US Pat. No. 9,499,404

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR SYNGAS CLEAN-UP

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. A method of processing unconditioned syngas, comprising:
(a) removing solids and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) from the unconditioned syngas to form a first depleted syngas
stream which has a reduced amount of solids and SVOC relative to the unconditioned syngas;

(b) after step (a), removing volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the first depleted syngas stream to form a second depleted
syngas stream which has a reduced amount of VOC relative to the first depleted syngas stream;

(c) after step (b), removing at least one sulfur containing compound from the second depleted syngas stream to produce a sulfur-depleted
syngas stream which has a reduced sulfur amount of sulfur relative to the second depleted syngas stream.

US Pat. No. 9,580,315

METHOD FOR SYNGAS CLEAN-UP OF SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. A method for removing solids and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) from unconditioned syngas having steam contained
therein, the unconditioned syngas having a first temperature above a SVOC condensation temperature, the method comprising:
(a) contacting the unconditioned syngas with a solvent and water to reduce the temperature of the syngas to below the SVOC
condensation temperature to thereby form an intermediate SVOC-depleted syngas containing steam, and a first mixture comprising
SVOC, solids, solvent and water;

(b) removing steam from the intermediate SVOC-depleted syngas containing steam to form: (i) a first depleted syngas stream
which has a reduced amount of SVOC relative to the unconditioned gas stream, and (ii) a second mixture comprising SVOC, solids,
solvent and water;

(c) separating the water within the second mixture based upon immiscibility so that the SVOC, solids and solvent collect together
to form a third mixture above the water;

(d) separating the solids from the SVOC and solvent in a vessel having at least one liquid phase candle filter such that the
solids agglomerate on a surface of the candle filter and form a filter cake having density greater than that of water within
the vessel;

(e) backflushing the candle filter to loosen the filter cake so that the filter cake sinks into the water within the vessel;
and

(f) removing the filter cake from a bottom of the vessel.

US Pat. No. 9,550,950

SOLIDS CIRCULATION SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR CAPTURE AND CONVERSION OF REACTIVE SOLIDS

Thermochem Recovery Inter...

1. A system for processing a carbonaceous feedstock to create a final product gas stream, comprising:
a first reactor (500) having a fluidized bed and configured to receive a feedstock and steam, and output a syngas stream (600) via a first conduit (602), the syngas stream (600) comprising syngas, char, condensable organic compounds and aromatic hydrocarbons;

a second conduit (612) connected to the first conduit (602), the second conduit (612) configured to receive a portion of said syngas stream (602) as a first-stage product gas stream (610);

a restriction orifice (660) positioned in the second conduit (612) and configured to reduce a pressure of said first-stage product gas stream (610); and

a second reactor (100) configured to receive char from the syngas gas stream (600) and an oxygen containing gas, and operated under conditions sufficient to convert the char into a second-stage product gas
stream (910); wherein:

the system is further configured to combine said first-stage product gas stream (610) and said second-stage product gas stream (910), downstream of the restriction orifice (660) to form the final product gas stream (950).

US Pat. No. 9,783,417

SYSTEM FOR SYNGAS CLEAN-UP

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. A syngas clean-up system for processing unconditioned syngas having solids and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) therein,
comprising:
a hydrocarbon reformer (8000) connected to a source of unconditioned syngas and operated to output an improved quality syngas;

a semi-volatile organic compound (SVOC) removal system positioned downstream of the hydrocarbon reformer (8000), the SVOC removal system comprising at least one scrubber (8100, 8125) and configured to output a first depleted syngas stream having a reduced amount of solids and SVOCs relative to the unconditioned
syngas;

at least one syngas compressor (8600) positioned downstream of the scrubber and configured output a compressed first depleted syngas stream;

a volatile organic compound (VOC) separation system positioned downstream of the syngas compressor, the VOC separation system
comprising at least one adsorber and configured to output a second depleted syngas stream which has a reduced amount of VOC
relative to the compressed first depleted syngas stream;

at least one carbonyl sulfide hydrolysis bed (8875) positioned downstream of the VOC separation system and configured to remove carbonyl sulfide to produce a third depleted
syngas stream which has a reduced amount of carbonyl sulfide relative to the second depleted syngas stream; and

at least one sulfur guard bed (8900) positioned downstream of the carbonyl sulfide hydrolysis bed and configured to remove at least one sulfur compound to produce
a sulfur-depleted syngas stream which has a reduced amount of sulfur relative to the second and third depleted syngas streams.

US Pat. No. 9,920,267

SOLIDS CIRCULATION SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR CAPTURE AND CONVERSION OF REACTIVE SOLIDS WITH FLUIDIZED BED TEMPERATURE CONTROL

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. A system for processing a carbonaceous feedstock to create a final product gas stream, comprising:
(a) a first reactor (500) having a fluidized bed and configured to receive a feedstock and steam, and output a syngas stream (600) via a first conduit (602), the syngas stream (600) comprising syngas, char, condensable organic compounds and aromatic hydrocarbons;

(b) a second conduit (612) connected to the first conduit (602), the second conduit (612) configured to receive a portion of said syngas stream (600) as a first-stage product gas stream (610);

(c) a second reactor (100) having a fluidized bed and configured to receive char from the syngas stream (600) and an oxygen containing gas, the second reactor configured to operate under conditions sufficient to convert the char into
a second-stage product gas stream (910) containing at least carbon monoxide; and

(d) a cooling pipe (180) protruding into the fluidized bed in the second reactor (100) to control bed operating temperature, the cooling pipe being connected to a source of elevated pressure steam as a coolant;

wherein:
the second reactor and the second conduit (612) are connected such that the second-stage product gas stream (910) is merged with the first-stage product gas stream (610) to form the final product gas stream (950); and

the second reactor is configured to operate such that the cooling pipe superheats the elevated pressure steam.

