US Pat. No. 9,172,246

PHASE BALANCING OF POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

SMART WIRES INC., San Fr...

1. A method of phase balancing a power transmission system, comprising:
measuring a current flow on each power line of a plurality of power lines of a first power transmission section of a power
transmission system, wherein each said power line is of a different phase, wherein each said power line has at least one first
device mounted thereon, wherein each said first device is disposable in each of first and second modes, and wherein changing
a given said first device between said first and second modes changes said current flow on its corresponding said power line;

identifying a first phase imbalance condition associated with said plurality of power lines in response to said measuring
step;

locating said first phase imbalance condition in a first data structure, wherein said first data structure comprises a plurality
of stored phase imbalance conditions, wherein each said stored phase imbalance condition in said first data structure comprises
a phase balancing set of said first devices and a corresponding modal configuration for each said first device in said phase
balancing set;

disposing each said first device of said phase balancing set in said first mode or said second mode based on its corresponding
said modal configuration in said first data structure; and

executing a first phase balancing protocol after said disposing step, comprising:
generating a first ranking of said plurality of power lines using a first ordering sequence of said current flows on said
power lines, wherein the first said power line in said first ranking is an initial comparative power line for said first ranking;

executing a first comparing step comprising comparing said current flow of said comparative power line in said first ranking
to said current flow of the next said power line in said first ranking;

executing a first switching step comprising switching at least one said first device, on each said power line in said first
ranking that precedes said next said power line from said first comparing step, into a first modal configuration if a second
phase imbalance condition exists between said power lines from said first comparing step; and

resetting said next said power line in said first ranking as said comparative power line, and then repeating said first comparing
and first switching steps, wherein said first modal configuration comprises said first device being in one of said first and
second modes.

US Pat. No. 9,217,762

DETECTION OF GEOMAGNETICALLY-INDUCED CURRENTS WITH POWER LINE-MOUNTED DEVICES

SMART WIRES INC., Oaklan...

1. A device for monitoring geomagnetically-induced currents in a power line, comprising:
a magnetic core disposed about at least part of a power line, the core being configured to provide an air gap therein;
a magnetic sensor positioned in the air gap to sense magnetic fields and produce an output signal representative of the magnetic
fields; and

a signal processing unit that receives the output signal and determines the geomagnetically-induced current therefrom;
wherein the signal processing unit determines a DC component and an AC component; and
wherein the determined AC component is compared to a reference signal representative of an external measurement of the AC
current in the power line and, based on the comparison, the determined DC component is adjusted in proportion thereto.

US Pat. No. 10,097,037

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR DISTRIBUTED GRID CONTROL WITH SUB-CYCLIC LOCAL RESPONSE CAPABILITY

Smart Wires Inc., Union ...

1. A high-voltage power grid comprising:a plurality of impedance injection modules coupled to a high-voltage transmission line at a number of locations in the high-voltage power grid, each impedance injection module having;
a controller that senses disturbances and/or other conditions on the high-voltage transmission line of the high-voltage power grid and reacts by generating and injecting inductive and/or capacitive impedances of appropriate magnitude onto the high-voltage transmission line via an injection transformer coupled to one of the high-voltage transmission lines;
a transceiver for high-speed communication with other impedance injection modules within a local group of impedance injection modules to enable coordinated response of the other impedance injection modules within the respective local group of impedance injection modules to disturbances on the high-voltage transmission line;
the high-voltage power grid being further comprised of a group of local centers, each local center within the group of local centers having a high-speed transceiver for high-speed communication with impedance injection modules within a respective local group of impedance injection modules and with other local centers to enable coordinated response of all impedance injection modules associated with that group of local centers;
wherein each local center includes a communication link to and from a system utility, the communication link to and from a system utility being for communication at a lower speed than the high-speed communication between impedance injection modules and between impedance injection modules and local centers.

US Pat. No. 10,180,696

DISTRIBUTED IMPEDANCE INJECTION MODULE FOR MITIGATION OF THE FERRANTI EFFECT

Smart Wires Inc., Union ...

