical image set based upon the statistical
model.

US Pat. No. 9,726,477

METHOD AND APPARATUS TO PROVIDE CORRECTIONS FOR A RADIATION-THERAPY BEAM

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method to provide corrections to apply to a dose, comprising:
providing information regarding a sectional contour in a particular plane as corresponds to a radiation-therapy beam, wherein
the contour is defined, at least in part, by use of a patient collimator having a corresponding thickness and physical properties;

for a point at which effects of the patient collimator are to be assessed:
projecting the point onto a plane;
forming a plurality of straight lines having a particular relationship with respect to the projected point by, at least in
part, forming a plurality of straight lines that intersect one another at the projected point and wherein at least some of
the straight lines intersect the contour in at least two locations along the periphery;

using intersections amongst the straight lines and the contour to evaluate the corrections to the dose at the point by, at
least in part, identifying line segments that are located within the contour and that are bound by the intersections with
the contour to yield well-defined line segments;

applying the corrections to the dose of a pristine beam to determine the dose delivered to a region of interest in a particular
treatment plan.

US Pat. No. 9,757,589

RADIATION THERAPY TREATMENT PLAN IMPROVEMENT THROUGH USE OF A KNOWLEDGE BASE

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method for determining a radiation therapy dose distribution, the method comprising:
determining an organ at risk (OAR) distance to target map, wherein the OAR distance to target map comprises distances to a
target organ for respective portions of at least one OAR as determined from at least one segmented patient organ image;

selecting a cohort average dose distance to target histogram from a database; and
assigning a dose value to each of the portions of the at least one OAR to form a first 3D dose distribution map, wherein the
assigned dose values are derived from the selected cohort average dose distance to target histogram.

US Pat. No. 9,757,593

RADIATION SYSTEMS WITH MINIMAL OR NO SHIELDING REQUIREMENT ON BUILDING

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A radiation system, comprising:
a first support;
a first structure rotatably coupled to the first support so that the first structure is rotatable about a first axis relative
to the first support;

a second structure rotatably coupled to the first structure so that the second structure is rotatable about a second axis
that forms a non-zero angle relative to the first structure; and

a first radiation source connected to the second structure;
wherein the first structure and the second structure are parts of a container comprising a cavity for accommodating at least
a portion of a patient, wherein the container comprises a wall portion that intersects a longitudinal axis of the patient,
wherein the wall portion is a part of the first structure and/or a part of the second structure.

US Pat. No. 9,706,146

LOW-POWER IMAGER WITH AUTOSENSING FUNCTION

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. An imager with an auto-sensing function, comprising:
a flat panel configured to collect charges during an X-ray exposure when the imager operates in a charge integration mode,
the flat panel comprising a plurality of pixels each having a photodiode and a pixel switch;

a bias supply circuitry configured to supply a bias voltage to the flat panel;
a current detection circuitry configured to monitor a first bias current flowing through the flat panel under the bias voltage
and detect a change in the first bias current caused by an onset of the X-ray exposure;

a gate driver circuitry configured to:
supply a first voltage to a control end of each pixel switch to fully turn on each pixel switch so as to couple the plurality
of pixels to a virtual ground when the imager operates in an idle mode;

supply a second voltage to the control end of each pixel switch to turn off each pixel switch so as to isolate the plurality
of pixels from the virtual ground when the imager operates in the charge integration mode;

supply a third voltage to the control end of each pixel switch to weakly turn on each pixel switch when the imager operates
in a standby mode, wherein the third voltage is smaller than the first voltage and larger than a threshold voltage of each
pixel switch.

US Pat. No. 9,687,673

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR THE PLANNING AND DELIVERY OF RADIATION TREATMENTS

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A system for delivery of a radiation dose to a target area within a subject, the system comprising:
a treatment radiation source for outputting a treatment radiation beam;
a support for supporting the subject;
a movement mechanism for moving the treatment radiation source relative to the subject along a trajectory;
a controller configured to cause, according to a radiation delivery plan:
the treatment radiation source to deliver the treatment radiation beam to the subject while causing the movement mechanism
to effect relative movement between the treatment radiation source and the subject along the trajectory; and

the treatment radiation source to vary an intensity of the treatment radiation beam by varying a radiation output rate of
the treatment radiation source according to the radiation delivery plan over at least a portion of the trajectory while causing
the movement mechanism to effect relative movement between the treatment radiation source and the subject along the trajectory;

wherein a start of the trajectory and an end of the trajectory comprise a same relative position between the treatment radiation
source and the subject and the movement mechanism effects otherwise non-self-overlapping relative movement between the treatment
radiation source and the subject along the trajectory;

to thereby deliver a dose to the subject according to the radiation delivery plan.

US Pat. No. 9,687,674

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR THE PLANNING AND DELIVERY OF RADIATION TREATMENTS

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A system for delivery of radiation dose to a target area within a subject, the system comprising:
a treatment radiation source for outputting a treatment radiation beam;
a support for supporting the subject;
a movement mechanism for moving the treatment radiation source relative to the subject along a trajectory;
one or more sensors for monitoring a position of the subject;
a controller configured, in accordance with a radiation delivery plan, to:
cause the treatment radiation source to deliver the treatment radiation beam to the subject while causing the movement mechanism
to effect relative movement between the treatment radiation source and the subject along the trajectory;

while causing the movement mechanism to effect relative movement between the treatment radiation source and the subject along
the trajectory, cause the treatment radiation source to vary at least one of an intensity of the treatment radiation beam
by varying a radiation output rate of the treatment radiation source according to the radiation delivery plan over at least
a portion of the trajectory and a shape of the radiation treatment beam over at least a portion of the trajectory;

determine the position from one or more signals received from the one or more sensors;
deactivate delivery of the treatment radiation beam upon determining that the position is outside of an acceptable range;
and

reactivate delivery of the treatment radiation beam upon determining that the position is within the acceptable range;
to thereby deliver dose to the subject according to the radiation delivery plan.

US Pat. No. 9,687,675

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR THE PLANNING AND DELIVERY OF RADIATION TREATMENTS

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A method for planning delivery of radiation dose to a target region within a subject, the method comprising:
iteratively optimizing, by a processor, a simulated dose distribution relative to a set of one or more optimization goals
comprising a desired dose distribution in the subject over a first plurality of control points located on a trajectory, the
trajectory comprising relative movement between a treatment radiation source and the subject;

reaching one or more initial termination conditions, and after reaching the one or more initial termination conditions:
specifying, by the processor, a second plurality of control points along the trajectory, the second plurality of control points
comprising a larger number of control points than the first plurality of control points; and

iteratively optimizing, by the processor, a simulated dose distribution relative to the set of one or more optimization goals
over the second plurality of control points to thereby determine a radiation delivery plan;

the radiation delivery plan capable of causing a radiation delivery apparatus to deliver radiation in accordance with the
radiation delivery plan.

US Pat. No. 9,687,677

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR THE PLANNING AND DELIVERY OF RADIATION TREATMENTS

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A method for planning delivery of radiation dose to a target region within a subject, the method comprising:
initializing, by a processor, a first plurality of control points located on a trajectory, the trajectory comprising relative
movement between a treatment radiation source and the subject, wherein initializing the first plurality of control points
comprises assigning, to each of the first plurality of control points, one or more axis positions which specify a position
of the treatment radiation source relative to the subject;

specifying, by the processor, a second plurality of control points along the trajectory, the second plurality of control points
comprising a larger number of control points than the first plurality of control points; and

iteratively optimizing, by the processor, a simulated dose distribution relative to a set of one or more optimization goals
over the second plurality of control points to thereby determine a radiation delivery plan by assigning each of the second
plurality of control points optimized values for a plurality of radiation delivery parameters;

wherein the one or more axis positions comprise an angle of a gantry supporting the treatment radiation source;
wherein the optimized values for the plurality of radiation delivery parameters specify both beam shape of the treatment radiation
source and beam intensity of the treatment radiation source;

wherein the optimized values for the plurality of radiation delivery parameters specify radiation output rates for the treatment
radiation source;

wherein the optimized values for the plurality of radiation delivery parameters specify leaf configurations for a multi-leaf
collimator through which a beam of the treatment radiation source is directed;

wherein the trajectory comprises a plurality of arcs, each arc involving relative movement between the treatment radiation
source and the subject within a corresponding plane;

wherein, between successive ones of the plurality of arcs, the trajectory comprises inter-arc relative movement between the
treatment radiation source and the subject, the inter-arc relative movement comprising movement such that the corresponding
planes associated with each arc intersect one another.

