US Pat. No. 9,366,125

CARBONATE BASED SLURRY FRACTURING USING SOLID ACID FOR UNCONVENTIONAL RESERVOIRS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method of using a slurry fracturing fluid for hydraulic fracturing in an unconventional reservoir, wherein the unconventional
reservoir is selected from the group consisting of tight sands, shale gas, shale oil, coalbed methane, tight carbonate, and
gas hydrate; the method comprising the steps of:
injecting the slurry fracturing fluid into the unconventional reservoir,
wherein the slurry fracturing fluid comprises a particulate portion and a water portion, the water portion operable to adjust
a viscosity of the slurry fracturing fluid, such that the slurry fracturing fluid is capable of being pumped into the unconventional
reservoir and the slurry fracturing fluid is capable of fracturing the unconventional reservoir,

wherein the particulate portion comprises:
a calcium carbonate component;
a cement component;
a sand component;
a bentonite component; and
a solid acid component;
wherein injecting the slurry fracturing fluid is operable to generate a network of fractures in the unconventional reservoir
and is operable to fill the network of fractures in the unconventional reservoir;

reducing a reservoir temperature from a first reservoir temperature to a reduced temperature by injecting the slurry fracturing
fluid into the unconventional reservoir;

permitting the slurry fracturing fluid to cure into a permeable bed in the network of fractures in the unconventional reservoir,
wherein the permeable bed is a solid porous carbonaceous bed filling the network of fractures in the unconventional reservoir;

allowing the reduced reservoir temperature to return to the first reservoir temperature, wherein the first reservoir temperature
is operable to trigger hydrolysis of the solid acid component with a water source, where the reduced reservoir temperature
increases toward the first reservoir temperature while the slurry fracturing fluid cures into the permeable bed in the network
of fractures, filling the network of fractures in the unconventional reservoir;

hydrolyzing the solid acid component with the water source at about the first reservoir temperature, wherein the hydrolysis
of the solid acid component is operable to produce a liquid acid; and

stimulating the network of fractures in the unconventional reservoir with the liquid acid, such that the liquid acid etches
the permeable bed creating small vugs in the permeable bed, and the liquid acid etches the unconventional reservoir thereby
increasing permeability of the permeable bed by about at least 2 times relative to an initially cured solid porous carbonaceous
bed in the network of fractures in the unconventional reservoir.

US Pat. No. 9,480,947

VARIABLE CAPACITY MULTIPLE-LEG PACKED SEPARATION COLUMN

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. An industrial packed column apparatus configured and dimensioned for processing a raw gas feedstream to a gas-oil separation
plant comprising a gaseous hydrocarbon stream containing water to remove at least a portion of the water by contact with a
liquid absorbent selected from the group consisting of triethylene glycol (TEG), ethylene glycol, methyl ethylene glycol and
methyldiethanolamine, the apparatus comprising:
a. a plurality of tubular members having upper and lower ends, the tubular member being aligned in a vertical parallel array
to form a first bundle, one of the tubular members being configured as the final downstream member,

b. each tubular member having a packed section positioned between its upper and lower ends, the packed section containing
a packing material,

c. each of the tubular members having a lean absorption liquid inlet positioned above the packed section and a rich absorption
liquid outlet positioned below the packed section,

d. each of the tubular members having a raw gas feed inlet positioned below the packed section and a treated gas outlet at
the top of the tubular member above the packed section,

e. each of the raw feed gas inlets connected to a raw feed gas manifold via control valves for selectively admitting the raw
feed gas to one or more of the plurality of tubular members,

f. each of the treated gas outlets being respectively connected via a valved conduit to (i) a treated gas collection manifold
and, with the exception of the final downstream member (ii) the raw gas inlet of one or more of the other tubular members
in the first bundle, except the treated gas outlet of the final downstream member in the bundle, whereby all or a portion
of a treated gas stream exiting a tubular member, except for the final downstream member can be passed for further treatment
to at least one of the other tubular members in the first bundle.

US Pat. No. 9,188,472

ENHANCED REFERENCE LINE TANK CALIBRATION METHOD AND APPARATUS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A system for measuring the volume of a tank, the system comprising:
an optical device that emits a laser beam parallel to a surface of the tank;
a magnetic trolley selectively moveable along the surface of the tank and configured to be remotely controlled by an operator,
the magnetic trolley comprising:

a linear position sensor in communication with the laser beam to determine the position of the magnetic trolley relative to
the laser beam as the magnetic trolley moves along the surface of the tank; and

a data processor that communicates with the linear position sensor to calculate the volume of at least a portion of the tank
based at least partially on the position data collected by the linear position sensor.

US Pat. No. 9,063,252

SYSTEM, METHOD, AND NANOROBOT TO EXPLORE SUBTERRANEAN GEOPHYSICAL FORMATIONS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A system to measure properties in a geophysical formation, the system comprising:
a wellbore lining positioned in a wellbore;
a plurality of fixed radio frequency receivers spaced apart along the longitudinal extent of and connected to the wellbore
lining to receive radio frequency transmissions at one or more preselected radio frequencies;

a plurality of transmitter assemblies positioned external to the wellbore lining and at a plurality of substantially horizontally
and vertically spaced apart locations within the geophysical formation, each of the plurality of transmitter assemblies including:

a body,
a sensor connected to the body and positioned to detect the presence of one or more hydrocarbons within the geophysical formation,
a radio frequency transmitter connected to the body, positioned to transmit positional data and hydrocarbon characteristic
data from the geophysical formation when the transmitter assembly is positioned therein, and

a power supply connected to the body to supply power to the transmitter and the sensor,
a machine in communication with each of the plurality of fixed radio frequency receivers, the machine including a processor,
a display in communication with the processor, and a non-transitory, computer-readable storage medium with an executable program
stored therein, wherein the program instructs the processor to perform the following steps:

receiving positional data from each of the plurality of transmitter assemblies, the positional data indicating the location
of the transmitter assemblies at a point in time and comprising interior surface location data received from a plurality of
the transmitter assemblies, each of the interior surface location data defining a sensed three-dimensional location of a point
on an interior surface within the geophysical formation for the respective transmitter assembly;

plotting, responsive to receipt of the positional data, at least one positional data point for each of the plurality of transmitter
assemblies;

combining the positional data from the plurality of transmitter assemblies to create a representation of a three-dimensional
physical map of at least a portion of the geophysical formation, the physical map including an indication of a three dimensional
location of each of the plurality transmitter assemblies within the interior surface of the geophysical formation;

receiving fluid data from each of the plurality of transmitter assemblies, the fluid data indicating the type and location
of fluid located at each of the plurality of substantially horizontally and vertically spaced apart locations within the geophysical
formation; and

creating a fluid map on the display by plotting the type and location of fluids onto the physical map, the fluid map comprising
pathways through the geophysical formation, pockets of hydrocarbons within the geophysical formation, and interior surface
boundaries of the geophysical formation.

US Pat. No. 9,488,042

CHEMICALLY-INDUCED PULSED FRACTURING METHOD

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method of increasing a stimulated reservoir volume in a wellbore in a gas-containing formation, the method comprising
the steps of:
mixing an exothermic reaction component in an aqueous solution to achieve a pre-selected solution pH, wherein the exothermic
reaction component is operable to react at a pre-selected wellbore temperature to generate a pressure pulse;

mixing the aqueous solution with a viscous fluid component to form a fracturing fluid, the viscous fluid component operable
to fracture the gas-containing formation to create fractures, and the fracturing fluid further comprising a proppant component,
the proppant component carried to the fractures by the viscous fluid component, the proppant component comprises a proppant,
the proppant operable to hold open the fractures;

injecting the fracturing fluid into the wellbore in the gas-containing formation to create fractures; and
after injecting the fracturing fluid into the wellbore, generating the pressure pulse with an unreacted amount of exothermic
reaction component in situ, the unreacted amount of exothermic reaction component in situ sufficient for the pressure pulse
to be between about 500 psi and about 50,000 psi, when the exothermic reaction component reaches the pre-selected wellbore
temperature, such that the pressure pulse is operable to create auxiliary fractures by released pressure without the viscous
fluid component and the proppant component, wherein the auxiliary fractures create a fracture network, wherein the fracture
network increases the stimulated reservoir volume.