1. A method of reducing or eliminating a Ferranti effect in a high voltage transmission line comprising:coupling impedance/voltage injection modules to the high voltage transmission line
at spaced apart locations along the high voltage transmission line, the impedance/voltage injection modules each being powered from the high voltage transmission line and having a high voltage transmission line current sensing capability, an impedance/voltage injection capability and a communication capability; and
using at least a subset of the impedance/voltage injection modules, sensing current in the high voltage transmission line; and
when the high voltage transmission line current indicates that a high voltage transmission line load at a receiving end of the high voltage transmission line is low or zero, injecting an impedance/voltage onto the high voltage transmission line at spaced apart locations along the high voltage transmission line to collectively reduce or cancel a voltage generated by a current charging a line capacitance passing through a line impedance.

US Pat. No. 10,008,317

VOLTAGE OR IMPEDANCE-INJECTION METHOD USING TRANSFORMERS WITH MULTIPLE SECONDARY WINDINGS FOR DYNAMIC POWER FLOW CONTROL

Smart Wires Inc., Union ...

1. An active impedance-injection module for distributed dynamic line balancing of a high-voltage transmission line comprising:a transformer having a transformer core, the transformer core having a plurality of secondary windings thereon;
a plurality of converters, each coupled to a respective secondary winding; and
a controller coupled to each converter;
the transformer, the converters and the controller all being packaged in a single housing for use with a high-voltage transmission line passing through the transformer core, thereby forming a transformer with a single-turn primary and the plurality of secondary windings.

US Pat. No. 9,906,031

POWER LINE REACTANCE MODULE AND APPLICATIONS

SMART WIRES INC., Union ...

1. A power transmission system, comprising:
a power line section comprising a length of a power line;
a reactance module array that is mounted on said power line section and that comprises a plurality of reactance modules, wherein
each said reactance module of said reactance module array is mounted on said power line at a different position along the
length of said power line from each other said reactance module of said reactance module array, wherein each said reactance
module is switchably disposable in one of first and second modes, and wherein switching a given said reactance module into
its said second mode increases a reactance being injected into said power line section; and

a reactance module array controller configured to communicate with and control each said reactance module of said reactance
module array, wherein said reactance module array controller comprises a first data structure, wherein said first data structure
comprises a plurality of system conditions, wherein said first data structure comprises a modal configuration for each of
said plurality of reactance modules of said reactance module array for each of said plurality of system conditions, and wherein
said modal configuration for each said reactance module of said reactance module array comprises being in either said first
mode or said second mode.

US Pat. No. 10,218,175

DYNAMIC AND INTEGRATED CONTROL OF TOTAL POWER SYSTEM USING DISTRIBUTED IMPEDANCE INJECTION MODULES AND ACTUATOR DEVICES WITHIN AND AT THE EDGE OF THE POWER GRID

Smart Wires Inc., Union ...

1. A high voltage power grid comprising:transmission lines to transport power at high voltage from power generators to sub-stations or other distributed loads;
a plurality of impedance injection modules, each coupled to and collectively distributed along the transmission lines and each having a transmission line current measuring capability and a high-speed communication capability;
a plurality of local intelligence centers, each having a high-speed communication capability, each impedance injection module being in communication with at least one local intelligence center;
a utility supervisory having a communication capability with the power generation, substations and the local intelligence centers;
whereby a hierarchical control capability is established wherein the distributed impedance injection modules will themselves respond locally to tend to reduce local disturbances, one or more local intelligence centers will coordinate a response of a plurality of distributed impedance injection modules and respective distributed impedance injection modules as needed to respond to larger disturbances, and the utility supervisory will balance and control the power grid through control of the substations, local intelligence centers and power generation.

US Pat. No. 9,843,176

INSTALLATION FIXTURE FOR INSTALLING DEVICES ON POWER LINES

SMART WIRES INC., Union ...