US Pat. No. 9,687,678

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR THE PLANNING AND DELIVERY OF RADIATION TREATMENTS

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A system for planning delivery of a radiation dose to a target region within a subject, the system comprising a processor,
the processor configured to:
initialize a first plurality of control points located on a trajectory, the trajectory comprising relative movement between
a treatment radiation source and the subject, wherein initializing the first plurality of control points comprises assigning,
to each of the first plurality of control points, one or more axis positions which specify a position of the treatment radiation
source relative to the subject;

specify a second plurality of control points along the trajectory, the second plurality of control points comprising a larger
number of control points than the first plurality of control points; and

iteratively optimize a simulated dose distribution relative to a set of one or more optimization goals over the second plurality
of control points to thereby determine a radiation delivery plan by assigning each of the second plurality of control points
optimized values for a plurality of radiation delivery parameters;

wherein the one or more axis positions comprise an angle of a gantry supporting the treatment radiation source;
wherein the optimized values for the plurality of radiation delivery parameters specify both, beam shape of the treatment
radiation source and beam intensity of the treatment radiation source;

wherein the optimized values for the plurality of radiation delivery parameters specify radiation output rates for the treatment
radiation source;

wherein the optimized values for the plurality of radiation delivery parameters specify leaf configurations for a multi-leaf
collimator through which a beam of the treatment radiation source is directed;

wherein the trajectory comprises a plurality of arcs, each arc involving relative movement between the treatment radiation
source and the subject within a corresponding plane;

wherein, between successive ones of the plurality of arcs, the trajectory comprises inter-arc relative movement between the
treatment radiation source and the subject, the inter-arc relative movement comprising movement such that the corresponding
planes associated with each arc intersect one another.

US Pat. No. 9,643,029

DOSIMETRIC END-TO-END VERIFICATION DEVICES, SYSTEMS, AND METHODS

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS IN...

1. A quality assurance device configured to provide position verification using a plurality of positioning systems, the device
comprising:
an outer housing enclosing a dosimetric insert, and being constituted of a first housing portion and a second housing portion,
the first housing portion having a first recessed portion and the second housing portion having a second recessed portion,
the first and second recessed portions forming a composite recess when the first and second housing portions are assembled
together, the outer housing including a plurality of markers arranged at predetermined positions on the outer housing, the
plurality of markers comprising one or more electromagnetic transponders; and

the dosimetric insert, which is constituted of a first dosimetric insert piece and a second dosimetric insert piece, the dosimetric
insert being arranged within the composite recess such that the first dosimetric insert piece is positioned in the first recessed
portion and the second dosimetric insert piece is positioned in the second recessed portion, the dosimetric insert including
therewithin a plurality of elements of different shapes, dimensions, and densities, the elements having predetermined positions
relative to each other,

wherein one or more of the plurality of elements are dose distribution measuring elements configured to provide dose distribution
information of radiation dose delivered to the device, and one or more of the plurality of elements are position determining
elements configured to provide position information of the dose distribution measuring elements relative to other elements
of the dosimetric insert,

wherein the first and second dosimetric insert pieces are configured to be detachably attached to each other, so as to hold
the one or more dose distribution measuring elements in between the first and second dosimetric insert pieces.

US Pat. No. 9,623,208

INSTRUMENTS WITH LOCATION MARKERS AND METHODS FOR TRACKING INSTRUMENTS THROUGH ANATOMICAL PASSAGEWAYS

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A system for tracking an instrument in a patient, comprising:
a catheter including an elongated flexible tube having a distal section configured to be passed through a passageway in a
human;

a first magnetic marker surrounding a first outer portion of the distal section of the tube;
a second magnetic marker surrounding a second outer portion of the distal section of the tube, wherein—
each of the first and second magnetic markers include a transponder having an alternating magnetic circuit and a capacitor
electrically connected to the alternating magnet circuit,

the alternating magnetic circuit includes a tubular ferrite core and a coil having a plurality of windings surrounding the
tubular ferrite core, and

the alternating magnetic circuit is configured to be energized by a wirelessly transmitted pulsed magnetic excitation field
from external of the passageway in the human and to wirelessly transmit a pulsed magnetic location signal in response to the
pulsed magnetic field;

a generally rigid support surrounding the tube and extending between the first and the second magnetic markers, and configured
to separate the first magnetic marker from the second magnetic marker; and

an external excitation source comprising an energy storage device, a source coil, and a switching network coupled to the energy
storage device and the source coil, the source coil being configured to wirelessly transmit the pulsed magnetic excitation
field to energize the transponder of each of the first and second magnetic markers, and the switching network being configured
to alternately transfer (a) stored energy from the energy storage device to the source coil and (b) energy in the source coil
back to the energy storage device.

US Pat. No. 9,616,251

IMAGING BASED CALIBRATION SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND METHODS

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. An imaging-based calibration method for a radiation treatment system including a gantry and a couch, the method comprising:
generating gantry-angle dependent isocenter beam deviation information;
generating couch rotation-angle dependent couch position offset information; and
correcting target position by combining the gantry-angle dependent isocenter beam deviation information with the couch rotation-angle
dependent couch position offset information.

US Pat. No. 9,586,059

USER INTERFACE FOR GUIDED RADIATION THERAPY

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method in a computing system for guiding performance of a process relating to a patient localization and tracking system,
comprising:
displaying a user interface in a first state corresponding to a first process task in an ordered sequence of process tasks;
performing the first process task, wherein performing the first process task includes confirming a position of a localization
sensor relative to a treatment location;

each time one of the process tasks to which a displayed state of the user interface corresponds is completed, automatically
redisplaying the user interface in a state corresponding to a process task following a completed one of the process tasks
to which the displayed state of the user interface corresponds;

performing a second process task in the ordered sequence of process tasks after automatically redisplaying the user interface,
wherein performing the second process task includes confirming locations of magnetic transponders implanted in a patient;
and

performing a third process task in the ordered sequence of process tasks after automatically redisplaying the user interface
and confirming that the first and second process tasks have been completed, wherein performing the third process task includes
tracking real-time locations of the magnetic transponders via the localization sensor and relative to the treatment location
during delivery of radiation therapy.

US Pat. No. 9,563,222

DIFFERENTIAL REFERENCE SIGNAL DISTRIBUTION METHOD AND SYSTEM

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. A reference signal distribution system, comprising:
a first subsystem biased by a reference current and configured to establish a differential voltage between a first node and
a second node; and

a second subsystem driven by the differential voltage and configured to generate a copy current associated with the reference
current, the second subsystem comprising:

a first transistor, including:
a first end;
a second end; and
a control end connected to the first node; and
a second transistor, including:
a first end;
a second end connected to the second end of the first transistor; and
a control end connected to the second node.

US Pat. No. 9,514,911

X-RAY TUBE APERTURE BODY WITH SHIELDED VACUUM WALL

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. An aperture body for use in an x-ray tube that provides an evacuated interior having an anode and a cathode, the aperture
body comprising:
an electron shield having an electron collection surface including one or more expansion joints formed therein, the electron
shield configured to intercept backscattered electrons from the anode;

an electron shield aperture defined in the electron shield through which electrons may pass between the cathode and the anode;
a vacuum wall separated by a gap from the electron shield and shielded from the backscattered electrons by the electron shield,
wherein the gap is disposed within the evacuated interior and is in fluid communication with the evacuated interior, wherein
the vacuum wall is electrically coupled to the electron shield such that the aperture body is electrically grounded during
operation of the X-ray tube; and

a vacuum wall aperture defined in the vacuum wall through which electrons may pass between the cathode and the anode.

US Pat. No. 10,071,263

PIVOTING MULTILEAF COLLIMATOR AND METHOD FOR LARGE FIELD COVERAGE

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A radiation apparatus, comprising:a source operable to generate a radiation beam;
a multileaf collimator operable to shape the radiation beam;
a pivoting mechanism configured to pivot the multileaf collimator about the source; and
a rotating mechanism configured to rotate the multileaf collimator about an axis passing through the source and the multileaf collimator.

US Pat. No. 10,032,316

SYSTEM FOR DYNAMICALLY PROPAGATING REAL-TIME ALTERATIONS OF MEDICAL IMAGES

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A system for editing structures in a medical imaging system, the system comprising:a medical imaging system comprising at least one radiation source configured to generate and direct radiation at a target, and at least one imager for receiving radiation from the at least one radiation source and configured to generate data representing a plurality of images comprising a first plurality of structures; and
a computing device comprising a memory device and a processor, the processor being configured to: access the data representing the plurality of images from the memory device, receive an adjustment to one of the first plurality of structures comprised in a first image of the plurality of images, and to apply a deformation mechanism to the first plurality of structures to adjust the remaining structures of the first plurality of structures based on the adjustment,
wherein the deformation mechanism comprises a first vector field mapping the first plurality of structures to each other and a second vector field mapping the first vector field with a plurality of registered vector fields corresponding to other images of the plurality of images.