US Pat. No. 9,309,441

SULFUR ASPHALT IN ROOFING, DAMP-PROOFING AND WATER PROOFING

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method of waterproofing or damp proofing a protected member having a surface with a sulfur-extended plastomer asphalt
binder composition, the method comprising the steps of:
combining a plastomer with an asphalt binder maintained at a plastomer mixing temperature such that an intermediate asphalt
binder mixture forms;

combining elemental sulfur with the intermediate asphalt binder maintained at a sulfur mixing temperature such that a final
mixed product in the form of the sulfur-extended plastomer asphalt binder composition consisting essentially of 20% elemental
sulfur, 5% plastomer and 75% asphalt binder, each by total weight of the sulfur-extended plastomer asphalt binder composition
forms;

applying the sulfur-extended plastomer asphalt binder composition at a temperature in a range of from about ambient temperature
to no greater than 150° C. to the surface of the protected member such that the sulfur-extended plastomer asphalt binder composition
contacts, adheres to and forms a layer upon the surface of the protected member that is operable to prevent water migration
through the protected member; and

where the formed layer has a first side in contact with and adhered to the surface of the protected member and a second side
that does not contact the surface of the protected member.

US Pat. No. 9,303,507

DOWN HOLE WIRELESS DATA AND POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A conformal coating suitable for application onto production pipe for use in a wellbore, the conformal coating operable
to bend signal around production pipe in a wellbore, the conformal coating comprising:
a substrate material;
the substrate material having an array of rods embedded therein,
the embedded rods comprising a Mie Resonance based dielectric material;
the substrate material having an array of rods embedded therein is operable to conform to a wall of a pipe for use in a cased
hole, wherein the conformal coating is operable to cloak the pipe to reduce signal loss in a transmission path.

US Pat. No. 9,321,972

ENERGY-EFFICIENT AND ENVIRONMENTALLY ADVANCED CONFIGURATIONS FOR NAPTHA HYDROTREATING PROCESS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method of providing hydrotreated naphtha feedstocks to a refining reforming unit, the method comprising the steps of:
directly integrating a naphtha stripping process section with a naphtha splitting process section to enhance energy efficiency
of a naphtha hydrotreating process, the direct integration comprising:

providing a process-to-process heat exchanger unit receiving a bottom stream product of heavy naphtha from a naphtha splitter
and a bottom stream product from a naphtha stripper, the bottom stream product from the naphtha stripper providing heat energy
to the bottom stream product from the naphtha splitter; and

conducting reboiling of heavy naphtha bottom stream product from the naphtha splitter, the reboiling conducted utilizing naphtha
stripper bottom stream product from the naphtha stripper.

US Pat. No. 9,329,291

NON-HYPERBOLIC CORRECTION OF SEISMIC DATA

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method for improving seismic images by correction of distortions in the underlying input seismic data caused by a near-surface
anomaly that produces a non-hyperbolic move-out component of the seismic reflection below the anomaly, the method comprising:
a. redatuming the input seismic data to go from the surface to a target horizon using true one-way traveltime operators to
provide a first new redatuming dataset;

b. redatuming the input seismic data using hyperbolic one-way traveltime operators to provide a second new redatuming dataset;
and

c. redatuming the combination of a first causal part of the first new redatuming dataset and an anti-causal second part of
the second redatuming dataset to go from the target horizon back to the surface using hyperbolic one-way traveltime operators,
to thereby provide a dataset that is referenced to the surface without an imprint of the anomaly.

US Pat. No. 9,334,437

ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY BASE FLUID TO REPLACE THE TOXIC MINERAL OIL-BASED BASE FLUIDS

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A base fluid for use in oil-based mud compositions, the base fluid comprising:
an alkyl ester composition comprising an esterified raw material waste oil comprising fatty acids,
wherein the alkyl ester composition comprises an amount of mono-unsaturated fatty acids greater than an amount of mono-unsaturated
fatty acids present in the raw material waste oil.

US Pat. No. 9,181,435

SULFUR EXTENDED ASPHALT MODIFIED WITH CRUMB RUBBER FOR PAVING AND ROOFING

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A sulfur rubber asphalt binder composition comprising:
about 58% by weight a base asphalt having a softening point;
about 40% by weight elemental sulfur; and
2% by weight a crumb rubber material;
wherein the crumb rubber material is combined with the base asphalt and the elemental sulfur to create the sulfur rubber asphalt
binder composition, and

wherein the crumb rubber material is present in the sulfur rubber asphalt binder composition in an amount effective to increase
the softening point of the composition as compared to the softening point of the base asphalt.

US Pat. No. 9,333,482

SYNTHESIS OF ULTRA-SMALL PORE ALUMINOSILICATES BY CONTROLLED STRUCTURAL COLLAPSE OF ZEOLITES

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. An amorphous adsorbent composition for purifying hydrocarbon gas fractions comprising:
a hydrolyzed, partially collapsed Linde Type A aluminosilicate zeolite; and
a plurality of pores characterized by a pore aperture size of from about 0.33 nm to about 0.38 nm;
wherein the composition is characterized by a carbon dioxide/methane equilibrium selectivity factor in a range of about 3.8
to about 40.

US Pat. No. 9,234,146

PROCESS FOR THE GASIFICATION OF HEAVY RESIDUAL OIL WITH PARTICULATE COKE FROM A DELAYED COKING UNIT

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. An integrated process for the gasification of a heavy residual hydrocarbon oil feedstream with coke derived from a delayed
coking process to produce synthesis gas and electricity, the gasification process comprising:
a. analyzing the coke from the delayed coking process to determine its ash content:
b. grinding the coke from the delayed coking process to produce a free-flowing mass of hydrocarbon-containing coke particles
having a predetermined ash content;

c. introducing the ground coke particles into a moving fluid feedstream to form a pressurized fluidized feed;
d. providing a feedstream of the heavy residual hydrocarbon oil;
e. injecting the fluidized coke particles and the heavy residual hydrocarbon oil feedstream having a combined ash content
of at least 2% by weight into the combustion chamber of a cold-wall tubular wall membrane partial oxidation gasification reactor
in the presence of a predetermined amount of oxygen;

f. operating the gasification reactor at a temperature in the range of 900° C. to 1700° C. and a pressure of from 20 to 100
bars;

g. subjecting the feedstock to partial oxidation to produce hydrogen, carbon monoxide and a slag material;
h. recovering the hydrogen and carbon monoxide from the reactor in the form of a synthesis gas;
i. passing the hot synthesis gas to a water-cooled heat exchanger to cool the synthesis gas; and
j. recovering high pressure steam from the heat exchanger and introducing the steam into a turbine to produce electricity.

US Pat. No. 9,239,297

OUTER SURFACE INSPECTING ROBOT WITH FLIPPING OVER FLANGE MECHANISM

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A pipe inspecting robot for traveling along the surface of a pipeline, the robot comprising:
a body;
first and second articulable legs that articulate independently of one another and are attached to the body, the legs articulable
around the body around a common central body axis;

first and second leg motors controlling the first and second articulating legs, respectively; and
first and second pairs of wheels attached to the first and second articulating legs, respectively, at an opposite end of the
legs from the body, the first leg articulable around the first pair of wheels around a first wheel axis, and the second leg
articulable around the second pair of wheels around a second wheel axis, the first wheel axis and the second wheel axis parallel
to the central body axis, and the first and second wheels configured to move along the pipeline with the body;

the first and second leg motors configured so that when the first pair of wheels encounters an obstacle in front of the first
pair of wheels in the direction of movement of the body, the second leg motor rotates the second leg upward away from the
surface of the pipeline and radially around the body until the second pair of wheels contacts the surface of the pipeline
on an opposite side of the obstacle, after which the first leg motor rotates the first leg upward away from the surface of
the pipeline and radially around the body until the first pair of wheels contacts the surface of the pipeline, thereby causing
the robot to pass over the obstacle.

US Pat. No. 9,238,598

CARBON DIOXIDE CONVERSION TO HYDROCARBON FUEL VIA SYNGAS PRODUCTION CELL HARNESSED FROM SOLAR RADIATION

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A process for converting carbon dioxide to hydrocarbon fuels using solar energy, the process comprising the steps of:
receiving direct sunlight with a plurality of heliostats and reflecting the direct sunlight from the heliostats as reflected
sunlight onto a tower receiver, wherein the reflected sunlight heats a heat transfer fluid in the tower receiver;

converting a water stream to a generated steam stream in a steam generator, wherein the heat transfer fluid provides heat
to the steam generator;

feeding the generated steam stream to a steam turbine, wherein the steam turbine converts thermal energy in the generated
steam stream to mechanical energy to drive an electric generator to generate electricity;

heating a fuel feed stream by transferring thermal energy from the heat transfer fluid to create a heated fuel feed stream,
such that the heated fuel feed stream reaches a temperature of between 650° C. and 800° C.;

feeding the heated fuel feed stream to a syngas production cell, wherein the heated fuel feed stream comprises carbon dioxide
and water, wherein the carbon dioxide is captured from a fuel gas stream, wherein the syngas production cell comprises a solid
oxide electrolyzer cell, wherein the solid oxide electrolyzer cell comprises a porous cathode, the solid oxide electrolyte,
and a porous anode;

converting the carbon dioxide and water in the heated fuel feed stream to carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the syngas production
cell to produce a syngas stream, wherein the syngas production cell comprises a solid oxide electrolyte;

feeding the syngas stream to a catalytic reactor, wherein the catalytic reactor operates in the presence of a catalyst; and
converting the syngas stream to a hydrocarbon fuel stream in the catalytic reactor.