US Pat. No. 9,793,563

GASIFIER HAVING INTEGRATED FUEL CELL POWER GENERATION SYSTEM

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. A method of steam reforming carbonaceous material to produce H2 and CO while simultaneously producing power, the method
comprising:
providing a steam reformer vessel having a fluidized bed containing bed material;
providing at least one fuel cell element which protrudes into the fluidized bed, the at least one fuel cell element comprising
an outer anode and an inner cathode with the outer anode being in direct contact with the bed material and the cathode being
supplied with an oxidant;

introducing carbonaceous material and superheated steam into the fluidized bed; and
operating the fluidized bed such that:
(i) the fuel cell element outputs power;
(ii) the superheated steam reacts endothermically with the carbonaceous material to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide in
the fluidized bed, by steam reforming;

(iii) oxygen is transported from the cathode to the anode and reacts exothermically with hydrogen in the fluidized bed to
produce additional steam and heat which are then used in said steam reforming to produce additional hydrogen and carbon monoxide
in the fluidized bed; and

(iv) the bed material operates at a temperature of about 600° C. to about 1,000° C.

US Pat. No. 9,920,268

SOLIDS CIRCULATION SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR CAPTURE AND CONVERSION OF REACTIVE SOLIDS HAVING FLUIDIZED BED CONTAINING HOLLOW ENGINEERED PARTICLES

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. A system for processing a carbonaceous feedstock to create a final product gas stream containing both carbon monoxide and
hydrogen, comprising:
(a) a first reactor (500) having a fluidized bed and configured to receive a feedstock and steam, and output a syngas stream (600) via a first conduit (602), the syngas stream (600) comprising syngas, char, condensable organic compounds and aromatic hydrocarbons;

(b) a second conduit (612) connected to the first conduit (602), the second conduit (612) configured to receive a portion of said syngas stream (600) as a first-stage product gas stream (610);

(c) a second reactor (100) having a fluidized bed and configured to receive char from the syngas stream (600) and an oxygen containing gas, the second reactor configured to operate under conditions sufficient to convert the char into
a second-stage product gas stream (910) containing at least carbon monoxide; wherein:

the second reactor and the second conduit (612) are connected such that the second-stage product gas stream (910) is merged with the first-stage product gas stream (610) to form the final product gas stream (950); and

the fluidized bed in the second reactor (100) contains hollow engineered particles, the hollow engineered particles being one or more from the group consisting of alumina,
zirconia, sand, olivine sand, limestone, dolomite and metal catalyst.

US Pat. No. 9,920,926

PULSE COMBUSTION HEAT EXCHANGER SYSTEM AND METHOD

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. An aerovalve (A), having an aerovalve longitudinal axis (X1), an outer surface (S) with an outer diameter (D0), an interior (A-IN), a rear end (1E1) having a rearwardly facing rear surface (1E1S), a forward end (2E1) having a forwardly facing forward surface (2E1S), and a total aerovalve length (L) defined between the rear and forward ends (1E1, 2E1) along the aerovalve longitudinal axis (X1), the aerovalve (A) further comprising:
an oxidant inlet (1A0) located at the rear end (1E1), the oxidant inlet (1A0) configured to introduce oxidant (1A1) into the interior (A-IN) of the aerovalve (A);

an oxidant and fuel mixture outlet (2A0) located at the forward end (2E1), the oxidant and fuel mixture outlet (2A0) configured to expel an oxidant and fuel mixture (1A3) present in the interior (A-IN) of the aerovalve (A);

a first plurality of fuel inlet ports (1A, 1B, 1C, . . . ) opening to the outer surface (S), a second plurality of fuel outlet ports (2A, 2B, 2C, . . . ) opening to the interior (A-IN), and a third plurality of fuel transfer channels (3A, 3B, 3C, . . . ) configured to transfer fuel (1A2) from the first plurality of fuel inlet ports (1A, 1B, 1C, . . . ) to the second plurality of fuel outlet ports (2A, 2B, 2C, . . . );

a first inner conical surface (S1) tapering radially inwardly at a first angle (A1) to a first inner diameter (D1), the first inner conical surface (S1) extending in the forward direction from proximate the rear end (1E1) for a first length (L1) along the aerovalve longitudinal axis (X1);

a second inner conical surface (S2) expanding radially outwardly at a second angle (A2) to a second inner diameter (D2), the second inner conical surface (S2) extending in the forward direction from proximate the first inner conical surface (S1) for a second length (L2) along the aerovalve longitudinal axis (X1), the second inner diameter (D2) being less than the outer diameter (D0); and

a third inner conical surface (S3) expanding radially outwardly at a third angle (A3) to a third inner diameter (D3), the third inner conical surface (S3) extending in the forward direction from proximate the second inner conical surface (S2) for a third length (L3) along the aerovalve longitudinal axis (X1), the third inner diameter (D3) being greater than the first and second inner diameters (D1, D2) and less than the outer diameter (D0);

wherein:
the first angle (A1) is greater than the second angle (A2);

the third angle (A3) is greater than the second angle (A2); and

the second plurality of fuel outlet ports (2A, 2B, 2C, . . . ) are positioned on the third inner conical surface (S3).

US Pat. No. 9,920,712

METHOD FOR FORMING A PLURALITY OF PLUGS OF CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. A method for forming a new plug of densified carbonaceous material in a cylinder already having a series of previously
formed plugs pressed together, and supplying a leading plug of said series of previously formed plugs to a pressurized first
reactor,
the cylinder (D30) comprising a first opening (D19) through which carbonaceous material (2D-01) is introduced into the cylinder, and a first output (D45) through which the leading plug is supplied to the pressurized first reactor;

the method comprising:
(a) introducing, via the first opening (D19), a quantity of carbonaceous material having a density of 4 pounds per cubic foot to 50 pounds per cubic foot;

(b) while said plurality of previously formed plugs are prevented from advancing within the cylinder, compressing said carbonaceous
material (D+1) against a nearest plug of said plurality of previously formed plugs, to thereby form a new plug against said
plurality of previously formed plugs;

(c) advancing the new plug and said series of previously formed plugs such that the leading plug appears at the cylinder's
first output (D45);

(d) removing the leading plug from the cylinder, thereby leaving behind a new series of previously formed plugs; and
(e) shredding the removed leading plug and introducing the shredded carbonaceous material therefrom into the pressurized first
reactor, wherein:

said series of previously formed plugs are sufficiently dense to maintain a pressure difference between the cylinder's first
opening and the pressurized first reactor.

