US Pat. No. 9,326,266

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO DETERMINE A BASE STATION LOCATION

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A computer-implemented method to estimate a location of a base station comprising:
determining which signals are transmitted from a first base station by:
identifying a first set of signals having a first signal identifier;
identifying a first signal in the first set of signals having a first relative highest signal quality value;
identifying a first location associated with the first signal;
identifying a second set of signals having a second signal identifier;
identifying a second signal in the second set of signals having a second relative highest signal quality value;
identifying a second location associated with the second signal;
determining a first distance between the first location and the second location;
comparing the first distance to a first threshold distance; and
associating the first signal and the second signal with the first base station when the first distance satisfies the first
threshold distance; and

estimating a location of the first base station based on at least one of the first location or the second location.

US Pat. No. 9,219,968

METHODS AND SYSTEMS TO MONITOR A MEDIA DEVICE USING A DIGITAL AUDIO SIGNAL

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to monitor a media device, comprising:
attempting, with a processor, to detect a logical transition between two sequential bits in a sequence of bits of a digital
audio signal output by a port of the media device, the digital audio signal being encoded with Differential Manchester encoding;
and

when the logical transition is detected, generating operating state data with the processor, the operating state data including
a first time and indicating that the media device was in an on state at the first time; or

when the logical transition is not detected, generating the operating state data with the processor, the operating state data
including the first time and indicating that the media device was in an off state at the first time.

US Pat. No. 9,218,612

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO DETERMINE IMPRESSIONS USING DISTRIBUTED DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to monitor media exposure, the method comprising:
receiving, at a first internet domain, a first request from a client device, the first request indicative of access to media
at the client device, and the first request including identifying information identifying the media;

generating a substitute value at the first internet domain after receiving the first request at the first internet domain,
the substitute value corresponding to the identifying information and obfuscating an identity of the media;

determining if the client device is known;
if the client device is not known, sending, from the first internet domain to the client device, a response including the
substitute value in place of the identifying information, the response to instruct the client device to send a second request
to a second internet domain, the substitute value to be included in the second request to the second internet domain to hide
the identity of the media from the second internet domain; and

if the client device is known, logging an impression of the media without sending the second request to the second internet
domain.

US Pat. No. 9,209,978

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO MEASURE EXPOSURE TO STREAMING MEDIA

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method of measuring exposure to streaming media, the method comprising:
identifying, at a service provider, metadata from media;
converting the media into converted media having a streaming format;
encrypting the converted media using an encryption key, the encryption key generated based on the identified metadata;
synchronizing the encryption key and an address of a decryption key with a central facility, the address of the decryption
key being based on an identifier of the service provider, the address of the decryption key being an address of a server of
the central facility; and

creating a manifest in association with the converted media, the manifest identifying a location of the encrypted media and
the address of the decryption key.

US Pat. No. 9,218,421

METHODS, APPARATUS, AND ARTICLES OF MANUFACTURE TO RANK WEB SITE INFLUENCE

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to rank the influence of a web site, comprising:
accessing a query based on a topic term;
determining, using a processor, topic specific posts by applying the query to a first plurality of posts to a web site;
comparing, using the processor, the topic specific posts to a list of web sites to determine a topic volume per site;
determining, using the processor, a plurality of inbound links to the first plurality of posts;
determining, using the processor, a number of inbound links to the posts that are relevant to the topic term by comparing
the topic volume per site and the inbound links; and

generating, using the processor, a rank of the web site based on the number of inbound links to the posts that are relevant
to the topic term and times between the inbound links.

US Pat. No. 9,218,610

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO IDENTIFY USAGE OF QUICK RESPONSE CODES

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method to identify usage of quick response (QR) codes, the method comprising:
inspecting, with a processor, a received request to identify a QR code associated with the request, the request being received
from a device in response to a first instruction included in the QR code;

determining, in response to the received request, a universal resource locator (URL) associated with the identified QR code,
the URL identifying an address of a neutral monitoring server; and

transmitting a HyperText Markup Language (HTML) document tagged with a second instruction to the device, the second instruction
to instruct the device to transmit a dummy request to the neutral monitoring server identified by the URL, wherein the neutral
monitoring server stores a record indicating access to the identified QR code but does not provide content to the device in
response to the transmitted dummy request.

US Pat. No. 9,220,008

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO ASSOCIATE A MOBILE DEVICE WITH A PANELIST PROFILE

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to verify authorized use of a wireless device application, comprising:
generating a first parameter pair including a panelist identifier and a first telephone number, the first telephone number
associated with a panelist authorized to use the wireless device application;

sending a first application invitation message to the first telephone number via a wireless network, the first application
invitation message including the first parameter pair;

retrieving a second parameter pair from a device associated with the wireless network, the second parameter pair including
a second panelist identifier and a second telephone number;

verifying authorized use of the wireless device application on the device by detecting that the first parameter pair is equal
to the second parameter pair received from the wireless network, the second telephone number in the second parameter pair
being equal to the first telephone number; and

blocking authorization to use the wireless device application in response to detecting that the second telephone number in
the second parameter is pair different than the first telephone number.

US Pat. No. 9,219,928

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO CHARACTERIZE HOUSEHOLDS WITH MEDIA METER DATA

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to calculate a probability of ambient tuning, comprising:
identifying, with a processor, a household minute credited to a station in a household by a first media meter (MM) device,
the first MM device collecting only audio data;

determining, with the processor, whether a panelist audience meter device is crediting the station at the same time in the
household;

reducing overreporting of the household when the panelist audience meter device is crediting the same station by associating,
with the processor, the household minute with an ambient tuning status;

identifying, with the processor, a first automatic gain control (AGC) value and a first code status of the household minute;
calculating, with the processor, model coefficients based on the ambient tuning status, the first AGC value and the first
code status; and

calculating, with the processor, a probability of ambient tuning based on the model coefficients.

US Pat. No. 9,209,917

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR METERING COMPUTER-BASED MEDIA PRESENTATION

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method performed by a computer that is configured to execute an operating system and a media presentation program, the
method comprising:
identifying, in a table of functions, a function to cause requested text to be displayed on a display associated with the
computer, the function utilized by the media presentation program to display information identifying a media presentation;

modifying the table of functions to cause calls to the function to be re-directed;
forwarding a re-directed call to the function to an application programming interface provided by the operating system to
cause text identified in the re-directed call to be displayed;

comparing the text identified in the re-directed call to a character string corresponding to information of interest to determine
if the text identified in the re-directed call includes a viewing parameter of interest;

passing the viewing parameter of interest to a meter when the text identified in the re-directed call includes the viewing
parameter of interest; and

processing the viewing parameter of interest to determine media presentation information to monitor media presentation program
viewing by;

decoding the viewing parameter of interest;
acquiring data that is associated with the viewing parameter of interest from the operating system; and
creating a log entry based on the decoded viewing parameter of interest and the acquired data.

US Pat. No. 9,210,230

SYSTEMS, METHODS, AND APPARATUS TO MONITOR MEDIA PRESENTATIONS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to credit a media exposure, the method comprising:
identifying a household of panelists based on a public Internet Protocol address identified in tagging data transmitted by
a media presentation device;

identifying a panelist within the household of panelists based on metering data;
identifying a media source based on the tagging data;
attempting to identify media presented in association with the tagging data based on at least one of the tagging data and
the metering data;

crediting, with a processor, the panelist with exposure to identified media from the media source at a media presentation
location associated with the public IP address when the media is identified; and

crediting, with the processor, the panelist with exposure to media from the media source at the media presentation location
when the media is not identified.

US Pat. No. 9,386,111

MONITORING MEDIA EXPOSURE USING WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to collect media exposure data, comprising:
collecting a cookie at a client device based on media accessed via a web page at the client device;
selecting a portable device identifier at the client device, the portable device identifier corresponding to a closest one
of a plurality of portable devices in wireless communication with the client device, the portable device identifier associated
with a particular person; and

in response to instructions embedded in the media, sending a hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) request to a server, the HTTP
request including the cookie, the portable device identifier, and information identifying exposure to the media.

US Pat. No. 9,093,064

DOWN-MIXING COMPENSATION FOR AUDIO WATERMARKING

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to compensate for audio channel down-mixing when embedding watermarks in a multichannel audio signal, the method
comprising:
obtaining a watermark to be embedded in respective ones of a plurality of audio channels of the multichannel audio signal;
and

embedding the watermark in a first one of the plurality of audio channels based on a compensation factor that is to reduce
perceptibility of the watermark when the first one of the plurality of audio channels is down-mixed with a second one of the
plurality of audio channels after the watermark has been applied to the first and second ones of the plurality of audio channels.

US Pat. No. 9,210,208

MONITORING STREAMING MEDIA CONTENT

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to monitor streaming media, the method comprising:
extracting, using a processor, metering data having a first format from media to be provided to a media presentation device
via a transport stream, the extracted metering data identifying at least one of the media or a source of the media, the extracted
metering data not being decodable by a meter associated with the media presentation device;

transcoding the extracted metering data, using the processor, to form transcoded metering data having a second format decodable
by the meter associated with the media presentation device; and

encoding the transcoded metering data, using the processor, into an external metadata channel including a file to be sent
to the media presentation device separately from and prior to communication of the transport stream to the media presentation
device to provide the transcoded metering data to the media presentation device, the external metadata channel being associated
with the transport stream.

US Pat. No. 9,217,789

METHODS, SYSTEMS, AND APPARATUS TO CALCULATE DISTANCE FROM AUDIO SOURCES

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to reduce battery consumption of a portable audio collecting device, comprising:
transmitting a first radio frequency (RF) signal from the portable audio collecting device to prompt a reference audio collecting
device to begin collecting audio samples from an audio source at a first time, the audio source being closer to the reference
audio collecting device than to the portable audio collecting device;

initiating a dwell period in response to the first RF signal to reduce battery consumption of the portable audio collecting
device by preventing the portable audio collecting device from collecting audio samples from the audio source at the first
time, the dwell period being based on a distance between the portable audio collecting device and the reference audio collecting
device; and

when the dwell period expires, prompting the portable audio collecting device to collect audio samples from the audio source
at a second time.

US Pat. No. 9,219,559

METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR AUDIENCE MEASUREMENT

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method of measuring an audience, the method comprising:
identifying, with a processor, a person in response to a voice command spoken to control a media device at a first time;
collecting audience measurement data identifying media output by the media device;
determining, with the processor, whether the voice command muted the volume of the media device; and
at least one of removing or preventing, with the processor, the association of the person with the audience measurement data
when the voice command muted the volume of the media device.

US Pat. No. 9,286,912

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR IDENTIFYING MEDIA

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method comprising:
determining, by executing an instruction with a processor, an identifying timestamp that is unreadable or otherwise unavailable,
the identifying timestamp associated with an identifying code obtained from a media signal;

determining, by executing an instruction with the processor, an approximate time from the identifying timestamp;
determining, by executing an instruction with the processor, a time range based on the approximate time; and
identifying, by executing an instruction with the processor, entries of a look-up table for inclusion in a partition of the
look-up table, the entries including timestamps in the time range;

constructing, by executing an instruction with the processor, based on the entries, the partition of the look-up table including
respective reference signatures;

comparing, by executing an instruction with the processor, a signature extracted from the media signal to the reference signatures
in the partition of the look-up table; and

identifying, by executing an instruction with the processor, media associated with the media signal based on the comparing.

US Pat. No. 9,124,378

GATHERING RESEARCH DATA

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method for processing research data gathered by a plurality of monitoring devices, the research data including message
data read by the monitoring devices from media data encoded with codes encoding the message data, a first portion of the message
data as read by one or more of the monitoring devices omitting a data portion, the method comprising:
processing the research data to produce a database of corresponding message data indicating a probability that the media data
relates to other media data;

receiving the omitted data portion based on the corresponding message data from a source other than the one or more of the
monitoring devices that read the first portion of the message data omitting the data portion; and

determining whether the corresponding message data has been received from at least N monitoring devices, wherein N is a natural
number, and N is statistically established as a number of monitoring devices having read the complete message data which is
sufficiently large to satisfy a probability that the message data were correctly read by the plurality of monitoring devices;
and

on the condition that the corresponding message data has been received from the at least N monitoring devices;
processing the corresponding message data and the data portions to produce complete message data.

US Pat. No. 9,275,285

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO COUNT PEOPLE IN IMAGES

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method, comprising:
generating, with a random number generator, a random subset of pixels of a first frame, the random subset of pixels including
less than all of the pixels of the first frame;

generating, via a processor, a first fluctuation factor for the first frame by averaging fluctuation values of the random
subset of pixels of the first frame;

identifying, via the processor, a person indication area in which a person is believed to be located, the person indication
area corresponding to a subset of the pixels of the first frame including less than all of the pixels of the first frame;

generating, via the processor, a second fluctuation factor for the person indication area of the first frame by averaging
fluctuation values of the subset of the pixels corresponding to the person indication area; and

marking, via the processor, the person indication area as corresponding to a false positive when the second fluctuation factor
is less than or equal to the first fluctuation factor.

US Pat. No. 9,286,903

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR EMBEDDING CODES IN COMPRESSED AUDIO DATA STREAMS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to embed a watermark in a compressed audio stream, the method comprising:
accessing a first scale factor and a first set of mantissas for a first set of transform coefficients included in the compressed
audio stream, the first set of transform coefficients corresponding to a first band of a compression standard;

quantizing, with a processor, a second set of transform coefficients based on a second scale factor corresponding to the first
scale factor reduced by a unit of resolution to determine a second set of mantissas, the second set of transform coefficients
corresponding to the first band of the compression standard and including the watermark;

replacing, with the processor, the first scale factor with the second scale factor and the first set of mantissas with the
second set of mantissas to modify the first set of transform coefficients to embed the watermark in the compressed audio stream
to produce a watermarked compressed audio stream; and

outputting the watermarked compressed audio stream for transmission.

US Pat. No. 9,265,081

MEDIA EXPOSURE AND VERIFICATION UTILIZING INDUCTIVE COUPLING

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A first device comprising:
a memory including instructions; and
a processor to execute the instructions to:
collect research data relating to media received in the first device;
present a message requesting communicative coupling of a portable computing device to the first device when the portable computing
device is not inductively coupled to the first device;

receive information from the portable computing device via an inductive connection when it is detected that the portable computing
device is coupled to the first device; and

associate the information to the research data.

US Pat. No. 9,230,167

METHODS, APPARATUS, AND ARTICLES OF MANUFACTURE TO MEASURE GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES USING AN IMAGE OF A GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method, comprising:
dividing, by executing an instruction with a processor, an image of a geographic area of interest into geographical zones,
the geographical zones being representative of different physical geographical areas;

storing, by executing an instruction with the processor, descriptions for the geographical zones in a computer memory based
on modified boundaries of a first one of the geographical zones;

sorting, by executing an instruction with the processor, the geographical zones into bins based on a comparison of values
representative of the geographical zones to ranges of values, the ranges of values corresponding to the bins;

determining, by executing an instruction with the processor, a number of zones to be sampled in one of the bins based on the
range of values corresponding to the one of the bins;

storing, by executing an instruction with the processor, a value representative of a geographical feature represented in the
image for the first one of the geographical zones;

generating, by executing an instruction with the processor, a sampling plan having a sampling area based on the value; and
manually sampling the sampling area based on the sampling plan.

US Pat. No. 9,258,607

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO DETERMINE LOCATIONS OF AUDIENCE MEMBERS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to credit media presented by a media presentation device, the method comprising:
determining, via a neural network, a first distance of a first portable audio detector from a stationary unit, the first portable
audio detector associated with a first panelist, the stationary unit located in proximity to the media presentation device;

determining, via the neural network, a second distance of a second portable audio detector from the stationary unit, the second
portable audio detector associated with a second panelist;

in response to the first distance being less than a threshold distance, crediting the media with an exposure credit, the exposure
credit indicative of the media being exposed to the first panelist; and

in response to the second distance being more than the threshold distance, not crediting the media as exposed to the second
panelist.

US Pat. No. 9,224,048

SCENE-BASED PEOPLE METERING FOR AUDIENCE MEASUREMENT

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to monitor an audience of a media presentation, the method comprising:
grouping successive image frames depicting a location of the media presentation to form a sequence of scenes, respective scenes
including respective groups of the image frames;

grouping matching scenes into respective scene clusters having respective sizes, the scene clusters being represented by respective
key frames;

assigning respective ranks to the key frames of the respective scene clusters, the respective ranks being determined based
on the respective sizes of the scene clusters; and

processing the key frames in accordance with the respective ranks to monitor the audience of the media presentation.