US Pat. No. 9,334,723

METHODS FOR GEOSTEERING A DRILL BIT IN REAL TIME USING SURFACE ACOUSTIC SIGNALS

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A method for steering a drill bit within a pay zone in a lateral well, the method comprising:
receiving acoustic signature data from an acoustic signal analyzing apparatus, wherein the acoustic signature data comprises
an amplitude spectrum and one or more acoustic characteristics evaluated from an acoustic signal provided by a sensor attached
to one of a drive shaft and a packing box of a drill rig, and generated in real-time as a result of rotational contact of
the drill bit with encountered rock in the lateral well during drilling;

comparing the received real-time acoustic signature data to predetermined acoustic signatures determined for a plurality of
rock samples;

identifying a lithology type of the rock being encountered by the drill bit based on the comparison; and
steering the drill bit in a predefined direction, in real-time, based on the identified lithology type of the rock, for maintaining
the drill bit within the pay zone of the lateral well.

US Pat. No. 9,334,451

HIGH QUALITY MIDDLE DISTILLATE PRODUCTION PROCESS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A process for producing reduced aromatic hydrocarbon products comprising:
a. hydrocracking a hydrocarbon feedstock in a hydrocracking zone;
b. passing a hydrocracked effluent from the hydrocracking zone to a fractionator and recovering a light fraction, a middle
fraction containing aromatic compounds and a heavy fraction from the fractionator, wherein the middle fraction includes hydrocarbons
having nominal boiling points in the range of 180-370° C.;

c. recycling the heavy fraction to the hydrocracking zone for further hydrocracking;
d. passing the middle fraction to an aromatic separation zone;
e. recovering a product stream from the aromatic separation zone comprising a middle fraction having a reduced content of
aromatic compounds compared to the middle fraction recovered from the fractionator; and

f. recycling aromatics from the aromatic separation zone to the hydrocracking zone for further hydrogenation and cracking.

US Pat. No. 9,322,491

ECONOMICAL HEAVY CONCRETE WEIGHT COATING FOR SUBMARINE PIPELINES

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method for increasing the negative buoyancy of a segment of pipe, the method comprises:
creating an economical heavy concrete weight coating comprising:
Portland cement;
iron ore, where the iron ore is less than one half of the weight of the economical heavy concrete weight coating;
steel slag, where the steel slag is produced by purifying steel billets in one of an electric arc furnace or a basic oxygen
furnace; and

sand;
where the economical heavy concrete weight coating has a unit weight of at least about 190 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) and
a thickness in a range of about 1 to about 5 inches; and

attaching the economical heavy concrete weight coating to an outer surface of the segment of pipe, where the segment of pipe
with the economical heavy concrete weight coating has a greater negative buoyancy than without the economical heavy concrete
weight coating.

US Pat. No. 9,239,717

SYSTEMS, METHODS, AND COMPUTER MEDIUM TO ENHANCE REDEPLOYMENT OF WEB APPLICATIONS AFTER INITIAL DEPLOYMENT

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A system to enhance redeployment of web applications after initial deployment, the system comprising:
one or more processors;
one or more databases in communication with the one or more processors and having data associated with a plurality of web
applications stored therein, each of the plurality of web applications configured to have an associated current deployment
status, current deployment status including one or more of the following: in development and deployed in a test environment;

one or more input and output units in communication with the one or more processors and positioned to receive input and output
communication;

one or more displays in communication with the one or more processors and configured to display an electronic user interface
thereon; and

non-transitory memory medium in communication with the one or more processors, the memory medium including:
an access module including computer-readable instructions stored therein that when executed cause the one or more processors
to perform the step of:

blocking access to initial deployment of the plurality of web applications to a plurality of users, each user configured to
have a user identifier, each of the plurality of web applications configured to be associated with a user identifier of one
or more of the plurality of users in a web application developer role thereby to define one or more developer users, each
of the plurality of web applications further configured to be associated with a user identifier of a different one or more
of the plurality of users in a web application librarian role thereby to define one or more librarian users, a librarian role
configured to indicate authorization to redeploy a web application to a production environment,

a redeployment-eligible web applications module including computer-readable instructions stored therein that when executed
cause the one or more processors to perform the steps of:

displaying a list of a first set of one or more web applications of the plurality of web applications to one of the plurality
of users responsive to a determination that each of the first set of web applications has a current deployment status of in
development and that the user identifier associated with the respective one of the plurality of users includes an indicator
that the associated user is one of the one or more developer users associated with the respective web application,

displaying a list of second set of another one or more web applications of the plurality of web applications to the one of
the plurality of users responsive to a determination that each of the second set of web applications has a current deployment
status of deployed in a test environment and that the user identifier associated with the respective one of the plurality
of users includes an indicator of a librarian role associated with each of the second set of web applications,

a redeployment module including computer-readable instructions stored therein that when executed cause the one or more processors
to perform the steps of:

responsive to user selection of a web application from the list of the first set of web applications thereby to define a first
selected web application:

determining a domain and server in the test environment configured to host the first selected web application upon redeployment,
the domain and server thereby to define a redeployment test destination,

redeploying the first selected web application to the redeployment test destination thereby to reduce redeployment time,
determining whether the redeployment to the redeployment test destination was successful,
generating a notification to indicate that the first selected web application is in test by use of the electronic user interface
when the redeployment to the redeployment test destination was successful, and

sending an electronic message to the one of the plurality of users to indicate that the first selected web application is
in test when the redeployment to the redeployment test destination was successful, and

responsive to user selection of a web application from the list of the second set of web applications thereby to define a
second selected web application:

determining a domain and server in the production environment configured to host the second selected web application upon
redeployment, the domain and server thereby to define a redeployment production destination, the production environment configured
to be different than the test environment,

redeploying the second selected web application to the redeployment production destination thereby to reduce redeployment
time and control deployment to the production environment,

determining whether the redeployment to the redeployment production destination was successful,
generating a notification to indicate that the second selected web application is in production by use of the electronic user
interface when the redeployment to the redeployment production destination was successful, and

sending an electronic message to the one of the plurality of users to indicate that the second selected web application is
in production when the redeployment to the redeployment production destination was successful.

US Pat. No. 9,441,307

CATHODIC PROTECTION AUTOMATED CURRENT AND POTENTIAL MEASURING DEVICE FOR ANODES PROTECTING VESSEL INTERNALS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A cathodic protection system comprising:
a fluid-containing vessel having a wall defining an interior surface;
a fluid disposed within the fluid-containing vessel and contacting the interior surface;
a plurality of protecting anodes disposed within the fluid-containing vessel and spaced apart from one another, each of the
plurality of protecting anodes contacting the fluid and being directly connected to the interior surface of the wall through
an electrical conduit isolated from the fluid;

a monitoring anode assembly comprising:
one or more monitoring anodes disposed within the fluid-containing vessel, wherein the one or more monitoring anodes comprises
a galvanic anode, wherein the one or more monitoring anodes is mounted on an anode mount positioned through an orifice defined
through the wall of the fluid-containing vessel; and

a flange constructed on an outer surface of the fluid-containing vessel surrounding the orifice, wherein the one or more monitoring
anodes is electrically isolated from the vessel by mechanically connecting the anode mount to the flange of the vessel using
a non-conductive mount or by positioning an insulator between the anode mount and the flange of the vessel; and

a junction box disposed on an exterior of the fluid-containing vessel, the junction box comprising:
a shunt coupled between an anode electrical line and a vessel electrical line, wherein the anode electrical line extends from
the one or more monitoring anodes through the wall of the fluid-containing vessel to the shunt, wherein the vessel electrical
line extends from the wall of the fluid-containing vessel to the shunt, and wherein the shunt has a known electrical resistance
such that a current through the shunt is calculable from a measurement of a voltage across the shunt; and

a momentary switch disposed in one of the anode electrical line and the vessel electrical line, the momentary switch having
a normally closed configuration to permit current flow therethrough, and operable to be momentarily opened to inhibit current
flow through the shunt and thereby permit a voltage measurement between the anode electrical line and the vessel electrical
line that is representative of a voltage difference between the one or more monitoring anodes and the wall of the fluid-containing
vessel.

