US Pat. No. 9,439,297

METHOD OF MAKING A PLURALITY OF ELECTRONIC ASSEMBLIES

VLT, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA...

1. A method of making a plurality of electronic devices, comprising:
providing a plurality of mold panels, which when assembled, form an internal chamber;
providing a substrate having a plurality of conductive traces and a plurality of components electrically connected to form
at least one circuit, the substrate having at least one contact for making an electrical connection to the circuit;

forming a panel assembly including the mold panels assembled with the substrate in the internal chamber and an encapsulant
filling spaces between the substrate and interior surfaces of the chamber;

curing the encapsulant; and
cutting the panel assembly to expose at least a portion of the at least one contact and form a respective exposed contact.

US Pat. No. 9,516,761

ENCAPSULATED MODULAR POWER CONVERTER WITH SYMMETRIC HEAT DISTRIBUTION

VLT, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA...

1. An apparatus comprising:
a power converter including
a printed circuit board (“PCB”) comprising a plurality of conductive layers and having a top surface and a bottom surface;
a magnetic core structure magnetically coupled to a winding formed by traces in one or more of the conductive layers in the
PCB; and

a plurality of power semiconductor devices, a first set of the power semiconductor devices being mounted on the top surface
and electrically connected to dissipate power at a level, Pt, during operation of the converter, a second set of the power
semiconductor devices being mounted on the bottom surface and electrically connected to dissipate power at a level, Pb, during
operation of the converter;

wherein the power semiconductor devices are distributed between the first and second sets to distribute heat generation during
operation of the converter such that each level Pt, Pb is less than 150% of the other level Pb, Pt.

US Pat. No. 9,112,422

FAULT TOLERANT POWER CONVERTER

VLT, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA...

1. A method of converting power via a transformer for supplying a low voltage output comprising:
providing a secondary winding having a first terminal and a second terminal;
providing a first switch and a second switch each adapted to block current flow in an OFF state in at least one direction;
forming a first series circuit with the first switch connected to the second switch at a first junction, the first series
circuit having two end terminals;

connecting the first terminal of the secondary winding to the first junction;
connecting the first series circuit across an output with each of the two end terminals connected to a respective terminal
of the output and with each of the first and second switches being arranged in the OFF state to block current flow through
the first series circuit in a direction that would short the output, wherein a short across one of the first or second switches
does not short the output;

sensing an output of the second switch and preventing the first switch from turning ON if the sensing indicates that the second
switch is not open; and

sensing an output of the first switch and preventing the second switch from turning ON if the sensing indicates that the first
switch is not open.

US Pat. No. 9,402,319

PANEL-MOLDED ELECTRONIC ASSEMBLIES

VLT, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA...

1. An apparatus comprising:
a modular package having a first external surface, a second external surface opposite the first external surface, and an external
side wall extending along the perimeter of and connecting with the first and second external surfaces, the first and second
external surfaces each being defined at least in part by a respective layer of cured mold compound; and

an electrical circuit for converting power, including a printed circuit board (“PCB”), a plurality of components including
semiconductors mounted to the PCB and a plurality of interconnects electrically connected to the components, the electrical
circuit being located within the cured mold compound;

the external side wall comprising a strip formed by the PCB between strips formed by the layers of cured mold compound defining
the first and second external surfaces, in which the strip formed by the PCB is coplanar with at least a portion of the strips
formed by the layers of cured mold compound;

the interconnects being disposed within the side wall.

US Pat. No. 9,269,661

LOW RESISTANCE POWER SWITCHING DEVICE

VLT, INC., Sunnyvale, CA...

1. A semiconductor device comprising:
a semiconductor substrate,
a plurality of regions in the semiconductor substrate, the regions comprising a first type of regions and a second type of
regions; and

a plurality of conductive metallization layers disposed parallel to the semiconductor substrate, including a first metallization
layer and a second metallization layer;

wherein the first metallization layer comprises a first metal surface electrically connected to ones of the first type of
regions through a first set of conductive paths, wherein the first metal surface extends horizontally such that there are
enabled at least four principal axes of current flow along the first metal surface to a first connection area from a plurality
of first intersection points of the first set of conductive paths and the first metal surface; and

wherein the second metallization layer comprises a second metal surface electrically connected to ones of the second type
of regions through a second set of conductive paths, wherein the second metal surface extends horizontally such that there
are enabled at least four principal axes of current flow along the second metal surface to a second connection area from a
plurality of second intersection points of the second set of conductive paths and the second metal surface.