US Pat. No. 9,789,342

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR IN-LAYER SYNCHRONIZATION FOR FAST SPOT RESCANNING

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method for irradiating a target area with a proton beam, the method comprising:
accessing a target radiation plan, the target radiation plan comprising a temporal and spatial sequence for administering
a target dosage to a target area using a plurality of applications of a directed beam of protons;

monitoring a movement of the target area;
adjusting the target radiation plan to align the plurality of applications of the directed beam of protons with a movement
of the target area to generate an adjusted target radiation plan; and

applying a directed beam of protons at a plurality of proximate locations comprising the target area according to the adjusted
target radiation plan.

US Pat. No. 9,773,318

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR DETECTING CAMERA DEFECT CAUSED BY EXPOSURE TO RADIATION

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method of detecting camera defect, comprising:
obtaining an image by a processing unit, the processing unit having a surface fit module, a subtraction module, and a peak
quantification module, wherein the image is generated using a camera;

determining a first autocorrelation map for a first sub-region in the image;
determining, using the surface fit module, a first surface fit for first scene content in the first sub-region;
subtracting, using the subtraction module, the first surface fit from the first autocorrelation map for the first sub-region
in the image to obtain a first residual map;

quantifying, using the peak quantification module, a first noise in the first residual map; and
providing an indication based on a result from the act of quantifying the first noise to indicate whether the camera is defective
or not.

US Pat. No. 9,764,159

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR THE PLANNING AND DELIVERY OF RADIATION TREATMENTS

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A method for delivering radiation dose to a target area within a subject, the method comprising:
defining a trajectory comprising relative movement between a treatment radiation source and the subject and determining a
radiation delivery plan;

effecting relative movement between the treatment radiation source and the subject along the trajectory;
while effecting relative movement between the treatment radiation source and the subject along the trajectory, delivering
a treatment radiation beam from the treatment radiation source to the subject according to the radiation delivery plan to
impart a dose distribution on the subject;

wherein delivering the treatment radiation beam from the treatment radiation source to the subject comprises varying an intensity
of the treatment radiation beam over at least a portion of the trajectory;

wherein varying the intensity of the treatment radiation beam over at least a portion of the trajectory comprises varying
a radiation output rate of the treatment radiation source in accordance with the radiation delivery plan while effecting relative
movement between the treatment radiation source and the subject along the trajectory; and

wherein effecting relative movement between the treatment radiation source and the subject along the trajectory comprises
effecting non-self-overlapping relative movement between the treatment radiation source and the subject.

US Pat. No. 9,762,828

LOW-POWER IMAGER WITH AUTOSENSING FUNCTION

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. An imager with an auto-sensing function, comprising:
a flat panel configured to collect charges during an X-ray exposure when the imager operates in a charge integration mode,
the flat panel comprising a plurality of pixels each having a photodiode and a pixel switch;

a bias supply circuitry configured to supply a bias voltage to the flat panel;
a current detection circuitry configured to monitor a first bias current flowing through the flat panel under the bias voltage
and detect a change in the first bias current caused by an onset of the X-ray exposure;

a gate driver circuitry configured to:
supply a first voltage to a control end of each pixel switch to fully turn on each pixel switch so as to couple the plurality
of pixels to a virtual ground when the imager operates in an idle mode;

supply a second voltage to the control end of each pixel switch to turn off each pixel switch so as to isolate the plurality
of pixels from the virtual ground when the imager operates in the charge integration mode;

supply a third voltage to the control end of each pixel switch to weakly turn on each pixel switch when the imager operates
in a standby mode, wherein the third voltage is smaller than the first voltage and larger than a threshold voltage of each
pixel switch.

US Pat. No. 9,645,255

METHOD FOR EFFICIENT DAILY CONSTANCY CHECK OR CALIBRATION OF PROTON THERAPY SYSTEM

Varian Medical Systems Pa...

1. A method to calibrate a proton spot scanning beam delivery system, the method comprising:
receiving, in a plurality of ionization chambers disposed in a solid-state phantom, a portion of a proton beam emanating from
a radiation treatment head and traversing at least a portion of plurality of ionization chambers, the proton beam being directed
at the plurality of ionization chambers according to a radiation plan;

detecting, via at least one ionization chamber of the plurality of ionization chambers, a plurality of monitoring units generated
in response to charged air particles produced from a passage of the proton beam through the at least one ionization chamber;

measuring a radiation field generated from passage of the proton beam through the portion of the plurality of ionization chambers;
calculating a radiation dose corresponding to the measured radiation field based on a dose absorbed by the plurality of ionization
chambers and the number of monitoring units generated from the passage of the proton beam;

comparing the measured radiation field to the set of pre-defined proton beam data, the set of pre-defined proton beam data
comprising a target radiation dose; and

calibrating the proton spot scanning beam delivery system to generate a proton beam based on the target radiation dose.

US Pat. No. 9,901,749

RADIATION SYSTEM WITH ROTATING PATIENT SUPPORT

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A radiation system, comprising:
a radiation source; and
a patient support for supporting a patient, the patient support located at an operative position relative to the radiation
source, wherein the radiation source is configured to deliver radiation towards the patient while the patient is supported
on the patient support;

wherein the patient support and the radiation source are on opposite sides of a spatial region, and are configured to move
circumferentially and at least partially around the spatial region.

US Pat. No. 9,873,004

SYSTEMS FOR EFFICIENT DAILY CONSTANCY CHECK OF PROTON THERAPY SYSTEMS

Varian Medical Systems Pa...

1. A system comprising:
a solid-state phantom;
a plurality of ionization chambers disposed inside the solid-state phantom; and
a measuring device coupled to the plurality of ionization chambers and operable to measure radiation in the plurality of ionization
chambers of a plurality of charged air particles produced from a passage of a proton beam through at least one ionization
chamber of the plurality of ionization chambers, wherein the plurality of ionization chambers comprises an ionization chamber
that is furthest from a source of the proton beam, relative to the others of the ionization chambers, at a position in the
phantom at a depth, relative to the direction of the proton beam, that corresponds to a position of the distal falloff of
a Bragg peak for the radiation measured by the measuring device;

wherein a radiation generating device comprises the source of the proton beam,
further wherein a plurality of charged air particles produced from a passage of the proton beam through at least one ionization
chamber of the plurality of ionization chambers is expressed in a number of monitor units measured by the measuring device
to perform a constancy check of the radiation generating device.

US Pat. No. 9,827,445

AUTOMATIC CREATION AND SELECTION OF DOSE PREDICTION MODELS FOR TREATMENT PLANS

Varian Medical Systems In...

11. A radiation therapy system comprising:
a radiation therapy device including:
a rotatable gantry including a treatment head and a multileaf collimator, wherein the multileaf collimator is configured to
shape a radiation beam emitted from the radiation head; and

a control unit configured to:
control the rotation of the rotatable gantry;
control emission of the radiation beam from the treatment head; and
control the shape of the radiation beam via the multileaf collimator;
one or more processors; and
a non-transitory computer readable medium storing a plurality of instructions that when executed control the one or more processors
to determine a dose prediction model for generating a dose distribution of a radiation treatment plan for irradiating a target
structure within a patient, the instructions comprising:

for each of N radiation treatment plans corresponding to a plurality of former patients treated with a same type of radiation
treatment:

receiving information about the radiation treatment plan, including information about a patient for whom the treatment plan
was designed and a respective dose distribution;

analyzing the information to identify D characteristic values of the radiation treatment plan, each characteristic value corresponding
to a different characteristic of the radiation treatment plan, the D characteristic values including at least one geometric
characteristic value of a tumor of the patient; and

assigning a coordinate to each of the D characteristic values to obtain a D-dimensional point corresponding to the radiation
treatment plan, wherein each characteristic corresponds to a different dimension in a D-dimensional space;

identifying a cluster of M radiation treatment plans based on the D-dimensional points, where M is less than N, and wherein
at least two of the M radiation treatments plans in the cluster have a non-zero distance between the respective D-dimensional
points;

using the M radiation treatment plans of the cluster to determine a dose prediction model for generating a new radiation treatment
plan, wherein when a new patient is assigned to the cluster from among a plurality of clusters of the N radiation treatment
plans, the dose prediction model is configured to output a new dose distribution for the new patient using the dose distributions
of the M radiation treatment plans in the cluster based on a new D-dimensional point corresponding to the new patient, the
new patient being not one of the former patients;

generating the new radiation treatment plan based on the new dose distribution, the new radiation treatment plan including
angles of a treatment head and sequence of movements of a multileaf collimator for achieving the new dose distribution; and

providing, by the treatment head of the radiation therapy device, radiation at angles and using the sequence of movements
of the multileaf collimator to specific portions of a treatment area of the new patient according to the new radiation treatment
plan.