US Pat. No. 9,845,240

SYSTEM FOR SYNGAS CLEAN-UP OF SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. A system for removing solids and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) from unconditioned syngas having steam contained
therein, the unconditioned syngas having a first temperature above a SVOC condensation temperature, the system comprising:
a venturi scrubber (8100) configured to receive the unconditioned syngas, solvent and water and output an intermediate SVOC-depleted syngas containing
steam together with a first mixture comprising SVOC, solids, solvent and water;

a char scrubber (8125) configured to receive the intermediate SVOC-depleted syngas containing steam and the first mixture, and separately output:
(i) a first depleted syngas stream which has a reduced amount of SVOC relative to the unconditioned gas stream, and (ii) a
second mixture comprising SVOC, solids, solvent and water;

a decanter (8275) configured to receive the second mixture and separate the water within the second mixture based upon immiscibility so that
the SVOC, solids and solvent collect together to form a third mixture separate from the water within the decanter, the decanter
further configured to separately output the water and the third mixture; and

a vessel (8300) arranged to receive the third mixture, the vessel having at least one liquid phase candle filter and a vessel bottom provided
with a drain port; wherein:

the candle filter is capable of operating so that: (i) the solids agglomerate on a surface of the candle filter and form a
filter cake, and (ii) the SVOC and solvent are removed through the candle filter, and

the drain port is suitable for removing filter cake therethrough.

US Pat. No. 10,011,482

METHOD FOR SYNGAS CLEAN-UP OF SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS WITH METAL REMOVAL

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. A method for cleaning unconditioned syngas for introduction into a syngas processing technology application, the unconditioned syngas including semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC), at least one or both of hydrogen chloride and hydrogen sulfide, and having a metal concentration greater than 0 ppm to less than or equal to 30 ppm; the method comprising:(a) contacting the unconditioned syngas with water to reduce the temperature of the syngas to below the SVOC condensation temperature to thereby form an intermediate SVOC-depleted syngas containing steam, and a first mixture comprising SVOC, solids and water;
(b) removing steam from the intermediate SVOC-depleted syngas containing steam to form (i) a first depleted syngas stream which has a reduced amount of SVOC and solids relative to the unconditioned gas, and (ii) a second mixture comprising SVOC, solids and water;
(c) after step (b), removing hydrogen chloride and/or hydrogen sulfide from the first depleted syngas stream with a scrubber;
(d) after step (c), compressing the syngas to a pressure ranging from 100 PSIG to 2,000 PSIG;
(e) after step (d), removing at least one metal from the syngas, said metal being one or more from the group consisting of mercury, arsenic, lead, and cadmium;
(f) after step (e), removing at least one sulfur containing compound from the syngas; and
(g) after step (f), removing carbon dioxide from the syngas with one or more from the group consisting of a membrane, an adsorber and an absorber;
wherein:
(i) the metal concentration after step (e) is less than or equal to 10 ppb;
(ii) the hydrogen chloride concentration in unconditioned syngas ranges from greater than 0 ppm to less than or equal to 1000 ppm;
(iii) the hydrogen chloride capture efficiency of the scrubber is greater than 80%;
(iv) the hydrogen sulfide concentration ranges from greater than 0 ppm to less than or equal to 1000 ppm;
(v) the hydrogen sulfide capture efficiency of the scrubber is greater than 80%;
(vi) the carbon dioxide concentration to step (g) ranges from 10% by volume to 40% by volume; and
(vii) the carbon dioxide capture efficiency of step (g) is greater than 20%.

US Pat. No. 10,011,483

METHOD FOR SYNGAS CLEAN-UP OF SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS WITH CARBONYL SULFIDE REMOVAL

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. A method for cleaning unconditioned syngas for introduction into a syngas processing technology application, the unconditioned syngas including semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC), at least one or both of hydrogen chloride and hydrogen sulfide, and having a carbonyl sulfide concentration greater than 0 ppm and less than or equal to 15 ppm, the method comprising:(a) contacting the unconditioned syngas with water to reduce the temperature of the syngas to below the SVOC condensation temperature to thereby form an intermediate SVOC-depleted syngas containing steam, and a first mixture comprising SVOC, solids and water;
(b) removing steam from the intermediate SVOC-depleted syngas containing steam to form (i) a first depleted syngas stream which has a reduced amount of SVOC and solids relative to the unconditioned gas, and (ii) a second mixture comprising SVOC, solids and water;
(c) after step (b), removing hydrogen chloride and/or hydrogen sulfide from the first depleted syngas stream with a scrubber;
(d) after step (c), compressing the syngas to a pressure ranging from 100 PSIG to 2,000 PSIG;
(e) after step (d), removing at least a portion of the carbonyl sulfide from the syngas;
(f) after step (e), removing carbon dioxide from the syngas with one or more from the group consisting of a membrane, an adsorber and an absorber;
wherein:
(i) the carbonyl sulfide concentration after step (e) is less than or equal to 30 ppb;
(ii) the hydrogen chloride concentration in unconditioned syngas ranges from greater than 0 ppm to less than or equal to 1000 ppm;
(iii) the hydrogen chloride capture efficiency of the scrubber is greater than 80%;
(iv) the hydrogen sulfide concentration ranges from greater than 0 ppm to less than or equal to 1000 ppm;
(v) the hydrogen sulfide capture efficiency of the scrubber is greater than 80%;
(vi) the carbon dioxide concentration to step (f) ranges from 10% by volume to 40% by volume; and
(vii) the carbon dioxide capture efficiency of step (f) is greater than 20%.