US Pat. No. 9,413,259

UNIVERSAL AC ADAPTOR

VLT, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA...

1. Apparatus comprising:
a safe input for receiving an isolated unipolar input voltage less than 50 volts and characterized by a periodic ripple having
a characteristic frequency and a characteristic period;

a DC-DC switching power converter for converting power received from the safe input for delivery to a load via an output,
the DC-DC switching power converter comprising one or more switches; and

a controller for operating the one or more switches in a series of converter operating cycles each having a duration that
is 1% or less of the characteristic period,

wherein the DC-DC switching power converter is adapted to deliver a controlled output to the load at an output voltage and
to adjust an envelope of current drawn by the DC-DC switching power converter to perform power factor correction.

US Pat. No. 9,166,481

DIGITAL CONTROL OF RESONANT POWER CONVERTERS

VLT, INC., Sunnyvale, CA...

1. A method of synchronously operating a power converter in a series of converter operating cycles, the converter having at
least one primary switch to drive a resonant power train and at least one secondary switch, the resonant power train including
a transformer and having a characteristic resonant frequency and period, the method comprising:
providing an oscillator for generating clock signals at an oscillator frequency;
generating timing control signals for each of a plurality of events based upon the clock signals in a (A) standard converter
operating cycle, having a standard operating period and frequency, to:

(i) turn the at least one primary switch ON and OFF at times when essentially zero voltage is impressed across the respective
at least one primary switch and essentially zero resonant current is flowing in the respective at least one primary switch;
and

(ii) turn the at least one secondary switch ON and OFF at times when essentially zero current is flowing in the respective
at least one secondary switch and essentially zero voltage is impressed across the respective at least one secondary switch;
and

wherein the oscillator frequency is preset, and
the timing of the timing control signals for one or more selected events may be set independently of other timing control
signals and events.

US Pat. No. 9,508,485

ISOLATOR WITH INTEGRAL TRANSFORMER

VLT, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA...

1. An apparatus comprising:
a bridge board comprising a multilayer substrate having a plurality of conductive layers separated by insulation and having
a length, a set of A-side contacts located near an end of the bridge board on a first side of an isolation boundary, the isolation
boundary dividing the length, and a set of B-side contacts located on a second side of the isolation boundary near an opposite
end of the bridge board, the set of B-side contacts being separated by a predetermined distance from the A-side contacts;

the bridge board including one or more transformers, each transformer including an A-side winding connected to the A-side
contacts and a B-side winding connected to the B-side contacts;

each A-side winding being galvanically isolated from each B-side contact and each B-side winding;
each B-side winding being galvanically isolated from each A-side contact and each A-side winding;
each A-side and B-side winding being formed in a respective conductive layer of the bridge board and being located in a region
providing space for a magnetic field coupling the A-side and B-side windings;

the bridge board being constructed and arranged to span a separation distance between an external A-side circuit having a
set of A-side terminals located in an A-side area on a printed circuit board (PCB) and an external B-side circuit having a
set of B-side terminals located in a B-side area on a PCB, with the A-side contacts of the bridge board aligned and mated
with respective ones of the A-side terminals and the B-side contacts of the bridge board aligned and mated with respective
ones of the B-side terminals;

the bridge board providing a galvanically isolated mechanism for connecting the external A-side circuit to the external B-side
circuit.

US Pat. No. 9,325,247

CLAMPED CAPACITOR RESONANT POWER CONVERTER

VLT, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA...