US Pat. No. 9,282,366

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO COMMUNICATE AUDIENCE MEASUREMENT INFORMATION

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method, comprising:
analyzing, via a processor, a plurality of media identifiers collected during a period of time;
identifying, via the processor, a dominant media identifier from the plurality of media identifiers by determining which of
the plurality of media identifiers was most frequently detected during the period of time;

selecting, from the plurality of media identifiers, only the dominant media identifier for incorporation into a text message;
incorporating the selected dominant media identifier into the text message and omitting all non-dominant ones of the plurality
of media identifiers from the text message; and

communicating the text message via a text messaging service to a storage facility.

US Pat. No. 9,118,962

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR USING AUDIENCE MEMBER BEHAVIOR INFORMATION TO DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH AUDIENCE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM USAGE REQUIREMENTS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. An apparatus to determine compliance with usage guidelines of an audience measurement system, comprising:
a processor; and
a memory in communication with the processor and including instructions to cause the processor to:
obtain compliance status information generated by a portable meter indicative of whether an audience member associated with
the portable meter is in compliance with the usage guidelines, the compliance status information being based on a time difference
between a first timestamp corresponding to a first location of the audience member and a second timestamp corresponding to
a time at which a change in location of the audience member was previously detected;

tag media monitoring information as non-compliant in response to determining that the audience member is not in compliance
with the usage guidelines; and

present a notification indicative of whether the audience member is in compliance with the usage guidelines based on the compliance
status information.

US Pat. No. 9,288,595

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR DETERMINING METER PRESENCE UTILIZING AMBIENT FINGERPRINTS

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

8. A system for determining portable device presence, comprising: an input to receive media exposure data from a plurality
of portable devices, and to receive environmental ambient fingerprints from the portable devices, the environmental ambient
fingerprints representing a characteristic of an environment around respective ones of the portable devices; and a processor,
operatively coupled to the input, the processor to process the received environmental ambient fingerprints to determine if
at least two of the environmental ambient fingerprints match, the processor to identify corresponding ones of the portable
devices having matched environmental ambient fingerprints as located in proximity to one another;
wherein the characteristic includes a level of ambient noise over each of a series of time periods; and
wherein the environmental ambient fingerprint includes a value for respective ones of the levels of noise and is formed using
the values of the series of time periods, and the value for a current one of the levels of noise is dependent upon a determination
that a level of noise in each of the series of time periods exceeds a threshold.

US Pat. No. 9,264,748

METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR REDUCING SPILLOVER BY MEASURING A CREST FACTOR

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to credit media, comprising:
comparing, with a processor, a first crest factor stored in a memory in association with a media identifier to a second crest
factor corresponding to a ratio of a peak amplitude of an audio signal and a root mean square value of the audio signal;

determining, with the processor, that spillover did not occur if a difference between the first crest factor and the second
crest factor satisfies a threshold; and

when the spillover did not occur, crediting, with the processor, a media exposure to media associated with the audio signal.

US Pat. No. 9,210,130

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO COLLECT DISTRIBUTED USER INFORMATION FOR MEDIA IMPRESSIONS AND SEARCH TERMS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method comprising:
receiving a plurality of first identifiers and a media identifier collected by a data collector installed at a mobile device
in connection with an application, the first identifiers identifying at least one of the mobile device or a user of the mobile
device, and the media identifier indicative of media presented via the application at the mobile device;

generating a plurality of encrypted identifiers by encrypting the first identifiers, respective ones of the encrypted identifiers
decodable by corresponding database proprietors to which the respective encrypted identifiers pertain; and

sending the plurality of encrypted identifiers in association with the media identifier to an audience measurement entity.

US Pat. No. 9,282,369

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR AUDIENCE MEASUREMENT USING GLOBAL SIGNATURE REPRESENTATION AND MATCHING

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to determine a time offset between a first media signature including a first sequence of first data pairs and
a second media signature including a second sequence of second data pairs, the method comprising:
comparing, via a processor, ones of the first data pairs in the first sequence with ones of the second data pairs in the second
sequence to determine original time differences between respective combinations of the ones of the first data pairs and the
ones of the second data pairs;

scaling and truncating, via the processor, the original time differences to determine adjusted time differences between respective
combinations of the ones of the first data pairs and the ones of the second data pairs;

determining, via the processor, a histogram including bins representative of the adjusted time differences, a first one of
the bins of the histogram being representative of a first one of the adjusted time differences, a value of the first one of
the bins being determined to correspond to a count of the combinations of the ones of the first data pairs and the ones of
the second data pairs having respective adjusted time differences corresponding to the first one of the adjusted time differences;
and

selecting, via the processor, a bin of the histogram to correspond to the time offset between the first media signature and
the second media signature.

US Pat. No. 9,277,265

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO CALCULATE VIDEO-ON-DEMAND AND DYNAMICALLY INSERTED ADVERTISEMENT VIEWING PROBABILITY

The Nielsen Company (US),...

19. A tangible machine readable storage medium comprising instructions that, when executed, cause a machine to at least:
identify a first set of households associated with a target set of categories that presented a first media having a first
telecast delay;

calculate first total tuning minutes and first total exposure minutes for the first set of households;
identify a second set of households that presented the first media having the first telecast delay and having a portion of
the target set of categories, the second set of households having second total tuning minutes and second total exposure minutes;

for each category in the second set of households, calculate a household tuning proportion based on the first and second total
tuning minutes, and calculating a household exposure proportion based on the first and second total exposure minutes; and

calculate the panelist viewing probability associated with the first telecast delay based on a ratio of the household exposure
proportion and the household tuning proportion.

US Pat. No. 9,269,093

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO MONITOR SHOPPERS IN A MONITORED ENVIRONMENT

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method comprising:
collecting first data during a first time with a first sensor fixed at a location of entry or exit of an aisle in at least
one of a retail or commercial establishment, the first sensor to collect the first data by detecting a first signal type;

collecting second data at a first rate of collection during the first time with a second sensor fixed in the at least one
of the retail or commercial establishment, the second sensor to collect the second data by detecting a second signal type
different than the first signal type;

collecting third data with the second sensor at a second rate of collection during a second time, the second rate being used
during the second time based on the first data, the second rate being faster than the first rate, and the second sensor to
collect the third data by detecting the second signal type;

generating, with a processor, a path of travel of a person in the at least one of the retail or commercial establishment using
the first and the second data; and

correcting, with the processor, an error in the path of travel based on the third data.

US Pat. No. 9,237,138

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO COLLECT DISTRIBUTED USER INFORMATION FOR MEDIA IMPRESSIONS AND SEARCH TERMS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method comprising:
receiving a media identifier and an impression identifier from a media device, the media identifier being indicative of media
presented at the media device;

receiving the impression identifier in association with first user information from a first database proprietor as a result
of the first database proprietor obtaining a first identifier encrypted with a first encryption key by the media device and
sent from the media device, the first identifier identifying at least one of the media device or a user of the media device;

receiving the impression identifier in association with second user information from a second database proprietor as a result
of the second database proprietor obtaining a second identifier encrypted with a second encryption key by the media device
and sent from the media device, the second identifier identifying at least one of the media device or the user of the media
device, the second identifier being different than the first identifier;

identifying the first user information and the second user information as associated with a same user based on the impression
identifier; and

associating the first user information and the second user information with the media identifier.

US Pat. No. 9,197,930

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO DETECT SPILLOVER IN AN AUDIENCE MONITORING SYSTEM

The Nielsen Company (US),...

27. An apparatus to distinguish local media from spillover media comprising:
an audio sampler to sample a first audio signal from a first source received by a first microphone and sample a second audio
signal received by a second microphone from the first source, wherein the second microphone is separated from the first microphone
by a first distance;

a direction detector to calculate an origin direction of the first source based on a time difference between receipt of the
first and second sampled audio signals; and

a filter to determine whether the origin direction is within a threshold angle, the filter to retain the media associated
with the first source when the origin direction is within the threshold angle, the filter to ignore the media associated with
the first source when the origin direction exceeds the threshold angle, at least one of the audio sampler, the direction detector,
or the filter being implemented by hardware.

US Pat. No. 9,189,796

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO COLLECT BROADBAND MARKET DATA

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to classify an Internet protocol (IP) address owner, comprising:
identifying first organization information associated with an IP address via a registration database;
invoking a reverse resolve operation with the IP address to obtain a first domain name;
parsing the first domain name to extract domain labels having second organization information; and
in response to identifying a discrepancy between the first organization information and the second organization information,
classifying the second organization as an Internet Service Provider (ISP) reseller.

US Pat. No. 9,100,132

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR GATHERING AUDIENCE MEASUREMENT DATA

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method for adding information to audio, the method comprising:
accessing an audio signal segment in a processing device capable of reproducing the audio as sound, the audio signal segment
including first audience measurement data embedded into the audio signal segment;

embedding second audience measurement data in the audio signal segment in the processing device, the second audience measurement
data being different from the first audience measurement data, and the first audience measurement data and second audience
measurement data exist simultaneously existing in the audio signal segment simultaneously; and

transmitting the audio signal segment for reproduction.

US Pat. No. 9,288,268

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO MONITOR SHOPPERS IN A RETAIL ENVIRONMENT

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method, comprising:
determining a direction of travel of a third device associated with a shopper based on a first signal transmitted via a first
device in a first direction to a second device; and

determining a path of travel of the third device through a monitored establishment based on a second signal transmitted via
the first device in a second direction to the third device.

US Pat. No. 9,118,960

METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR REDUCING SPILLOVER BY DETECTING SIGNAL DISTORTION

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to reduce spillover in a media measuring system, comprising:
identifying, via a processor, media associated with media monitoring data, the media monitoring data being received from a
first meter associated with a first media presentation device;

identifying, via the processor, an expected frequency spectrum associated with the media;
comparing, via the processor, the expected frequency spectrum to an actual frequency spectrum collected from the media by
the first meter to determine if spillover occurred; and

crediting, via the processor, the media as a media exposure if spillover did not occur.

US Pat. No. 9,223,297

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR IDENTIFYING A USER OF AN ELECTRONIC DEVICE

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method of identifying a user comprising:
capturing an image of a user via a sensor on a computing device, the image being captured as the user interacts with the computing
device for a purpose different from user identification;

analyzing the image to determine a seating position of the user;
determining an identifier associated with the user based on at least the seating position of the user;
collecting, via the computing device, activity data identifying media to which the user is exposed; and
associating the media with the identifier of the user.

US Pat. No. 9,331,975

SYSTEMS, METHODS, AND APPARATUS TO IDENTIFY MEDIA PRESENTATION DEVICES

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method of monitoring network activity, the method comprising:
receiving a first domain name service query from a first device at a first pseudo DNS server, the first device and a second
device being associated with a same public Internet protocol address, the first pseudo DNS server does not provide domain
name to IP address translation;

identifying the first device as originating the domain name service query based on an identity of the first pseudo DNS server
and the public Internet protocol address of the first device;

transmitting a domain name service redirect message to the first device in response to the first domain name service query,
the redirect message to cause the first device to send a third domain name service query to a DNS server; and

crediting the first device with accessing content associated with a first domain name identified in the first domain name
service query based on the first domain name service query being received at the first pseudo DNS server from the public Internet
protocol address.

US Pat. No. 9,232,014

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO IDENTIFY SESSION USERS WITH COOKIE INFORMATION

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A computer implemented method to associate a current user of a computing device with current usage activity, the method
comprising:
locating, with a processor, a first storage location associated with a first browser and a second storage location associated
with a second browser;

identifying, with the processor, a first cookie in the first storage location having a most recent timestamp;
determining, with the processor, a type of the first cookie;
when the type of the first cookie is a first type, establishing, with the processor, a first user associated with the first
cookie as the current user of the computing device;

searching, with the processor, the second storage location for a second cookie of the first type having a most recent timestamp;
comparing, with the processor, the timestamp of the first cookie and the timestamp of the second cookie to determine a most
recent cookie;

when the first cookie is the most recent cookie, confirming, with the processor, the first user as the current user of the
computing device; and

when the second cookie is the most recent cookie, replacing, with the processor, the first user with a user associated with
the second cookie as the current user of the computing device.

US Pat. No. 9,230,190

IMAGE RECOGNITION TO SUPPORT SHELF AUDITING FOR CONSUMER RESEARCH

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to identify items depicted in an input image, the method comprising:
comparing, with a processor, a first image signature associated with the input image with a plurality of reference signatures
associated with a plurality of reference images to identify a first reference image matching the input image;

identifying, with the processor, a first group of items depicted in the input image as corresponding to a first group of reference
items registered with the first reference image;

determining, with the processor, that a first region of the input image differs from a corresponding first region of the first
reference image; and

in response to determining that the first region of the input image differs from the corresponding first region of the first
reference image, processing, with the processor, the first region of the input image based on a template to identify a second
item depicted in the first region of the input image.

US Pat. No. 9,208,132

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT WITH CONTENT AWARE TEXT EDITOR

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A computer readable storage device or storage disk comprising instructions which, when executed by a processor, cause the
processor to, at least:
provide a visual representation of a product concept including a textual component with a dynamic element;
retrieve a list of candidate variants corresponding to the dynamic element, the list including a first variant, a second variant,
and a third variant

receive a first selection of the first variant;
in response to the first selection, display a constraint indicator adjacent the second variant, the constraint indicator visually
representing an undesirability of displaying the first variant and the second variant simultaneously within the visual representation;

in response to the first selection, display an allowability indicator immediately adjacent the third variant, the allowability
indicator visually representing a desirability of displaying the first variant and the third variant simultaneously within
the visual representation; and

in response to a second selection of the second variant, generate a first instantiation of the visual representation including
the first variant and the second variant, the first instantiation including the constraint indicator.

US Pat. No. 9,197,931

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR DETERMINING BROADCAST DIMENSIONALITY

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method to determine levels of audience engagement relative to media, the method comprising:
capturing encoded audio data with an audience member's mobile device over a first time period and a second time period, the
encoded audio corresponding to the media;

determining a baseline level of engagement corresponding to a first volume level of the encoded audio data over the first
time period;

assigning a first level of engagement higher than the baseline level when a second volume level greater than the first volume
level of the encoded audio data is detected over the second time period; and

assigning a second level of engagement lower than the baseline level when a third volume level less than the first volume
level of the encoded audio data is detected over the second time period.

US Pat. No. 9,185,589

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO IDENTIFY WIRELESS CARRIER PERFORMANCE EFFECTS

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A computer implemented method to score a wireless carrier, comprising:
monitoring, via a computer, a wireless carrier for carrier operating parameters, the wireless carrier associated with an indication
of a media content presentation on a wireless device;

detecting, via the computer, a subscriber action associated with the indication of the media content presentation; and
generating, via the computer, a wireless carrier score based on the subscriber action and the carrier operating parameters
by assigning a first scoring factor to the wireless carrier when the subscriber action is indicative of a retransmission request,
and assigning a second scoring factor to the wireless carrier when the subscriber action is indicative of a cancel request.

US Pat. No. 9,313,544

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO MEASURE EXPOSURE TO STREAMING MEDIA

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method of measuring exposure to streaming media, the method comprising:
intercepting, with a processor of a media monitor, a first media stream intermediate a media device and a display, the first
media stream output by the media device based on a second media stream and a timed text track received at the media device
from a service provider, the media monitor coupling the media device and the display, the timed text track including media-identifying
metadata formatted in an ID3 format;

demultiplexing, with the processor, a closed captioning transport stream from the first media stream;
extracting metadata from the closed captioning transport stream, the metadata inserted into the closed captioning transport
stream by the media device based on the timed text track;

determining whether the metadata is (1) the media-identifying metadata and is (2) formatted using the ID3 format; and
in response to determining that the metadata is (1) the media-identifying metadata and (2) is formatted using the ID3 format,
exporting at least one of the metadata or data based on the metadata to a media measurement server.

US Pat. No. 9,292,736

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO COUNT PEOPLE IN IMAGES

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method, comprising:
Analyzing, with a processor, frame pairs of a plurality of frame pairs captured over a period of time to identify a redundant
person indication detected in an overlap region, the overlap region corresponding to an intersection of a first field of view
and a second field of view;

eliminating, with the processor, the identified redundant person indication to form a conditioned set of person indications
for the period of time;

grouping, with the processor, similarly located ones of the person indications of the conditioned set to form groups;
analyzing, with the processor, the groups to identify redundant groups detected in the overlap region; and
eliminating, with the processor, the redundant groups from a people tally generated based on the groups.