1. An installation fixture for installing a device on a power line, comprising:
a base;
a lower cradle movably interconnected with said base and comprising a lower receptacle that is configured to receive a lower
section of a first device to be mounted on a power line;

an upper cradle comprising an upper receptacle that is configured to receive an upper section of a first device to be mounted
on a power line, wherein said upper cradle is movable between open and closed positions, wherein said upper receptacle of
said upper cradle is offset from said lower receptacle of said lower cradle when said upper cradle is in said open position,
and wherein said upper receptacle of said upper cradle is aligned with and above said lower receptacle of said lower cradle
when said upper cradle is in said closed position; and

a connector between said base and said lower cradle, wherein said connector provides at least 3 degrees of freedom, wherein
said connector allows said lower cradle to be tilted relative to said base about a first reference axis, wherein said connector
allows said lower cradle to be tilted relative to said base about a second reference axis that is perpendicular to said first
reference axis, and wherein said connector allows said lower cradle to be rotated relative to said base about a third reference
axis that is perpendicular to a plane that contains said first reference axis and said second reference axis.

US Pat. No. 10,559,975

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR DISTRIBUTED GRID CONTROL WITH SUB-CYCLIC LOCAL RESPONSE CAPABILITY

Smart Wires Inc., Union ...

1. A system for hierarchical monitoring and control for a high-voltage power grid comprising:i) a plurality of high-voltage transmission lines carrying power from generation locations to distribution centers;
ii) a plurality of impedance injection modules distributed over, and coupled to, the high-voltage transmission lines of the power grid, each impedance injection module coupled to only one high voltage transmission line of the power grid, and comprises:
a controller that senses disturbances on the high-voltage transmission line and reacts by generating and injecting inductive and/or capacitive impedances of appropriate magnitude onto the high-voltage transmission line via an injection transformer coupled to the high-voltage transmission line; and
a transceiver for high-speed communication with other impedance injection modules within a local group of impedance injection modules to enable coordinated response of the other impedance injection modules within the respective local group of impedance injection modules to disturbances on the high-voltage transmission line;
iii) a group of local centers, each local center within the group of local centers having a high-speed transceiver for high-speed communication with impedance injection modules within a respective local group of impedance injection modules and with other local centers to enable coordinated response of all impedance injection modules associated with that group of local centers; and
iv) a communication link to and from a system utility, at each local center, for communication at a lower speed than the high-speed communication between impedance injection modules and between impedance injection modules and local centers.

US Pat. No. 10,396,533

CONTAINERIZED POWER FLOW CONTROL SYSTEMS

Smart Wires Inc., Union ...

1. A container for use in a containerized power flow control system for a power distribution system comprising:the container containing at least one FACTS device for deployment on an as needed basis;
at least one insulator for supporting the at least one FACTS device above the container when coupled into the power distribution system;
a lifter for lifting the insulator with the at least one FACTS device thereon to an elevation wherein the at least one FACTS device is disposed in an operative elevation above the container; and
the container and the at least one FACTS device being adapted for coupling the at least one FACTS device into the power distribution system and operating while remaining in or being supported by the container.

US Pat. No. 10,424,929

TRANSFORMERS WITH MULTI-TURN PRIMARY WINDINGS FOR DYNAMIC POWER FLOW CONTROL

Smart Wires Inc., Union ...

1. An apparatus for injecting a voltage or impedance in series with a high-voltage transmission line comprising:an injection module having;
an injection transformer having a multiple-turn primary winding and a multiple-turn secondary winding on a non-gapped core, the primary winding being adapted for connection in series with the high-voltage transmission line by being directly attached to the high-voltage transmission line and by cutting the high-voltage transmission line and splicing respective ends of the primary winding in series with the high-voltage transmission line, wherein the injection transformer is suspended and insulated from ground at the high-voltage transmission line during operation;
the secondary winding being connected to a converter, and having a virtual ground established at the high-voltage transmission line by connecting one end of the second winding to the high-voltage transmission line;
the converter being coupled to a controller for controlling the controller; and
the secondary winding being connected across a bypass switch for providing protection to connected circuits coupled to the secondary winding.