US Pat. No. 10,065,858

METHOD FOR SYNGAS CLEAN-UP OF SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS WITH SOLIDS REMOVAL

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. A method for cleaning unconditioned syngas for introduction into a syngas processing technology application, the unconditioned syngas including semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC), and at least one or both of hydrogen chloride and hydrogen sulfide, the method comprising:(a) contacting the unconditioned syngas with water to reduce the temperature of the syngas to below the SVOC condensation temperature to thereby form an intermediate SVOC-depleted syngas containing steam, and a first mixture comprising SVOC, solids and water;
(b) removing steam from the intermediate SVOC-depleted syngas containing steam to form: (i) a first depleted syngas stream which has a reduced amount of SVOC and solids relative to the unconditioned gas, and (ii) a second mixture comprising SVOC, solids and water;
(c) after step (b), removing hydrogen chloride and/or hydrogen sulfide from the first depleted syngas stream with a scrubber;
(d) after step (c), compressing the syngas to a pressure ranging from 100 PSIG to 2,000 PSIG;
(e) after step (d), removing at least one sulfur containing compound from the syngas;
(f) also after step (b), separating the water within the second mixture based upon immiscibility so that the SVOC and solids collect together to form a third mixture separate from the water; and
(g) after step (f) agglomerating the solids together to form an agglomerated cake having density greater than that of water;
wherein:
(i) the hydrogen chloride concentration in unconditioned syngas ranges from greater than 0 ppm to less than or equal to 1000 ppm;
(ii) the hydrogen chloride capture efficiency is greater than 80%;
(iii) the hydrogen sulfide concentration in unconditioned syngas ranges from greater than 0 ppm to less than or equal to 1000 ppm; and
(iv) the hydrogen sulfide capture efficiency is greater than 80%.

US Pat. No. 10,421,244

HYDRAULIC FEEDER SYSTEM HAVING COMPRESSION STAGE WITH MULTI-CYLINDER HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. A hydraulic feeder system for advancing a compressible material, comprising:a controller;
a primary hydraulic fluid source;
a multi-cylinder assembly comprising:
at least one ancillary piston cylinder assembly having an ancillary hydraulic cylinder with an ancillary piston connected to an ancillary piston rod, said ancillary piston dividing the ancillary hydraulic cylinder into an ancillary front cylinder space having an ancillary front connection port, and an ancillary rear cylinder space having an ancillary rear connection port;
a main piston cylinder assembly having a primary hydraulic cylinder with a primary piston connected to a primary piston rod, said primary piston dividing the primary hydraulic cylinder into a primary front cylinder space, and a primary rear cylinder space having a primary rear connection port;
a surge tank selectively in fluid communication with at least the primary rear connection port of the main piston cylinder assembly;
a primary piston ram operatively connected to the primary piston rod and configured to travel in a reciprocating manner inside a primary cylinder; and
a feedstock inlet connected to the primary cylinder;
wherein:
the ancillary piston has a smaller surface area than the primary piston;
the ancillary piston cylinder assembly is operatively coupled to the main piston cylinder assembly such that the ancillary piston and the primary piston move together; and
the controller is configured to selectively operate the system in a plurality of modes of operation, the modes of operation including at least:
a first mode of operation in which hydraulic fluid is introduced under pressure from the primary hydraulic fluid source into the ancillary rear cylinder space via the ancillary rear connection port but not into the primary rear cylinder space via the primary rear connection port, thereby causing the ancillary piston to travel in a forward compression direction, while the primary piston passively travels in the same forward compression direction, the surge tank being in fluid communication with the primary rear connection port to permit the primary piston to passively travel in the forward compression direction;
a second mode of operation in which hydraulic fluid is introduced under pressure from the primary hydraulic fluid source into both the ancillary rear cylinder space via the ancillary rear connection port and the primary rear cylinder space via the primary rear connection port, thereby causing both the ancillary and primary pistons to simultaneously travel in the same forward compression direction, the surge tank not being in fluid communication with the primary rear connection port; and
a third mode of operation in which hydraulic fluid is introduced under pressure from the primary hydraulic fluid source into the ancillary front cylinder space, thereby causing the ancillary piston to travel in a rearward non-compression direction, while the primary piston passively travels in the same rearward non-compression direction, the surge tank being in fluid communication with the primary rear connection port to permit the primary piston to passively travel in the rearward non-compression direction.

US Pat. No. 10,197,014

FEED ZONE DELIVERY SYSTEM HAVING CARBONACEOUS FEEDSTOCK DENSITY REDUCTION AND GAS MIXING

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. A feed zone delivery system (2050A) for transferring carbonaceous material to an interior (101) of a first reactor (100) having a longitudinal reactor axis (AX) and at least one reactor carbonaceous material input (104A), the system comprising:(a) a weigh feeder (2C1) configured to weigh and regulate a mass flow rate of weighed carbonaceous material (2C-02);
(b) a densification system (2D0) configured to compress the weighed carbonaceous material (2C-02) received from the weigh feeder and form a densified carbonaceous material (2D-02);
(c) a density reduction system (2F1) configured to reduce the density of the densified carbonaceous material (2D-02) after it exits the densification system (2D0) to thereby form de-densified carbonaceous material;
(d) a gas and carbonaceous material mixing system (2G1) configured to receive said de-densified carbonaceous material and introduce a gas into said de-densified carbonaceous material to form a carbonaceous material and gas mixture, wherein the gas and carbonaceous material mixing system (2G1) comprises:
(d1) a mixing chamber (G00);
(d2) a first isolation valve (VG1) and a second isolation (VG2) spaced apart from one another along a length of the mixing chamber and thereby partitioning the mixing chamber into an entry section (G21), a middle section (G20) and an exit section (G19), the first isolation valve positioned between the entry section (G21) and the middle section (G20), the second isolation valve position between the middle section and that exit section (G19);
(d3) a mixing chamber carbonaceous material stream input (G03, G03A, G03B, G03C) to the entry section, configured to receive said de-densified carbonaceous material;
(d4) a mixing chamber gas input (G08, G08A, G08B, G08C) connected to a source of mixing gas (2G-03, 2G-03A, 2G-03B, 2G-03C) via an gas input valve (VG3, VG3A, VG3B, VG3C); and
(d5) a mixing chamber output (G05, G05A, G05B, G05C) connected to said exit section; and
(e) a transport assembly (2H1) connected to said exit section and configured to receive said carbonaceous material and gas mixture, and convey said carbonaceous material and gas mixture in a predetermined direction; and
(f) a computer (COMP) configured to control at least the gas and carbonaceous material mixing system.