1. A method of converting power between an input source and a load, where the load may vary over a normal operating range,
comprising:
providing a transformer;
forming a resonant circuit including the transformer and a resonant capacitor and having a characteristic resonant frequency
and period;

providing output circuitry connected to the transformer for delivering a rectified output voltage to the load;
providing two or more primary switches to drive the resonant circuit;
providing a clamp switch to clamp the resonant capacitor;
providing a switch controller to operate the primary switches and the clamp switch in a series of converter operating cycles,
each converter operating cycle characterized by:

(a) two power transfer intervals of essentially equal duration during which one or more of the primary switches are ON, a
magnetizing current flows in a winding of the transformer, and power is transferred between the input and the output via the
transformer, each power transfer interval comprising:

(i) first and second resonant intervals, each having a duration less than the characteristic resonant period, during which
a resonant current flows through a winding of the transformer at the characteristic resonant frequency; and

(ii) a clamp interval occurring after the first resonant interval and before the second resonant interval and having a clamp
duration during which the clamp switch is ON and provides a low impedance shunt across the resonant capacitor.

US Pat. No. 9,190,206

VERTICAL PCB SURFACE MOUNT INDUCTORS AND POWER CONVERTERS

VLT, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA...

1. A method comprising:
providing an inductor having a magnetic core on a multilayer PCB;
providing conductive traces on at least one layer of the multilayer PCB that comprise at least one winding coupled to the
magnetic core; and

providing contacts along and on the surface of an edge of the multilayer PCB that are electrically connected to the conductive
traces, the edge being defined by the length and the thickness of the multilayer PCB, the contacts arranged for making connections
between the at least one winding and a substrate, and wherein the edge of the PCB is sufficiently wide to permit stable connection
of the multilayer PCB to the substrate such that the multilayer PCB is substantially perpendicular to the substrate.

US Pat. No. 9,571,084

CONTROLLED SWITCHES FOR FAULT TOLERANT POWER CONVERTERS

VLT, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA...

1. A semiconductor device comprising:
a first electronic switch having a first control terminal, a first switched terminal, and a first common terminal,
a second electronic switch having a second control terminal, a second switched terminal, and a second common terminal,
a first control circuit having an input connected to the first switched terminal and the first common terminal and an output
connected to the first control terminal, the first control circuit being adapted to turn the first switch ON and OFF in response
to a first voltage across the first switched terminal and the first common terminal;

the first control circuit having another input connected to the second switched terminal and being further adapted to control
the first switch to be OFF while the second switch is ON irrespective of the first voltage;

a second control circuit having an input connected to the second switched terminal and the second common terminal and an output
connected to the second control terminal, the second control circuit being adapted to turn the second switch ON and OFF in
response to a second voltage across the second switched terminal and the second common terminal;

the second control circuit having another input connected to the first switched terminal and being further adapted to control
the second switch to be OFF while the first switch is ON irrespective of the second voltage; and

a package having at least three terminals including one terminal connected to the first switched terminal, another terminal
connected to the second switched terminal, and a common terminal connected to the first common terminal and the second common
terminal.

US Pat. No. 9,584,026

MULTI-CELL FAULT TOLERANT POWER CONVERTER

VLT, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA...

1. A multi-cell power converter comprising:
a plurality of input cells having inputs connected in parallel with an input, and connected to drive parallel respective primary
windings of a transformer with power received from the input, the input cells forming a power-sharing array of cells in which
if one of the input cells fails, the converter continues to process power through remaining functional input cell or cells;

a plurality of output circuits to receive power from respective secondary windings of the transformer, the output circuits
having outputs that are connected in parallel to provide an output voltage to a load, the output circuits forming a power-sharing
array in supplying power to the output in which if one of the output circuits fails, the converter continues to process power
through remaining functional output circuit or circuits; and a switch control circuit;

wherein each of the output circuits comprises a first series circuit having a first switch and a second switch each adapted
to block current flow in an OFF state in at least one direction, the first switch is connected to the second switch at a first
junction, the first series circuit has two end terminals, the first junction is connected to a first terminal of the respective
secondary winding, the first series circuit is connected across an output of the converter with each of the two end terminals
connected to a respective terminal of the output and with each of the first and second switches being arranged in the OFF
state to block current flow through the first series circuit in a direction that would short the output, and a short across
one of the first or second switches does not short the output; and

wherein the switch control circuit is configured to sense an output of the second switch in each output circuit and prevent
the first switch in the output circuit from turning ON if the sensing indicates that the second switch in the output circuit
is not open, and to sense an output of the first switch in the output circuit and prevent the second switch in the output
circuit from turning ON if the sensing indicates that the first switch in the output circuit is not open.