US Pat. No. 10,199,150

POWER TRANSMISSION TOWER MOUNTED SERIES INJECTION TRANSFORMER

Smart Wires Inc., Union ...

1. For use in a high voltage power distribution system, apparatus comprising:a series injection transformer having a multi-turn primary winding having first and second ends;
the series injection transformer being suspended from a tower of the high voltage power distribution system and not by a high voltage line or high voltage line segment of the high voltage power distribution system suspended by the tower;
an end of first and second high voltage line segments being connected to the suspension tower through first and second strain insulators, respectively; and
first and second jumpers, a first end of each of the first and second jumpers being connected to a respective one of the ends of the first and second high voltage line segments;
the second end of each of the first and second jumpers each being connected to a respective end of the multi-turn primary winding.

US Pat. No. 10,666,038

MODULAR FACTS DEVICES WITH EXTERNAL FAULT CURRENT PROTECTION

Smart Wires Inc., Union ...

1. A method of providing distributed controls for a power transmission and distribution system comprising:providing flexible alternating current transmission systems (FACTS) devices, each without fault current protection;
providing fault current protection modules as modules not containing a FACTS device;
providing a plurality of FACTS devices on a power transmission line; and
coupling a fault current module to the transmission line so that the fault current module is coupled in parallel with all FACTS devices in the plurality of FACTS devices;
wherein the FACTS devices are connected in parallel, or some of the FACTS devices are connected in series and some of the FACTS devices are connected in parallel.

US Pat. No. 11,116,116

INTERFERENCE LIMITING ENCLOSURE FOR POWER FLOW DEVICES

Smart Wires Inc., Union ...


1. An enclosure comprising:a power flow control device to attach to a high voltage transmission line;
a plurality of panels formed of metal;
a shorting connection provided between each pair of panels;
an electrical connection from at least one panel of the plurality of panels to the high voltage transmission line;
a receiving region provided on each panel for each shorting connection; and
an equipotential surface for reducing electromagnetic interference from the high voltage transmission line to internal components of the power flow control device, and from the internal components of the power flow control device to the high voltage transmission line.

US Pat. No. 10,770,870

CONTAINERIZED POWER FLOW CONTROL SYSTEMS

Smart Wires Inc., Union ...

1. A containerized system for transporting and deploying a power flow control system for a power transmission line, the containerized system comprising:the power flow control system including:
an upstream connection configured to be coupled to an upstream portion of the power transmission line,
a downstream connection configured to be coupled to a downstream portion of the power transmission line, and
one or more impedance injection modules configured to inject reactive power to the power flow control system, and electrically coupled between the upstream connection and the downstream connection;
at least one container for installation of the power flow control system, each of the at least one container includes at least one of the one or more impedance injection modules;
wheels for transporting the container; and
outriggers for stabilizing the container;
wherein the containerized system is configured to be deployed on an as needed basis.

US Pat. No. 10,724,857

REAL-TIME BOLT MONITORING SYSTEM

Smart Wires Inc., Union ...

1. A fastening system with real-time connection monitoring, the system comprising:a bolt having a head and a threaded body;
a nut matched to the threaded body;
an ultrasonic transceiver coupled to the head of the bolt, the ultrasonic transceiver being configured to transmit an ultrasonic signal into the bolt and towards a reflecting surface of the threaded body wherein at least a portion of the ultrasonic signal is reflected from the reflecting surface, to receive the portion of the ultrasonic signal reflected from the reflecting surface, and to measure a time of flight of the transmitted ultrasonic signal responsive to the reflected portion of the ultrasonic signal;
a probe in contact with the ultrasonic transceiver wherein the probe comprises a spring-loaded pin for contacting the ultrasonic transceiver; and
a controller connected to the probe and configured to initiate the transmission of the ultrasonic signal using the probe, calculate an effective length of the bolt based on the measured time of flight, and determine whether the calculated effective length is outside an expected length range;
wherein the bolt and the nut are configured to fasten a first item and a second item, the first item and the second item being disposed between the head of the bolt and the nut.