US Pat. No. 10,364,398

METHOD OF PRODUCING PRODUCT GAS FROM MULTIPLE CARBONACEOUS FEEDSTOCK STREAMS MIXED WITH A REDUCED-PRESSURE MIXING GAS

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. A method for producing product gas from a carbonaceous material, the method comprising:(a) splitting a source of bulk carbonaceous material into a plurality of carbonaceous material streams;
(b) providing a supply of pressurized mixing gas;
(c) reducing a pressure of the pressurized mixing gas by between 5 psig to 750 psig to form a reduced-pressure mixing gas;
(d) mixing the reduced-pressure mixing gas with each of the plurality of carbonaceous material streams to form a plurality of gas-laden carbonaceous material streams, each having a carbonaceous material to gas weight ratio that is less than about 50:1;
(e) transferring said plurality of gas-laden carbonaceous material streams to a first reactor via a plurality of inlets that are circumferentially spaced apart from one another; and,
(f) endothermically reacting the transferred carbonaceous material with steam in a first reactor to produce a first reactor product gas containing char.

US Pat. No. 10,329,506

GAS-SOLIDS SEPARATION SYSTEM HAVING A PARTITIONED SOLIDS TRANSFER CONDUIT

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. A solids discharge system (SDS) configured to separate solids from gas, the system comprising:(a) a solids separation device (250) having:
(a1) an interior (251);
(a2) a separation input (252) configured to receive a gas;
(a3) a separation solids output (254);
(a4) a separation gas output (256);
(b) a first solids transfer conduit (234A) configured to receive solids from the solids separation device (250) and comprising:
(b1) a first solids transfer conduit input (261A) in fluid communication with the separation solids output (254) of the solids separation device (250);
(b2) a first isolation valve (YV1A), a second isolation valve (YV2A), and a third isolation valve (YV3A) spaced apart from one another along the length of the first solids transfer conduit (234A) with the second isolation valve (YV2A) positioned between the first and third isolation valves such that the first solids transfer conduit (234A) is partitioned into an upper section (Y06), an upper-middle section (Y08), a lower-middle section (Y10), and a lower section (Y12);
(b3) an output (Y13) connected to said lower section (Y12) that is configured to discharge solids (232A);
(c) a gas supply conduit (Y20) in fluid communication with said lower-middle section (Y10) for introducing a gas into the lower-middle section (Y10);
(d) a gas discharge conduit (Y34) in fluid communication with said lower-middle section (Y10) for removing a gas from the lower-middle section (Y10);
(e) a lower-middle section pressurization valve (YV4A) that is positioned on the gas supply conduit (Y20);
(f) a lower-middle section depressurization valve (YV5A) that is positioned on the gas discharge conduit (Y34);
(g) a filter (Y33) in fluid communication with the lower-middle section (Y10) and configured to prevent solids from leaving the lower-middle section (Y10) through the gas discharge conduit (Y34);
(h) a computer (COMP) configured to control the solids discharge system (SDS);
wherein:
the filter (Y33) has pore sizes or openings ranging from 0.1 microns to 100 microns; and
the filter (Y33) has an area ranging from 5 square inches to 10,000 square inches.

US Pat. No. 10,286,431

THREE-STAGE ENERGY-INTEGRATED PRODUCT GAS GENERATION METHOD

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. A method for producing a H2, CO, and CO2 from a carbonaceous material using a first reactor, a second reactor, and a third reactor, the method comprising:(a) reacting carbonaceous material with a steam reactant in the first reactor and producing a first reactor product gas containing char;
(b) introducing at least a portion of the char generated in step (a) into the second reactor;
(c) reacting the char of step (b) with an oxygen-containing gas in the second reactor and producing a second reactor product gas;
(d) transferring the first reactor product gas generated in step (a) and the second reactor product gas generated in step (c) to the third reactor, to form a combined product gas;
(e) reacting the combined product gas with an oxygen-containing gas in the third reactor to generate a third reactor product gas and heat;
(f) transferring heat generated in step (e) to a heat transfer medium contained within a third reactor heat exchanger in thermal contact with the interior of the third reactor;
(g) transferring at least some of the heat transfer medium which has passed through the third reactor heat exchanger, to a second reactor heat exchanger in thermal contact with the interior of the second reactor; and
(h) introducing a first portion of the heat transfer medium which has passed through the second reactor heat exchanger, into the first reactor as the steam reactant of step (a).