US Pat. No. 9,660,537

FAULT TOLERANT POWER CONVERTER

VLT, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA...

1. A method of converting power received from an input source at an input voltage via a transformer for delivery via an output
at an output voltage to a load, where the load may vary over a normal operating range, comprising:
using an input circuit having a plurality of primary switches to drive a primary winding of the transformer with power received
from the input source;

using output circuitry having a plurality of secondary switches for rectifying power received from a secondary winding of
the transformer to conduct current from the secondary winding to the output;

operating the primary switches in a series of converter operating cycles, each converter operating cycle characterized by
(a) two power transfer phases of essentially equal duration during which (i) one or more of the primary switches are ON, (ii)
a primary winding of the transformer is driven with power received from the input, (iii) a magnetizing current flows through
the primary winding and increases in magnitude, and (iv) power is transferred between the input and the output via the transformer;
and

(b) a clamp phase during which a winding of the transformer is clamped, the clamp phase being characterized by (i) essentially
zero voltage across the clamped winding and (ii) an average value of current flowing in the clamped winding, the average value
of current having a polarity, wherein the average is taken over the duration of the clamp phase, and the polarity is the same
as a polarity of an average value of current flowing in the clamped winding during the power transfer phase immediately preceding
the clamp phase, and (iii) essentially zero current is conducted between the secondary winding and the output.

US Pat. No. 9,697,947

VERTICAL PCB SURFACE MOUNT INDUCTORS AND POWER CONVERTERS

VLT, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA...

1. Apparatus comprising:
an electrical power converter comprising a multilayer printed circuit board (“PCB”),
electrical power conversion circuitry mounted to the PCB and including interconnections formed in the PCB,
an inductive component including a magnetically permeable core mounted to the PCB and at least one electrical winding formed
in the PCB,

the power converter being adapted for surface mounting via a first edge of the PCB;
the PCB including a generally rectangular shape having a thickness, a length and a width defining a first surface and a second
surface generally parallel to the first surface, the first and second surfaces being separated by the thickness;

the PCB including a plurality of conductive layers separated by insulating layers in which the interconnections and at least
one electrical winding are formed;

the first edge of the PCB having a surface defined by the length and the thickness of the PCB and having a plurality of surface
contacts arranged on and along the surface of the first edge and electrically connected to selected ones of the interconnections;
and

a second circuit board onto which the power converter is mounted;
wherein the plurality of surface contacts are mechanically and electrically connected to respective conductors on a generally
flat surface of the second circuit board by surface mount techniques with the first edge proximate and generally parallel
to the surface of the second circuit board.

US Pat. No. 9,967,984

POWER ADAPTER PACKAGING

VLT, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA...

11. An apparatus for converting power received from an input source for delivery to a load, comprising:a first printed circuit board (“PCB”) having electrical terminations adapted for connection to the input source;
a second PCB having electrical terminations for connection to the load;
a power conversion module (“PCM”) having a module input electrically connected to the first PCB, a module output electrically connected to the second PCB, and power conversion circuitry adapted to convert power between the module input and the module output, in which the first PCB, the second PCB, and the PCM are configured to receive power from the input source, provide at least a portion of the power through the first PCB to the module input of the PCM, and from the module output of the PCM through the second PCB to the load;
wherein at least one of the electrical connections from the module input or module output and the respective first PCB or second PCB comprises a solder connection formed between a conductive area located on a vertical edge of the respective PCB and a conductive area located on a vertical edge of the power conversion module,
wherein the vertical edges are approximately parallel to each other and the connection is located at an elevation below a top surface and above a bottom surface of the power conversion module.

US Pat. No. 10,050,519

CONTROL OF BUCK-BOOST POWER CONVERTER WITH INPUT VOLTAGE TRACKING

VLT, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA...