US Pat. No. 9,224,094

SYSTEMS, METHODS, AND ARTICLES OF MANUFACTURE TO MEASURE ONLINE AUDIENCES

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method to classify audience data, comprising:
obtaining panelist data corresponding to a plurality of panelists accessing web pages at measured locations;
classifying the panelist data according to demographic information of the panelists;
generating, via a processor, a virtual panel based on an estimate of web page accesses at unmeasured locations, the generating
including:

determining demographics of an individual unmeasured person that accesses a first one of the web pages from a first one of
the unmeasured locations, the panelist data not including media monitoring data for the individual unmeasured person,

identifying an individual panelist that accesses the first one of the web pages at a first one of the measured locations,
the individual panelist selected to be representative of the individual unmeasured person based on the individual panelist
and the individual unmeasured person having a same demographic characteristic, and

adding a copy of a portion of the panelist data corresponding to the individual panelist to the virtual panel to include the
individual unmeasured person in the virtual panel, wherein generating the virtual panel is based on a census-based count of
page views, the panelist data, and an estimated universe; and

classifying page view data associated with the unmeasured locations based on the virtual panel including the individual unmeasured
person.

US Pat. No. 9,218,614

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A computer implemented method, comprising:
providing, with a processor, a framework to build a visual representation of a product concept, the visual representation
including at least one of a textual component or a graphical component;

designating, with the processor, a first element of the at least one of the textual component or the graphical component as
a dynamic element;

associating, with the processor, the dynamic element with a variant list including a first element variant;
in response to a selection of the first element variant from the variant list and based on an undesirability of the first
element variant and a second element variant simultaneously appearing in the visual representation together, suppressing the
second element variant; and

generating, with the processor, a first instantiation of the visual representation including the selected first element variant
as the dynamic element.

US Pat. No. 9,355,427

POWER EFFICIENT DETECTION OF WATERMARKS IN MEDIA SIGNALS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A watermark detection method comprising:
operating a watermark detector in a first operating mode to search for a first watermark in a media signal;
in response to detecting the first watermark, determining, with a processor, whether the first watermark satisfies a first
condition; and

in response to determining the first watermark satisfies the first condition, operating the watermark detector in a second
operating mode in which the watermark detector cycles between a sleep interval and an active interval to detect a second watermark
at a second location in the media signal relative to a first location of the first watermark in the media signal.

US Pat. No. 9,202,256

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR EMBEDDING WATERMARKS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to embed a watermark in a compressed data stream, the method comprising:
obtaining a set of transform coefficients from the compressed data stream, the set of transform coefficients including a first
set of mantissa codes and a first set of exponents;

determining a second set of mantissa codes based on a sinusoidal component of the watermark; and
adjusting ones of the first set of mantissa codes based on corresponding ones of the second set of mantissa codes and compression
information obtained from the compressed data stream to embed the watermark in the compressed data stream without uncompressing
the compressed data stream.

US Pat. No. 9,294,815

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN LINEAR AND NON-LINEAR MEDIA

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to automatically determine whether a media presentation is a linear media presentation or a non-linear media presentation,
the method comprising:
generating, by executing an instruction with a processor, a reference log including first media identifiers of first media
and first times at which the first media was presented as a linear media presentation;

receiving, at the processor, at least one of an audio fingerprint or a watermark code generated by a media monitoring device
electronically monitoring the media presentation of second media, the audio fingerprint based on an audio characteristic of
the second media electronically measured at discrete times by the media monitoring device;

identifying, by executing an instruction with the processor, second media identifiers of the second media from the at least
one of the audio fingerprint or the watermark code by matching the at least one of the audio fingerprint or the watermark
code to a reference audio fingerprint or a reference watermark code in a reference database;

generating, by executing an instruction with the processor, a media presentation log for the media presentation, the media
presentation log including the second media identifiers of the second media and second times at which the second media was
presented;

comparing, by executing an instruction with the processor, the media presentation log to the reference log to determine a
number of matches between ones of the first media identifiers and ones of the second media identifiers, the matches between
the ones of the first media identifiers and the ones of the second media identifiers being in a same order in the media presentation
log and in the reference log; and

classifying, by executing an instruction with the processor, the media presentation of the second media as a linear media
presentation when the number of matches satisfies a threshold.

US Pat. No. 9,222,963

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR METERING AND ANALYZING ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF EVENTS WITHIN A PORTABLE DEVICE

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method, comprising:
accessing, with a processor, first battery usage data for a first portable device, the first battery usage data including
an energy usage by the first portable device during a first time period and an identification of software functions executed
by the first portable device during the first time period;

accessing, with the processor, second battery usage data for a second portable device, the second battery usage data including
an energy usage by the second portable device during a second time period and an identification of software functions executed
by the second portable device during the second time period; and

determining, with the processor, a portion of the energy usage by the first and second portable devices attributable to a
first one of the software functions based on the first and second battery usage data of the first and second portable devices.

US Pat. No. 9,203,642

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR COLLECTING DATA ON A WIRELESS DEVICE

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method comprising:
generating, with a processor, a first hierarchical tree structure for a first wireless device metering event associated with
a plurality of data attributes describing an occurrence of the first wireless device metering event associated with an application
by:

identifying, with the processor, the first event as a highest node of the first hierarchical tree structure; and
forming, with the processor, lower level nodes of the first hierarchical tree structure based on the plurality of data attributes;
generating, with the processor, a second hierarchical tree structure for a second wireless device metering event associated
with a plurality of data attributes describing an occurrence of the second wireless device metering event associated with
the application by:

identifying, with the processor, the second event as a highest node of the second hierarchical tree structure; and
forming, with the processor, lower level nodes of the second hierarchical tree structure based on the plurality of data attributes;
linking, with the processor, a first lower level node of the first hierarchical tree structure to a second lower level node
of the second hierarchical tree structure when a first data attribute associated with the first lower level node and a second
data attribute associated with the second lower level node share a feature, the first wireless device metering event and the
second wireless device metering event being separate and independent events; and

storing the first hierarchical tree structure and the second hierarchical tree structure.

US Pat. No. 9,292,923

METHODS, APPARATUS AND ARTICLES OF MANUFACTURE TO MONITOR ENVIRONMENTS

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method, comprising:
analyzing, with a processor, a first depth value corresponding to a coordinate of an object of an image captured by a depth
sensor, the first depth value having been captured with the depth sensor positioned at a first angle relative to a reference
axis;

initiating, with the processor, the depth sensor to move to a second angle relative to the reference axis, the second angle
being different than the first angle;

triggering, with the processor, capture of a second depth value at the coordinate with the depth sensor positioned at the
second angle; and

calculating, with the processor, a depth gradient for the coordinate based on the first depth value, the second depth value,
and a difference between the first angle and the second angle.

US Pat. No. 9,355,138

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO OBTAIN ANONYMOUS AUDIENCE MEASUREMENT DATA FROM NETWORK SERVER DATA FOR PARTICULAR DEMOGRAPHIC AND USAGE PROFILES

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. An audience measurement method comprising:
accessing, with a processor, demographic information and identification information for subscribers of a service provider
based on first data received from an audience measurement entity;

accessing, with the processor, network log data stored by the service provider for the subscribers using the identification
information;

determining, with the processor, audience measurement data for the subscribers based on the network log data, the demographic
information and the identification information; and

removing, with the processor, the identification information from the audience measurement data to determine anonymous audience
measurement data to send to the audience measurement entity.

US Pat. No. 9,253,649

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO SCAN A WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SPECTRUM

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method to improve data correlation from multiple scanners comprising:
identifying, with a processor, a deficiency in a first measurement record from a first scanner that has captured signal strength
measurements of a wireless communication spectrum;

determining a type of the deficiency in the first measurement record;
when the type of the deficiency is associated with an insufficient location measurement, correcting a lack of a base station
identifier in the first measurement record by correlating the first measurement record from the first scanner to a second
measurement record including the base station identifier from a second scanner based on timestamp information indicating the
second measurement record corresponds to a first time window, the timestamp information being in the first and the second
measurement records; and

when the type of deficiency is not associated with the insufficient location measurement, correcting the lack of the base
station identifier in the first measurement record by correlating the first measurement record from the first scanner to the
second measurement record including the base station identifier from the second scanner based on geographic location information
indicating the second measurement record corresponds to a same physical location as the first measurement record, the geographic
location information being in the first and the second measurement records.

US Pat. No. 9,247,273

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO CHARACTERIZE HOUSEHOLDS WITH MEDIA METER DATA

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to calculate a probability of a first media device having a first power status, comprising:
identifying, with a processor, a power status and a first automatic gain control (AGC) value for an exposure minute from a
panelist audience meter in a first household, the panelist audience meter including a power sensor to sense a power status
of a second media device in the first household;

identifying, with the processor a second AGC value of a first media meter (MM) during a household tuning minute in the first
household, the first MM including a microphone to collect audio data; and

preventing erroneous crediting by:
calculating, with the processor, model coefficients based on the exposure minute and the household tuning minute;
calculating, with the processor, a power status probability for the first media device in a second household based on the
model coefficients and data from a second MM in the second household, the second household not including a panelist audience
meter having a power sensor; and

determining whether to credit a media exposure identified by the second MM in the second household based on the power status
probability.

US Pat. No. 9,239,958

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO MEASURE BRAND EXPOSURE IN MEDIA STREAMS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to determine brand exposures included in a media presentation, the method comprising:
determining, with a processor, whether a scene detected from a media stream corresponding to the media presentation matches
a reference scene;

identifying, with the processor, a first region of interest in the detected scene based on stored information describing a
corresponding first region of interest in the reference scene in response to determining that both: (a) the detected scene
matched the reference scene and (b) the detected scene has not been classified to have a scene of no interest classification
from among a set of at least four possible classifications including the scene of no interest classification, a repeated scene
of interest classification, a repeated scene of changed interest classification different from the repeated scene of interest
classification, and a new scene classification; and

when the first region of interest is identified in the detected scene, reporting, with the processor, whether a first reference
brand identifier associated with the reference scene is included in the first region of interest identified in the detected
scene.

US Pat. No. 9,215,996

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR OBJECTIVELY DETERMINING HUMAN RESPONSE TO MEDIA

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method comprising:
applying, using a processor, a first adjustment factor to first data gathered from a subject exposed to a stimulus to form
first adjusted data;

applying, using the processor, a second adjustment factor to the first data to form second adjusted data;
applying, using the processor, a third adjustment factor to second data gathered from the subject to form third adjusted data;
applying, using the processor, a fourth adjustment factor to the second data to form fourth adjusted data;
calculating, using the processor, a sum based on the first adjusted data, the second adjusted data, the third adjusted data,
and the fourth adjusted data;

determining, using the processor, a mental state of the subject based on the sum; and
adjusting, using the processor, at least one of the first adjustment factor, the second adjustment factor, the third adjustment
factor, or the fourth adjustment factor based on a characteristic of at least one of the first data or the second data.

US Pat. No. 9,215,288

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO SHARE ONLINE MEDIA IMPRESSIONS DATA

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method, comprising:
determining, by executing an instruction with a processor of an audience measurement entity, whether a first request includes
a first cookie, the first request identifying media provided to a client device;

when the first request does not include the first cookie, generating the first cookie by executing an instruction with the
processor of the audience measurement entity;

sending, from the processor of the audience measurement entity, a response to the first request, the response including an
identification of the first cookie used by the audience measurement entity and an indication of a database proprietor;

receiving, by executing an instruction with the processor of the audience measurement entity, a mapping of the first cookie
to a second cookie used by the database proprietor and demographic information associated with the second cookie by the database
proprietor; and

associating, by executing an instruction with the processor of the audience measurement entity, the second cookie and the
demographic information with an impression of the media.

US Pat. No. 9,210,416

VARIABLE ENCODING AND DETECTION APPARATUS AND METHODS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method of tagging collected media monitoring information, comprising:
extracting, using a processor, media monitoring information from a media signal;
determining if the media monitoring information is complete by:
identifying a data field of the media monitoring information; and
determining whether the data field contains complete information or incomplete information; and
tagging, using the processor, the media monitoring information in response to determining whether the media monitoring information
is complete.

US Pat. No. 9,215,978

SYSTEMS AND METHODS TO GATHER AND ANALYZE ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC DATA

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method comprising:
obtaining electroencephalographic data with a device worn by a subject, the device including:
a central body portion;
a plurality of extensions extending from the central body portion, respective ones of the extensions having corresponding
ends carrying an electrode; and

an adjustment band slidably disposed along a longitudinal axis of the central body portion to adjust respective positions
of the extensions; and

analyzing the data, with a processor, to determine a mental state of the subject.

US Pat. No. 9,191,581

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR MIXING COMPRESSED DIGITAL BIT STREAMS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to mix data streams, the method comprising:
obtaining a first set of transform coefficients from a first compressed data stream, the first set of transform coefficients
including a first set of mantissa codes and a first set of exponents;

determining a second set of mantissa codes based on the first set of transform coefficients and a second data stream;
replacing the first set of mantissa codes in the first set of transform coefficients with the second set of mantissa codes,
without replacing the first set of exponents in the first set of transform coefficients, to mix the second data stream with
the first compressed data stream to form a third data stream without uncompressing the first compressed data stream; and

at least one of transmitting or storing the third data stream.

US Pat. No. 9,132,689

GATHERING DATA CONCERNING PUBLICATION USAGE

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method of gathering data concerning usage of a publication and usage of media, comprising:
producing first data in a portable monitor configured to be carried on the person of a respondent, said first data representing
usage of a publication, and is based on at least one of:

a proximity value detected via a first sensor indicating the physical proximity of the respondent to the publication, or
a usage characteristic detected via at least one of the first sensor or a second sensor to sense at least one of a deformation
or a grasping of the publication by the respondent; and

producing second data in the portable monitor representing usage of media.

US Pat. No. 9,292,858

DATA COLLECTION SYSTEM FOR AGGREGATING BIOLOGICALLY BASED MEASURES IN ASYNCHRONOUS GEOGRAPHICALLY DISTRIBUTED PUBLIC ENVIRONMENTS

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method of determining a measure of response to a target stimulus from members of an audience remotely located at a plurality
of locations, the method comprising:
providing a processing computer including stored data, the stored data including first results from a standard testing template
of content stimuli;

providing a first portable unit at a first location, the first portable unit including:
a first biologically based sensor to measure unconscious biological responses for a first member of an audience;
a first processor to receive first data representative of the unconscious biological responses of the first member of the
audience, the first processor including a first memory to store the first data; and

a first display, the first biologically based sensor and the first display operatively coupled to the first processor;
providing a second portable unit at a second location, the second portable unit including:
a second biologically based sensor to measure unconscious biological responses for a second member of the audience;
a second processor to receive second data representative of the unconscious biological responses of the second member of the
audience, the second processor including a second memory to store the second data; and

a second display, the second biologically based sensor and the second display operatively coupled to the second processor;
receiving first demographic information in a demographic category from the first member of the audience;
storing the first demographic information;
receiving second demographic information in the demographic category from the second member of the audience;
storing the second demographic information;
receiving at the first location and the second location a target stimulus;
exposing the first member of the audience to a first presentation of the target stimulus on the first display;
exposing the second member of the audience to the first presentation on the second display;
measuring a first unconscious biological response of the first member of the audience to the first presentation;
forming a first set of data from the first unconscious biological response;
storing the first set of data;
measuring a second unconscious biological response to the first presentation for the second member of the audience;
forming a second set of data from the second unconscious biological response;
storing the second set of data;
receiving at the first location and the second location an alternate target stimulus;
exposing the first member of the audience to a second presentation of the alternate target stimulus on the first display;
exposing the second member of the audience to the second presentation on the second display;
measuring a third unconscious biological response of the first member of the audience to the second presentation of the alternate
target stimulus;

forming a third set of data from the third unconscious biological response;
storing the third set of data;
measuring a fourth unconscious biological response of the second member of the audience to the second presentation;
forming a fourth set of data from the fourth unconscious biological response;
storing the fourth set of data;
transmitting the first, second, third, and fourth sets of data and the first and second demographic information to the processing
computer; and

analyzing, by executing instructions with the processing computer, the first set of data, the second set of data, the third
set of data, the fourth set of data, the first demographic information, and the second demographic information to generate
a report including a comparison of the target stimulus to the alternate target stimulus based on the first and second demographic
information at the first and second location.