US Pat. No. 9,814,908

APPARATUS AND METHOD PERTAINING TO MOVEMENT COMPENSATION DURING RADIATION TREATMENT

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. An apparatus to facilitate administering a therapeutic radiation dose, the apparatus having a plurality of different treatment-administration
modalities that are not all necessarily equally suited to effect a particular result, the apparatus comprising:
a plurality of radiation treatment-administration components including a radiation source that provides a therapeutic radiation
beam, at least one radiation beam collimator, and a selectively movable patient-support platform;

a memory having a radiation-treatment plan stored therein specifying use of the plurality of radiation treatment-administration
components to administer the therapeutic radiation dose, the radiation-treatment plan including radiation-administration instructions
to compensate for predictably-cyclical patient movement wherein the predictably-cyclical patient movement has a corresponding
baseline of positional movement;

a control circuit operably coupled to the memory and to the plurality of radiation treatment-administration components and
being configured to, while controlling in real time administration of the radiation-treatment plan using the plurality of
radiation treatment-administration components, use a rules-based approach to:

compensate for the predictably-cyclical patient movement using a first treatment-administration modality to implement the
radiation-administration instructions; and

respond to detection of a persistent change to the baseline of positional movement of the predictably-cyclical patient movement
by selecting from amongst the plurality of different treatment-administration modalities to identify a second treatment-administration
modality that is different from the first treatment-administration modality and that is optimal for at least one of patient
safety and comfort to use to compensate for the persistent change to the baseline of positional movement of the predictably-cyclical
patient movement.

US Pat. No. 9,795,805

PROTON THERAPY MULTI-LEAF COLLIMATOR BEAM SHAPING

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A radiation therapy apparatus comprising:
a multi-leaf collimator disposed between a source and a target, said source operable for generating a radiation beam onto
said target along a radiation beam axis, said multi-leaf collimator operable to selectively block at least a portion of said
radiation beam to said target, wherein said collimator comprises a plurality of leaves configured for independent translation
along a shared axis; said plurality of leaves including a first leaf having a first region and a second region having adjoining
surfaces, wherein said first region also has a surface that faces toward said source and a surface that faces toward said
target and is opposite said surface that faces toward said source, wherein said first region has a higher density than said
second region and wherein said first region is proximal to said radiation beam axis, wherein further said adjoining surfaces
of said first region and said second region are at an angle relative to said radiation beam axis such that an edge of said
surface that faces toward said target is longer than an edge of said surface that faces toward said source.

US Pat. No. 10,092,774

DOSE ASPECTS OF RADIATION THERAPY PLANNING AND TREATMENT

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A non-transitory computer-readable storage medium having computer-executable instructions for causing a computing system to perform a method of generating a radiation treatment plan, the method comprising:accessing values of parameters from memory of the computing system, wherein the parameters comprise directions of beams to be directed into sub-volumes in a target and beam energies for the beams;
accessing information that specifies limits for the radiation treatment plan, wherein the limits comprise a maximum limit on irradiation time for each sub-volume outside the target; and
adjusting the values of the parameters until the irradiation time for said each sub-volume outside the target satisfies the maximum limit on irradiation time.

US Pat. No. 10,088,833

PRINTING OF OBJECTS FOR MEDICAL USE

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A computer-implemented method of producing an artifact for radiation therapy, the method comprising:accessing image data stored in memory of the computer, the image data comprising images including an image of a target volume inside the patient;
generating a design for the artifact based on the image data, the design of the artifact specific to a radiation therapy treatment plan for the patient, the radiation therapy treatment plan comprising information that identifies a radiation dose to be delivered to the target volume and an angle between the target volume and an incident radiation beam;
translating, with software executing on the computer, the image data into a printing plan based on the design, wherein the printing plan comprises files that can be used with a three-dimensional printer;
controlling the three-dimensional printer using the files to build an object that corresponds to the design;
using the object during the radiation therapy; and
as the radiation therapy is being performed:
acquiring additional image data with a diagnostic radiation imager of the radiation therapy device;
generating a design for a second object based on the additional image data; and
three-dimensional printing the second object for use during the radiation therapy.

US Pat. No. 10,062,168

5D CONE BEAM CT USING DEFORMABLE REGISTRATION

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. An apparatus, comprising:an input configured to receive a plurality of images, wherein the images include respective sub-images of a bodily part of a subject, and wherein a position of the bodily part relates to a breathing movement and a cardiac movement of the subject;
a first registration engine configured to determine a first registration of at least two breathing correlated images, wherein the at least two breathing correlated images comprise two of the plurality of images or are derived from at least some of the plurality of images;
a second registration engine configured to determine a second registration of at least two cardiac correlated images; and
a volumetric image generator configured to generate a volumetric image using the first registration and the second registration.

US Pat. No. 9,999,787

BEAM LIMITING DEVICE FOR INTENSITY MODULATED PROTON THERAPY

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A proton beam emitting device comprising:a radiation nozzle configured to receive a beam of protons generated at a radiation source and to direct the beam of protons at a target area in an application subject;
a planar beam limiting structure disposed in the radiation nozzle and configured to be positioned to modify the beam of protons by at least partially obstructing a path of the beam of protons to prevent irradiated particles from the beam of protons from being received in an area of the application subject outside of the target area, wherein the planar beam limiting structure comprises a single continuous and nonlinear structure that has surfaces facing each other; and
a control system disposed in the radiation nozzle and configured to control a position of the planar beam limiting structure based on a position of the target area.

US Pat. No. 9,996,929

VISUALIZATION OF DEFORMATIONS USING COLOR OVERLAYS

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A computer-implemented method for graphically displaying representations of deformations, said deformations defined by comparing a first image of a view of a first scanned object with a second image of a view of a different scanned object, said method comprising the steps of:scanning the objects twice to produce the first and second images;
tabulating deformations in a deformation map, comprising at least one three-dimensional vector, wherein each three-dimensional vector describes a geometrical change of a portion of the object when comparing said first and second images;
converting said tabulated deformations into a corresponding set of scalar quantities over a preselected range;
dividing the range into a set of discrete quantization intervals;
assigning a unique color out of a discrete or quasi-continuous set of colors to each quantization interval to produce a color overlay, said color overlay showing the deformations; and
simultaneously displaying the color overlay and a representation of at least one of the first and second images, whereby said deformations are shown in color; wherein:
the set of scalar quantities is converted from said tabulated deformations by determining at least one parameter from the group of parameters consisting of:
magnitude of at least one three-dimensional vector, and
scalar value of one component of at least one three-dimensional vector.

US Pat. No. 9,981,144

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR SCANNED ION BEAM INTERPLAY EFFECT MITIGATION USING RANDOM REPAINTING

Varian Medical Systems Pa...

1. A method for irradiating a target area using randomly distributed spot locations, the method comprising:accessing a target radiation plan, the target radiation plan comprising a temporal and spatial sequence for administering a target dosage to a target area using a first plurality of applications of a directed beam of protons;
monitoring a movement of the target area;
adjusting the target radiation plan to align the first plurality of applications of the directed beam of protons with the movement of the target area to generate an adjusted target radiation plan;
painting the target area with the first plurality of applications of directed beam of protons according to the adjusted target radiation plan; and
subsequent to said painting, repainting a first pattern of spot locations of the target area with a second plurality of applications of the directed beam of protons, wherein the first pattern of spot locations is selected at random.

US Pat. No. 9,956,429

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATED EVALUATION OF MULTIPLE PORTAL DOSE IMAGES IN RADIATION THERAPY

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS IN...

1. A method of evaluating a portal dose image, comprising:obtaining a file of a template from a database, the template having one or more configurable field relating to dose image feature(s) to allow selectively prescribing of one or more evaluation parameters and one or more evaluation criteria, wherein the act of obtaining the template is performed by a processor;
receiving a first portal dose image of a patient, wherein the first portal dose image is generated by a portal imager in response to radiation in accordance with a treatment plan, the treatment plan being different from the template; and
after the first portal dose image is received, using the one or more evaluation parameters and the one or more evaluation criteria from the template by the processor to evaluate the first portal dose image.