44. Apparatus comprising:a switching regulator adapted to convert power from an input port at an input voltage, VIN, for delivery to an output port at an output voltage, VOUT, within an acceptable output voltage range having a minimum, VOUT-MIN, and a maximum, VOUT-MAX, in a series of converter operating cycles having a predetermined minimum operating period, TOP-MIN, and a predetermined maximum operating period, TOP-MAX;
the switching regulator including an inductor, one or more power switches, and a controller connected to control the one or more power switches;
the one or more switches being arranged to couple the inductor to the input port and the output port of the converter during an input-output phase of each converter operating cycle;
wherein the controller turns the one or more switches ON and OFF during each converter operating cycle;
wherein the controller is configured to control the output voltage, VOUT, to be essentially equal to: (a) the input voltage while the input voltage remains within the acceptable output voltage range; (b) VOUT-MIN while the input voltage VIN is below VOUT-MIN; and (c) VOUT-MAX while the input voltage VIN is greater than VOUT-MAX
wherein VOUT-MAX is greater than VOUT-MIN.

US Pat. No. 10,014,798

DRIVER AND OUTPUT CIRCUIT FOR POWERING SEMICONDUCTOR LOADS

VLT, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA...

1. A method of converting power received from an input source at an input voltage via power transformer for supplying a load at a DC output voltage, comprising:providing a driver circuit having an input for receiving power from the source and a driver output,
providing an output circuit for deployment near the load, the output circuit having an AC input and an output for supplying the DC output voltage to the load,
providing a power transformer having a first winding for electrical connection to the driver output and a second winding for electrical connection to the AC input of the output circuit;
forming a resonant circuit including a winding of the power transformer, the resonant circuit being characterized by a characteristic resonant period;
providing a power bus between the driver circuit and the power transformer;
operating the driver circuit to drive the power transformer in a series of converter operating cycles, each converter operating cycle characterized by two power transfer phases of essentially equal duration each having a duration less than the characteristic resonant period, during which one or more switches in the driver circuit are ON and power is transferred from the input to the output via the power transformer; and
deploying the driver circuit as a self contained unit at a first location separated from the output circuit.

US Pat. No. 10,020,752

ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF RESONANT POWER CONVERTERS

VLT, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA...

1. A method of converting power from a source at a source voltage, VS, via a converter input at an input voltage, VIN, for delivery to a load via a converter output at a rectified output voltage, VOUT, where a current drawn by the load, IL, may vary over a normal operating range from a minimum load current, IL-MIN, to a maximum load current, IL-MAX, the method comprising:providing a transformer;
forming a resonant circuit including the transformer having a characteristic resonant frequency and a characteristic resonant period;
providing output circuitry connected to the transformer for delivering the rectified output voltage to the load;
providing input circuitry including two or more primary switches connected to drive the resonant circuit;
providing a switch controller to operate the two or more primary switches in a series of converter operating cycles to provide an essentially fixed voltage transformation ratio, K=VOUT/VIN, at a load current, each converter operating cycle is characterized by (a) two power transfer intervals of essentially equal duration, each interval having a duration, TPTI, less than the characteristic resonant period, during which one or more of the primary switches are ON, a resonant current at the characteristic resonant frequency and a magnetizing current flowing through a winding of the transformer, and power is transferred from the converter input to the converter output via the transformer; and (b) two energy-recycling intervals, each having a duration during which the two or more primary switches are OFF and currents in the converter are used to charge and discharge capacitances in the converter;
establishing a predetermined full duration, TPTI-FULL, approximately equal one half of the characteristic resonant period, for each power transfer interval for conditions in which the load current, IL, is greater than or equal to a first predetermined threshold, IL1;
establishing a predetermined minimum duration, TPTI-MIN, for each power transfer interval for conditions in which the load current, IL, is less than or equal to a second predetermined threshold, IL2; and
adjusting the duration of each power transfer interval, TPTI, from the predetermined full duration, TPTI-FULL, to the predetermined minimum, TPTI-MIN, as a function of variations in the load current, IL, between the first threshold, IL1, and the second threshold, IL2.

US Pat. No. 9,936,580

METHOD OF FORMING AN ELECTRICAL CONNECTION TO AN ELECTRONIC MODULE

VLT, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA...