US Pat. No. 9,262,560

AUTOMATIC RECOVERY OF RESERVOIR SIMULATION RUNS FROM PROCESSING SYSTEM FAILURES

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A computer implemented method of recovering from data processing system failures during reservoir simulation of a reservoir
model partitioned into a plurality of subdomains composed of a plurality of reservoir cells in a data processing system, the
computer implemented method comprising the steps of:
a) performing the reservoir simulation;
b) during the reservoir simulation, generating a precautionary checkpoint output at regular time intervals when computational
time exceeds a preset computational processing time value;

c) storing in disk an intermediate simulation output of reservoir simulation in response to the generation of the precautionary
checkpoint output;

d) monitoring the status of the data processing system during the reservoir simulation to determine an operating status of
the data processing system;

e) if the monitored status of the data processing system indicates satisfactory operation, continuing the step of performing
the reservoir simulation, and

f) if the monitored status of the data processing system indicates unsatisfactory operation, stopping the reservoir simulation;
g) modifying the simulation input based on the most recent stored intermediate simulation output before the unsatisfactory
operating status was determined;

h) restarting the simulation based on the most recent intermediate simulation output.

US Pat. No. 9,315,745

EBULLATED-BED PROCESS FOR FEEDSTOCK CONTAINING DISSOLVED HYDROGEN

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A process for the conversion of a liquid hydrocarbon feedstock into lower molecular weight hydrocarbon compounds in an
ebullated-bed catalytic hydroprocessing reactor, the reactor including a product outlet in fluid communication with a substantially
catalyst-free region above the ebullated catalyst bed for transferring ebullated bed reactor effluents that include unreacted
or partially reacted hydrocarbons, the process comprising:
mixing the liquid hydrocarbon feedstock with an excess of hydrogen gas in a mixing zone to dissolve a portion of the hydrogen
gas in the liquid hydrocarbon feedstock to produce a hydrogen-enriched liquid hydrocarbon feedstock;

conveying the hydrogen-enriched liquid hydrocarbon feedstock and undissolved hydrogen to a flashing zone in which at least
a portion of undissolved hydrogen is flashed, whereby gas holdup in the ebullated-bed catalytic hydroprocessing reactor and
recycle ebullating pump is reduced;

passing the hydrogen-enriched liquid hydrocarbon feedstock from the flashing zone to the feed inlet of the ebullated-bed reactor
for reaction that includes conversion of the feedstock into lower molecular weight hydrocarbons;

recovering ebullated bed reactor effluents from the substantially catalyst-free region of the ebullated-bed reactor;
passing the ebullated bed reactor effluents from the ebullated-bed reactor product outlet to an external recycle separation
zone which includes an external separation unit or flash vessel inlet in fluid communication with the product outlet and an
outlet in fluid communication with a recycle ebullating pump for passing the separation unit or flash vessel bottoms to the
inlet of the ebullated-bed reactor;

passing the external separation unit or flash vessel bottoms from which hydrogen and light gases have been removed to the
recycle ebullating pump; and

passing the separation unit or flash vessel bottoms from the recycle ebullating pump to an inlet of the ebullated-bed reactor.

US Pat. No. 9,296,961

INTEGRATED HYDROTREATING AND STEAM PYROLYSIS PROCESS INCLUDING RESIDUAL BYPASS FOR DIRECT PROCESSING OF A CRUDE OIL

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. An integrated hydrotreating and steam pyrolysis process
for the direct processing of a crude oil to produce olefinic and aromatic petrochemicals, the process comprising:
a. separating the crude oil into light components and heavy components;
b. charging the light components and hydrogen to a hydroprocessing zone operating under conditions effective to produce a
hydroprocessed effluent;

c. thermally cracking hydroprocessed effluent in the presence of steam in a steam pyrolysis zone to produce a mixed product
stream, wherein

the hydroprocessed effluent is heated in a convection section of the steam pyrolysis zone;
the heated hydroprocessed effluent is separated into a vapor phase and a liquid phase with a vapor-liquid separation device
that includes

a pre-rotational element having an entry portion and a transition portion, the entry portion having an inlet for receiving
a flowing fluid mixture and a curvilinear conduit;

a controlled cyclonic section having an inlet adjoined to the pre-rotational element through convergence of the curvilinear
conduit and the cyclonic section and a riser section at an upper end of the cyclonic member through which the vapor phase
passes, and

a liquid collector/settling section through which the liquid passes;
the vapor phase is passed to a pyrolysis section of the steam pyrolysis zone; and the liquid phase is discharged to produce
a mixed product stream;

d. separating the thermally cracked mixed product stream;
e. purifying hydrogen recovered in step (d) and recycling it to step (b);
f. recovering olefins and aromatics from the separated mixed product stream; and
g. recovering pyrolysis fuel oil from the separated mixed product.

US Pat. No. 9,221,036

HYDROCRACKING CATALYST FOR HYDROCARBON OIL, METHOD FOR PRODUCING HYDROCRACKING CATALYST, AND METHOD FOR HYDROCRACKING HYDROCARBON OIL WITH HYDROCRACKING CATALYST

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method for producing a hydrocracking catalyst for hydrocarbon oil, the hydrocracking catalyst including a hydrogenative
component carried on a support containing a framework-substituted zeolite-1 that contains
zirconium atoms and/or hafnium atoms substituting a part of aluminum atoms forming a framework of an ultra-stable Y-type zeolite,
wherein the zeolite-1 is obtained by:
firing an ultra-stable Y-type zeolite at 500° C. to 700° C., the ultra-stable Y-type zeolite having a crystal lattice constant
falling in a range of 2.430 or more and 2.450 nm or less, a specific surface area of 600 to 900 m2/g, and a molar ratio of SiO2 to AI2O3 of 20 to 100;

forming a suspension containing the fired ultra-stable Y-type zeolite, the suspension having a liquid/solid mass ratio of
5 to 15;

adding inorganic acid or organic acid so that a pH of the above suspension is 1.0 to 2.0,
subsequently adding a zirconium compound, forming a mixture therefrom and neutralizing the said mixture.

US Pat. No. 9,085,966

METHOD FOR TRANSIENT TESTING OF OIL WELLS COMPLETED WITH INFLOW CONTROL DEVICES

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A method for transient testing of a well, the method comprising:
opening the well to a first predefined choke setting to allow the reservoir fluid to flow through the well for a first predefined
period of time;

measuring a production rate of the reservoir fluid through the well, when the first predefined period of time expires;
performing a shut-in of the well for a first predefined build-up period;
when the first predefined build-up period expires, repeating the opening the well, the measuring of the production rate of
the reservoir fluid through the well, and the performing the shut-in of the well for at least two additional choke settings,
wherein each of the additional choke settings is consecutively lower than a preceding choke setting;

determining an apparent skin factor for each measured production rate, wherein the apparent skin factor is a function of the
measured production rate, and wherein, when each of the determined apparent skin factors is plotted against a respective squared-measured
production rate value, the plotted values form a linear relationship; and

determining a well skin factor and a completion skin factor based on the determined apparent skin factor, wherein the well
skin factor is defined by an intercept of the linear relationship when the squared-measured production rate is zero and the
completion skin factor is defined by a product of the slope of the linear relationship and the squared-measured production
rate.

US Pat. No. 9,447,682

CARBON-BASED FLUORESCENT TRACERS AS OIL RESERVOIR NANO-AGENTS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method of analyzing a subsurface petroleum formation, comprising the steps of:
injecting a fluid comprising a plurality of fluorescent nanoagents produced from a solution comprising citric acid, an amino
alcohol and deionized water reacted under conditions capable of synthesizing the fluorescent nanoagent into an injection well,
said injection well being fluidly connected to the subsurface petroleum formation;

recovering the fluid injected into the injection well at a production well, said production well being fluidly connected to
said subsurface petroleum formation;

analyzing the recovered fluid for the presence of the fluorescent nanoagents present therein.

US Pat. No. 9,295,957

PROCESS TO REDUCE ACIDITY OF CRUDE OIL

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A process for reducing the acidity of an acidic crude oil, comprising the steps of:
obtaining a petroleum reservoir supply of acidic crude oil, wherein the petroleum reservoir has an on-site production facility;
mixing the acidic crude oil with water at an oil:water weight ratio of about 10:1 to about 1:50 to form a crude oil/water
mixture, such mixing operable to occur at the on-site production facility;

heating the crude oil/water mixture to a crude oil/water temperature in the range of about 10° C. to about 150° C. to form
a pumpable crude oil/water mixture;

pumping the pumpable crude oil/water mixture to a pressure of at least about 22.1 MPa to form a pressurized crude oil/water
mixture;

pre-heating the pressurized crude oil/water mixture to a pressurized temperature in the range of about 150° C. to about 350°
C.;

contacting the pressurized crude oil/water mixture with a metal oxide catalyst in a reaction zone, wherein the reaction zone
comprises main reactor having an interior portion;

heating the pressurized crude oil/water mixture to a reaction temperature range of about 374° to about 600° C. while maintaining
the pressure at or above at least about 22.1 MPa for a reaction period of time operable to produce a treated crude oil having
a significantly reduced TAN in comparison to the TAN of the acidic crude oil;

reducing the pressure of the treated crude oil using a pressure regulating device to create a pressure-reduced treated mixture;
separating the pressure-reduced treated mixture into a gas portion and a liquid portion;
separating the liquid portion into recovered water and low acidity oil; and
collecting the low acidity oil wherein the low acidity oil is an upgraded crude oil having reduced amounts of asphaltene,
sulfur, nitrogen or metal containing substances as compared to the acidic crude oil.