US Pat. No. 10,287,519

THREE-STAGE ENERGY-INTEGRATED PRODUCT GAS GENERATION SYSTEM

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. A three-stage energy-integrated product gas generation system (1001) configured to produce a product gas from a carbonaceous material (102), the system comprising:(a) a first reactor (100) having a first interior (101) and comprising:
a first reactor carbonaceous material input (104) to the first interior (101);
a first reactor reactant input (108) to the first interior (101), and
a first reactor product gas output (124);
(b) a second reactor (200) having a second interior (201) and comprising:
a second reactor char input (204) to the second interior (201), in fluid communication with the first reactor product gas output (124);
a second reactor oxygen-containing gas input (220) to the second interior (201);
a second reactor product gas output (224); and
a second reactor heat exchanger (HX-B) in thermal contact with the second interior (201), the second reactor heat exchanger comprising a second reactor heat transfer medium inlet (212) and a second reactor heat transfer medium outlet (216), the second reactor heat transfer medium outlet (216) being in fluid communication with the first reactor reactant input (108); and
(c) a third reactor (300) having a third interior (301) and comprising:
one or more product gas inputs (303, 304, 305) to the third interior (301), in fluid communication with the first and second product gas outputs (124, 224);
a third reactor oxygen-containing gas input (320) to the third interior (301);
a third reactor product gas output (336); and
a third reactor heat exchanger (HX-C) in thermal contact with the third interior (301), the third reactor heat exchanger comprising a third reactor heat transfer medium inlet (312) and a third reactor heat transfer medium outlet (316), the third heat transfer medium outlet (316) being in fluid communication with the second reactor heat transfer medium inlet (212);
wherein:
the third reactor heat exchanger (HX-C) is configured to receive a heat transfer medium (310) at a third reactor inlet temperature (T0) via the third reactor heat transfer medium inlet (312); and
a first portion of the heat transfer medium (310) passes through the third reactor heat exchanger (HX-C) and then the second reactor heat exchanger (HX-B) before being introduced, into the first interior (101) via the first reactor reactant input (108), as a reactant (100) at a first reactor reactant temperature (TR1), the first reactor reactant temperature (TR1) being higher than the third reactor inlet temperature (T0).

US Pat. No. 10,252,234

SYNCHRONOUS SINGLE- AND DOUBLE-ACTING PISTON FEEDER SYSTEM AND METHOD

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. A feeder apparatus for advancing a compressible material, comprising:a double-acting first piston cylinder assembly (1004) including a first hydraulic cylinder (24) having first and second first piston rams (40a, 40b) arranged to travel in opposite directions within respective first and second first cylinders (10a, 10b), each first cylinder (10a, 10b) having a feedstock inlet (42, 42b);
first and second single-acting second piston cylinder assemblies (1006a, 1006b), each including a second hydraulic cylinder (48a, 48b) having a corresponding second piston ram (64a, 64b) arranged to travel in respective first and second second cylinders (12a, 12b), each second cylinder (12a, 12b) having a second pipe branch opening (72a, 72b) coupled to a respective one of the first and second first cylinders (10a, 10b), such that feedstock transferred through a first cylinder (10a & 10b) by the advancing motion of a corresponding first piston ram (40a & 40b) is then transferred into a corresponding second cylinder (12a & 12b); and
a double-acting third piston cylinder assembly (1008) including a third hydraulic cylinder (74) having first and second third piston rams (90a, 90b) arranged to travel in opposite directions within respective first and second third cylinders (14a, 14b), each third cylinder (14a, 14b) having a third pipe branch opening (98a, 98b) coupled to a respective one of the first and second second cylinders (12a, 12b).

US Pat. No. 10,197,015

FEEDSTOCK DELIVERY SYSTEM HAVING CARBONACEOUS FEEDSTOCK SPLITTER AND GAS MIXING

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. A feedstock delivery system (2000) for supplying bulk carbonaceous material (2B-01) to an interior (101) of a first reactor (100) having a longitudinal reactor axis (AX) and a plurality of reactor feedstock inputs (104A, 104B, 104C), the feedstock delivery system comprising:(a) a first splitter (2B1) having a splitter input (2B-03) through which bulk carbonaceous material (2B-01) is received, the first splitter (2B1) configured to split the received bulk carbonaceous material (2B-01) into a first plurality of carbonaceous material streams (2B-02A, 2B-02B, 2B-02C), each stream exiting the first splitter via a splitter output (2B-07, 2B-09, 2B-11);
(b) a first plurality of gas and carbonaceous material mixing systems (2G1, 2G1A, 2G1B, 2G1C), each configured to receive a carbonaceous material stream from a corresponding splitter output and output a carbonaceous material and gas mixture (2G-02, 2G-02A, 2G-02B, 2G-02C); wherein each gas and carbonaceous material mixing system comprises:
(b1) a mixing chamber (G00);
(b2) a first isolation valve (VG1) and a second isolation (VG2) spaced apart from one another along a length of the mixing chamber and thereby partitioning the mixing chamber into an entry section (G21), a middle section (G20) and an exit section (G19), the first isolation valve positioned between the entry section (G21) and the middle section (G20), the second isolation valve position between the middle section and that exit section (G19);
(b3) a mixing chamber carbonaceous material stream input (G03, G03A, G03B, G03C) to the entry section, configured to receive said carbonaceous material stream from said corresponding splitter output;
(b4) a mixing chamber gas input (G08, G08A, G08B, G08C) connected to a source of mixing gas (2G-03, 2G-03A, 2G-03B, 2G-03C) via an gas input valve (VG3, VG3A, VG3B, VG3C); and
(b5) a mixing chamber output (G05, G05A, G05B, G05C) connected to said exit section;
(c) a first plurality of transport assemblies (2H1, 2H1A, 2H1B, 2H1C), each configured to receive said carbonaceous material and gas mixture from a corresponding mixing chamber output, and transfer said mixture toward a corresponding feedstock input belonging to a first reactor (100) to which the feedstock delivery system is connected; and
(d) a computer (COMP) configured to control at least the gas and carbonaceous material mixing systems.