1. A method of forming an electrical connection to an electronic module, the method comprising:assembling a panel including a substrate and having one or more conductive features enclosed within the panel and unexposed to an exterior surface of the panel, the one or more conductive features each being electrically connected to a respective electrical node of the panel and being located along a cut line;
cutting the panel along the cut line exposing a contact edge of each of the one or more conductive features, wherein each contact edge is embedded in and forms part of a perimeter surface of the electronic module after the cutting; and
selectively removing portions of material from the perimeter surface adjacent to selected ones of the contact edges of selected ones of the conductive features exposing additional portions of the selected ones of the conductive features,
wherein the additional portions are recessed from the perimeter edge and together with the adjacent exposed edge forms a three dimensional contact.

US Pat. No. 9,899,924

REDUCING SWITCHING LOSSES IN POWER CONVERTERS

VLT, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA...

1. An apparatus for converting power received via an input from an input source at an input voltage for delivery to a load
via an output at an output voltage in a series of converter operating cycles, the apparatus comprising:
an inductor for delivering energy from the input source to the output;
a first series circuit having first and second terminals configured to be connected across either the input or the output
and a central node for connection to a first end of the inductor, the first series circuit comprising a first switch connected
between the first terminal and the central node and a second switch connected between the second terminal and the central
node, the central node being characterized by a node capacitance; and

a controller configured to operate the switches in a series of converter operating cycles, the converter operating cycles
comprising:

an input phase, during which a selected one of the first or second switches is conductive, the inductor is connected to receive
energy from the input source, and a current flowing in the inductor increases positively;

an energy recycling phase, during which the first and second switches are OFF and energy stored in the inductor is used to
charge or discharge the node capacitance;

wherein the controller is configured to adjust the duration of the input phase, and the amount of energy stored in the inductor
at the end of the input phase, as a function of an amount of energy required to charge or discharge the node capacitance during
the energy recycling phase.

US Pat. No. 10,153,704

ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF RESONANT POWER CONVERTERS

VLT, Inc., Andover, MA (...

1. A method of controlling power train switches in a power converter, the method comprising:providing a gate drive circuit including a gate drive source having a positive terminal and a negative terminal, an inductor having a first end and a second end, a plurality of gate drive switches including a first, a second, a third, and a fourth gate drive switch, connected to drive the inductor, and a switch controller connected to operate the gate drive switches in a series of driver operating cycles, each driver operating cycle including:
a first interval during which the first and fourth gate drive switches are ON and connect the first end of the inductor to the positive terminal and a second end of the inductor to the negative terminal during which an average positive current flows through the inductor;
a first transition following the first interval during which the first and fourth gate drive switches are turned OFF and the current flowing in the inductor charges and discharges capacitances coupled to the inductor;
a second interval during which the second and third gate drive switches are ON and connect the second end of the inductor to the positive terminal and the first end of the inductor to the negative terminal during which an average negative current flows through the inductor;
a second transition following the second interval during which the second and third gate drive switches are turned OFF and the current flowing in the inductor charges and discharges capacitances coupled to the inductor; and
each driver operating cycle being characterized by a driver operating period;
the switch controller being configured and adapted to adjust the duration of the driver operating period, the duration of the first and second intervals, and the duration of the first and second transitions;
wherein at least one of the capacitances coupled to the inductor include an input capacitance of one or more of the power train switches driven by the inductor.

US Pat. No. 10,128,764

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DELIVERING POWER TO SEMICONDUCTORS

VLT, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA...

1. An apparatus comprising:a planar magnetic structure including a multilayer printed circuit board (PCB) having a first external surface, a second external surface, and conductive features arranged on conductive layers of the PCB to form one or more windings around one or more predetermined axes;
a hole in the PCB at each of the one or more predetermined axes, each hole having an inner edge aligned with an inner circumference of one of the windings;
a first magnetically permeable core section affixed to the first external surface of the PCB covering a selected hole or selected holes;
a second magnetically permeable core section affixed to the second external surface of the PCB covering the selected hole or selected holes;
a magnetically permeable fluid disposed in the selected hole or selected holes, wherein the effective magnetic permeability of the magnetically permeable fluid is 10 or greater; and
wherein the magnetically permeable fluid is contained within the selected hole or selected holes.

US Pat. No. 10,135,334

BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER WITH SECONDARY CIRCUIT

VLT, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA...