US Pat. No. 9,134,455

HIGH PERFORMANCE AND GRID COMPUTING WITH HISTORY QUALITY OF SERVICE CONTROL

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A computer implemented method of computerized processing in a data processing system of data for exploration and production
of hydrocarbons, the data processing system including at least one master node established as a publisher of exploration and
production data with an established quality of service standard profile including a history profile for the exploration and
production data being processed, a plurality of processor nodes established as subscribers to receive exploration and production
data from the publisher master node, and a data memory, the method comprising the computer processing steps of:
(a) transmitting the established quality of service standard profile from the pr bliSher master node to the subscriber processor
nodes;

(b) establishing with the publisher master node a domain for exploration and production processing by the publisher master
node and designated ones of the plurality of processor nodes as subscriber processor nodes, and the history profile indicating
control of data communication when values of exploration and production data change before being communicated to at least
one of the designated subscriber processor nodes;

(c) further establishing the designated subscriber processor nodes as data writers to transfer to the publisher master node
the processed exploration and production data;

(d) sending a source data sample of the exploration and production data from the publisher master node to the designated subscriber
processor nodes of the domain;

(e) processing the transmitted exploration and production data in the designated subscriber processor nodes of the domain;
(f) monitoring at the publisher master node the processed exploration and production data of the designated subscriber processor
nodes of the domain;

(g) determining in the publisher master node whether the designated subscriber processor nodes of the domain comply with the
transmitted established quality of service standard profile from the publisher master node; and

(h) if so, receiving at the publisher master node the processed exploration and production data from the designated subscriber
processor nodes which comply with the transmitted established quality of service standard profile; and

(i) if not, inhibiting at the publisher master node transfer to the master publisher node of the processed exploration and
production data from the designated subscriber processor nodes which do not comply with the transmitted established quality
of service standard profile; and

(j) assembling in the data memory of the data processing system the processed exploration and production data received at
the publisher master node.

US Pat. No. 9,284,492

CATALYST FOR ENHANCED PROPYLENE IN FLUIDIZED CATALYTIC CRACKING

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. An FCC catalyst for increasing production of ethylene and propylene from heavy hydrocarbon feedstock comprising:
10% by weight ultra-stable Y-type zeolite;
30% by weight phosphorous modified sub-micron ZSM-5 catalyst characterized by an average particle size of between 50 nm and
400 nm and a silica to alumina ratio in the range of between 1:2 and 1:4;

20% by weight pseudoboehmite alumina; and
40% by weight kaolin.

US Pat. No. 9,464,034

CARBON-BASED FLUORESCENT TRACERS AS OIL RESERVOIR NANO-AGENTS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A fluorescent nanoagent for use in a subsurface petroleum reservoir, the nanoagent comprising:
a carbon-based nanoparticle core, said nanoparticle core having an average diameter of less than 100 nm and a net surface
charge of ?25 mV;

wherein said nanoparticle core includes a plurality of functional groups appended to the surface thereof, wherein the functional
groups are amino alcohols; and

wherein the fluorescent nanoagent is detectable at a concentration of about 0.001 ppm.
US Pat. No. 9,144,752

SELECTIVE TWO-STAGE HYDROPROCESSING SYSTEM AND METHOD

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. An integrated hydrocracking process for producing cracked hydrocarbons from a feedstock including:
a. separating the hydrocarbon feed into an aromatic-lean fraction and an aromatic-rich fraction;
b. hydroprocessing the aromatic-rich fraction in a first stage hydroprocessing reaction zone to produce a first stage hydroprocessing
reaction zone effluent;

c. fractionating the first stage hydroprocessing reaction zone effluent to produce one or more fractionating zone product
streams and one or more fractionating zone bottoms streams;

d. hydroprocessing a mixture of at least a portion of fractionating zone bottoms stream and aromatic-lean fraction in a second
stage hydroprocessing reaction zone to produce a second stage hydroprocessing reaction zone effluent; and

e. conveying the second stage hydroprocessing reaction zone effluent to the step of fractionating.

US Pat. No. 9,284,480

POLYMER-ENHANCED SURFACTANT FLOODING FOR PERMEABLE CARBONATES

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A process for recovering hydrocarbons in a carbonate reservoir, the process comprising the steps of:
a. introducing a first saline solution into the carbonate reservoir, wherein the first saline solution comprises water, salt,
and an absence of a surfactant;

b. recovering an amount of hydrocarbon from the carbonate reservoir;
c. introducing a second saline solution into the carbonate reservoir, wherein the second saline solution has a salt concentration
in a range of 35,000-80,000 ppm, and wherein the second saline solution comprises water, salt, a betaine surfactant comprising
ethylene glycol mono butyl ether as a co-surfactant, and a saline soluble polymer comprising xanthan gum without a pyruvylate
group exhibiting viscosity retention at 95° C. for at least 6 months at a concentration range from 0.05 weight percent to
0.1 weight percent, and wherein the second saline solution has a density of 1.008 g/cm3 and a viscosity of 4.13 centipoise at 95° C.; and

d. recovering a second amount of hydrocarbon from the carbonate reservoir.
US Pat. No. 9,169,446

DEMULSIFICATION OF EMULSIFIED PETROLEUM USING CARBON DIOXIDE AND RESIN SUPPLEMENT WITHOUT PRECIPITATION OF ASPHALTENES

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method for demulsifying an emulsified petroleum source having a predetermined resin-to-asphaltene ratio without substantial
aggregation or precipitation of asphaltenes, the method comprising:
adding a resin supplement to the emulsified petroleum source to form a resin-supplemented emulsion having a resin-to-asphaltene
ratio above a predetermined critical value;

adjusting an acidic-to-basic ratio of acidic functional groups to basic functional groups in the supplemented emulsion to
be from about 0.25 to about 4.0;

contacting the resin-supplemented emulsion with carbon dioxide to form an initial mixture, the initial mixture having an emulsified
oil phase and an emulsified aqueous phase, the carbon dioxide being chosen from subcritical carbon dioxide or supercritical
carbon dioxide;

stabilizing the initial mixture to facilitate rupture of the resin-supplemented emulsion;
forming a phase-separated mixture from the initial mixture, the phase-separated mixture comprising a separated aqueous phase
and a separated oil phase; and

removing the separated oil phase from the phase-separated mixture,wherein the resin-to-asphaltene ratio being above the predetermined critical value in the resin-supplemented emulsion maintains
asphaltene suspension in the resin-supplemented emulsion, the initial mixture, the phase-separated mixture, and the separated
oil phase removed from the phase-separated mixture.

US Pat. No. 9,360,311

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE ORIENTATION OF A DEVICE

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A method for determining orientation of a vehicle relative to a surface, the steps comprising:
providing a vehicle having:
a first chassis section;
a second chassis section;
a hinge joint connecting the first and second chassis sections such that the first and second chassis sections are capable
of rotation with respect to each other in at least a first direction;

a first wheel mounted to one of the first and second chassis sections;
a second wheel mounted to the other of the first and second chassis sections;
providing vehicle geometric data defining at least a distance between the hinge joint and a center of the first and second
wheels, respectively, and a diameter of each of the wheels;

providing surface geometric data defining a curvature of the surface;
measuring an angle of rotation about the hinge joint;
determining an orientation of the vehicle relative to the surface based on the vehicle geometric data, the surface geometric
data, and the measured angle of rotation; and

controlling operation of the vehicle in view of the determined orientation.

US Pat. No. 9,321,306

HINGED VEHICLE CHASSIS

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A robotic vehicle chassis, comprising:
a first chassis section;
a second chassis section;
a hinge joint connecting the first and second chassis sections such that the first and second chassis sections are capable
of rotation with respect to each other in at least a first direction and movement with respect to each other in a second direction;

a drive wheel mounted to one of the first and second chassis sections;
an omni-wheel mounted to the other of the first and second chassis sections; the omni-wheel being mounted at an angle orthogonal
with respect to the drive wheel;

at least a first magnet connected to at least the drive wheel or the chassis section to which the drive wheel is mounted;
and

at least a second magnet connected to at least the omni-wheel or the chassis section to which the omni-wheel is mounted,
wherein the at least first and second magnets maintain and attractive force between the first chassis section and the surface
and the second chassis section and the surface, respectively, wherein the surface is ferromagnetic,

wherein the hinge joint rotates in response to the curvature of a surface the vehicle is traversing.