US Pat. No. 9,294,813

PROBABILISTIC METHODS AND APPARATUS TO DETERMINE THE STATE OF A MEDIA DEVICE

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method, comprising:
generating, based on a first output signal from a first sensor, a first parameter value representative of a first property
of a media device;

generating, based on a second output signal from a second sensor, a second parameter value representative of a second property
of the media device;

calculating a first state probability that the media device is presenting media provided by a first source based on a first
conditional probability associated with the first parameter value and a second conditional probability associated with the
second parameter value;

calculating a second state probability that the media device is presenting media provided by a second source different than
the first source based on a third conditional probability associated with the first parameter value and a fourth conditional
probability associated with the second parameter value; and

generating a state identifier by comparing the first state probability and the second state probability.

US Pat. No. 9,292,251

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR CONFIGURING MEDIA DEVICES UTILIZING AUDIO CODES OR SIGNATURES

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method comprising:
responsive to determining, with a processor, that an audio code is not present in audio data received by a device, generating
a signature from the audio data;

determining, with the processor, whether the signature is associated with a first command to be executed by the device to
modify operation of the device;

when the signature is determined to be associated with the first command, executing the first command to cause the device
to connect to a communication session to receive an upgrade to software executable on the device;

when the signature is determined to not be associated with the first command, determining, with the processor, whether the
signature is associated with a second command; and

when the signature is determined to be associated with the second command, executing the second command to cause a previously
locked feature of the device to be unlocked.

US Pat. No. 9,191,704

METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR REDUCING CREDITING ERRORS DUE TO SPILLOVER USING AUDIO CODES AND/OR SIGNATURES

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to reduce crediting errors due to spillover in a media measuring system, comprising:
determining if first media monitoring data provided from a first meter identifies a same media as second media monitoring
data provided from a second meter, the first meter and the second meter to monitor presented media at respective different
locations;

if the first media monitoring data identifies the same media as the second media monitoring data, detecting if spillover occurred
by determining if an absolute value of a difference between a first timestamp associated with the first media monitoring data
and a second timestamp associated with the second media monitoring data is less than a threshold; and

if spillover occurred, determining which of the first media monitoring data or the second media monitoring data to credit
as a media exposure.

US Pat. No. 9,294,368

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO DETERMINE IMPRESSIONS USING DISTRIBUTED DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to monitor media exposure, the method comprising:
receiving, at a first internet domain, a first request from a client computer, the first request indicative of access to the
media at the client computer, and the first request including identifying information associated with the media;

generating modified values corresponding to the identifying information;
determining if the client computer is known;
if the client computer is not known, sending, from the first internet domain to the client computer, a response including
the modified values in place of the identifying information, the response to instruct the client computer to send a second
request to a second internet domain, the second request to be indicative of the access to the media at the client computer,
and the modified values to be included in the second request to the second internet domain; and

if the client computer is known, logging an impression of the media.

US Pat. No. 9,301,173

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO CREDIT INTERNET USAGE

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method for monitoring Internet usage, the method comprising:
identifying, with a processor, a first application associated with a first request received at a proxy;
identifying, with the processor, a second request associated with a same application as the first request;
identifying, with the processor, a third request at a time after the second request;
determining, with the processor, a first time difference between the first request and the third request;
crediting, with the processor, the first application with a first presentation duration equal to the first time difference
when the first time difference is less than a threshold time; and

crediting, with the processor, the first application with a second presentation duration equal to a second time difference
between the first request and the second request when the first time difference is at least one of greater than or equal to
the threshold time.

US Pat. No. 9,167,298

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR USING AUDIENCE MEMBER BEHAVIOR INFORMATION TO DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH AUDIENCE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM USAGE REQUIREMENTS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. An apparatus to determine compliance with usage guidelines of an audience measurement system, comprising:
a location sensor to obtain first location information associated with an audience member; and
a processor, communicatively coupled to the location sensor, to:
determine whether the audience member is in compliance with the usage guidelines based on a time difference between a first
timestamp corresponding to the first location information and a second timestamp corresponding to a time at which a change
in location of the audience member was previously detected; and

tag media monitoring information corresponding to the first location information as non-compliant in response to determining
that the time difference between the first and second timestamps is not less than a threshold.

US Pat. No. 9,154,565

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO MONITOR ONLINE ACTIVITY

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to monitor online activity, the method comprising:
comparing first uniform resource locators collected from a first client device of a known panelist with second uniform resource
locators collected from second client devices associated with different users; and

determining which of the second uniform resource locators correspond to online activity of the known panelist based on ones
of the first uniform resource locators matching at least portions of ones of the second uniform resource locators.

US Pat. No. 9,131,270

SIMULCAST RESOLUTION IN CONTENT MATCHING SYSTEMS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to identify media sources, the method comprising:
comparing, with a processor, meter signatures generated from presented media with reference signatures generated from reference
media provided by a plurality of media sources, the meter signatures and the reference signatures having respective timestamps;

determining, with the processor, whether a first time difference between a first meter signature and a second meter signature
is equivalent to a second time difference between a first reference signature determined to match the first meter signature
and a second reference signature determined to match the second meter signature, the first and second reference signatures
being associated with a first one of the media sources;

in response to determining that the first time difference and the second time difference are equivalent, appending, with the
processor, the second reference signature to a first tracking segment associated with the first one of the media sources to
cause a first time length associated with the first tracking segment to be increased based on a respective timestamp associated
with the second reference signature; and

evaluating, with the processor, the first time length to determine whether the first one of the media sources provided the
presented media.

US Pat. No. 9,301,007

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO MONITOR AUDIO/VISUAL CONTENT FROM VARIOUS SOURCES

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to monitor a media presentation, the method comprising:
generating a plurality of interpixel differences associated with a plurality of video samples of a video signal corresponding
to a video frame of the media presentation;

processing the plurality of interpixel differences to determine whether the video frame exhibits macroblocking; and
eliminating a first source from a plurality of possible sources of the media presentation when the video frame exhibits macroblocking.

US Pat. No. 9,237,379

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO COUNT PEOPLE IN IMAGES

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to count people, comprising:
determining, by executing an instruction with a processor, an orientation of a head detected in a first frame, the first frame
corresponding to a first time, the first time occurring after a second time corresponding to a second frame;

selecting, by executing an instruction with the processor, a body region based on the orientation of the detected head;
obtaining, with the processor, first image data of the first frame at a location in the first frame corresponding to the selected
body region;

comparing, with the processor, the first image data of the first frame to second image data of the second frame corresponding
to the location via an image data comparison operation; and

incrementing, with the processor, a first count of persons when the first image data corresponds to the second image data.

US Pat. No. 9,225,845

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR COLLECTING INFORMATION ABOUT PORTABLE DEVICE USAGE

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method of collecting information on a mobile device about interactive gaming via a hosted service over the Internet,
the method comprising:
monitoring usage of the mobile device, the monitoring performed on the mobile device while the mobile device is being used
for the interactive gaming; and

via the monitoring on the mobile device, collecting usage information on the mobile device, the usage information corresponding
to the interactive gaming between the mobile device and a second end-user device in communication with the mobile device via
the hosted service over the Internet, and the usage information indicative of a first interaction between the mobile device
and a server of the hosted service during the interactive gaming.

US Pat. No. 10,153,960

DETERMINING AN END TIME OF STREAMING MEDIA

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. An apparatus comprising:means for analyzing bandwidth usage of streaming of media buffered to a buffer;
means for identifying a transition between a first phase of the streaming of the media and a second phase of the streaming of the media, the transition corresponding to when the buffer is filled with a threshold amount of data associated with the media;
means for calculating a size of the buffer based on a difference in the bandwidth usage during the first phase relative to the bandwidth usage during the second phase; and
means for determining an end time of a playback of the buffered media based on the size of the buffer, the end time of the playback occurring after a time when the data associated with the media completes downloading to the buffer.

US Pat. No. 9,136,965

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR GENERATING SIGNATURES

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method of characterizing media comprising:
converting at least a portion of a block of audio into a frequency domain representation;
dividing the frequency domain representation into bands;
determining, using the processor, a characteristic difference of a first band of the bands; and
determining, using the processor, a signature bit based on the characteristic difference, wherein determining the signature
bit is performed differently based on whether an index of the first band has a first property.

US Pat. No. 9,472,198

DOWN-MIXING COMPENSATION FOR AUDIO WATERMARKING

The Nielsen Company (US),...

15. A watermarking apparatus comprising:
a watermark compensator to determine respective attenuation factors for a plurality of audio bands based on energy values
associated with down-mixed audio samples corresponding to a first audio channel of a multi-channel audio signal and a second
audio channel of the multi-channel audio signal; and

a watermark embedder to embed a watermark in audio samples of the first audio channel based on the attenuation factors.

US Pat. No. 9,100,720

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO MEASURE EXPOSURE TO LOGOS IN VEHICLE RACES

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. An apparatus comprising:
a vehicle database including first time-location data identifying a first set of physical locations of a first vehicle at
corresponding points in time, the first vehicle to display a first logo, the vehicle database further including second time-location
data identifying a second set of physical locations of a second vehicle at the corresponding points in time;

a camera database including time-camera view data identifying a set of views of a camera at the corresponding points in time;
and

credit logic to determine whether to credit the first logo with a first exposure to the camera based on the first time-location
data and the time-camera view data, the credit logic further including an occlusion detector to determine whether the first
vehicle was occluded from the camera by the second vehicle based on the first time-location data, the second time-location
data and the time-camera view data, and the credit logic is to determine whether to credit the first logo with the exposure
based on the determination of the occlusion detector.

US Pat. No. 9,092,675

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO COUNT PEOPLE IN IMAGES

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method, comprising:
dividing a first frame of image data into a plurality of segments;
calculating, with a processor, first fluctuation factors for respective ones of the segments, the first fluctuation factors
respectively representative of changes in the respective segments from a second frame of image data to the first frame of
image data;

calculating, with the processor, a second fluctuation factor for the first frame;
before performing object detection on the first frame:
identifying ones of the plurality of segments of the first frame having a first fluctuation factor greater than the second
fluctuation factor as active segments for the first frame; and

linking, with the processor, adjacent ones of the active segments of the first frame to form a region of interest in the first
frame; and

performing, with the processor, the object detection on the region of interest.

US Pat. No. 9,538,240

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR DETECTING SPACE-SHIFTED MEDIA ASSOCIATED WITH A DIGITAL RECORDING/PLAYBACK DEVICE

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method to identify space-shifted media, the method comprising:
detecting, by executing an instruction with a processor, a data packet transmitted from a first media playback device of a
home network to a second media playback device of the home network;

determining, by executing an instruction with the processor, that media associated with the data packet is space-shifted when
the data packet includes at least one of media data or command data; and

updating, by executing an instruction with the processor, viewing data associated with the media to indicate that the second
media playback device is a location of consumption of the media.

US Pat. No. 9,497,505

SYSTEMS AND METHODS TO VERIFY AND/OR CORRECT MEDIA LINEUP INFORMATION

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method, comprising:
comparing, by executing an instruction with a processor, signature data representative of media to recurring segment reference
signatures in a signature database, the recurring segment reference signatures representative of segments of media recurring
in multiple different episodes of a same media series;

when the signature data matches one of the recurring segment reference signatures, generating, by executing an instruction
with the processor, identifying information for the media indicating the media as corresponding to an episode of the media
series;

determining, by executing an instruction with the processor, timing information for presentation of the media based on the
signature data; and

comparing, by executing an instruction with the processor, the identifying information and the timing information to a media
lineup table to identify when at least one of the identifying information or the timing information is inconsistent with the
media lineup table.

US Pat. No. 9,426,240

MEDIA DATA USAGE MEASUREMENT AND REPORTING SYSTEMS AND METHODS

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A computer-implemented method for gathering data for media usage reports for a processing device, the method comprising:
gathering, with media usage gathering objects running on the processing device, usage data representative of usage of media
on the processing device, the media usage gathering objects to gather usage data regardless of whether the media was received
from an external network source or a source that is local to the processing device, each media usage gathering object corresponding
to at least one of (i) a different media type or (ii) a different user agent associated with the media; and

merging, with a session object, the plurality of media usage gathering objects into at least one of a respective (i) user
session or (ii) resource control location (RCL) session.

US Pat. No. 9,392,227

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO EXPORT TUNING DATA COLLECTED IN A RECEIVING DEVICE

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. An audience measurement system comprising:
a receiving device having a visible indicator, the receiving device to collect tuning data and to modulate the visible indicator
between an on-state and an off-state at a rate above the sensitivity of the human eye to export the collected tuning data;
and

a sensor to receive the tuning data exported from the receiving device;
wherein the sensor includes:
a photosensor to monitor the visible indicator; and
a second visible indicator to display at least a low frequency component of a signal output by the visible indicator.

US Pat. No. 9,378,509

METHODS, APPARATUS, AND ARTICLES OF MANUFACTURE TO MEASURE GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES USING AN IMAGE OF A GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method, comprising:
identifying, by executing an instruction with a processor, first features of a first open market from a first image of a first
geographic area;

identifying, by executing an instruction with the processor, second features of a second image of a second geographic area;
comparing the first features to the second features by executing an instruction with the processor;
identifying, by executing an instruction with the processor, additional open markets in the second image based on the comparison;
determining, by executing an instruction with the processor, first characteristics of the additional open markets based on
the comparison of the first features to the second features and corresponding second characteristics of the first open market,
the first characteristics including at least one of a) numbers of stores in the additional open markets, b) physical sizes
of the additional open markets, c) whether the additional open markets are in previously enumerated areas or previously unenumerated
areas, or d) trade areas of the additional open markets;

modifying, by executing an instruction with the processor, a sampling area in the second geographic area to be physically
sampled to include in the sampling area at least a subset of the additional open markets in the second geographic area based
on the first characteristics; and

providing the modified sampling area to a sampler for physical sampling of the second geographic area according to the modified
sampling area to determine a number of stores in the second geographic area, the physical sampling including determining a
retail characteristic of the modified sampling area.

US Pat. No. 9,368,123

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO PERFORM AUDIO WATERMARK DETECTION AND EXTRACTION

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method for determining information embedded in media signals, the method comprising:
sampling, using a processor, a media signal to generate samples, wherein the media signal includes an embedded message;
determining, using the processor, a first symbol value based on a first frequency spectrum determined for a first block of
the samples;

determining, using the processor, a second symbol value based on a second frequency spectrum determined for a second block
of the samples; and

determining, using the processor, a resulting symbol value, representative of a part of the embedded message, by voting based
on the first symbol value for the first block of samples and the second symbol value for the second block of samples, wherein
the first block and the second block partially overlap in time in the media signal.

US Pat. No. 9,179,185

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO DETERMINE A NUMBER OF PEOPLE IN AN AREA

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method comprising:
collecting media identification information corresponding to media presented at a location;
changing an identifier of a base station local to the location to cause mobile devices located at the location to attempt
to register with the base station;

responding to received requests to register the mobile devices with the base station by storing device identification information
for the corresponding mobile devices at the base station;

timestamping the device identification information;
determining a number of the mobile devices located at the location based on the stored device identification information;
and

identifying a number of persons exposed to the media based on the media identification information and the stored device identification
information.

US Pat. No. 9,100,926

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO DETERMINE A BASE STATION LOCATION

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A computer-implemented method to associate signals with corresponding base stations comprising:
identifying a first set of signals comprising a same first signal identifier;
identifying a second set of signals comprising the same first signal identifier;
identifying a first location associated with one of the set of first signals having a first relative highest signal quality
value and a second location associated with one of the second set of signals having a second relative highest signal quality
value; and

preventing erroneous association of the signals to the corresponding base stations due to base station signal identifier reuse
by determining when the first set of signals and the second set of signals are transmitted from a first one of the corresponding
base stations and a second one of the corresponding base stations, the base station signal identifier reuse dismissed when
the first location and the second location (a) exhibit the same first signal identifier and (b) do not exceed a threshold
distance value, and the base station signal identifier reuse confirmed when the first location and the second location (c)
exhibit the same first signal identifier and (d) exceed the threshold distance value.

US Pat. No. 9,351,658

DEVICE AND METHOD FOR SENSING ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY IN TISSUE

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method comprising:
detecting electrical activity from a tissue of a user via a sensor of a headpiece worn by the user, the sensor including:
a sensor electrode to contact a first point on skin of the user;
a reference electrode to contact a second point on the skin of the user, the contact between the reference electrode and the
skin of the user to cause a contact resistance between a surface of the reference electrode and the skin of the user; and

an electronics module positioned proximate the reference electrode to reduce noise, a local reference potential in the electronics
module and a potential of the second point on the skin being approximately equal to allow the surface of the reference electrode
to be in direct contact with the skin of the user at the second point without having to prepare the skin or use a material
that decreases the contact resistance, the electrical activity represented by a voltage signal including a signal of interest,
undesired signals, and noise, the electronics module including:

an amplifier to (1) amplify the signal of interest and the undesired signals within a first frequency range while (2) filtering
the noise occurring in a second frequency range, which includes frequencies higher than the first frequency range, prior to
transmitting the amplified signal of interest and undesired signals to one or more filters; and

transforming, with a processor and a Fourier transform, the signal of interest to form an output signal.