1. A switching power conversion system comprising:a main switching power circuit structured to convert power received via an input from a power source at an input voltage for delivery via an output at an output voltage to a load, the main switching power circuit comprising a first inductor, the main switching power circuit structured to have a first inductive current flowing through the first inductor during operation;
a secondary switching power circuit structured to scale the first inductive current to a second inductive current smaller than the first inductive current by a scaling factor; and
a controller configured to control selected operations of the main switching power circuit and the secondary switching power circuit by sensing circuit conditions in portions of the secondary switching power circuit.

US Pat. No. 10,205,381

START-UP CONTROL IN POWER SYSTEMS USING FIXED-RATIO POWER CONVERSION

VLT, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA...

1. An apparatus for delivering power from an input source at a source voltage, VS, to a load at a load voltage, VL, the apparatus comprising:a bus converter having a converter input, a converter output, a plurality of power switching elements, and a switch controller adapted to operate the power switching elements in a series of converter operating cycles during start-up and steady-state phases of operation to convert power received from the converter input at an input voltage, VIN, and input current, IIN, for delivery to the converter output at an output voltage, VOUT, and an output current, IOUT, using a transformation ratio, K, where K=VOUT/VIN, that is essentially constant;
the bus converter being adapted for operation in the start-up phase to turn one or more of the power switching elements ON in a high resistance state to increase the equivalent series resistance of the bus converter and for operation in the steady-state phase to turn one or more of the power switching elements ON in a low resistance state to decrease the equivalent series resistance of the bus converter;
a control circuit having an output to provide a control signal to disable the load during the start-up phase and to enable the load during the steady-state phase.

US Pat. No. 10,199,950

POWER DISTRIBUTION ARCHITECTURE WITH SERIES-CONNECTED BUS CONVERTER

VLT, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA...

1. An apparatus comprising:a power distribution system comprising a source for providing power at a DC source voltage VS;
a bus converter comprising an input circuit and an output circuit, the bus converter being adapted to convert power from the input circuit to the output circuit at a substantially fixed voltage transformation ratio, KDC, at an output current, wherein an input voltage VIN is applied to the input circuit and an output voltage VOUT is produced by the output of the bus converter, and wherein the substantially fixed voltage transformation ratio can be represented as KDC=VOUT/VIN;
a power distribution bus connected to distribute power from the output circuit of the bus converter at the output voltage VOUT; and
a plurality of regulators, wherein each regulator comprises a regulator input connected to the power distribution bus to receive power from the output circuit of the bus converter and a regulator output connected to supply power to a respective load, the plurality of regulators each being separated by a distance from the bus converter;
wherein the input circuit of the bus converter and at least a portion of the output circuit of the bus converter are galvanically connected in series across the source such that an absolute value of the input voltage VIN applied to the input circuit is approximately equal to the absolute value of the DC source voltage VS minus a number N times the absolute value of the output voltage VOUT, where N is at least 1;
wherein the bus converter comprises an inductive component and one or more power switches in the input circuit, the output circuit, or both; and
wherein a current flowing in the inductive component charges and discharges capacitances in the bus converter reducing a voltage across said one or more switches prior to turning ON said one or more switches.

US Pat. No. 10,277,105

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DELIVERING POWER TO SEMICONDUCTORS

VLT, Inc., Andover, MA (...

34. An apparatus comprising:a semiconductor package comprising one or more semiconductor chips, each semiconductor chip comprising one or more circuit loads;
one or more driver circuits disposed outside of the semiconductor package, each driver circuit having a driver input and a driver output, in which the driver input is configured to receive power from an input source at an input voltage;
one or more output circuits disposed inside or in a vicinity of the semiconductor package and configured to receive power from the driver circuit at a driver voltage, in which the output circuits are configured to form a plurality of output rails to supply power at a plurality of respective unique rail voltages to the one or more semiconductor chips, each output rail is configured to provide a DC rail voltage that is greater than or less than an adjacent rail voltage by at least a predetermined minimum differential, and the output circuits provide the rail voltages as a function of the driver voltage;
one or more rail selection circuits disposed on the one or more semiconductor chips, each having inputs electrically coupled to the output rails and an output electrically coupled to deliver power to a respective load at a respective load voltage, each rail selection circuit having a plurality of rail switches electrically coupled to provide a selectable path for current to flow from a selected one of the output rails to the respective output; and
a power bus configured to carry power from the driver output to the input of each of the one or more output circuits.