US Pat. No. 10,283,254

VOLTAGE OR IMPEDANCE-INJECTION METHOD USING TRANSFORMERS WITH MULTIPLE SECONDARY WINDINGS FOR DYNAMIC POWER FLOW CONTROL

Smart Wires Inc., Union ...

1. A system for dynamic line balancing in a high voltage electric power grid comprising:a plurality of impedance-injection modules distributed along a transmission line of the high voltage electric power grid;
each impedance-injection module having;
a transformer having a transformer core with a plurality of secondary windings thereon;
a plurality of power-electronic circuits for generation and injection of the inductive and capacitive impedances, each power-electronic circuit being coupled to a respective secondary winding;
the transformer and the plurality of power-electronic circuits being enclosed in a single housing and with the high-voltage transmission line passing through the transformer core, thereby forming a transformer with a single-turn primary and the plurality of secondary windings.

US Pat. No. 11,121,551

MODULAR TIME SYNCHRONIZED INJECTION MODULES

Smart Wires Inc., Union ...


1. A system for injecting impedance into a high voltage (HV) transmission line, the system comprising:a plurality of sensors distributed over and coupled to the HV transmission line configured to detect changes in power flow in the HV transmission line and changes in characteristics of the HV transmission line and transfer sensed data to a local impedance injection module (IIM);
one or more distributed impedance injection modules (IIMs), each of the one or more distributed IIMs comprising one or more transformer-less flexible alternating current (AC) transmission system (TL-FACTS) based impedance injection units (IIUs) coupled to the HV transmission line, each of the one or more TL-FACTS-based IIUs including:
a master control module configured to:receive sensed data sensed by one or more local sensors included in the plurality of sensors, from the one or more local sensors and generate instructions for impedance injection as a response to the detected changes,
identify the IIMs available for impedance injection as resources for impedance injection on the HV transmission line, and
generate and provide switching control signals to the identified resources for controlling impedance injection from the identified resources in response to the detected changes in HV transmission line characteristics and the detected changes in power flow in the HV transmission line; and

a local clock coupled to the master control module and configured to command a start of impedance injection and a stop of the impedance injection controlled by master control module, wherein the local clock is synchronized with other local clocks in the distributed IIMs.

US Pat. No. 10,756,542

AGILE DEPLOYMENT OF OPTIMIZED POWER FLOW CONTROL SYSTEM ON THE GRID

Smart Wires Inc., Union ...

1. A modular power flow control system for use in a high voltage power transmission system comprising:a plurality of wheeled vehicles;
a plurality of identical impedance injection modules, capable of being arranged in an m×n matrix in a phase of the high voltage power transmission system;
the plurality of identical impedance injection modules being on and transportable by one or more of the plurality of wheeled vehicles over public and private roads;
each impedance injection module having a transformerless static synchronous series converter therein;
the impedance injection modules on each wheeled vehicle being at least partially connected together to form at least a part of the m×n matrix in the phase of the high voltage power transmission system;
wherein m is the number of said impedance injection modules to be connected in series in each leg; and,
wherein n is the number of legs collectively connectable in series with the phase of the high voltage power transmission system;
whereby the modular power flow control system is deployable over public and private roads and connected into the phase of the high voltage transmission system in the m×n matrix in the phase of the high voltage power transmission system.

US Pat. No. 10,651,633

MODULAR, SPACE-EFFICIENT STRUCTURES MOUNTING MULTIPLE ELECTRICAL DEVICES

Smart Wires Inc., Union ...

1. A structure supporting electrical devices at an electrical substation of a power grid, comprising:a device mounting column extending vertically and anchored at a lower end to a foundation or anchor;
a first set of N electrical devices connected to a phase of the power grid;
a first set of at least N electrical insulators, at least one of the first set of at least N electrical insulators being coupled to a respective one of the first set of N electrical devices and the device mounting column, and supporting and providing electrical insulation for the respective one of the first set of N electrical devices;
the N electrical devices as supported by the first set of at least N electrical insulators being equally radially distributed around a vertical axis of the device mounting column;
a second set of N electrical devices connected to the phase of the power grid; and
a second set of at least N electrical insulators, at least one of the second set of at least N electrical insulators being coupled to a respective one of the second set of N electrical devices and the device mounting column, and supporting and providing electrical insulation for the respective one of the second set of N electrical devices above the first set of N electrical devices;
the second set of N electrical devices as supported by the second set of at least N electrical insulators also being equally radially distributed around the vertical axis of the device mounting column;
wherein N is greater than three.