US Pat. No. 9,529,451

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO MONITOR ENVIRONMENTS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method, comprising:
analyzing, by executing an instruction with a processor, a plurality of three-dimensional data points having respective depth
values representative of distances from a sensor of an environment;

when a first set of the three-dimensional data points has a first depth value satisfying a threshold, executing, by executing
an instruction with the processor, a three-dimensional recognition analysis on a first area of the environment corresponding
to the first set of the three-dimensional data points; and

when a second set of the three-dimensional data points has a second depth value not satisfying the threshold, executing, by
executing an instruction with the processor, a two-dimensional recognition analysis on a second area of the environment corresponding
to a first set of two-dimensional data points representative of at least a portion of the environment corresponding to the
second set of three-dimensional data points.

US Pat. No. 9,508,086

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO MONITOR, VERIFY, AND RATE THE PERFORMANCE OF AIRINGS OF COMMERCIALS

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method for monitoring advertisements, the method comprising:
detecting, by executing an instruction with a processor, presentation of an advertisement on a channel at a first time;
identifying, by executing an instruction with the processor, a television program presented on the channel during a time slot
associated with the first time;

obtaining, from a ratings provider, first ratings information for the presentation of the television program during the time
slot, the first ratings information identifying exposure of the television program to a demographic;

combining, by executing an instruction with the processor, the first ratings information with second ratings information associated
with a second time to generate a combined exposure for the demographic;

obtaining, from the ratings provider, third ratings information for the presentation of the television program during the
time slot, the third ratings information identifying exposure to a total audience; and

combining, by executing an instruction with the processor, the third ratings information with fourth ratings information associated
with the second time to generate a combined exposure for the total audience;

determining, by executing an instruction with the processor, a demographic exposure ratio based on the combined exposure for
the demographic and the combined exposure for the total audience;

comparing, by executing an instruction with the processor, the demographic exposure ratio to a threshold; and
issuing, by executing an instruction with the processor, a violation report when the demographic exposure ratio satisfies
the threshold.

US Pat. No. 9,148,695

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO COLLECT MEDIA IDENTIFYING DATA

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method, comprising:
collecting, with an audio sensor, audio data through a sound hole defined by a printed circuit board, the sound hole including
a cylindrical portion and a chamfered opening, the sound hole having an effective length-to-width ratio which is equal to
or less than about 1.25, wherein a circumference of the chamfered opening at an interface with the cylindrical portion substantially
matches a circumference of the cylindrical portion at the interface; and

analyzing, with a processor, the audio data to obtain media identifying data.

US Pat. No. 9,129,293

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO MEASURE MARKET STATISTICS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A computer implemented method to calculate flow share of a service provider, comprising:
identifying, with a programmed processor, a household identification number associated with an IP address retrieved from a
convenience data source;

retrieving, with the programmed processor, household data from the convenience data source that is associated with the household
identification number, the convenience data source including a service provider name;

invoking, with the programmed processor, a reverse resolve network command using the IP address retrieved from the household
data to extract labels from a hostname, the labels indicative of the service provider name;

when a threshold number of labels match a plurality of resolution keywords stored in a database, confirming a current service
provider name as associated with the household identification number;

identifying a nomenclature match by comparing, with the programmed processor, the service provider name provided by the convenience
data source with the current service provider name;

adjusting, with the programmed processor, a weight value of the retrieved household data in response to the comparison, the
weight value decreased when the service provider name provided by the convenience data source is different than the current
service provider name, and the weight value increased when a match occurs between the service provider name and the current
service provider name; and

calculating, with the programmed processor, service provider flow share based on the adjusted weight value and a service penetration
value from a managed data source.

US Pat. No. 9,355,176

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO SUPPLEMENT WEB CRAWLING WITH CACHED DATA FROM DISTRIBUTED DEVICES

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method comprising:
identifying a first webpage;
accessing, by executing an instruction with a processor, a set of cached webpages cached in a panelist device;
when the first webpage is in the set of cached webpages:
determining, by executing an instruction with the processor, a first physical location from which the first webpage was requested
by the panelist device; and

transmitting, by executing an instruction with the processor, a plurality of requests for the first webpage, the requests
in the plurality of requests identifying respective ones of a plurality of physical locations, the requests in the plurality
of requests skipping the first physical location from which the first webpage was requested by the panelist device, thereby
reducing the number of requests sent to the first webpage.

US Pat. No. 9,324,171

IMAGE OVERLAYING AND COMPARISON FOR INVENTORY DISPLAY AUDITING

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method comprising:
modifying, with a processor, an image characteristic of a previously captured reference image selected from memory of a portable
device to generate a semi-transparent version of the reference image;

overlaying the semi-transparent version of the reference image over a first captured image as the first captured image is
displayed on a display of the portable device;

determining, with the processor of the portable device, a directional difference between the first captured image and the
reference image; and

presenting a directional prompt to indicate a direction to move the portable device to cause a subsequent second captured
image to coincide with the reference image.

US Pat. No. 9,185,457

METHODS, SYSTEMS AND APPARATUS FOR MULTI-PURPOSE METERING

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to perform media monitoring, comprising:
determining whether a portable device is within a vicinity of a household monitoring system based on detecting an identifier
via a first radio frequency (RF) signal;

when the identifier from the first RF signal is associated with the portable device, determining whether a second acoustic
signal includes the identifier associated with the portable device;

deactivating a media detection circuit of the portable device when the identifier is detected via both the first RF signal
and the second acoustic signal; and

activating the media detection circuit of the portable device when the identifier is detected from the first RF signal and
the second acoustic signal is absent.

US Pat. No. 9,092,804

METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR MAPPING LOCATIONS OF WIRELESS TRANSMITTERS FOR USE IN GATHERING MARKET RESEARCH DATA

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method comprising:
displaying a representation of a commercial establishment on a portable device;
obtaining transmitter data via the portable device from a wireless transmitter located within the commercial establishment;
in response to the portable device receiving a user selection of a point corresponding to a first location displayed on the
representation of the commercial establishment, associating the first location with the transmitter data and location information
generated by the portable device representative of a physical location in the commercial establishment; and

in response to the transmitter data not being associated with product, requesting the user to input the product data of the
product proximate the wireless transmitter.

US Pat. No. 9,591,353

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO DETECT COMMERCIAL ADVERTISEMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH MEDIA PRESENTATIONS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to detect a commercial transition associated with a media presentation, the method comprising:
determining, by executing an instruction with a processor, an amount of audio randomness of an inter-segment audio frame by:
determining, by executing an instruction with the processor, a quantity of unique time-based distances between at least one
of a plurality of amplitude peaks or a plurality of amplitude troughs in the inter-segment audio frame; and

determining, by executing an instruction with the processor, a random-factor ratio corresponding to the quantity of unique
time-based distances divided by a total quantity of time-based distances between the at least one of the amplitude peaks or
the amplitude troughs; and

indicating, by executing an instruction with the processor, the inter-segment audio frame as occurring at a commercial transition
based on the amount of audio randomness of the inter-segment audio frame.

US Pat. No. 9,565,077

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO DETERMINE MEDIA IMPRESSIONS USING DISTRIBUTED DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to log media impressions, the method comprising:
detecting, with a client device, a login event;
sending a request to an impression monitor system via a first network communication in response to detecting the login event
at the client device, the login event associated with an Internet-based service of a first Internet domain different from
a second Internet domain of the impression monitor system;

generating, with the client device, a login reporting message, the login reporting message including first and second cookie
identifiers, the first cookie identifier associated with the first Internet domain of the Internet-based service, and the
second cookie identifier associated with the second Internet domain of the impression monitor system; and

sending the login reporting message via a second network communication to a database proprietor that provides the Internet-based
service.

US Pat. No. 9,509,839

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO MONITOR SUBSCRIBER ACTIVITY

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to identify a telecommunication service provider, comprising:
reducing a number of queries to third-party databases to improve a query efficiency by:
verifying quality of an obtained set of service provider telephone number (TN) data including a plurality of TNs, the verifying
of the quality indicative of a characteristic of the set of service provide data satisfying a threshold;

in response to verifying the quality of the set of service provider TN data, initiating a local number portability query of
each of the plurality of TNs;

obtaining an operating carrier name (OCN) for each of the plurality of TNs; and
identifying a service provider associated with a TN when a match is found between a corresponding OCN and a mapping database,
the reducing of the number of queries indicative of a reduced cost in identifying a telecommunication service provider; and

determining an effectiveness of market activity of the service provider by crediting, via a process engine, the service provider
with a winback when the TN is absent from a first threshold number of subscriber activity data sets associated with prior
time periods and the TN is associated with a disconnect code from a second threshold number of subscriber activity data sets
associated with prior time periods.

US Pat. No. 9,491,518

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR MONITORING VIDEO GAMES

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to identify a video game, the method comprising:
generating, with a processor, a memory signature based on a pattern of memory addresses previously accessed by a device to
access a game medium to play the video game; and

determining, with the processor, an identity of the video game based on the memory signature.

US Pat. No. 9,471,893

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO MONITOR PRODUCTS IN STORES

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method comprising:
receiving, at a collection entity, a first request from a first entity to audit a first product, the first request including
a first instruction to determine information about a second product that competes with the first product;

in response to the first request, assigning a first auditor to audit the first product and to record the information about
the second product;

receiving, at the collection entity, a second request from a second entity to audit a third product;
determining that the second request includes a second instruction to determine information about the second product identified
in the first request;

in response to the second request and determining that the first instruction requests the information about the second product
at a first level that is more granular than a second level requested by the second request, assigning a second auditor to
audit the third product without including a further instruction to record the information about the second product to reduce
an amount of memory utilized for storing the second auditor's responses to the instructions;

receiving audit information about the second product at the first level from the first auditor; and
computing the information about the second product at the second level from the audit information.

US Pat. No. 9,348,804

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO PROVIDE A CHOICE SELECTION WITH DATA PRESENTATION

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method to provide a choice selection to a user, the method comprising:
determining a count of parameters to be included in a display of results of a survey, the count based on user selections;
determining sources of the parameters;
determining destinations in the display for the parameters, the destinations based on the user selections;
retrieving a rule based on the destinations for the parameters, the count of the parameters, and the sources of the parameters;
and

based on the rule, presenting a choice matrix of the parameters for user selection, the choice matrix including choices related
to how the results of the survey are to be displayed.

US Pat. No. 9,326,044

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR GENERATING SIGNATURES

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method, comprising:
applying a first function to a portion of digital data to produce a first windowed block;
applying a second function different from the first function to the same portion of the digital data to produce a second windowed
block;

determining a first characteristic of a band of frequencies in the first windowed block;
determining a second characteristic of the band of frequencies in the second windowed block;
comparing the first characteristic to the second characteristic; and
assigning a signature bit representative of the portion of the digital data based on the comparison of the first characteristic
and the second characteristic.

US Pat. No. 9,311,682

SYSTEMS AND METHODS TO IDENTIFY CANDIDATES FOR TARGETED ADVERTISING IN AN ONLINE SOCIAL GAMING ENVIRONMENT

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A computer implemented method comprising:
generating a network graph representative of relationships between users associated with an online social gaming environment,
the relationships based on connections between the users;

collecting first social gaming data corresponding to participation by a first user and a second user in the online social
gaming environment during a first period of time;

assigning different weights to different types of the first social gaming data based at least in part on when the different
types of the first social gaming data were collected, a first weight of older social gaming data of a first type being less
than a second weight of newer social gaming data of the first type;

calculating, via a processor, a first degree of influence of the first user of the online social gaming environment on the
second user of the online social gaming environment, the first degree of influence based on the weights of the first social
gaming data;

predicting, via the processor, a behavior of the second user based on the first degree of influence of the first user on the
second user;

comparing, via the processor, the predicted behavior of the second user to second social gaming data corresponding to participation
by the second user in the online social gaming environment during a second period of time after the first period of time;

updating, via the processor, the first degree of influence of the first user on the second user based on the comparison; and
analyzing, via the processor, the network graph to identify the first user as a candidate for targeted advertising when the
first degree of influence satisfies a threshold and to provide information identifying the candidate to at least one of a
game publisher, a social gaming service provider, or a third party advertiser.

US Pat. No. 9,197,421

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO MEASURE EXPOSURE TO STREAMING MEDIA

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method of measuring exposure to streaming media, the method comprising:
extracting a watermark from media;
converting the media into converted media having a streaming format;
transmitting, from a service provider server to an audience measurement entity, a request for (1) an encryption key and (2)
a decryption key location, the request for the encryption key including the watermark extracted from the media;

storing, at the service provider, (1) the requested encryption key, and (2) the decryption key location, the decryption key
location identifying an address of a server of the audience measurement entity;

encrypting, at the service provider server, the converted media using the requested encryption key, the requested encryption
key associated with the watermark; and

creating a manifest in association with the converted media, the manifest identifying a location of the encrypted media and
the decryption key location.

US Pat. No. 9,183,849

AUDIO MATCHING WITH SEMANTIC AUDIO RECOGNITION AND REPORT GENERATION

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A processor-based method for producing supplemental information for audio signature data, comprising:
obtaining the audio signature data during a first time period, the audio signature data including data relating to at least
one of time or frequency representing a first characteristic of media;

obtaining first semantic audio signature data for the first time period, the first semantic audio signature data being a measure
of at least one of a temporal feature, a spectral feature, a harmonic feature, or a rhythmic feature relating to a second
characteristic of the media; and

storing in a memory, the audio signature data of the first time period in association with a second time period when the processor
determines that second semantic audio signature data for the second time period substantially matches the first semantic audio
signature data for the first time period.

US Pat. No. 9,158,993

VIDEO COMPARISON USING COLOR HISTOGRAMS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to compare video sequences, the method comprising:
determining a color histogram corresponding to an input video sequence based on color values of pixels sampled from a plurality
of video frames of the input video sequence;

tiling video frames of a first reference video sequence to determine a composite image;
determining a first reference color histogram corresponding to the first reference video sequence based on color values of
pixels in the composite image;

adjusting the color histogram corresponding to the input video sequence based on the first reference color histogram corresponding
to the first reference video sequence to determine an adjusted color histogram corresponding to the input video sequence;
and

comparing the adjusted color histogram and the first reference color histogram to determine whether the first reference video
sequence matches the input video sequence.

US Pat. No. 9,106,978

PROGRAM TELECAST MONITORING USING WATERMARKS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to watermark media, the method comprising:
encoding, with a processor, the media with a sequence of watermarks, a watermark in the sequence of watermarks including payload
data identifying the media; and

after the sequence of watermarks has been encoded in the media, modifying, with the processor, the sequence of watermarks
encoded in the media to further include a data pattern associated with a particular transmission of the media, respective
watermarks in the sequence of watermarks to be modified to include respective portions of the data pattern, wherein the respective
portions, when combined, form the data pattern.

US Pat. No. 9,398,331

POWER MANAGEMENT FOR AUDIENCE MEASUREMENT METERS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method comprising:
obtaining, by executing an instruction with a processor, presentation device state data representing an activation state history
of a media presentation device, the presentation device state data including time information;

obtaining, by executing an instruction with the processor, audience measurement data reported by an audience measurement meter
monitoring presentation of media by the media presentation device; and

in response to the audience measurement data indicating the audience measurement meter experienced an outage, determining,
by executing an instruction with the processor, whether the audience measurement data is to be faulted based on a comparison
of the activation state history of the media presentation device and outage information for the audience measurement meter
determined from the audience measurement data.

US Pat. No. 9,342,756

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO DETECT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN IMAGES

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to identify image versions, the method comprising:
determining, with a processor, whether a difference between a block of pixels of a first image represented by a first signature
and a block of pixels of a reference image represented by a second signature matching the first signature is resolvable using
a transformation operation;

in response to determining the difference is unresolvable using the transformation operation, including the block of pixels
of the first image in a difference region of the first image;

generating, with the processor, a third signature different from the difference region of the first image to represent the
difference region of the first image, the third signature being a second image representative of the difference region of
the first image and having lower resolution than the difference region of the first image; and

storing the third signature with version information associated with the first image.