US Pat. No. 9,297,285

DIRECT DENSIFICATION METHOD AND SYSTEM UTILIZING WASTE HEAT FOR ON-BOARD RECOVERY AND STORAGE OF CO2 FROM MOTOR VEHICLE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE EXHAUST GASES

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method for reducing the amount of CO2 discharged into the atmosphere with the exhaust gas stream emitted by a hydrocarbon-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE)
used to power a vehicle, the method comprising:
a. introducing the hot exhaust gas stream into a first waste heat recovery zone on board the vehicle and passing the high
temperature exhaust gas stream in heat exchange relation with a least one heat recovery device that converts waste heat into
electricity and/or mechanical work and/or heat exchanger and discharging the exhaust stream from the waste heat recovery zone
at a lower temperature,

b. introducing the cooled exhaust gas stream from the first waste heat recovery zone into a densification zone and densifying
the CO2 by reducing the temperature and volume of the CO2 utilizing the electricity and/or mechanical work produced by the recovery device, and producing a treated exhaust gas stream
of reduced CO2 content;

c. separating the densified CO2 and the remaining treated exhaust stream in a separation zone;

d. discharging the treated exhaust stream from the separation zone; and
e. maintaining the densified CO2 in a storage zone for temporary storage on board the vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,181,148

NI/CGO AND NI-RU/CGO BASED PRE-REFORMING CATALYSTS FORMULATION FOR METHANE RICH GAS PRODUCTION FROM DIESEL PROCESSING FOR FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A catalyst comprising:
a nickel component of about 20% wt.,
a cerium oxide component of about 70% wt.,
and gadolinium oxide component of about 10% wt.,
wherein said catalyst converts diesel type liquid hydrocarbons to methane rich gas.

US Pat. No. 9,128,211

HIGH PERFORMANCE AND GRID COMPUTING WITH RELIABILITY QUALITY OF SERVICE CONTROL

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A computer implemented method of computerized processing in a data processing system of data for exploration and production
of hydrocarbons, the data processing system including at least one master node established as a publisher of exploration and
production data with an established quality of service standard profile including a reliability policy for the exploration
and production data being processed, a plurality of processor nodes established as subscribers to receive exploration and
production data from the publisher master node, and a data memory, the method comprising the computer processing steps of:
(a) transmitting the established quality of service standard profile from the publisher master node to the subscriber processor
nodes;

(b) establishing with the publisher master node a domain for exploration and production processing by the publisher master
node and designated ones of the plurality of processor nodes as subscriber processor nodes;

(c) further establishing the designated subscriber processor nodes as data writers to transfer to the publisher master node
the processed exploration and production data;

(d) sending a source data sample of the exploration and production data from the publisher master node to the designated subscriber
processor nodes of the domain;

(e) processing the transmitted exploration and production data in the designated subscriber processor nodes of the domain;
(f) monitoring at the publisher master node the processed exploration and production data of the designated subscriber processor
nodes of the domain;

(g) determining in the publisher master node whether the designated subscriber processor nodes of the domain comply with the
transmitted established quality of service standard profile from the publisher master node; and

(h) if so, receiving at the publisher master node the processed exploration and production data from the designated subscriber
processor nodes which comply with the transmitted established quality of service standard profile; and

(i) if not, inhibiting at the publisher master node transfer to the publisher master node of the processed exploration and
production data from the designated subscriber processor nodes which do not comply with the transmitted established quality
of service standard profile; and

(j) assembling in the data memory of the data processing system the processed exploration and production data received at
the publisher master node.

US Pat. No. 9,101,853

INTEGRATED HYDROCRACKING AND FLUIDIZED CATALYTIC CRACKING SYSTEM AND PROCESS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. An integrated hydrocracking and fluidized catalytic cracking process for conversion of a feedstock containing hydrocarbons
having a boiling point greater than 300° C. into middle distillates and light olefins, propylene and butylene, the process
comprising:
a. introducing the feedstock and hydrogen into a first hydrocracking reaction zone containing a first hydrocracking catalyst
to produce a first zone effluent;

b. passing the first zone effluent to a fractionating zone to produce at least a low boiling fraction and a high boiling fraction,
and optionally one or more intermediate fractions;

c. passing the high boiling fraction to a fluidized catalytic cracking reaction and separation zone, wherein the fluidized
catalytic cracking reaction and separation zone operates under conditions that minimize olefin-consuming reactions and includes
a fluidized catalytic cracking reactor that is in a downflow configuration and operates at a reaction temperature in the range
of 580° C. to 630° C., a catalyst-to-oil ratio of 10:1 to 30:1, and with a contact time between catalyst particles and the
high boiling fraction of about 0.1 seconds to about 1 second;

d. recovering light olefins propylene and butylene from the fluidized catalytic cracking reaction and separation zone in a
quantity of at least about 10 V % to about 20 V %, based on the volume of the initial feedstock;

e. recovering gasoline from the fluidized catalytic cracking reaction and separation zone;
f. conveying at least a portion of remaining cycle oil from the fluidized catalytic cracking reaction and separation zone,
and hydrogen, to a second hydrocracking reaction zone containing a second hydrocracking catalyst to produce a second stage
effluent; and

g. recycling at least a portion of the second stage effluent to the fractionating zone and/or the first hydrocracking reaction
zone

wherein the integrated process is operated to afford flexibility based on a desired product slate by varying the hydrocracking
unit conversion efficiency in either or both of the first and second hydrocracking zones, wherein varying the hydrocracking
unit conversion efficiency is by one or more of

operating with reduced efficiency catalyst in the first or second hydrocracking reaction zones to favor bottoms production
and increase the quantity of feed to the fluidized catalytic cracking reactor thereby resulting in an increase in its products
olefins and/or gasoline; or

operating with a level of hydrogen feed that is relatively low to reduce the expense of hydrogen and increase the quantity
of feed to the to the fluidized catalytic cracking reactor thereby resulting in an increase in its products olefins and/or
gasoline.

US Pat. No. 9,222,480

INTEGRATED METHOD OF DRIVING A CO2 COMPRESSOR OF A CO2-CAPTURE SYSTEM USING WASTE HEAT FROM AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE ON BOARD A MOBILE SOURCE

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method of driving a CO2 compressor that forms part of a CO2 capture system on board a mobile source for recovery of CO2 from the exhaust gas stream of an ICE and its densification for storage on board the mobile source, the compressor having
a drive shaft and a CO2 intake port, the method comprising the steps of:
providing a turbine operated by a pressurized working fluid, the turbine having a power output shaft operatively connected
to the drive shaft of the CO2 compressor for driving the CO2 compressor;

heating the pressurized working fluid prior to its introduction into the turbine using waste heat produced on board the mobile
source by heat exchange with heat-emitting components on board the mobile source; and

providing a motor-generator operatively connected to the drive shaft of the CO2 compressor for recovering excess power when the turbine-generated power exceeds the CO2 compressor power demand, and for supplying supplemental power when the turbine-generated power is insufficient to meet the
power demand of the CO2 compressor.

US Pat. No. 9,315,733

ASPHALT PRODUCTION FROM SOLVENT DEASPHALTING BOTTOMS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A solvent deasphalting process comprising:
a. introducing a residual oil feedstock containing asphaltenes, a paraffinic solvent and a solid porous adsorbent material
into a mixing vessel and maintaining the components in the mixing vessel for a time sufficient so that carbonaceous materials
and contaminant compounds including sulfur- and nitrogen-containing polynuclear aromatic molecules are adsorbed on the adsorbent
material and within the pores of the adsorbent material;

b. separating a solid phase comprising asphaltenes and adsorbent material from the oil/solvent mixture;
c. passing at least a portion of the asphaltene/adsorbent mixture to a filtration vessel with a solvent to desorb at least
a portion of the adsorbed compounds, and separating and passing the solid asphalt phase to an asphalt pool;

d. recovering solid adsorbent material having carbonaceous materials and contaminant compounds including sulfur- and nitrogen-containing
polynuclear aromatic molecules deposited within its pores from the filtration vessel and passing said solid adsorbent material
to the asphalt pool, wherein no more than about 50% of the original pore volume of the adsorbent material is blocked by carbonaceous
materials and contaminant compounds;

e. recovering the solvent stream, which includes process reject materials comprising bituminous materials and heavy polynuclear
aromatic compounds, from the filtration vessel and passing said solvent stream to a fractionator to separate the process reject
materials from the solvent; and

f. recovering said process reject materials from the fractionator and passing the process reject materials to the asphalt
pool.