US Pat. No. 11,095,110

ENERGY HARVESTING FROM FAULT CURRENTS

Smart Wires Inc., Union ...


1. A method of protecting one or more flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices in a high voltage (HV) power transmission line, the method comprising:(i) in response to detecting a fault current on the HV power transmission line, opening a circuit breaker to de-energize the HV power transmission line;
(ii) auto-reclosing the circuit breaker to determine whether the fault current has cleared; and
(iii) during the auto-reclosing of the circuit breaker,harvesting energy from the fault current, and
controlling a bypass switch coupled to the FACTS devices based on the harvested energy in order to protect the FACTS devices;
wherein harvesting energy from the fault current comprises: using a current transformer to extract power from the HV power transmission line, to produce a current in a secondary winding of the current transformer that is proportional to a current in a primary winding of the current transformer, and to drive the current in the secondary winding of the current transformer into a power supply that harvests the energy from the fault current;
wherein controlling the bypass switch coupled to the FACTS devices comprises: using a fault current harvesting circuit (FHC) to generate a voltage pulse train based on an output ramp voltage provided by the power supply, and to drive an actuator using the generated voltage pulse train;
wherein the actuator performs fast switching of the bypass switch during the auto-reclosing of the circuit breaker.


US Pat. No. 10,468,880

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR VOLTAGE REGULATION USING SPLIT-CONDUCTORS WITH LOOP CURRENT REDUCTION

Smart Wires Inc., Union ...

1. A method of controlling power in a high voltage power distribution system comprising:for each conductor of the high voltage power distribution system:
splitting the conductor into multiple split-conductors in a substation;
coupling multiple electrical injection devices to each of the multiple split-conductors;
sensing the current in each split-conductor; and
controlling the multiple electrical injection devices to tend to equalize the currents in the split-conductors.

US Pat. No. 10,418,814

TRANSFORMERS WITH MULTI-TURN PRIMARY WINDINGS FOR DYNAMIC POWER FLOW CONTROL

Smart Wires Inc., Union ...

1. A transformer for use in a series-connectable distributed active impedance injection module that is directly connected to a high-voltage transmission line, the transformer comprising:a non-gapped transformer core;
a multiple-turn primary winding on the transformer core;
a multiple-turn secondary winding on the transformer core;
the multiple-turn primary winding being adapted for splicing in series with the high-voltage transmission line;
the multiple-turn secondary winding being adapted for connecting to a converter that generates and injects voltages at a phase angle for injection of an inductive or a capacitive impedance onto the high-voltage transmission line;
the multiple-turn secondary winding being isolated from ground, wherein one side of the multiple-turn secondary winding is connected to the multiple-turn primary winding to provide a virtual ground at a potential of the high-voltage transmission line;
the multiple-turn primary winding increasing the voltage injection of a distributed active impedance injection module.

US Pat. No. 10,903,653

VOLTAGE AGNOSTIC POWER REACTOR

Smart Wires Inc., Union ...

1. A distributed series reactor module adapted for operation over a range of high voltages, the distributed series reactor module comprising:a) a single virtual ground directly connected to a powerline served by the single virtual ground in order to establish a common reference voltage within supporting electronics;
b) a conductive case connected to the single virtual ground; and
c) control communications that use a wireless communications link.

US Pat. No. 10,886,741

POWER LINE OSCILLATION DAMPING USING DISTRIBUTED FACTS DEVICES THAT ARE VOLTAGE/IMPEDANCE INJECTION MODULES ATTACHED TO THE HV POWER LINES

Smart Wires Inc., Union ...