US Pat. No. 9,907,979

APPARATUS AND METHOD TO FACILITATE ADAPTING A RADIATION TREATMENT PLAN

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A method of adapting a treatment plan for irradiating a treatment volume within a patient, comprising:
accessing an existing radiation treatment plan for the patient;
accessing first information for the patient that comprises automatically generated segmented volumes representing at least
one of a planning target volume (PTV) and a healthy organ at risk (OAR);

subsequent to accessing the existing radiation treatment plan and the first information, initiating an automatic adaptation
process to adapt the treatment plan to accommodate the first information;

subsequent to initiating the automatic adaptation process and prior to the automatic adaptation process yielding a treatment
plan solution, receiving second information regarding the first information, wherein the second information includes input
comprising an experienced observer's corrections to at least one volume contour for at least one PTV or OAR contained in the
first information; and

prior to the automatic adaptation process yielding a treatment plan solution, modifying the automatic adaptation process to
incorporate the second information regarding the first information.

US Pat. No. 9,901,750

MULTI-MODE CONE BEAM CT RADIOTHERAPY SIMULATOR AND TREATMENT MACHINE WITH A FLAT PANEL IMAGER

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. An apparatus, comprising:
a frame;
a rotatable gantry coupled to the frame, the rotatable gantry capable of changing the speed of rotation during a continuous
rotation;

a high-energy radiation source coupled to the rotatable gantry and configured to emit therapeutic radiation;
a cone-beam radiation source coupled to the rotatable gantry and configured to emit cone-beam radiation;
a flat-panel imager coupled to the rotatable gantry, the flat-panel imager being operable to capture image projection data
of a patient by capturing at least a portion of the cone-beam radiation from the cone-beam radiation source while changing
the speed of rotation of the rotatable gantry during a continuous rotation;

a cone-beam computed tomography (CT) reconstruction computer coupled to the rotatable gantry via a communications network,
the cone-beam computed tomography (CT) reconstruction computer is operable to use the image projection data captured by the
flat-panel imager to generate cone-beam computed tomography (CT) volumetric image data of the patient; and

a separate workstation computer coupled to the cone-beam computed tomography (CT) reconstruction computer via the communications
network, said separate workstation computer configured to receive and store a treatment plan.

US Pat. No. 9,788,783

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR THE PLANNING AND DELIVERY OF RADIATION TREATMENTS

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A method for delivering radiation dose to a target area within a subject, the method comprising:
defining a trajectory comprising relative movement between a treatment radiation source and the subject and determining a
radiation delivery plan;

sensing a position of the subject;
effecting relative movement between the treatment radiation source and the subject along the trajectory and, during the relative
movement between the treatment radiation source and the subject along the trajectory, delivering a treatment radiation beam
from the treatment radiation source to the subject according to the radiation delivery plan to impart a dose distribution
on the subject, wherein delivering the treatment radiation beam from the treatment radiation source to the subject comprises:

varying an intensity of the treatment radiation beam over at least a portion of the trajectory;
sensing that the position is outside of an acceptable range and deactivating delivery of the treatment radiation beam based
on the sensing that the position is outside of an acceptable range; and

sensing that the position is within the acceptable range and reactivating delivery of the treatment radiation beam based on
the sensing that the position is within the acceptable range; and

wherein varying the intensity of the treatment radiation beam over at least a portion of the trajectory comprises varying
a radiation output rate of the treatment radiation source in accordance with the radiation delivery plan during the relative
movement between the treatment radiation source and the subject along the trajectory.

US Pat. No. 9,692,998

PIXEL CIRCUIT WITH CONSTANT VOLTAGE BIASED PHOTODIODE AND RELATED IMAGING METHOD

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. An imaging system having a pixel array that includes a plurality of pixel circuits, each pixel circuit comprising:
a photodiode configured to generate charges in response to light or radiation;
a biasing circuit configured to provide a constant bias voltage across the photodiode to drain the charges generated by the
photodiode;

a first charge-to-voltage converter configured to accumulate the charges drained by the biasing circuit and convert the accumulated
charges into a corresponding output voltage;

a second charge-to-voltage converter; and
a gain-switching circuit configured to select the second charge-to-voltage converter to accumulate the charges generated by
the photodiode in response to detection of the output voltage exceeding a threshold voltage.

US Pat. No. 10,013,810

CONTOURING TOOL HAVING AUTOMATIC INTERPOLATION AND EXTRAPOLATION

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A computer-implemented method of automatically generating a contour based on user-generated contours for defining a 3D structure in an image, the method comprising:receiving user input corresponding to a first user-generated contour and a second user-generated contour having a first image plane and a second image plane, respectively, wherein the first and second image planes are nonadjacent having at least one image plane disposed between the first and second image planes;
determining, by a computer processor, a first image planes set comprising image planes disposed between the first and second image planes;
automatically generating, by the computer processor, first interpolated contours on planes comprised by the first image planes set, the first interpolated contours being based on the first and second user-generated contours;
automatically generating and displaying, by the computer processor, an extrapolated contour on a third image plane that is separated from the first and second image planes and the first image planes set therebetween by a second image planes set comprising at least one image plane, wherein the extrapolated contour is based on a user-specified number of image planes that neighbor the third image plane; and
automatically generating, by the computer processor, second interpolated contours on planes comprised by the second image planes set, the second interpolated contours being based on the extrapolated contour.

US Pat. No. 10,004,650

DYNAMIC PATIENT POSITIONING SYSTEM

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A treatment system comprising:a particle beam source configured to generate a therapeutic beam of particles;
a particle beam nozzle to direct the therapeutic beam of particles in a first treatment area; and
an automated patient transport configured to transport a patient on a patient support from a preparation area to the first treatment area and to position a treatment volume within the patient relative to the therapeutic beam of particles, and configured to support the patient in receiving the therapeutic beam of particles, the automated patient transport including a position sensor providing signals for determining positions of the sensor and configured for use in determining the relative positions of the treatment volume and the therapeutic beam of particles,
wherein the preparation area is protected from radiation generated within the first treatment area by one or more barriers including shielding, and the patient support is integrally connected to the patient transport and inseparable from the patient transport in transporting the patient, positioning a treatment volume within the patient, and supporting the patient in receiving the therapeutic beam of particles.

US Pat. No. 9,990,731

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR EVALUATING MOTION TRACKING FOR RADIATION THERAPY

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A method comprising:obtaining a first image that corresponds with a first multi-leaf collimator (MLC) configuration, wherein the first image is generated when the MLC is stationary;
obtaining a second image that corresponds with a second MLC configuration, wherein the second image is generated when the MLC and/or another component of a radiation machine is being operated to track a motion;
performing an analysis based at least in part on the first image and the second image using a processor to obtain a result; and
storing the result in a non-transitory medium;
wherein the method further comprises performing an interpolation based on the first image and a third image to determine an interpolated parameter that corresponds with the second image; and
wherein the analysis is performed to verify a treatment plan or to verify treatment.

US Pat. No. 9,987,504

PORTAL DOSIMETRY SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND METHODS

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS IN...

1. A method for evaluating radiation dose delivery to a target, comprising:generating a radiation dose distribution image based on radiation delivered according to a treatment plan, the generated radiation dose distribution image including at least a first point and a second point;
comparing the generated radiation dose distribution image with a corresponding predicted radiation dose distribution image, the comparing including comparing points in the generated radiation dose distribution image with corresponding points in the predicted radiation dose distribution image;
evaluating the compared points using different evaluation criterias;anddetermining whether dose delivery is acceptable based on a result of the evaluation,
wherein the evaluating includes evaluating the first point using a first gamma criteria including dose and spatial differences and evaluating the second point using a second gamma criteria including dose and spatial differences, the second gamma criteria being different than the first gamma criteria, or evaluating the first point against a maximum absolute dose value and the second point against a minimum absolute dose value.

US Pat. No. 9,943,704

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR FIDUCIALS CONTAINED IN REMOVABLE DEVICE FOR RADIATION THERAPY

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. An implantable device for guided radiation therapy, comprising:a removable implantable device having a first portion configured to be implanted in tissue of a patient and opposing end portions configured to remain external to the patient on two sides of a resection cavity, wherein the first portion includes a predefined cavity extending from one of the opposing end portions to another of the opposing end portions;
an active marker contained within the predefined cavity of the first portion, the marker having a circuit configured to transmit a wirelessly transmitted location signal from within the patient, wherein the marker is configured to be received in the predefined cavity via one of the opposing end portions;
a first fastener coupled to one of the opposing end portions of the removable implantable device and having a portion configured to be external to the patient at least proximate to a dermis of the patient; and
a second fastener coupled to another of the opposing end portions of the removable implantable device and having a portion configured to be external to the patient at least proximate to a dermis of the patient, wherein the first and second fasteners are configured to place the removable implantable device under tension between the opposing end portions to adjust for shrinkage or expansion of the resection cavity, and wherein the removable device, the active marker, and the first and second fasteners are configured to remain implanted in the patient during external beam radiation therapy.