US Pat. No. 10,099,200

LIQUID FUEL PRODUCTION SYSTEM HAVING PARALLEL PRODUCT GAS GENERATION

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. A liquid fuel production system, comprising:(a) a plurality of feedstock delivery systems (2000, 2000?), each comprising a feedstock input (2-IN1, 2-IN1?) configured to accept carbonaceous material, a feedstock gas input (2-IN2, 2-IN2?) configured to accept carbon dioxide, and a mixture output (2-OUT1, 2-OUT1?); wherein each feedstock delivery system (2000, 2000?) is configured to blend the carbonaceous material with carbon dioxide to generate a carbonaceous material and gas mixture which is discharged via the mixture output (2-OUT1, 2-OUT1?);
(b) a plurality of first stage product gas generation systems (3A, 3A?), each comprising a first reactor mixture input (3A-IN1, 3A-IN1?) configured to accept at least a portion of said carbonaceous material and gas mixture, and a first reactor gas output (3A-OUT1, 3A-OUT1?), wherein each first stage product gas generation system is configured to react the carbonaceous material with steam and optionally also with an oxygen-containing gas and/or carbon dioxide to generate first reactor product gas which is discharged via said first reactor gas output (3A-OUT1, 3A-OUT1?);
(c) a plurality of second stage product gas generation systems (3B, 3B?), each comprising a second reactor gas input (3B-IN1, 3B-IN1?) configured to accept at least a portion of said first reactor product gas, and a second reactor gas output (3B-OUT1, 3B-OUT1?), wherein each second stage product gas generation system (3B, 3B?) is configured to react the first reactor product gas with an oxygen-containing gas and optionally also with steam and/or carbon dioxide to generate heat and a second reactor product gas which is discharged via said second reactor gas output (3B-OUT1, 3B-OUT1?);
(d) a plurality of third stage product gas generation systems (3C, 3C?), each comprising a third reactor gas input (3C-IN1, 3C-IN1?) configured to accept at least a portion of said second reactor product gas, and a third reactor output (3C-OUT1, 3C-OUT1?), wherein each third stage product gas generation system (3C, 3C?) is configured to exothermically react a portion of the second reactor product gas with an oxygen-containing gas and optionally also with a hydrocarbon to generate heat and a third reactor product gas which is discharged via the third reactor output (3C-OUT1, 3C-OUT1?);
(e) a primary gas clean-up system (4000) comprising a primary gas clean-up input (4-IN1) configured to accept third reactor product gas from the plurality of the third reactor outputs (3C-OUT1, 3C-OUT1?), and a primary gas clean-up output (4-OUT1); wherein the primary gas clean-up system (4000) is configured to reduce the temperature, and remove solids and water from the third reactor product gas and discharge primary product gas via the primary gas clean-up output (4-OUT1);
(f) a compression system (5000) comprising a compression system input (5-IN1) configured to accept the primary product gas at a first pressure from the primary gas clean-up output (4-OUT1), and a compression system output (5-OUT1), wherein the compression system (5000) is configured to increase a pressure of the primary product gas and discharge compressed product gas via the compression system output (5-OUT1) at a second pressure greater than the first pressure at which the primary product gas entered via the compression system input (5-IN1), and wherein the compressed product gas comprising carbon dioxide;
(g) a secondary gas clean-up system (6000) comprising a secondary gas clean-up input (6-IN1) configured to accept the compressed product gas, a secondary gas clean-up system output (6-OUT1), and a carbon dioxide output (6-OUT2), wherein the secondary gas clean-up system (6000) is configured to remove carbon dioxide from the compressed product gas to thereby generate a carbon dioxide depleted secondary product gas that is discharged via the secondary gas clean-up system output (6-OUT1), and discharge carbon dioxide via the carbon dioxide output (6-OUT2); and
(h) a synthesis system (7000) comprising a synthesis system input (7-IN1) configured to accept the carbon dioxide depleted secondary product gas, and a synthesis system output (7-OUT1), wherein the synthesis system is configured to catalytically synthesize a synthesis product that is discharged via the synthesis system output (7-OUT1), and wherein the synthesis product includes one or more from the group consisting of ethanol, mixed alcohols, methanol, dimethyl ether, and Fischer-Tropsch products.

US Pat. No. 10,215,401

PULSE COMBUSTION HEAT EXCHANGER SYSTEM AND METHOD

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. A pulse combustion heat exchanger (1000) that is configured to accept oxidant (1A1) and fuel (1A2) and output a cooled combustion stream (1A5), including:(a) an oxidant inlet section (100) that is configured to accept oxidant (1A1);
(b) a fuel inlet section (200) that is configured to accept fuel (1A2);
(c) a mixing section (300) including one or more aerovalves (A, A?, A?) that are configured to accept and mix oxidant (1A1) from the oxidant inlet section (100) with fuel (1A2) from the fuel inlet section (200) to create an oxidant and fuel mixture (1A3);
(d) a combustion section (400) configured to receive and combust the oxidant and fuel mixture (1A3) from the mixing section (300) to produce a pulsating combustion stream (1A4);
(e) a heat transfer section (500) configured to receive the combustion stream (1A4) from the combustion section (400), the heat transfer section (500) including one or more resonance conduits (502, 502A, 502B, 502C, 502D, 502E) that are configured to transfer heat from the combustion stream (1A4) to an energy sink (V108), wherein combustion of the oxidant and fuel mixture (1A3) may continue to take place within the heat transfer section (500);
(f) a first transition section (450) positioned between the combustion section (400) and the heat transfer section (500), the first transition section (450) comprising a first coolant path configured to receive a first coolant (451);
(g) a second transition section (650) connected to the heat transfer section (500) and configured to receive the combustion stream (1A4) from the heat transfer section (500) and output a cooled combustion stream (1A5), the second transition section (650) comprising a second coolant path configured to receive a second coolant (651); and
(h) a decoupler section (600) connected to the second transition section (650) and configured to accept the cooled combustion stream (1A5) from the second transition section (650) and output the cooled combustion stream (1A5) via a combustion stream outlet (606).