US Pat. No. 9,332,056

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN PARENT AND CHILD WEBPAGE ACCESSES AND/OR BROWSER TABS IN FOCUS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to identify a window in a browser, the method comprising:
identifying, by executing a first instruction with a processor, a first HTTP call associated with the browser on a monitored
device;

identifying, by executing a second instruction with the processor, a second HTTP call, the first and second HTTP calls occurring
between consecutive user actions on the monitored device;

in response to identifying at least one of the first HTTP call or the second HTTP call, requesting, by executing a third instruction
with the processor, Page Info data from the browser; and

determining, by executing a fourth instruction with the processor, that (1) the first HTTP call is a parent call if a first
universal resource locator (URL) of the first HTTP call matches a second universal resource locator of the Page Info data
of the browser, and (2) that the second HTTP call is a child call based on a detected status of the browser.

US Pat. No. 9,148,458

NETWORK SERVER ARRANGEMENT FOR PROCESSING NON-PARAMETRIC, MULTI-DIMENSIONAL, SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL HUMAN BEHAVIOR OR TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS MEASURED PERVASIVELY, AND RELATED METHOD FOR THE SAME

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A system, comprising:
a data input to receive multi-dimensional, non-parametric data obtained from mobile devices;
a processor to parametrize the multi-dimensional, non-parametric data into a plurality of different abstraction layers as
multi-layered data;

a memory to store the parametrized data;
an aggregation apparatus configured to aggregate the parametrized data in batches using at least one of time-series, averaging,
or sum operations, the aggregation is performed relative to at least one of (1) a time period, (2) a location, (3) a mobile
application, (4) a mobile application category, (5) a mobile user, or (6) a mobile user group, the aggregation apparatus is
to determine, from at least one of the data batches, at least one of:

descriptive higher-level behavioral indicators for the mobile devices, or
descriptive higher-level technical indicators for the mobile devices,
the aggregation apparatus is configured to be activated based on at least one of a sufficient amount of data becoming available
or a trigger; and

a data export entity to provide at least one of the behavioral indicators or the technical indicators to an external entity
for determining at least one of personalized content or a network performance optimization for at least one of the mobile
devices.

US Pat. No. 9,594,961

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO COUNT PEOPLE IN IMAGES

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method, comprising:
identifying, by executing an instruction with a processor, active segments and inactive segments of a plurality of segments
of a first frame of image data by comparing respective fluctuation factors determined for the respective segments to a fluctuation
threshold, the fluctuation threshold being calculated based on an average fluctuation of a set of pixels in the first frame
of image data;

determining, by executing an instruction with the processor, that a first one of the active segments of the first frame is
adjacent to or overlaps with a second one of the active segments of the first frame; and

providing, by executing an instruction with the processor, a region of interest in the first frame of image data to an object
detection operation, the region of interest including the first and second ones of the active segments of the first frame
and excluding an inactive segment of the first frame.

US Pat. No. 9,455,891

METHODS, APPARATUS, AND ARTICLES OF MANUFACTURE TO DETERMINE A NETWORK EFFICACY

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to determine a first network efficacy of a first social networking site to facilitate delivery of an advertisement
to a user of the first social networking site, the method comprising:
accessing, by executing an instruction with a processor, interaction data and contact data for the user of the first social
networking site via an interface provided by the first social networking site;

determining, by executing an instruction with the processor, a connectedness for the user based on the contact data;
determining, by executing an instruction with the processor, an interactivity for the user based on the interaction data;
determining, by executing an instruction with the processor, a network constancy for the user by determining a ratio of (a)
connections between contacts of the user of the first social networking site to (b) at least one of:

(1) broken connections between the contacts of the user in response to removal of the user from the first social networking
site; or

(2) connections between the contacts of the user that exhibit changed degrees of connection in response to removal of the
user from the first social networking site;

determining, by executing an instruction with the processor, the first network efficacy of the first social networking site
based on the connectedness, the interactivity, and the network constancy, the network constancy being based on the ratio;
and

transmitting the first network efficacy from the processor to an advertising server to facilitate delivery of the advertisement
from the advertising server to the user of the first social networking site.

US Pat. No. 9,124,379

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO ADJUST SIGNATURE MATCHING RESULTS FOR AUDIENCE MEASUREMENT

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method for monitoring a media presentation, the method comprising:
obtaining, from a monitoring device, a first signature representative of the monitored media presentation;
obtaining, from the monitoring device, an environmental characteristic associated with the first signature; and
adjusting a signature matching rate, which corresponds to a number of times signatures obtained from the monitoring device
are determined to match corresponding reference signatures representative of first reference media during a measurement time
interval, using a first adjustment value when the first signature is determined to match a first reference signature representative
of the first reference media, the first adjustment value being selected from a plurality of adjustment values based on the
matched first reference media and the environmental characteristic.

US Pat. No. 9,055,334

METHODS, APPARATUS, AND SYSTEMS TO COLLECT AUDIENCE MEASUREMENT DATA

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method of collecting audience measurement data in a monitored household, the method comprising:
collecting first media data and audience identification data, the audience identification data being collected by prompting
audience members in the monitored household to self-identify using a meter while the audience members are exposed to first
media provided by a first media system;

developing, with a first processor, audience member behavior data based on the first media data and the audience identification
data;

deactivating the meter after the audience member behavior data has been developed;
collecting second media data after the audience member behavior data has been developed without collecting audience identification
data, the collecting of the second media data occurring while the audience members are exposed to second media; and

identifying, with at least one of the first processor or a second processor, the audience members associated with the second
media data based on the audience member behavior data.

US Pat. No. 9,055,336

METHODS, SYSTEMS AND APPARATUS FOR MULTI-PURPOSE METERING

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to manage power consumption of a portable device, comprising:
transmitting a first discovery inquiry message in response to a wakeup timer expiration signal;
disabling a media detection circuit of the portable device when a base unit responds to the first discovery inquiry message,
the portable device associated with a first household;

determining whether the response to the first discovery inquiry message includes an identifier associated with a media metering
application of the first household; and

enabling the media detection circuit of the portable device when the base unit response to the first discovery inquiry message
is absent.

US Pat. No. 9,848,089

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO GENERATE AN OVERALL PERFORMANCE INDEX

The Nielsen Company (US),...

8. A method to generate an overall performance index, the method comprising:
accessing a first set and a second set of data values for wireless providers of interest from a first datasource, where the
first set of data values indicate a first measure of a first aspect of network performance and the second set of data values
indicate a first measure of a second aspect of network performance, and where the first datasource measures the first aspect
of the network performance using a first specific collection method, the first specific collection method being drive test
measurement;

accessing a third set and a fourth set of data values for wireless providers of interest from a second datasource, different
from the first datasource, where the third set of data values indicate a second measure of the first aspect of network performance
and the fourth set of data values indicate a second measure of the second aspect of network performance;

generating a first metric from the first set of data values, a second metric from the second set of data values, a third metric
from the third set of data values and a fourth metric from the fourth set of data values;

generating a first indexed metric for the first metric using the first set of data values;
generating a second indexed metric for the second metric using the second set of data values;
generating a third indexed metric for the third metric using the third set of data values;
generating a fourth indexed metric for the fourth metric using the fourth set of data values;
generating a cross datasource index for the first aspect of network performance by combining the first index metric with the
third indexed metric;

generating a cross datasource index for the second aspect of network performance by combining the second indexed metric with
the fourth indexed metric;

weighting the cross datasource indexes for the first and second aspects of network performance;
generating an overall performance index for respective ones of the wireless providers of interest by combining the weighted
cross datasource index for the first aspect of network performance with the weighted cross datasource index for the second
aspect of network performance; and

generating a report showing the overall performance indexes for the respective ones of the wireless providers of interest,
where the report identifies the relative performance between the wireless providers of interest and prioritizes elements of
the network that need the most improvement.

US Pat. No. 9,503,783

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO DETECT SPILLOVER IN AN AUDIENCE MONITORING SYSTEM

The Nielsen Company (US),...

18. An apparatus to distinguish local media from spillover media comprising:
an audio sampler to sample a first audio signal from a first source received by a first microphone and sample a second audio
signal received by a second microphone from the first source, wherein the second microphone is separated from the first microphone
by a first distance;

a direction detector to determine a time difference between receipt of the first and second sampled audio signals; and
a filter to determine whether the time difference is within a threshold time difference, the filter to retain the media associated
with the first source when the time difference is within the threshold time difference, the filter to ignore the media associated
with the first source when the time difference exceeds the threshold time difference, at least one of the audio sampler, the
direction detector, or the filter being implemented by hardware.

US Pat. No. 9,503,536

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO MONITOR MEDIA PRESENTATIONS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method for monitoring a media device, the method comprising:
collecting demographic information from a user with a registrar of a media device;
transmitting the demographic information to a central facility from the registrar; and
storing, with a processor executing the registrar, a panelist identifier identifying the user in a shared memory of the media
device, the panelist identifier accessible to a first monitoring-enabled application and a second monitoring-enabled application,
the first monitoring-enabled application and the second monitoring-enabled application separate from the registrar, the panelist
identifier to be retrieved by the first monitoring-enabled application, the first monitoring-enabled application to present
media, the first monitoring-enabled application to collect monitoring information if the panelist identifier is in the shared
memory and to disable collection of the media monitoring information if the panelist identifier is not in the shared memory.

US Pat. No. 9,250,316

METHODS, SYSTEMS, AND APPARATUS TO SYNCHRONIZE ACTIONS OF AUDIO SOURCE MONITORS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to improve audio data overlap and matching accuracy between a base unit and an audience monitor, comprising:
initiating a delay period having a first duration on the base unit and the audience monitor, the delay period initiated in
response to the base unit sending an acknowledgement signal to the audience monitor, the acknowledgment signal being in response
to a radio frequency (RF) initialization signal received by the base unit from the audience monitor at a first time;

determining, when the first duration expires at a second time, if the audience monitor is still processing the acknowledgement
signal; and

incrementing the delay period to a second duration to improve audio data overlap and matching accuracy between the base unit
and the audience monitor when the audience monitor is still processing the acknowledgement signal after the first duration
expires, the second duration based on an increase of the difference between the first time and the second time.

US Pat. No. 9,195,649

AUDIO PROCESSING TECHNIQUES FOR SEMANTIC AUDIO RECOGNITION AND REPORT GENERATION

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method for forming an audio template for determining semantic audio information, comprising:
extracting a first audio feature from audio, the first audio feature including at least one of a temporal feature, a spectral
feature, a harmonic feature, or a rhythmic feature;

extracting a second audio feature from the audio, the second audio feature including at least one of a temporal feature, a
spectral feature, a harmonic feature, or a rhythmic feature, wherein the second audio feature is different from the first
audio feature;

determining a first range for the first audio feature and a second range for the second audio feature; and
storing the first and second ranges to compare against other audio features from subsequent audio to generate tags signifying
semantic audio information for the subsequent audio.

US Pat. No. 9,185,456

HYBRID ACTIVE AND PASSIVE PEOPLE METERING FOR AUDIENCE MEASUREMENT

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to perform people metering for audience measurement, the method comprising:
obtaining an image sequence, which depicts a scene in which an audience is expected to be present, prior to when a people
meter is to initiate an audience prompt; and

gating transmission of a trigger signal to the people meter based on a result of comparing an image sequence signature representative
of the image sequence with a set of reference signatures, the trigger signal to trigger performance of audience prompting
by the people meter.

US Pat. No. 9,160,988

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR PAYLOAD ENCODING AND DECODING

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to protect audio data in an encoding system, comprising:
determining, using a processor and based on a message to be encoded into audio data, encoding data to select frequencies for
encoding the message into the audio data, the encoding data including a previously compiled table of information to encode
the message into the audio data, the encoding data not including the message;

generating, using the processor, a license file to correspond to the message to be encoded into the audio data by an encoding
device, the license file including the encoding data necessary to select frequencies for encoding the message into the audio
data; and

associating the license file with the message and with the encoding device to enable the encoding device to use pattern matching
and use the previously compiled table of information to encode the message into the audio data using the encoding data.

US Pat. No. 9,106,347

DIGITAL DATA INSERTION APPARATUS AND METHODS FOR USE WITH COMPRESSED AUDIO/VIDEO DATA

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method of inserting data in a compressed data bitstream, comprising:
generating audience measurement data from program information that was extracted from a compressed data bitstream;
generating interactive data;
increasing a size of an auxiliary data field of a data frame of the compressed data bitstream by:
extracting compressed audio data within the data frame;
moving the compressed audio data to occupy a data location in the data frame from which a skip byte was eliminated; and
packing the compressed audio data toward one end of the data frame; and
inserting the audience measurement data or the interactive data in the auxiliary data field to form a modified compressed
data bitstream.

US Pat. No. 9,076,070

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO DETECT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN IMAGES

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to recognize different image versions, the method comprising:
accessing, with a processor, information associated with a reference image represented by a reference signature determined
to match a first signature representative of a first image, the reference image having different possible versions;

generating, with the processor, a third signature representative of a first region of the first image corresponding spatially
to a first region of the reference image that depicts different content for different versions of the reference image, the
third signature being different from the first signature; and

comparing, with the processor, the third signature and a fourth signature representative of the first region in a first version
of the reference image to determine whether the first image corresponds to the first version of the reference image.

US Pat. No. 9,054,820

SIGNATURE-BASED PROGRAM IDENTIFICATION APPARATUS AND METHODS FOR USE WITH DIGITAL BROADCAST SYSTEMS

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method comprising:
receiving a digital data stream at a consumer site;
storing the digital data stream until playback;
generating digital signatures from the digital data stream during playback of the digital data stream at the consumer site
by:

extracting a first non-payload portion from a first data packet of the digital data stream, the first data packet including
the first non-payload portion and a first payload portion;

extracting a second non-payload portion from a second data packet of the digital data stream, the first data packet and the
second data packet included in a first block of consecutive data packets;

concatenating the first non-payload portion and the second non-payload portion to form a first digital signature;
extracting a third non-payload portion from a third data packet, the third data packet including the third non-payload portion
and a second payload portion;

extracting a fourth non-payload portion from a fourth data packet of the digital data stream, wherein the third data packet
and the fourth data packet are included in a second block of consecutive data packets; and

concatenating the third non-payload portion and the fourth non-payload portion to form a second digital signature;
comparing the first digital signature and the second digital signature to one or more reference signatures in a reference
signature database; and

identifying the digital data stream based on the comparison.

US Pat. No. 9,510,049

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO MONITOR MEDIA PRESENTATIONS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A television comprising:
a processor;
a display;
a first media input;
a user input to receive user input; and
a first monitor installed in the television at a time of manufacture of the television, the first monitor including:
a registration data receiver to obtain demographic information of a user via the user input;
a logging data receiver to, when enabled, collect first monitoring information identifying first media, the first media presented
via the display, the logging data receiver to receive the first monitoring information from a second monitor of a media device
separate from the television, the media device to transmit the first media to the television via the first media input;

an overlay controller to present a monitoring agreement to the user via the display of the television; and
a first data controller to enable the logging data receiver to collect the first monitoring information if the monitoring
agreement is accepted, the first data controller to not enable the logging data receiver if the monitoring agreement is not
accepted, the first data controller to communicate with a second data controller of the second monitor to select the first
monitor to act as a master monitor, the second monitor to transmit the first monitoring information to a central facility
of the audience measurement entity via the master monitor.

US Pat. No. 9,172,997

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO COLLECT MEDIA EXPOSURE INFORMATION

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A metering device to collect media exposure information, the metering device comprising:
a housing;
an input carried by the housing;
a display carried by the housing to present a list of media stations which may be tuned by a media device different than the
metering device, the metering device incapable of tuning to the media stations;

a processor carried by the housing to identify which of the media stations is displayed when the input is selected; and
memory carried by the housing to store an indication of an exposure to the identified media station via the media device,
the indication including the identified media station and a timestamp corresponding the selection of the input.

US Pat. No. 9,117,442

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR AUDIO WATERMARKING

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method comprising:
obtaining, with a processor, a watermarked noise signal including a watermark and a first noise signal having energy substantially
concentrated in an audible frequency band, the watermarked noise signal being associated with a first operating state of a
device;

attenuating, with the processor and based on an ambient noise level sensed in an environment in which the device is operating,
the watermarked noise signal to be substantially inaudible when the watermarked noise signal is not combined with a separate
audio signal; and

outputting the watermarked noise signal in response to determining that the device is in the first operating state.