US Pat. No. 10,284,106

POWER ADAPTER

VLT, Inc., Andover, MA (...

1. An apparatus comprising:an in-line converter module assembly configured for cable-termination deployment, the in-line converter module assembly comprising:
a first power conversion module including a module body having an input terminal adapted to accommodate an electrical connection to an input of the first power conversion module, and an output terminal adapted to accommodate an electrical connection to an output of the first power conversion module;
the first power conversion module including circuitry adapted to convert power received from the input terminal at a unipolar input voltage, Vin, for delivery at the output terminal at a unipolar output voltage, Vo, at an essentially fixed voltage transformation ratio, K=Vo/Vin; and
a strain relief mechanism mechanically secured to the in-line converter module assembly, the strain relief mechanism being configured to mechanically engage an electrical cable electrically connected to the input terminal or the output terminal of the first power conversion module, the strain relief mechanism mechanically securing the electrical cable to the in-line converter module assembly;
wherein the inline converter module assembly is adapted to be used as part of a wire harness that includes the electrical cable, wherein the electrical cable has a first end adapted for connection to electrical equipment and a second end electrically connected to the input terminal or output terminal of the first power conversion module, and wherein the wire harness is configured to provide one or both of DC voltage transformation and galvanic isolation in-line between at least one of (i) the electrical cable and the output terminal of the first power conversion module when the second end of the electrical cable is electrically connected to the input terminal of the first power conversion module, or (ii) the electrical cable and the input terminal of the first power conversion module when the second end of the electrical cable is electrically connected to the output terminal of the first power conversion module.

US Pat. No. 10,264,664

METHOD OF ELECTRICALLY INTERCONNECTING CIRCUIT ASSEMBLIES

VLT, Inc., Andover, MA (...

1. A method of electrically interconnecting circuit assemblies, the method comprising:assembling an encapsulated panel including a printed circuit board having electronic components mounted to the printed circuit board and one or more conductive features enclosed within the panel and unexposed to an exterior surface of the panel, the encapsulated panel comprising one or more electronic modules having boundaries defined by one or more predetermined cut lines, and the one or more conductive features having portions that are located along the cut lines and unexposed to an exterior surface of the panel;
selectively forming holes in the panel at predetermined locations along the cut lines exposing within selected holes respective portions of the one or more conductive features;
selectively forming one or more conductive metal layers on selected surfaces of the panel including along sidewalls within the selected holes, each selected hole having a respective portion of the one or more conductive metal layers along sidewalls within the selected holes being in electrical contact with the respective portions of the one or more conductive features; and
cutting the panel through the holes and along the one or more cut lines singulating the one or more electronic modules, leaving each singulated electronic module with electrical contacts that include portions of the sidewalls of the selected holes along a perimeter edge of the module.

US Pat. No. 10,398,040

POWER ADAPTER PACKAGING

VLT, Inc., Andover, MA (...

1. An apparatus for converting power received from an input source for delivery to a load, comprising:a first printed circuit board (“PCB”) having one or more electrical terminations adapted for connection to the input source and one or more electrical terminations for connection to the load;
a power conversion module (“PCM”) having a module input and a module output, each being electrically connected to the first PCB, and power conversion circuitry adapted to convert power between the module input and the module output;
wherein at least one of the electrical connections from the module input or module output and the first PCB comprises a solder connection formed between a conductive area located on a vertical edge of the PCB and a conductive area located on a first vertical edge of the power conversion module,
wherein the vertical edges are approximately parallel to each other and the connection is located at an elevation below a top surface and above a bottom surface of the power conversion module.
US Pat. No. 10,357,531

METHOD FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF CANCER AND CANCER TREATMENT-RELATED COMORBIDITIES

Legacy Healthcare Ltd., ...

1. A method for management of cancer and for treatment of cancer-related fatigue in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising:administering to the subject, by an oral route, a topical route, a parenteral route, an intra-tumoral injection, or a combination thereof, a composition comprising as an active ingredient an extract of Allium species comprising quercetin, an extract of Citrus species, an extract of Paullinia species and an extract of Theobroma species.