US Pat. No. 10,350,574

METHOD FOR PRODUCING A PRODUCT GAS HAVING COMPONENT GAS RATIO RELATIONSHIPS

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. A method of producing a third reactor product gas, the method comprising:(a) providing a source of carbonaceous material including one or more materials selected from the group consisting of agricultural residues, agro-industrial residues, animal waste, biomass, cardboard, coal, coke, energy crops, farm slurries, fishery waste, food waste, fruit processing waste, lignite, municipal solid waste, paper, paper mill residues, paper mill sludge, paper mill spent liquors, plastic, refuse derived fuel, sewage sludge, tires, urban waste, wood products, wood wastes, and combinations thereof;
(b) after step (a), reacting the carbonaceous material with steam to produce a first reactor product gas having a first H2 to CO ratio and a first CO to CO2 ratio;
(c) after step (b), substoichiometrically oxidizing at least a portion of the first reactor product gas to form a second reactor product gas having a second H2 to CO ratio and a second CO to CO2 ratio;
(d) after step (c), mixing the first reactor product gas and second reactor product gas to form a combined product gas; and
(e) after step (d), reacting the combined product gas with an oxygen-containing gas to produce a third reactor product gas having a third H2 to CO ratio and a third CO to CO2 ratio;
wherein:
(I) the first H2 to CO ratio is greater than the second H2 to CO ratio;
(II) the second CO to CO2 ratio is greater than the first CO to CO2 ratio;
(III) the third H2 to CO ratio is lower than both the first H2 to CO ratio and the second H2 to CO ratio; and
(IV) the third CO to CO2 ratio is greater than both the first CO to CO2 ratio and the second CO to CO2 ratio.

US Pat. No. 10,336,027

HYDRAULIC FEEDER SYSTEM HAVING COMPRESSION STAGE WITH MULTI-CYLINDER HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. A hydraulic circuit (214) comprising:a controller (500);
a primary hydraulic fluid source (2000);
a platen (212) configured to selectively move along a forward compression direction (310) and a rearward non-compression direction (312);
first and second ancillary piston cylinder assemblies (140, 164), having respective first and second pistons (154, 178) operatively connected to the platen (212);
a third main piston cylinder assembly (189) having a third piston (202) operatively connected to the platen (212); and
a surge tank (1000) selectively placed in fluid communication with the third main piston cylinder assembly;
wherein:
in a first mode of operation,
hydraulic fluid is introduced under pressure from the primary hydraulic fluid source (2000) into the first and second ancillary piston cylinder assemblies (140, 164), thereby causing the first and second pistons (154, 178) to urge the platen (212) in the forward compression direction,
the surge tank (100) is in fluid communication with the third main piston cylinder assembly (189), and
hydraulic fluid is displaced from one space (192) of the third main piston cylinder assembly (189) and flows towards the surge tank (1000) while hydraulic fluid is displaced from the surge tank (1000) and flows toward a second space (194) of the third main piston cylinder assembly (189), such that the third piston (202) passively travels in the forward compression direction (310);
in a second mode of operation, hydraulic fluid is introduced under pressure from the primary hydraulic fluid source (2000) into the first and second ancillary piston cylinder assemblies (140, 164) and also into the third main piston cylinder assembly (189), thereby causing the first, second and third pistons (154, 178, 202) to collectively urge the platen (212) in the forward compression direction (310); and
in a third mode of operation, hydraulic fluid is introduced under pressure from the primary hydraulic fluid source (2000) into at least the first and second ancillary piston cylinder assemblies (140, 164), thereby causing at least the first and second pistons (154, 178) to urge the platen (212) in the rearward non-compression direction (312).

US Pat. No. 10,214,418

METHOD FOR CONVERTING BIOMASS INTO FISCHER-TROPSCH PRODUCTS WITH CARBON DIOXIDE RECYCLING

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. A method to convert biomass into Fischer Tropsch products, comprising:(a) steam reforming biomass in the presence of carbon dioxide to generate unconditioned syngas comprising at least hydrogen, carbon monoxide and ammonia;
(b) hydrocarbon reforming the unconditioned syngas with an oxidant source to generate additional hydrogen and carbon monoxide and produce a syngas of improved quality, wherein the oxidant source includes one or more from the group consisting of carbon dioxide, steam, air, and oxygen;
(c) after step (b), cooling the syngas of improved quality;
(d) after step (c), removing at least a portion of the steam from the syngas of improved quality;
(e) after step (d), compressing the syngas of improved quality;
(f) after step (e), removing from the syngas of improved quality, one or more volatile organic compounds from the group consisting of benzene, toluene, phenol, styrene, xylene, and cresol;
(g) after step (f), removing ammonia from the syngas of improved quality, thereby producing an ammonia-depleted syngas of improved quality;
(h) after step (g), removing carbon dioxide from the ammonia-depleted syngas of improved quality, thereby forming an ammonia-and-carbon-dioxide-depleted syngas of improved quality;
(i) recycling a first portion of the removed carbon dioxide for use in step (a);
(j) after step (i), introducing the ammonia-and-carbon-dioxide-depleted syngas of improved quality to a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalytic synthesis process and generating Fischer-Tropsch products including at least a Medium Fraction Fischer-Tropsch Liquid (MFFTL) and wax.

US Pat. No. 10,280,081

UNCONDITIONED SYNGAS COMPOSITION AND METHOD OF CLEANING UP SAME FOR FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESSING

ThermoChem Recovery Inter...

1. A method of producing Fischer-Tropsch products, comprising:(a) providing an unconditioned syngas;
(b) after step (a), hydrocarbon reforming the unconditioned syngas with an oxidant source to generate additional hydrogen and carbon monoxide and produce a syngas of improved quality, wherein the oxidant source includes one or more selected from the group consisting of carbon dioxide, steam, air, and oxygen;
(c) after step (b), cooling the syngas of improved quality;
(d) after step (c), removing at least a portion of the steam from the syngas of improved quality;
(e) after step (d), compressing the syngas of improved quality;
(f) after step (e), removing from the syngas of improved quality, one or more volatile organic compounds from the group consisting of benzene, toluene, phenol, styrene, xylene, and cresol;
(g) after step (f), removing ammonia from the syngas of improved quality, thereby producing an ammonia-depleted syngas of improved quality;
(h) after step (g), removing carbon dioxide from the ammonia-depleted syngas of improved quality, thereby forming an ammonia-and-carbon-dioxide-depleted syngas of improved quality; and
(i) after step (h), introducing the ammonia-and-carbon-dioxide-depleted syngas of improved quality to a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalytic synthesis process and generating Fischer-Tropsch products including at least a Medium Fraction Fischer-Tropsch Liquid (MFFTL) and wax.