US Pat. No. 9,118,542

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO DETERMINE AN ADJUSTMENT FACTOR FOR MEDIA IMPRESSIONS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method comprising:
determining an exposure of media for use by an audience measurement entity, wherein the exposure occurs after a cookie identifier
is received at a computing device, wherein the cookie identifier is received from a database proprietor;

determining, via a processor, a first panel member identifier associated with the exposure based on the cookie identifier;
determining, via the processor, a second panel member identifier associated with the exposure based on a determination of
a user identity by a panelist meter associated with the computing device; and

determining, via the processor, an adjustment factor for use by the audience measurement entity by comparing the first panel
member identifier and the second panel member identifier.

US Pat. No. 9,106,953

MEDIA MONITORING BASED ON PREDICTIVE SIGNATURE CACHING

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to monitor media presented at a monitored site via a meter at the monitored site, the method comprising:
selecting, at the meter, a first set of reference signatures representative of reference media predicted to be presented at
the monitored site during a first time period from a cache of reference signatures stored at the meter;

comparing, at the meter, a set of site signatures generated by the meter for the first time period with the first set of reference
signatures;

in response to determining that at least a first subset of the set of site signatures matches at least a first subset of the
first set of reference signatures, reporting, via the meter, metering data but not reporting the first subset of the set of
site signatures, the metering data indicating that first reference media represented by the first subset of the first set
of reference signatures was presented during the first time period; and

in response to determining that the set of site signatures fails to match the first set of reference signatures, reporting,
via the meter, the set of site signatures.

US Pat. No. 9,971,832

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO GENERATE SIGNATURES REPRESENTATIVE OF MEDIA

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A signature generation apparatus comprising:a transformer to transform a block of signal samples from a time-domain representation to a frequency-domain representation including multiple frequency bands;
a curve fitter to fit a signature function to at least a subset of the frequency bands; and
a generator to generate a set of signature values representative of the block of signal samples, the generator to generate the signature values based on a set of angles calculated using the signature function.

US Pat. No. 9,596,151

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO DETERMINE IMPRESSIONS USING DISTRIBUTED DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

9. A system to monitor media exposure, the system comprising:
an impression monitor of a first internet domain to:
send to a client computer a response to a first request, the first request to be received at the first internet domain and
to be indicative of access to media at the client computer, the response to instruct the client computer to send a second
request to an intermediary serving a sub-domain of a second internet domain, the second request to be indicative of the access
to the media at the client computer, and

log an impression of the media; and
the intermediary to:
transmit first data about the second request to a data collection server of an audience measurement entity and to transmit
second data about the second request to an entity of the second internet domain, and

in response to determining that the second request does not include a cookie associated with the second internet domain, send
a second response to the client computer, the second response to instruct the client computer to send a third request to a
second intermediary associated with a second sub-domain of a third internet domain, the third request indicative of the access
to the media at the client computer.

US Pat. No. 9,519,914

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO DETERMINE RATINGS INFORMATION FOR ONLINE MEDIA PRESENTATIONS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method, comprising:
transmitting, from a logic circuit of an audience measurement entity and via a network, first instructions which, when executed
by a client device, cause the client device to transmit a plurality of messages in response to corresponding presentations
of portions of an item of media that is delivered to the client device via the network;

receiving, at the logic circuit of the audience measurement entity and via the network, a first set of messages sent by the
client device based on the first instructions, the messages in the first set respectively corresponding to presentations of
different portions of a duration of the item of media at the client device;

transmitting, from the logic circuit of the audience measurement entity and via the network, a second message to the client
device in response to a beacon request sent by the client device or in response to one of the messages in the first set sent
by the client device, the second message to cause the client device to transmit a third message to a database proprietor;

determining, using the logic circuit of the audience measurement entity, a first one of the portions of the media that was
presented at the client device based on a first one of the messages in the first set;

obtaining, at the logic circuit of the audience measurement entity, demographic information associated with the client device,
the demographic information being obtained based on the second message and the third message;

determining, using the logic circuit of the audience measurement entity, a first demographic characteristic associated with
one of the presentations corresponding to the first one of the portions of the media based on the messages in the first set
and the demographic information;

determining, using the logic circuit of the audience measurement entity, numbers of impressions for respective ones of the
portions of the media based on the messages in the first set and fourth messages received from other client devices; and

determining, using the logic circuit of the audience measurement entity, respective demographic characteristics corresponding
to the impressions based on the first demographic characteristic, the messages in the first set, and the fourth messages.

US Pat. No. 9,374,629

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO CLASSIFY AUDIO

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to classify audio, the method comprising:
associating, by executing an instruction with a processor, blocks of audio sensed from a media presentation
device with volume events, a first audio block being associated with a first volume event when (1) the first audio block has
a first volume value satisfying a volume threshold and (2) a ratio of the first volume value and a second volume value of
a second audio block associated with a second volume event satisfies an event threshold;

determining, by executing an instruction with the processor, a first count of volume events having respective elapsed times
corresponding to a first range, a respective elapsed time of the first volume event corresponding to a first period of time
between the first audio block and the second audio block;

determining, by executing an instruction with the processor, a second count of volume events having respective elapsed times
corresponding to a second range; and

classifying, by executing an instruction with the processor, the audio sensed from the media presentation device based on
the first count of volume and the second count of volume.

US Pat. No. 9,332,035

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO MEASURE EXPOSURE TO STREAMING MEDIA

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to measure exposure to streaming media, the method comprising:
detecting, with a processor, an ID3 tag associated with streaming media presented at a client device;
extracting, with the processor, data from a first field of the ID3 tag;
processing, with the processor, the data from the first field of the ID3 tag to generate a first request directed to a first
internet domain, the first internet domain based on the data, the first request including a media identifier from a second
field of the ID3 tag, the second field of the ID3 tag separate from the first field of the ID3 tag, the media identifier identifying
the streaming media;

sending, in response to the detection of the ID3 tag, the first request from the client device to the first internet domain;
receiving a redirection message from the first internet domain;
sending, in response to the redirection message, a second request to a second internet domain specified by the redirection
message; and

providing a cookie identifying the client device to the second internet domain.

US Pat. No. 9,332,307

DATA INSERTION APPARATUS AND METHODS FOR USE WITH COMPRESSED AUDIO/VIDEO DATA

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to insert information in compressed media data streams, the method comprising:
accessing an input multi-program data stream including a first compressed media data stream associated with a media program
and a second data stream containing descriptive information describing the media program;

rearranging, with a processor, data in frames of the first compressed media data stream to form contiguous sequences of skip
bytes at respective locations in the frames of the first compressed media data stream;

extracting, with the processor, the descriptive information from the second data stream;
inserting, with the processor, payload data prepared from the descriptive information at the locations of the contiguous sequences
of skip bytes in the frames of the first compressed media data stream; and

recombining, with the processor, the second data stream with the compressed media stream after inserting the payload data
to form an output multi-program data stream.

US Pat. No. 9,326,034

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO COLLECT AUDIENCE INFORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH A MEDIA PRESENTATION

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method of collecting media data, the method comprising:
detecting, with a communication interface of a base meter located in proximity to a media presentation device, registration
information from a portable metering device located in proximity to the base meter, the registration information identifying
a user associated with the portable metering device;

halting, with a processor of the base meter, a media monitoring operation of an audience measurement circuit of the base meter
when the presence of the portable metering device is detected by the communication interface in proximity to the base meter;

accessing, with the processor of the base meter, a polling query based on a media identifier associated with media presented
by the media presentation device, the media identifier received from the portable metering device while the media monitoring
operation of the audience measurement circuit of the base meter is halted, the polling query including a survey question associated
with the media;

sending the polling query from the base meter to the portable metering device for presentation to the user; and
after receiving a response to the polling query, communicating, with the processor of the base meter, the response to the
polling query, the registration information, and the media identifier, from the base meter, to a data collection facility.

US Pat. No. 9,106,952

MEDIA MONITORING USING MULTIPLE TYPES OF SIGNATURES

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A media monitoring method comprising:
reporting, from a device meter to a data processor, media signatures of a first type to monitor media presented by a media
device, the media signatures of the first type being generated by the device meter from a sensed signal;

after receiving, from the data processor, an indication that a first media signature of the first type is associated with
first reference media, generating, at the device meter, media signatures of a second type, different from the first type,
from the sensed signal to continue monitoring the media presented by the media device; and

in response to detecting, at the device meter, that a source of the media presented by the media device has changed, generating
the media signatures of the first type to continue monitoring the media presented by the media device.

US Pat. No. 9,082,014

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO ESTIMATE DEMOGRAPHY BASED ON AERIAL IMAGES

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method, comprising:
analyzing, using a processor, a first aerial image of a first geographic area to detect a first plurality of objects;
analyzing, using the processor, web search terms for searches performed in the geographic area; and
estimating, using the processor, a demographic characteristic of the first geographic area based on the first plurality of
objects and the web search terms.

US Pat. No. 9,075,883

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR BEHAVIOURAL AND CONTEXTUAL DATA ANALYTICS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A computer system to process observational data received from wireless devices, comprising:
a memory including machine readable instructions; and
a processor to execute the instructions to:
obtain observational data from the wireless devices, the observational data including application usage data;
process the observational data to identify temporally adjacent applications to generate usage metric data; and
transmit advertisements to the wireless devices based on the usage metric data derived from the temporally adjacent applications,
wherein the processor is to build a behavior model based on the identified temporally adjacent applications, the behavior
model to describe user behaviors associated with the wireless devices, wherein the processor is to apply the behavior model
to predict a usage duration of a second application in response to usage of a first application.

US Pat. No. 9,060,671

SYSTEMS AND METHODS TO GATHER AND ANALYZE ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC DATA

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A device comprising:
a first elongated band coupled to a first housing to be located near a first ear of a subject and a second housing to be located
near a second ear of the subject, the first elongated band including a first set of electrodes having at least eight electrodes;

a second elongated band coupled to the first housing and to the second housing, the second elongated band including a second
set of electrodes having at least eight electrodes;

a third elongated band coupled to the first housing and to the second housing, the third elongated band including a third
set of electrodes having at least eight electrodes; and

a fourth elongated band coupled to the first housing and to the second housing, the fourth elongated band including a fourth
set of electrodes having at least eight electrodes.

US Pat. No. 10,003,846

METHODS, APPARATUS AND ARTICLES OF MANUFACTURE TO PROVIDE SECONDARY CONTENT IN ASSOCIATION WITH PRIMARY BROADCAST MEDIA CONTENT

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method of decoding a code from an audio signal associated with first media output by a first media presentation device, the method comprising:sampling the audio signal to generate a sampled audio signal;
transforming the sampled audio signal into a frequency domain representation;
determining characteristics of frequencies in a plurality of code bands of the frequency domain representation that may contain the code, the code representative of at least one of the first media or a broadcaster of the first media, the code, if present, being encoded in the audio signal using a plurality of frequency components across the plurality of code bands;
normalizing the characteristics of the frequencies of respective ones of the code bands, the characteristic frequencies of a first one of the code bands being normalized against a threshold characteristic of a first frequency in the first one of the code bands;
comparing sums of the normalized characteristics for groups of frequencies across the plurality of code bands to identify a first group of frequencies with a largest sum; and
determining that the first group of frequencies is representative of the code to decode the code from the first group of frequencies; and
transmitting a wireless signal to a second media presentation device, the wireless signal including the decoded code, the wireless signal to trigger the second media presentation device to A) transmit the decoded code to a ratings server to cause the ratings server to 1) obtain second media based on the decoded code and 2) determine audience rating information corresponding to presentation of the first media on the first media presentation device and presentation of the second media on the second media presentation device based on the decoded code, and B) present the second media at the second media presentation device.

US Pat. No. 9,467,519

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO IDENTIFY SESSION USERS WITH COOKIE INFORMATION

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method to identify a current user of a computing device among a plurality of different users, the method comprising:
identifying, by executing an instruction with a processor, a most recently used cookie based on a comparison of timestamps
associated with a plurality of cookies;

comparing, by executing an instruction with the processor, an identifier of the most recently used cookie to a cookie table,
the cookie table associating cookies with the plurality of different users; and

when the identifier of the most recently used cookie is associated with one of the plurality of different users, associating,
by executing an instruction with the processor, subsequent usage activity of the computing device with the one of the plurality
of different users.

US Pat. No. 9,401,897

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR MONITORING SECURE DATA ON A NETWORK

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method of monitoring, the method comprising:
instructing a browser on a network device to decrypt secure digital data and store the decrypted secure digital data in a
first storage area of the network device, the secure digital data received from a content provider in communication with the
network device, the instructing of the browser performed by a processor of the network device executing a monitoring program,
the monitoring program received from a monitoring entity;

accessing the decrypted secure digital data from the first storage area to generate a tree structure associated with the decrypted
secure digital data;

when a node of the tree structure includes a secure uniform resource locator (URL), storing the node of the tree structure
associated with the secure URL in a second storage area;

determining auxiliary data from the stored node of the tree structure;
filtering the auxiliary data to remove sensitive information;
encrypting the auxiliary data; and
transmitting the encrypted auxiliary data to a server of the monitoring entity to monitor activity of the browser, the server
being different from the network device and different from the content provider.

US Pat. No. 9,378,728

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR GATHERING RESEARCH DATA

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to monitor presentation of media, the method comprising:
determining, with a processor, first frequency-domain data from time-domain audio data corresponding to the media, the first
frequency-domain data including first frequency band values associated with respective first frequency bands;

combining, with the processor, respective ones of the first frequency band values associated with contiguous groups of the
first frequency bands to determine second frequency-domain data including second frequency band values associated with respective
second frequency bands;

processing, with the processor, the first frequency-domain data to obtain a code included in an audio portion of the media;
and

processing, with the processor, the second frequency-domain data to obtain a signature representative of the audio portion
of the media.

US Pat. No. 9,336,784

APPARATUS, SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR MERGING CODE LAYERS FOR AUDIO ENCODING AND DECODING AND ERROR CORRECTION THEREOF

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method, comprising:
collecting an encoded audio signal containing multiple synchronized layers of data symbols;
converting, with a processor, a first set of audio samples in the encoded audio signal to a first frequency domain representation
that includes substantially single-frequency code components having corresponding frequency component values;

generating, with the processor, based on characteristics of the frequency component values, streams of symbol values corresponding
to a set of the data symbols that may have been encoded in the encoded audio signal, the data symbols corresponding to respective
subsets of the substantially single-frequency code components;

accumulating, with the processor, the streams of the symbol values;
detecting, with the processor, a presence of a first one of the data symbols from the accumulated streams of symbol values
in a first one of the synchronized layers by matching a first one of the accumulated streams of symbol values to a first one
of the subsets of the substantially single-frequency code components;

detecting, with the processor, a presence of a second one of the data symbols from the accumulated streams of symbols values
in a second one of the synchronized layers by matching a second one of the accumulated streams of symbols values to a second
one of the subsets of the substantially single-frequency code components; and

determining, with the processor, message contents of the synchronized layers in the encoded audio signal based on the presence
of the first one of the data symbols in the first one of the synchronized layers and based on the presence of the second one
of the data symbols in the second one of the synchronized layers.

US Pat. No. 9,320,450

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO GATHER AND ANALYZE ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC DATA

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. An apparatus comprising:
a housing having a first end, a second end and an intermediary portion, a wire retainer formed in the intermediary portion;
a first cavity adjacent the first end;
a second cavity adjacent the second end;
a first electrode removably disposed in the first cavity;
a first wire coupled to the first electrode, the first wire releasably retainable in the wire retainer such that the first
wire and the wire retainer can be repeatedly coupled and uncoupled to secure the first wire when the first wire and the first
electrode are to be coupled to the housing; and

a first magnet disposed in one of the first cavity or the second cavity.

US Pat. No. 9,325,381

METHODS, APPARATUS AND ARTICLES OF MANUFACTURE TO MONITOR MOBILE DEVICES

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A mobile device case, comprising:
a shell having a form factor dimensioned to receive a mobile device; and
a near-field interceptor coupled to the shell, the near-field interceptor to capture data communicated via a near-field energy
field between a first near-field communication device of the mobile device and a second near-field communication device external
to the mobile device, the near-field interceptor to capture the data when the mobile device is in direct communication with
the second near-field communication device using the near-field energy field.

US Pat. No. 9,313,286

MEDIA EXPOSURE LINKING UTILIZING BLUETOOTH SIGNAL CHARACTERISTICS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. An apparatus to monitor media exposure via a computer, comprising:
a processor; and
a storage memory comprising computer readable instructions that, when executed, cause the processor to:
pair the computer with a plurality of portable devices using corresponding Bluetooth connections when media is received at
the computer;

obtain signal strength characteristics of the Bluetooth connections for corresponding ones of the paired plurality of portable
devices; and

associate the signal strength characteristics with the received media to facilitate determining which of the signal strength
characteristics was the strongest when the media data was received in the computer.