US Pat. No. 9,931,521

MULTI LEVEL MULTILEAF COLLIMATOR LEAF TIP SHAPE EFFECTS AND PENUMBRA OPTIMIZATION

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A multi level multileaf collimator, comprising:a first multileaf collimator in a first level comprising beam blocking leaves movable in a first direction; and
a second multileaf collimator in a second level comprising beam blocking leaves movable in a second direction, wherein
the first direction is generally parallel with the second direction and the leaves of the first multileaf collimator laterally offset the leaves of the second multileaf collimator;
each of the beam blocking leaves of the first and second multileaf collimators comprises a top surface proximal to a radiation source when in use; and
at least some of the beam blocking leaves of the first multileaf collimator and at least some of the beam blocking leaves of the second multileaf collimator comprise an end portion having a non-square shape viewed in a direction perpendicular to the top surface of the at least some of the beam blocking leaves of the first and multileaf collimators, the non-square shape comprising a middle portion orthogonal to the first or second direction, and a beveled portion on each side of the middle portion,
wherein the beveled portion on each side of the middle portion of the at least some of the beam blocking leaves of the first multileaf collimator has a first chamfer angle and the beveled portion on each side of the middle portion of the at least some of the beam blocking leaves of the second multileaf collimator has a second chamfer angle same as the first chamfer angle.

US Pat. No. 9,919,165

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR FIDUCIAL TO PLAN ASSOCIATION

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A computer-implemented method, comprising:
determining, using a sensor assembly of a tracking system, a plurality of measured fiducial positions in or on at least a
portion of an animal body, wherein each measured fiducial position generates a location signal at a unique response frequency
corresponding to a unique excitation energy from an excitation source of the tracking system;

determining, using at least one of the tracking system and an imaging apparatus, a plurality of planned fiducial positions
associated with a radiation therapy plan;

determining, using a processor, a first metric correspondence for a first permutation of the plurality of measured fiducial
positions in relation to the plurality of planned fiducial positions, wherein the first metric is determined based on a weighted
sum of

distances between the plurality of planned fiducial positions and the plurality of measured fiducial positions,
a rotation, and
an offset between a centroid of the plurality of planned fiducial positions and a centroid of the plurality of measured fiducial
positions; and

presenting the first metric to a user via a display.

US Pat. No. 9,886,534

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR COLLISION AVOIDANCE IN MEDICAL SYSTEMS

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. An apparatus for detecting a possible collision in a medical procedure, comprising:
a camera for providing an image of a patient that is supported on a patient support; and
a processing unit configured for:
determining a first model based at least in part on the image, at least a part of the first model corresponding with a surface
of the patient, and

determining a second model, the second model representing a first component of the medical system; and
a collision prediction mechanism configured for virtually moving the first model, the second model, or both, to simulate a
movement of the first component of the medical system to determine whether there is a possible collision between the first
component and the patient;

wherein the collision prediction mechanism is also configured for generating an output to indicate the possible collision
or an absence of the possible collision; and

wherein the processing unit is configured for determining the first model in response to a movement of the patient.

US Pat. No. 9,672,640

METHOD FOR INTERACTIVE MANUAL MATCHING AND REAL-TIME PROJECTION CALCULATION IN IMAGING

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A method for performing image mapping for computer tomography, the method comprising:
generating a reference image based on a pre-stored reference data and a verification image corresponding to an imaging subject;
displaying the reference image proximate to the verification image in an on-screen graphical display;
receiving, a user input corresponding to a position within the on-screen graphical display, the user input being indicative
of a direction within the reference image;

in response to receiving the user input indicative of the direction, dynamically selecting an algorithm from a plurality of
digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) generating algorithms based on the direction indicated by the user input;

generating a DRR corresponding to the direction indicated by the user input from the pre-stored reference data with the dynamically
selected algorithm, the DRR having a first resolution;

identifying a plurality of structures in the DRR and a plurality of edges surrounding the plurality of structures;
rendering a portion of the DRR within a threshold distance of the plurality of edges surrounding the identified plurality
of structures in a second resolution being a different resolution than the first resolution; and

incorporating the portion with the second resolution into the DRR.

US Pat. No. 9,974,975

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR USING PREFERRED ANGLES WHEN IRRADIATING PATIENT TARGET VOLUMES

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. An apparatus comprising:a user interface;
a control circuit operably coupled to the user interface and configured to:
prior to optimizing an arc-therapy radiation-treatment plan, receiving input from a user via the user interface that identifies at least one angle that comprises a gantry angle as corresponds to an arc-therapy radiation-treatment apparatus as a preferred angle;
when optimizing the arc-therapy radiation-treatment plan with respect to a patient target volume, using the identified at least one angle to modify the arc-therapy radiation-treatment plan to irradiate the patient target volume by, at least in part, permitting the arc-therapy radiation-treatment apparatus to slow down a rate of moving the gantry when traversing the preferred angle as compared to angles other than the preferred angle.
US Pat. No. 9,938,583

BIOMARKERS FOR RADIATION TREATMENT

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method for treating a tumor in a subject, the method comprising:i) contacting a tumor sample from the subject with antibodies that bind to biomarkers CD44 and CD68;
ii) contacting a normal tissue sample with antibodies that bind to the biomarkers CD44 and CD68;
iii) detecting increased expression of CD44 and CD68 in the tumor sample as compared to the normal tissue sample, and
iv) administering an effective dose of ionizing radiation to the tumor and a TGF-beta inhibitor to the subject, thereby treating the tumor, wherein the TGF-beta inhibitor is an antibody or a small molecule.

US Pat. No. 9,925,394

AUTOMATIC HEALTH DETECTION FOR MOTION AXES IN MEDICAL LINEAR ACCELERATORS

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method comprising:providing a linear accelerator system comprising a motion axis including a motor operable to move a load between a first end and a second end, wherein the first and second ends are a hardstop,
performing a homing routine using the first end to establish a reference position;
driving the motor to move the load from the first end to the second end;
collecting data on position of the second end,
calculating a distance between the first and second ends;
comparing the calculated distance with a provided value or range indicative of absence of a fault of the axis; and
detecting presence or absence of a fault of the motion axis using the comparison of the calculated distance with the provided value or range;
wherein the homing routine comprises:
driving the motor to move the load toward the first end;
monitoring an electrical parameter of the motor which reaches or exceeds a determined value when at least a portion of the load contacts the first end; and
defining the reference position for the motion axis when the monitored electrical parameter reaches or exceed the determined value.

US Pat. No. 10,086,215

METHOD AND APPARATUS PERTAINING TO TREATMENT PLANS FOR DYNAMIC RADIATION-TREATMENT PLATFORMS

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A method for use with a dynamic radiation-treatment platform, the method comprising:at a control circuit:
accessing patient information regarding, at least, a patient's external contour and a treatment target's size and position with respect to the patient's body;
accessing treatment-platform information regarding dynamic elements of the dynamic radiation-treatment platform; and
using the patient information and the treatment-platform information to automatically suggest a treatment plan having
sub-treatment-pathway traversal-based physical alterations to at least one of the dynamic elements of the dynamic radiation-treatment platform.

US Pat. No. 10,043,284

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR REAL-TIME TUMOR TRACKING

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A computer-implemented method, comprising:determining a first position of a first fiducial of a plurality of fiducials, the plurality of fiducials located in or on a portion of a human body, the plurality of fiducials each associated with a plurality of preliminary positions;
predicting a first plurality of positions associated with the plurality of fiducials based upon the determined position of the first fiducial and the plurality of preliminary positions;
determining a first target position based upon the first plurality of positions;
determining a second position of a second fiducial of the plurality of fiducials;
predicting a second plurality of positions associated with the plurality of fiducials based upon the determined second position of the second fiducial;
determining a second target position based upon the second plurality of positions;
determining a relation to a boundary based upon the first target position and the second target position, wherein the relation to the boundary comprises a determination, during radiation therapy, that a centroid of the plurality of fiducials will traverse the boundary at a future time;
associating a timestamp with the future time at which the centroid of the plurality of fiducials will traverse the boundary; and
interrupting the radiation therapy at the future time associated with the timestamp.