1. A method for damping oscillations in a high voltage power grid, including power distribution and supply systems, comprising:distributing a plurality of flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) modules over high voltage transmission lines of the high voltage power grid and attaching the FACTS modules to the high voltage transmission lines of the high voltage power grid, to inject voltages/impedances onto the high voltage power transmission lines of the high voltage power grid, wherein some of the plurality of FACTS modules are connected in series and are pre-assigned for power oscillation damping application to collectively generate and inject the voltages/impedances that are combined to achieve power oscillation damping on the high voltage power transmission lines;
sensing power oscillations on the high voltage power transmission lines of the high voltage power grid;
extracting the dominant oscillatory mode or modes of sensed power oscillations on the high voltage transmission lines; and
injecting, by the distributed plurality of FACTS modules, voltages/impedances responsive to at least a most dominant oscillatory mode onto the respective high voltage transmission lines to counteract the respective oscillations.

US Pat. No. 10,825,625

KINETIC ACTUATOR FOR VACUUM INTERRUPTER

Smart Wires Inc., Union ...

1. An actuator for a circuit interrupter, comprising:a stationary magnetic boss;
a movable magnetic armature; and
a drive rod aligned on an axis of the circuit interrupter, the drive rod having two stable positions, circuit interrupter closed and circuit interrupter open, and a surface, located on the drive rod between the movable magnetic armature and the stationary magnetic boss, so that the armature contacts the surface to move the drive rod from the circuit interrupter closed position to the circuit interrupter open position;
wherein, in the circuit interrupter closed position, the armature and the surface are separated by a pre-travel distance,
such that the armature is to move towards the stationary magnetic boss and contact the surface, to initiate a circuit interrupter disconnecting motion of the drive rod with a transfer of momentum to the drive rod.

US Pat. No. 10,749,341

DYNAMIC AND INTEGRATED CONTROL OF TOTAL POWER SYSTEM USING DISTRIBUTED IMPEDANCE INJECTION MODULES AND ACTUATOR DEVICES WITHIN AND AT THE EDGE OF THE POWER GRID

Smart Wires Inc., Union ...

1. A high voltage power grid comprising:transmission lines to transport power at high voltage from power generators to sub-stations;
a plurality of impedance injection modules, each impedance injection module coupled to and collectively distributed along the transmission lines, and having a sensor to monitor the transmission line to which the impedance injection module is coupled;
a plurality of local intelligence centers, at least one local intelligence center being in communication with each impedance injection module; and
a supervisory utility configured to communicate with the power generators, the substations and the local intelligence centers;
wherein the supervisory utility, the local intelligence centers, and the impedance injection modules collectively and interactively control and monitor the high voltage power grid in a hierarchical manner;
wherein one or more of the local intelligence centers coordinate a response to disturbances on the high voltage power grid, and the impedance injection modules respond locally to reduce the disturbances on the high voltage power grid in accordance with the response;
wherein the supervisory utility provides control instructions for local and global control of the high voltage power grid in order to achieve system goals set for the high voltage power grid.

US Pat. No. 11,063,433

FAST POST-FAULT PHASE REACTANCE BALANCING

Smart Wires Inc., Union ...


1. A reactance-injecting apparatus for one phase of a multiphase transmission system, comprising:a reactance modifying component configured to inject reactance into one phase of the multiphase transmission system in an operating mode, or to eliminate the injected reactance in a bypass mode;
a current sensor configured to sense a current flow in the one phase;
a first communication transceiver configured to communicate with a centralized control system;
one or more controllers configured to determine whether a fault is detected in the one phase based on the current flow sensed by the current sensor, to operate the reactance modifying component in the bypass mode in response to the fault detected, or to operate the reactance modifying component in the operating mode in response to the fault not detected; and
a second communication transceiver configured to communicate information on the fault detected between the reactance-injecting apparatus and one or more other reactance-injecting apparatuses for one or more other phases of the multiphase transmission system to eliminate all reactance injected by all phases in a time less than a time for a fault localization analysis.