US Pat. No. 9,305,560

METHODS, APPARATUS AND ARTICLES OF MANUFACTURE TO PERFORM AUDIO WATERMARK DECODING

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method comprising:
sampling an audio signal including a code embedded therein;
transforming the sampled audio signal into a frequency domain representation;
examining a first plurality of frequency components of the frequency domain representation to determine whether the code is
detected in the first plurality of frequency components; and

in response to determining that the code is not detected in the first plurality of frequency components, examining a second
plurality of frequency components of the frequency domain representation of the sampled audio signal to determine whether
the code is detected in the second plurality of frequency components, the second plurality of frequency components being offset
from the first plurality of frequency components by a first offset corresponding to a sampling frequency mismatch.

US Pat. No. 9,219,969

METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR REDUCING SPILLOVER BY ANALYZING SOUND PRESSURE LEVELS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

10. A spillover manager to reduce spillover in a media measuring system, comprising:
a sound pressure level comparator including a logic circuit to:
compare an expected sound pressure level for media associated with media monitoring data received from a meter associated
with a media presentation device to an actual sound pressure level to determine if spillover occurred, the actual sound pressure
level based on the media detected by the meter; and

a media creditor to:
credit the media with an exposure if the spillover did not occur; and
not credit the media with the exposure if the spillover did occur.

US Pat. No. 9,055,021

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO MONITOR IMPRESSIONS OF SOCIAL MEDIA MESSAGES

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method to log impressions of social media messages comprising:
receiving at a server a first request requesting first media, the first request addressed to a first uniform resource locator,
and the first request sent in response to accessing a first social media message to be presented with the first media;

receiving at the server a second request requesting the first media, the second request addressed to a second uniform resource
locator different from the first uniform resource locator, and the second request sent in response to accessing a second social
media message to be presented with the first media;

crediting the first social media message with a first impression based on the first request being addressed to the first uniform
resource locator; and

crediting the second social media message with a second impression based on the second request being addressed to the second
uniform resource locator.

US Pat. No. 9,497,090

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO DETERMINE AN ADJUSTMENT FACTOR FOR MEDIA IMPRESSIONS

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method comprising:
determining an exposure of first media has occurred, the exposure occurring after a cookie identifier is received at a computing
device, the cookie identifier received from a database proprietor;

determining, via a processor, a first panelist identifier associated with the exposure based on the cookie identifier;
determining, via the processor, a second panelist identifier associated with the exposure based on a determination of a user
identity by a panelist meter associated with the computing device;

determining, via the processor, an adjustment factor by comparing the first panelist identifier and the second panelist identifier;
determining, via the processor, a number of exposures of second media from data logged by the database proprietor, the data
logged in response to requests transmitted to the database proprietor in response to clients accessing the second media; and

applying the adjustment factor to the number of exposures with the processor to determine an adjusted number of exposures.

US Pat. No. 9,460,730

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO PERFORM AUDIO WATERMARKING AND WATERMARK DETECTION AND EXTRACTION

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method of decoding an audio signal to obtain a code encoded in the audio signal using a plurality of frequency components
residing in a plurality of code bands, the method comprising:
transforming the audio signal into a frequency domain representation;
determining characteristics of frequencies of the frequency domain representation that may contain the code;
normalizing the characteristics of the frequencies of the frequency domain representation in respective ones of the code bands
that may contain the code, wherein the normalization for a respective one of the code bands that may contain the code is carried
out against a first characteristic of a first frequency in that code band;

summing the normalized characteristics of the frequencies representative of the code to determine a sum for the frequencies
representative of the code;

comparing the sum to a threshold; and
determining that the sum is representative of the code when the sum satisfies the threshold; and
validating the code based on an encoding scheme.

US Pat. No. 9,438,939

METHODS AND SYSTEMS TO METER MEDIA CONTENT PRESENTED ON A WIRELESS COMMUNICATION DEVICE

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. An apparatus to generate media metering information associated with a wireless communication device, the apparatus comprising:
a meter to:
generate first information indicative of a media presentation mode of a media presentation application executed by the wireless
communication device during a presentation of media received and presented via the wireless communication device, the media
including scheduled programming that is broadcasted or multicasted simultaneously to a plurality of other wireless communication
devices during a pre-scheduled time; and

generate second information indicative of the media presented via the wireless communication device; and
a memory to:
store the first information in association with the second information in the wireless communication device; and
store third information in association with the first and second information, the third information to be indicative of at
least one of a location of a cell tower used to transmit the media to the wireless communication device, an identifier of
the cell tower, or an identifier of a wireless network access point used to transmit the media.

US Pat. No. 9,378,267

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO SEARCH DATASETS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. An apparatus, comprising:
a count generator to generate a plurality of counts, the counts respectively indicative of a number of corresponding records
in a database satisfying a respective one of a plurality of criteria present in the database;

a grouper to assign first and second criteria of a search request to a first group according to a logical relationship between
the first and second criteria;

an identifier to determine, via the plurality of counts, which of the first and second criteria in the first group is satisfied
by a least amount of records in the database;

a reduced set generator to identify a reduced set of records in the database to be searched, the reduced set of records corresponding
to the first or second criteria that is satisfied by the least amount of records in the database; and

an analyzer to search the reduced set of records from the database, the reduced set of records reducing a search time associated
with the search request, wherein first ones of the plurality of counts corresponding to static ones of the plurality of criteria
are generated according to a schedule, and second ones of the plurality of counts corresponding to dynamic ones of the plurality
of criteria are generated in response to receiving a search request, at least one of the count generator, the grouper, the
identifier, the reduced set generator or the analyzer including hardware.

US Pat. No. 9,317,865

RESEARCH DATA GATHERING WITH A PORTABLE MONITOR AND A STATIONARY DEVICE

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method for gathering audience measurement data, the method comprising:
gathering, via a stationary monitoring system, first data concerning exposure to media output by a media receiver, the gathering
of the first data including collecting a first code encoded in the media;

gathering second data concerning exposure to the media output by the media receiver with a portable monitor carried on the
person of a user, the second data including a second code encoded in the media;

gathering, via the portable monitor, location data encoded in the media by the stationary monitoring system, the location
data providing information on a physical location of the portable monitor; and

producing the audience measurement data concerning exposure to the media output by the media receiver from the first data,
the second data, and the location data.

US Pat. No. 9,571,979

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR CELL TOWER LOCATION ESTIMATION USING MULTIPLE TYPES OF DATA SOURCES

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A computer implemented method for estimating locations of cell towers, the method comprising:
ranking, with a source ranker, a first data source having a first accuracy relative to a second data source having a second
accuracy;

identifying based on the ranking of the first data source relative to the second data source, a higher-ranking data source
and a lower-ranking data source;

identifying, with a location estimator, an estimated location for respective ones of the cell towers based on data collected
from the higher-ranking data source;

when an estimated location for respective ones of the cell towers has not been identified based on data collected from the
higher-ranking data source, identifying, with the location estimator, an estimated location for respective ones of the cell
towers based on data collected from the lower-ranking data source, wherein at least one of the source ranker or the location
estimator includes a processor; and

generating a report, the report including the identified estimated location for respective ones of the cell towers.

US Pat. No. 9,491,508

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO DETECT CARRYING OF A PORTABLE AUDIENCE MEASUREMENT DEVICE

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A portable audience measurement device, comprising:
a housing;
a media detector in the housing to collect media exposure data;
a hinge including a hinge pin and having an arm to rotate in response to an applied force, the arm to secure the housing to
an object associated with a person;

a rotation sensor to detect a magnitude of rotation of the arm relative to the housing, wherein the rotation sensor is coupled
to the hinge pin, the rotation sensor including a rotary indicator to indicate the magnitude of rotation of the arm; and

a detector to compare the magnitude of rotation of the arm to a threshold angle to determine whether the device is being carried
by the person.

US Pat. No. 9,438,940

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO IDENTIFY MEDIA USING HASH KEYS

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method comprising:
when a first metered hash key does not match a first reference hash key, generating, with a processor, an error level using
a first bitwise comparison of the first metered hash key and a second reference hash key, the second reference hash key corresponding
to a second metered hash key;

determining, with the processor, if the error level satisfies a threshold; and
when the processor determines that the error level satisfies the threshold:
obtaining, with the processor, media reference data stored in association with the second reference hash key, and
storing, with the processor, the media reference data in association with the first metered hash key.

US Pat. No. 9,432,868

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO COLLECT WIRELESS INFORMATION

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method of collecting information on a wireless device, the method comprising:
executing collecting information instructions in a firmware layer of a wireless device and outside of an operating system
context of the wireless device to:

store collected information about usage of the wireless device, the collected information indicating when an access to advertising
occurred on the wireless device; and

send the collected information to a data center separate from the wireless device.

US Pat. No. 9,380,356

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO GENERATE A TAG FOR MEDIA CONTENT

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method to identify media comprising:
obtaining, at at least one server associated with a collection facility, a signature associated with at least one of audio
or video of received media based on inherent information of at least one of the audio or the video;

generating, at at least one server associated with the collection facility, a tag including the signature, the tag to be distributed
by a web server to a presentation location along with the media to enable a presentation device to access the signature via
the tag;

receiving, at at least one server associated with the collection facility via a network, the tag including the signature,
the tag sent by monitoring instructions executing at the presentation device, the monitoring instructions transmitted to the
presentation device from the web server in association with the media, the presentation location not including a meter to
extract the signature from the media presented by the presentation device, wherein the media and the tag are separate data
objects; and

in response to receiving the tag, storing, at the collection facility, an indication that the media associated with the signature
has been presented.

US Pat. No. 9,332,363

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR DETERMINING METER PRESENCE UTILIZING AMBIENT FINGERPRINTS

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

8. A system for determining portable device presence, comprising: an input to receive media exposure data from a plurality
of portable devices, and to receive environmental ambient fingerprints from the portable devices, the environmental ambient
fingerprints representing a characteristic of an environment around respective ones of the portable devices; and a processor,
operatively coupled to the input, the processor to process the received environmental ambient fingerprints to determine if
at least two of the environmental ambient fingerprints match, the processor to identify corresponding ones of the portable
devices having matched environmental ambient fingerprints as located in proximity to one another;
wherein the characteristic includes a level of ambient noise over each of a series of time periods; and
wherein the environmental ambient fingerprint includes a value for respective ones of the levels of noise and is formed using
the values of the series of time periods, and the value for a current one of the levels of noise is dependent upon a determination
that a level of noise in each of the series of time periods exceeds a threshold.

US Pat. No. 9,332,306

METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR REDUCING SPILLOVER BY DETECTING SIGNAL DISTORTION

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to credit media presented by a media presentation device, the method comprising:
determining, via a processor, an actual frequency spectrum of the media monitored by a meter;
determining, via the processor, absolute values of differences between amplitudes of corresponding frequency components of
the actual frequency spectrum and an expected frequency spectrum, the expected frequency spectrum stored in a database in
association with a media identifier corresponding to the media;

determining, via the processor, whether spillover occurred based on a summation of the absolute values satisfying a threshold;
and

crediting, via the processor, the media with a media exposure if spillover did not occur.

US Pat. No. 9,848,222

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO DETECT SPILLOVER

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to credit media in a media measuring system, comprising:
determining, by executing an instruction with a processor, periods of loudness in an audio signal of the media presented by
a media presentation device;

identifying, by executing an instruction with the processor, a quantity of the periods of loudness that satisfy a duration
threshold;

calculating, by executing an instruction with the processor, a ratio of the quantity of the periods of loudness that satisfy
the duration threshold and a total number of periods of loudness in the media; and

marking, by executing an instruction with the processor, the media as un-usable to credit a media exposure when the ratio
does not satisfy a loudness ratio threshold, the marking of the media to improve an accuracy of the media exposure credit
by excluding media having indications of spillover.

US Pat. No. 9,684,842

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO EXTRACT TEXT FROM IMAGED DOCUMENTS

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method comprising:
segmenting, by executing an instruction with a processor, an image of a document into localized sub-images corresponding to
individual characters in the document;

grouping, by executing an instruction with the processor, respective ones of the sub-images into a cluster based on visual
correlations of the respective ones of the sub-images to a reference sub-image, the visual correlations between the reference
sub-image and the respective ones of the sub-images grouped into the cluster exceeding a correlation threshold;

identifying, by executing an instruction with the processor, a designated character for one representative sub-image associated
with the cluster;

assigning, by executing an instruction with the processor, the designated character to the respective ones of the sub-images
grouped into the cluster; and

associating, by executing an instruction with the processor, the designated character with locations in the image of the document
associated with the respective ones of the sub-images grouped into the cluster.

US Pat. No. 9,622,702

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO GATHER AND ANALYZE ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC DATA

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A headset comprising:
a first support to be disposed on a first side of a head of a person;
a second support to be disposed on a second side of the head of the person opposite the first side;
a first adjustor operatively coupled to the first support;
a first electrode strip to be disposed over the head of the person such that a first end of the first electrode strip is disposed
adjacent the first support and a second end of the first electrode strip is disposed adjacent the second support; and

a first tension strap extending along and slidably coupled to the first electrode strip, a first end of the first tension
strap operatively coupled to the first adjustor and a second end of the first tension strap operatively coupled to the second
support, the first adjustor including a wheel rotatably coupled to the first support, the first tension strap to be wound
about the wheel when the wheel is rotated to change a tension of the first tension strap.

US Pat. No. 9,519,909

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO IDENTIFY USERS OF HANDHELD COMPUTING DEVICES

THE NIELSEN COMPANY (US),...

1. A method comprising:
generating, at a first time, via a logic circuit, a first handling pattern indicative of a manner in which a handheld computing
device is moved while presenting media;

in response to the generating, storing, via the logic circuit, the first handling pattern and corresponding user identification
information in a database for subsequent analysis to identify a user of the handheld computing device;

detecting a second handling pattern from data collected by a sensor that detects interaction with the handheld computing device
by the user, the second handling pattern being detected at a second time later than the first time;

generating a similarity score between the first handling pattern generated at the first time and the second handling pattern
detected at the second time;

generating a confidence value that the second handling pattern is the first handling pattern based on the similarity score;
in response to the confidence value satisfying a threshold, identifying, via the logic circuit, the user based on the first
handling pattern matching the second handling pattern and requesting the user to enter the user identification information;
and

in response to detecting that the user identification information entered by the user matches the user identification information
stored with the first handling pattern, storing, via the logic circuit, a verification indication in connection with the second
handling pattern.

US Pat. No. 9,380,339

METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR REDUCING CREDITING ERRORS DUE TO SPILLOVER USING AUDIO CODES AND/OR SIGNATURES

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to reduce media measurement errors attributable to spillover detected by meters located in different monitored
locations, comprising:
determining, with a processor, if first media monitoring data provided by a first meter in a first location identifies a same
media as second media monitoring data provided by a second meter in a second location;

when the first and second media monitoring data identify the same media, determining, with the processor, whether spillover
occurred based on a time difference between a first timestamp associated with the first media monitoring data and a second
timestamp associated with the second media monitoring data; and

based on an occurrence of the spillover, storing, with the processor, the first media monitoring data as credited media monitoring
data for the first location and not storing the second media monitoring data as credited media monitoring data for the second
location when the first timestamp is earlier than the second timestamp, the credited media monitoring data for the first location
indicative of a media exposure to an audience at the first location.

US Pat. No. 9,350,939

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO DETECT CONTENT SKIPPING BY A CONSUMER OF A RECORDED PROGRAM

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. An apparatus, comprising:
a segment identifier to identify a first number of times a media segment was fast-forwarded and a second number of times the
media segment was rewound; and

a recapture identifier to determine whether the media segment was recaptured based on a comparison of the first number times
to the second number of times, wherein at least one of the segment identifier or the recapture identifier is to be implemented
with a processor.

US Pat. No. 9,344,343

METHODS AND APPARATUS TO DETERMINE IMPRESSIONS USING DISTRIBUTED DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

The Nielsen Company (US),...

1. A method to monitor media exposure, the method comprising:
receiving, at a first internet domain, a first request from a client computer, the first request indicative of access to the
media at the client computer, and the first request including identifying information associated with the media;

generating a modified value corresponding to the identifying information;
determining if the client computer is known;
if the client computer is not known, sending, from the first internet domain to the client computer, a response including
the modified value in place of the identifying information, the response to instruct the client computer to send a second
request to a second internet domain, the second request to be indicative of the access to the media at the client computer,
and the modified value to be included in the second request to the second internet domain; and

if the client computer is known, logging an impression of the media.