US Pat. No. 10,022,564

SYSTEMS, METHODS, AND DEVICES FOR RADIATION BEAM ALIGNMENT AND RADIATION BEAM MEASUREMENTS USING ELECTRONIC PORTAL IMAGING DEVICES

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS IN...

1. A radiation treatment system, comprising:a radiation source configured to emit a radiation beam;
an imaging device configured to acquire one or more images; and
a processing device configured to execute processor-executable process steps for determining radiation beam characteristics without implementing an imaging device response calibration protocol, the process steps comprising:
acquiring one or more images using the imaging device, the imaging device including a plurality of pixels;
determining one or more parameters from the one or more images; and
determining one or more characteristics of the radiation beam from the determined one or more parameters,
wherein the one or more characteristics includes number of photons detected, radiation beam energy change, radiation beam tilt relative to a collimator axis of rotation, radiation beam symmetry, radiation beam flatness, and radiation beam center change.

US Pat. No. 9,974,494

SYSTEM AND METHODS FOR TREATING PATIENTS USING RADIATION

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

24. A radiation method, comprising:delivering radiation towards a patient, wherein the delivering of the radiation is performed using a radiation machine, wherein the radiation machine comprises a structure having a first side, a second side, a first opening located on the first side, and a patient-accommodating space that extends from the first opening, and wherein the radiation machine further comprises a radiation source coupled to the structure; and
moving a portion of the patient from a first operative position that is associated with the radiation machine to a second operative position, or vice versa;
wherein the first operative position is in a treatment space in which the patient is to be treated, and wherein the second operative position is in an imaging space in which the patient is to be imaged; and
wherein the portion of the patient is moved through the imaging space before reaching the treatment space.

US Pat. No. 9,956,430

REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEM AND METHOD

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. A system configured to support communication between a first environment having a first neutron radiation level and a second environment having a second neutron radiation level, comprising:a first computing device configured to control a treatment system in the first environment, wherein the treatment system collects a first radiation therapy time-sensitive data and a second radiation therapy non-time-sensitive data; and
a second computing device configured to issue a command in the second environment for the treatment system, wherein the first computing device is further configured to:
enable or disable a function supported by the treatment system based on the command from the second computing device,
in response to the first radiation therapy time-sensitive data and the second radiation therapy non-time-sensitive data, assert a first interrupt or a first interlock based on the first radiation therapy time-sensitive data and transmit the first radiation therapy time-sensitive data with the first interrupt or the first interlock and a higher priority than the second radiation therapy non-time-sensitive data in a servo loop,
retransmit the first radiation therapy time-sensitive data to the second computing device with the higher priority when the second computing device fails to receive expected information within a particular time, or when the first computing device receives a first monitored status of a first storage area in the first computing device, and
retransmit the second radiation therapy non-time-sensitive data to the second computing device.

US Pat. No. 9,939,130

MARKER SYSTEM WITH LIGHT SOURCE

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A marker system, comprising:a first marker;
a second marker, wherein the first marker and the second marker are configured to emit light from one or more light sources coupled to the first marker and the second marker, the light comprising invisible light for detection by a video camera;
a filter, wherein the filter is configured to filter out visible light while allowing the invisible light emitted by the first and second markers to pass therethrough for detection by the video camera to generate an image in response to the invisible light, the image being a part of a video generated by the video camera; and
a structure coupled to the first marker and/or the second marker, wherein the structure has a base and a surface that is oriented at an angle with respect to the base.

US Pat. No. 10,145,966

METHODS FOR FABRICATING PIXELATED SCINTILLATOR ARRAYS

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method of fabricating pixelated scintillator arrays, comprising: providing a first jig comprising a plurality of recesses and a second jig comprising a plurality of recesses; placing N scintillator pixels in N recesses of the first jig, wherein a portion of each of the N scintillator pixels is conformably received in one of the N recesses of the first jig and the remaining portion of the each of the N scintillator pixels protrudes out from the one of the N recesses of the first jig, forming N protrusions of the N scintillator pixels substantially conforming to the recesses of the second jig; applying an adhesive layer on the N protrusions of the N scintillator pixels; placing a reflective layer over the N protrusions of the N scintillator pixels; aligning the recesses of the second jig with the N protrusions of the N scintillator pixels and pressing the reflective layer with the second jig to allow at least a portion of the reflective layer to conform to the N protrusions of the N scintillator pixels, thereby forming a first row of a scintillator array comprising the N scintillator pixels and the at least portion of the reflective layer.

US Pat. No. 10,062,186

METHOD FOR DYNAMICALLY GENERATING AN ADAPTIVE MULTI-RESOLUTION IMAGE FROM ALGORITHMS SELECTED BASED ON USER INPUT

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A method for dynamically generating an adaptive multi-resolution image, the method comprising:displaying a reference image of an imaging subject with a verification image of the imaging subject in an on-screen graphical display;
receiving a user input indicative of a direction within a display of the reference image;
in response to receiving the user input indicative of the direction, dynamically selecting an algorithm from a plurality of algorithms based on the direction indicated by the user input;
calculating a projection of the imaging subject at a first resolution;
performing edge detection on the projection of the imaging subject to determine a plurality of edges;
calculating a projection of a plurality of portions around the plurality of edges at a second resolution that is greater than the first resolution;
generating an adaptive multi-resolution image of the imaging subject with the selected algorithm by incorporating the projection of the plurality of portions around the plurality of edges in the projection of the imaging subject; and
replacing the reference image with the adaptive multi-resolution image in the on-screen graphical display.

US Pat. No. 10,039,936

METHOD AND APPARATUS PERTAINING TO MULTI-STAGE RADIATION-TREATMENT PLAN OPTIMIZATION

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A method to facilitate optimizing a radiation-treatment plan, the method comprising:at a control circuit:
during a first optimization stage:
using a first radiation-treatment plan optimization process that concludes within a first period of time, that employs user-selected constraints that comprise non-machine-specific constraints, and that models at least one of a dose-distribution shape and a dose-distribution property to provide a first plan result, wherein the first plan result is non-specific with respect to a particular radiation-delivery apparatus and in particular is independent of any particular radiation-delivery method, such that the first plan result is independent of a radiation beam's specific trajectory, a speed at which a radiation source can be moved, an available number of collimators, any particular type of available collimator, a number of available collimator leaves, available collimator leaf shapes, a speed at which collimator leaves can be moved, and whether a corresponding patient support device is capable of movement;
providing an opportunity for a user to modify the user-selected constraints in view of the first plan result to thereby provide resultant vetted user-selected constraints;
during a second optimization stage:
using a second radiation-treatment plan optimization process that requires more than the first period of time to conclude and that employs the resultant vetted user-selected constraints to provide an optimized radiation-treatment plan, wherein the second radiation-treatment plan optimization process makes use of operating parameters for a specific radiation-delivery apparatus, wherein the operating parameters are specific and precise with respect to physical limitations of the specific radiation-delivery apparatus including movement speed limitations for a radiation source and speed limitations for changing aperture settings of a multi-leaf collimator, and wherein the second optimization stage yields the optimized radiation-treatment plan in less time than it would take the second optimization stage alone, in the absence of employing the resultant vetted user-selected constraints, to produce the optimized radiation-treatment plan.

US Pat. No. 10,022,565

EXTERNAL BEAM RADIOTHERAPY AND IMAGING WITH RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPE

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A system, comprising:a supporting device configured to support a patient; and
a radiation device configured to deliver external radiation to the patient, wherein the radiation device comprises a body having an opening defining a spatial volume having a generally cylindrical and/or truncated cone shape to allow a portion of the patient on the supporting device to extend into such that the portion of the patient is surrounded by the body when in radiation, the body comprising a plurality of dwelling locations for radioactive isotope sources and a plurality of collimators coupled to the plurality of dwelling locations configured to collimate radiation from the radioactive isotope sources to a treatment target in the portion of the patient,
wherein at least one of the plurality of collimators comprises a tungsten cup having a collimation angle ranging from 1 to 90 degrees.

US Pat. No. 10,188,356

RADIATION SYSTEMS

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. A radiation system, comprising:a treatment device having a structure, and a first radiation source coupled to the structure, wherein the first radiation source is configured to rotate about an axis and to deliver a treatment radiation beam;
a rail system associated with the structure; and
a MRI device moveably coupled to the rail system;
wherein the rail system is configured to guide the MRI device from a first position to a second position, the second position being closer to the treatment device than the first position;
wherein the treatment device is at an operative position for delivering the treatment radiation beam; and
wherein when the treatment device is at the operative position, and when the MRI device is at the second position, the MRI device is next to the treatment device so that a spacing between the MRI device and treatment device is less than a thickness of the MRI device or the treatment device, and the MRI device is behind the treatment device along the axis.