US Pat. No. 9,290,705

PROCESS FOR HIGH SEVERITY CATALYTIC CRACKING OF CRUDE OIL

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method for processing a crude oil feedstock having total metals (Ni+V) content of less than 5 ppm and Conradson carbon
residue of less than 5 wt % comprising:
fractionating the feedstock into a low boiling fraction and a high boiling fraction, wherein fractionating is conducted in
a range temperature conducive to produce the high boiling fraction having less than 10 wt % Conradson Carbon and less than
10 ppm total metals;

cracking the low boiling fraction in a first downflow reaction zone of a fluid catalytic cracking unit in the presence of
a predetermined amount of catalyst to produce a first cracked product stream and spent catalyst;

cracking the high boiling fraction in a second downflow reaction zone of the fluid catalytic cracking unit in the presence
of a predetermined amount of catalyst to produce a second cracked product stream and spent catalyst;

wherein each of the first and second downflow reaction zones includes a mixing zone, a separation zone and a catalyst-stripping
zone,
and
regenerating spent catalyst from both the first and second downflow reaction zones in a common regeneration zone and recycling
the regenerated catalyst back to the first and second downflow reaction zones; and

recovering the first and second cracked product streams,
wherein heat formed by combustion of coke formed on catalyst particles having increased coke formation from the high boiling
fraction reaction zone overcomes limitations associated with reduced coke formation on catalyst particles from the low boiling
fraction reaction zone.

US Pat. No. 9,338,224

INTEGRATED NODES, COMPUTER READABLE MEDIA AND PROGRAM PRODUCTS, AND COMPUTER-IMPLEMENTED METHODS FOR PROVIDING AN INTEGRATED NODE FOR DATA ACQUISITION AND RECOVERY, AND FOR REMOTE SUBSYSTEM CONTROL

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A programmable logic controller (PLC) having a central processing unit and non-transitory computer readable medium to allow
a remote host to interface with a plurality of remote subsystems to thereby define an integrated node, the integrated node
comprising:
a subsystems restorer configured to retrieve time-stamped data from any of a plurality of remote subsystems defining a plurality
of remote time-synchronized subsystems responsive to communications failure between the integrated node and any of the plurality
of remote time-synchronized subsystems, the subsystems restorer comprising a computer program being stored on the non-transitory
computer-readable storage medium, the computer program comprising a set of instructions that, when executed by the central
processing unit of the integrated node, causes the integrated node to perform the following operations:

detecting a time of a communication failure and a time of a corresponding communication recovery in a communication link between
the integrated node and any of the plurality of remote time-synchronized subsystems,

retrieving at least one data file from one of the plurality of remote time-synchronized subsystems responsive to the detected
time of the communication failure and the detected time of the corresponding communication recovery,

extracting the time-stamped process data from and contained within the retrieved at least one data file, the time-stamped
process data being extracted starting from the time of the communication failure and ending at the time of the corresponding
communication recovery, and

transmitting the time-stamped process data extracted from the retrieved at least one data file, to the remote host responsive
to the extracting operation; and

a host restorer configured to retrieve archived time-stamped process data responsive to a communication failure between the
integrated node and the remote host, the host restorer comprising a computer program being stored on the non-transitory computer-readable
storage medium, the computer program comprising a set of instructions that, when executed by the central processing unit of
the integrated node, causes the integrated node to perform the following operations:

detecting a time of a communication failure and a time of a corresponding communication recovery in a communication link between
the integrated node and the remote host,

extracting portions of the archived time-stamped process data from and contained within one or more of at least one time-stamped
archive files, the time-stamped process data being extracted starting from the time of the communication failure and ending
at the time of the corresponding communication recovery, and

transmitting the extracted portions of the archived time-stamped process data extracted from the one or more of the at least
one time-stamped archive files, to the remote host responsive to the extracting operation.

US Pat. No. 9,404,359

ACTIVE DRILLING MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL SYSTEM FOR EXTENDED REACH AND COMPLEX WELLS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method for modifying a detected anomaly in a well bore using a dynamically controlled drill string comprising the steps
of:
introducing the dynamically controlled drill string into the well bore such that a well bore annulus forms between an external
surface of the dynamically controlled drill string and a wall of the well bore, where the dynamically controlled drill string
includes communications subs, measurement subs and circulation subs along its operable length, has an internal fluid conduit
and the external surface for its operative length and has an open distal end that is operable to pass fluid between the internal
fluid conduit and the well bore, where the circulation sub is operable to selectively modify a fluid circulation flow path
for a fluid in the well bore upon receiving of a pre-designated command signal, and where the well bore is defined by the
well bore wall that extends from a surface into a hydrocarbon-bearing formation and contains the fluid;

inducing circulation of the fluid in the well bore such that the fluid circulates along a first fluid circulation flow path
that extends through the dynamically controlled drill string, a drill bit on an end of the drilling string, and the well bore
annulus;

operating the dynamically controlled drill string such that a one of the measurement subs detects an anomaly adjacent the
a one of the measurement subs and transmits wirelessly upstring a corresponding data signal associated with the detected anomaly;

operating the dynamically controlled drill string such that the communication sub receives wirelessly the data signal from
the measurement sub and retransmits the data signal wirelessly upstring, where the communication sub is located upstring of
the measurement sub;

transmitting wirelessly downhole to the circulation sub a pre-designated command signal associated with modifying the fluid
circulation flow path from the first fluid circulation flow path to a second fluid circulation flow path, where the second
fluid circulation flow path directs fluid towards the detected anomaly;

operating the dynamically controlled drill string such that the communication sub receives wirelessly the pre-designated command
signal from upstring and retransmits the pre-designated command signal wirelessly downstring, where the communication sub
is located upstring of the circulation sub; and

introducing a modifying fluid from a port in a one of the circulation subs that is adjacent the anomaly, and that is operable
to modify the detected anomaly in the well bore such that the modifying fluid circulates in the well bore along the second
fluid circulation flow path fluid and rectifies the anomaly, wherein the modifying fluid comprises the fluid that has been
diverted from within the dynamically controlled drill string and that would otherwise flow to the drill bit.

US Pat. No. 9,284,502

INTEGRATED SOLVENT DEASPHALTING, HYDROTREATING AND STEAM PYROLYSIS PROCESS FOR DIRECT PROCESSING OF A CRUDE OIL

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. An integrated solvent deasphalting, hydrotreating and steam pyrolysis process for the direct processing of a crude oil
to produce olefinic and aromatic petrochemicals, the process comprising:
a. charging the crude oil to a solvent deasphalting zone with an effective amount of solvent for producing a deasphalted and
demetalized oil stream and a bottom asphalt phase;

b. charging the deasphalted and demetalized oil stream and hydrogen to a hydroprocessing zone operating under conditions effective
to produce a hydroprocessed effluent having a reduced content of contaminants, an increased paraffinicity, reduced Bureau
of Mines Correlation Index, and an increased American Petroleum Institute gravity;

c. thermally cracking the hydroprocessed effluent in the presence of steam in a steam pyrolysis zone to produce a mixed product
stream, wherein

the hydroprocessed effluent is heated in a convection section of the steam pyrolysis zone;
the heated hydroprocessed effluent is separated into a vapor phase and a liquid phase with a vapor-liquid separation device
that includes

a pre-rotational element having an entry portion and a transition portion, the entry portion having an inlet for receiving
a flowing fluid mixture and a curvilinear conduit,

a controlled cyclonic section having an inlet adjoined to the pre-rotational element through convergence of the curvilinear
conduit and the cyclonic section and a riser section at an upper end of the cyclonic member through which the vapor phase
passes, and

a liquid collector/settling section through which the liquid passes; the vapor phase is passed to a pyrolysis section of the
steam pyrolysis zone; and the liquid phase is discharged to produce a mixed product stream;

d. separating the thermally cracked mixed product stream;
e. purifying hydrogen recovered in step (d) and recycling it to step (b);
f. recovering olefins and aromatics from the separated mixed product stream; and
g. recovering pyrolysis fuel oil from the separated mixed product stream.

US Pat. No. 9,309,754

METHOD TO IMPROVE CONFORMANCE CONTROL IN CARBON DIOXIDE FLOODING

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A process to improve oil recovery from a reservoir, the process comprising the steps of:
injecting through a well into a reservoir a heavy oil slug composition comprising heavy oil having a density mixed with carbon
dioxide having a density, said heavy oil slug composition having a compositional density and a compositional viscosity, the
compositional density being selected based on a density of oil in place in the reservoir; and

injecting through the well into the reservoir a carbon dioxide slug comprising carbon dioxide, the carbon dioxide slug following
the heavy oil slug composition,

wherein the density of the heavy oil is greater than the density of the oil in place in the reservoir.