US Pat. No. 10,143,856

METHOD AND APPARATUS PERTAINING TO TREATING A PATIENT USING HEAVY PARTICLES

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A method comprising:providing a source of heavy particles that comprise at least one of antiprotons and pions, wherein the source of heavy particles is movably mounted to a gantry that forms an arcuately-shaped pathway about a patient such that the source of heavy particles can be selectively rotated about at least a part of the patient;
exposing a treatment volume within the patient, during a course of a single treatment session, to beams of the heavy particles as sourced by the source of heavy particles from a variety of different angles as the source of heavy particles rotates about at least a part of the patient.

US Pat. No. 10,143,859

CONTROLLING AND SHAPING THE DOSE DISTRIBUTION OUTSIDE TREATMENT TARGETS IN EXTERNAL-BEAM RADIATION TREATMENTS

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A method of controlling dose distribution outside one or more target volumes within a domain of interest of a patient in a radiation treatment plan for delivering radiation to the one or more target volumes using an external-beam radiation treatment system, the method comprising:receiving, by a computer system, geometrical information about the one or more target volumes, wherein the one or more target volumes includes a first target volume, and wherein the geometrical information includes contour information of the first target volume;
receiving, by the computer system, a dose prescription including a lower dose limit for the first target volume;
determining, by the computer system, a first dose falloff constraint profile for voxels outside the first target volume based on (i) the contour information of the first target volume and (ii) the lower dose limit for the first target volume, wherein the first dose falloff constraint profile includes a first upper dose constraint for each voxel outside the first target volume defined by a first dose falloff constraint curve;
obtaining, by the computer system, a cost function including a first term proportional to an excess of a dose value at each respective voxel outside the first target volume with respect to a corresponding value of the first dose falloff constraint profile at the respective voxel; and
determining, by the computer system, an optimal radiation treatment plan using the cost function, wherein the optimal radiation treatment plan produces a dose distribution that is compliant with the first dose falloff constraint profile for voxels outside the first target volume, and wherein the optimal radiation treatment plan includes a control-point sequence and a multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf sequence to be used by the external-beam radiation treatment system for delivering the radiation.

US Pat. No. 10,096,151

METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL VISUALIZATION OF DEVIATION OF VOLUMETRIC STRUCTURES WITH COLORED SURFACE STRUCTURES

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A computer-implemented method for blending at least two three-dimensional volumetric structures, the computer-implemented method comprising:associating, via a processor, a first primary color and a first translucency to a first dataset sourced from a medical scanner, and a second primary color and a second translucency to a second dataset sourced from the medical scanner, each of the first dataset and the second dataset having a respective three-dimensional surface representation of a mammalian anatomical structure, the first primary color is visually distinct from the second primary color, the medical scanner captured the first dataset and the second dataset at different times;
assigning, via the processor, a color coding scheme to a set of distance differential values, the color coding scheme having a continuous color range, the set of distance differential values is associated with the first dataset and the second dataset;
shading, via the processor, a surface of a three-dimensional surface representation associated with at least one of the first dataset or the second dataset on a display based on the color coding scheme that corresponds to the set of distance differential values; and
blending, via the processor, the first and second datasets by visualizing, via the processor, the translucent surfaces of the first and second datasets on the display to produce, via the processor, a blended, volumetric, and interactive representation of the first and second translucent surface datasets simultaneously on the display as the mammalian anatomical structure, the blended representation is depicted in a secondary color as blended from the first primary color based on the first translucency and the second primary color based on the second translucency such that an improvement or deterioration difference of the mammalian anatomical structure between the different times is visually noticeable and such that the set of distance differential values is set to the color coding scheme and is modified based on at least one of rotating or panning the blended representation while the opacity of the blended representation is changing, the processor is in communication with the display.

US Pat. No. 10,210,588

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR MOBILE HIGH-ENERGY RADIATION TREATMENT ENVIRONMENT

Varian Medical Systems, I...

1. A method comprising:positioning a partition within a room such that the partition defines a first maze area and a second maze area within the room, the room having a door controlling access into the second maze area;
positioning a radiation therapy treatment device within the first maze area, the radiation therapy treatment device is configured to emit a radiation, the room is shielded against an exit of the radiation from the room;
positioning a first wireless networking device within the second maze area such that the partition extends between the radiation therapy treatment device and the first wireless networking device and thereby shields the first wireless networking device against the radiation, the first wireless networking device including a router or a repeater;
positioning a computer console and a second wireless networking device outside the room such that the computer console is able to communicate with a mobile device within the first maze area via the first wireless networking device and the second wireless networking device when the door is open, the second wireless networking device includes at least one of a router or a repeater, the first wireless networking device and the second wireless networking device are on a same wireless network as the door is open, the mobile device hosts an identifier unique thereto, wherein the identifier is motherboard-based and includes an alphanumeric character string;
causing, by a processor, a server to communicate with the mobile device such that the server forms a mapping between the identifier and the radiation therapy treatment device;
connecting, by the processor, the second wireless networking device with a network router in communication with the server and a plurality of wireless networking devices such that the network router is positioned between the second wireless networking device and the server and such that the network router is positioned between the wireless networking devices and the server, the wireless networking devices associated with a plurality of medical procedure rooms containing a plurality of radiation therapy treatment devices such that the wireless networking devices are external to the medical procedure rooms and the radiation therapy treatment devices are internal to the rooms, the radiation therapy treatment devices are mapped to the mobile device based on the identifier;
establishing, by the processor, a one-to-one relationship between the mobile device located inside the first maze area and the radiation therapy treatment device located inside the first maze area via the first wireless networking device based on the mapping sourced from the server via the network router, the one-to-one relationship not applicable outside of the room, the mobile device including a display;
synchronizing, by the processor, a patient session loaded onto the computer console located outside the room with the mobile device located inside the first maze area based on the mapping sourced from the server via the network router, through the first wireless networking device and the second wireless networking device as the door is open, the patient session being associated with a patient, the patient session loaded onto the computer console from the server via the network router;
causing, by the processor, the mobile device to capture a set of data generated from a workflow performed on the patient inside the first maze area, the workflow involving the display, to produce a set of captured data;
causing, by the processor, the mobile device to transform the set of captured data into a set of modified data that comprises current patient information, a treatment plan, and field context information; and
sending, by the processor, the set of modified data, from the mobile device positioned inside the first maze area, by wireless transmission, via the first wireless networking device and via the second wireless networking device, to the computer console located outside the room as the door is open.

US Pat. No. 10,188,873

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR DOSE CALCULATION IN GENERATING RADIATION TREATMENT PLANS

Varian Medical Systems In...

1. A computing system comprising:a central processing unit (CPU); and
memory coupled to the CPU and having stored therein instructions that, when executed by the computing system, cause the computing system to execute operations associated with generating a radiation treatment plan, the operations comprising:
accessing a first dose calculated using first set of fluence maps and a first dose prediction model;
accessing a second fluence map;
projecting the second fluence map onto the first set of fluence maps to determine a set of scalars and a residual value; and
when the residual value satisfies a criterion, calculating a second dose using the first dose prediction model, the set of scalars, and the second fluence map, and wherein when the residual value does not satisfy the criterion, calculating the second dose using a second dose prediction model and the second fluence map.

US Pat. No. 10,182,868

APPARATUS AND METHODS FOR USING AN ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSPONDER IN ORTHOPEDIC PROCEDURES

VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS, I...

1. A system for tracking a prosthesis implanted in a human, the system comprising:a spinal stabilization device configured to be received in a cavity of the human, wherein the spinal stabilization device includes an inflatable body sized and shaped to be positioned between spinous processes of adjacent superior and inferior vertebrae when the spinal stabilization device is in an expanded state, and wherein the inflatable body includes an aperture through a wall of the inflatable body;
a magnetic transponder positioned in the aperture of the inflatable body of the spinal stabilization device, wherein a first outer surface of the magnetic transponder protrudes radially from an exterior surface of the inflatable body in a first general direction and defines an exterior outer portion of the spinal stabilization device, wherein a second outer surface of the magnetic transponder protrudes radially from an interior surface of the inflatable body in a second general direction opposite the first general direction and defines an interior portion of the spinal stabilization device, and wherein the transponder has a circuit configured to be energized by a wirelessly transmitted pulsed magnetic field and to wirelessly transmit a pulsed magnetic location signal in response to the pulsed magnetic field; and
a sensor assembly comprising a support member and a plurality of field sensors carried by the support member configured to sense the pulsed magnetic location signal from the transponder.