US Pat. No. 9,284,501

INTEGRATED SLURRY HYDROPROCESSING AND STEAM PYROLYSIS OF CRUDE OIL TO PRODUCE PETROCHEMICALS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. An integrated slurry hydroprocessing and steam pyrolysis process for production of olefinic and aromatic petrochemicals
from crude oil, the process comprising:
a. treating the crude oil and residuals or bottoms derived from slurry residue, and optionally, one or more of a heated stream
within the steam pyrolysis zone or a mixed product stream, in a slurry hydroprocessing zone in the presence of hydrogen under
conditions effective to produce an effluent having an increased hydrogen content;

b. separating the effluent from step (a) into a vapor phase and a liquid phase in a flash vessel having at its inlet a vapor-liquid
separation device including

a pre-rotational element having an entry portion and a transition portion, the entry portion having an inlet for receiving
the effluent from step (a) and a curvilinear conduit,

a controlled cyclonic section having an inlet adjoined to the pre-rotational element through convergence of the curvilinear
conduit and the cyclonic section, and a riser section at an upper end of the cyclonic member through which vapors pass,

wherein a bottom portion of the flash vessel serves as a collection and settling zone for the liquid phase prior to passage
of all or a portion of said liquid phase to step (a) as slurry residue

c. thermally cracking the effluent in the presence of steam in a steam pyrolysis zone under conditions effective to produce
the mixed product stream;

d. separating the mixed product stream;
e. purifying hydrogen recovered in step (d) and recycling it to step (a); and
f. recovering olefins and aromatics from the separated mixed product stream.
US Pat. No. 9,187,388

OLEFIN HYDRATION PROCESS USING OSCILLATORY BAFFLED REACTOR

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A butanol production system for producing refined mixed butanols from water and mixed butenes, the butanol production system
comprising:
an internal baffle single pass reactor that
has an internal fluid conduit defined by an internal wall and an operating length between a proximal end and a distal end,
has a set of internal flow baffles along at least a portion of the operative length of the internal fluid conduit, where the
set of internal flow baffles and the internal wall define a set of baffled cells, and

is operable to contain a process fluid comprising water, mixed butenes and mixed butanols, to convey the process fluid through
the internal fluid conduit from about the proximal end to the distal end along a process fluid flow pathway, and to provide
a crude product from about the distal end;

a separation system that fluidly couples to about the distal end of the internal baffle single pass reactor and is operable
to receive the crude product and to separately selectively separate water and mixed butenes from the crude product such that
a refined mixed butanols is produced; and

an exterior motion driver that couples to about the proximal end of the internal baffle single pass reactor and is operable
to induce unsteadiness in the fluid flow of the process fluid through the internal baffle single pass reactor.

US Pat. No. 9,310,416

GSM/GPRS BASED METHOD, SYSTEM AND COMPUTER PROGRAMS TO DETERMINE AND LOCATE HIGH IMPEDANCE FAULTS ON MEDIUM VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS IN HIGH RESISTIVITY

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A system to detect and locate broken or open conductor faults associated with a medium voltage distribution network positioned
to distribute electric power to areas with high resistivity, the system comprising:
a voltage distribution network configured to distribute electric power to areas that have high resistivity, the voltage distribution
network comprising a plurality of high voltage conductor lines, each having a common node, and a plurality of low voltage
conductor lines;

a plurality of distribution transformers, each of the plurality of distribution transformers comprising an upper portion connected
to one or more of the plurality of high voltage conductor lines and configured to reduce one or more first voltages received
by the one or more of the plurality of high voltage conductor lines to one or more second voltages that are lower than the
one or more first voltages, each of the plurality of distribution transformers further comprising a bottom portion connected
to one or more of the plurality of low voltage conductor lines to distribute the one or more second voltages thereto from
a respective one or more of the plurality of distribution transformers; and

a plurality of open conductor devices, each of the plurality of open conductor devices being connected on a low voltage side
of a respective distribution transformer and to a lateral end of a respective low voltage conductor line that is connected
to the bottom portion of the respective distribution transformer, each of the plurality of open conductor devices configured
to communicate a plurality of voltage readings to a master station via a global system for mobile (GSM) communication network
and comprising:

a power supply configured to supply power to the plurality of open conductor devices, the power supply comprising a voltage
transformer and a rectifier circuit,

a battery charging unit configured to charge a direct current (DC) battery as backup power supply,
a GSM module configured to facilitate communication with the GSM communication network,
a voltage sensing module configured to sense voltages of the plurality of low voltage conductor lines, and
one or more microcontroller boards connected to the GSM communication network interface and configured to store a plurality
of voltage loads of the plurality of low voltage conductor lines sensed by the voltage sensing module and to communicate the
plurality of voltage loads using the GSM communication,

the system further comprising
one or more servers positioned remote from the plurality of open conductor devices and in proximity to a substation to define
the master station, the master station being configured to determine a location of one or more broken or open conductor faults
on the voltage distribution network, the master station comprising:

one or more processors;
one or more subscriber identification modules configured to facilitate communication with the GSM communication network;
one or more non-transitory computer-readable mediums encoded with one or more computer programs operable with the one or more
processors to determine the location of the one or more broken or open conductor faults on the voltage distribution network,
the computer program comprising the instructions of:

constructing a plurality of voltage distribution topology lookup tables for the voltage distribution network, the plurality
of lookup tables comprising a topology of each of the plurality of high voltage conductor lines, each of the plurality of
low voltage conductor lines, and each pathway to a common connection point via the plurality of high voltage conductor lines,
the plurality of open conductor devices, and the plurality of low voltage conductor lines,

determining, responsive to receiving a plurality of first voltage loads from the plurality of low voltage conductor lines
over a predetermined period of time from the plurality of open conductor devices, a baseline voltage for each of the plurality
of low voltage conductor lines,

determining receipt of a plurality of second voltage loads that is at least a predetermined difference lower than the baseline
voltage for the plurality of low voltage conductor lines, the plurality of second voltage loads being communicated from at
least two of the plurality of open conductor devices via the GSM communication network to thereby define a plurality of fault
detected conductor devices,

identifying, responsive to the plurality of voltage distribution topology look up tables, each pathway that is shared by each
of the plurality of fault detected conductor devices and the common connection point based on the plurality of voltage distribution
topology lookup tables, and

identifying, responsive to identifying each pathway that is shared, two of the plurality of fault detected conductor devices
that are positioned furthermost downstream from the common connection point, a location of a broken or open conductor fault
being in proximity to one or more of the plurality of high voltage conductor lines connected between the two of the plurality
of fault detected conductor devices.

US Pat. No. 9,221,037

MULTIMETAL ZEOLITES BASED CATALYST FOR TRANSALKYLATION OF HEAVY REFORMATE TO PRODUCE XYLENES AND PETROCHEMICAL FEEDSTOCKS

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A transalkylation catalyst for the conversion of a heavy reformate feedstock into a xylenes-rich product stream and a C2
through C4 hydrocarbon product stream, the transalkylation catalyst consisting of:
a beta zeolite in ammonium form, containing Na2O present in an amount of 0.05% by weight, based on the total weight of the beta zeolite in ammonium form;

ZSM-5;
nickel;
platinum;
cerium; and
alumina;
wherein the beta zeolite in ammonium form, ZSM 5 and alumina are present in a ratio of 3:1:1.

US Pat. No. 9,311,720

AUTOMATED SAW CUT CORRECTION FOR 3D CORE DIGITAL MODELING FROM COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY SCANNER (CTS) IMAGES

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A computer-implemented method to process two-dimensional images of a core sample, the method comprising:
superimposing, using one or more computer processors, a plurality of polygon shaped images of a substantially cylindrical
core sample with a slab cut onto one another to thereby define stacked aligned representations, each image having a representation
of a different transverse section of the core sample and a background that substantially surrounds the representation;

discarding, using one or more computer processors, the background of the stacked representations;
identifying, using one or more computer processors, two or more pixels in the stacked representations that have a value of
substantially zero to define a plurality of zero-value pixels;

determining, using one or more computer processors, an imaginary best-fit line for the identified zero-value pixels to thereby
define a saw cut line;

approximating, using one or more computer processors, circular location of peripheries of each of the representation of the
superimposed transverse sections to define an approximated slab cut boundary;

comparing, using one or more computer processors, a number of non-zero pixels on a first side of the saw cut line with a number
of non-zero pixels on a second side of the saw cut line, a smaller portion of each of the representation of transverse section
of the core sample being a portion of the superimposed transverse sections associated with the smaller number of non-zero
pixels relative to the saw cut line, a larger portion being a portion of the representation associated with the larger number
of non-zero pixels;

identifying, using one or more computer processors, a point positioned on peripheries of the smaller portion to thereby define
a standalone point;

determining, using one or more computer processors, an imaginary line perpendicular to the saw cut line that extends through
the standalone point to define a reference line; and

moving, using one or more computer processors, the smaller portion parallel to the reference line to position the standalone
point on peripheries of the approximated slab cut boundary to thereby define a corrected saw cut line image.

US Pat. No. 9,453,159

CARBON-BASED FLUORESCENT TRACERS AS OIL RESERVOIR NANO-AGENTS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method for the preparation of a fluorescent nanoagent for use in a subsurface petroleum reservoir, the method comprising
the steps of:
heating an aqueous mixture of citric acid and an amino alcohol at a temperature of about 70° C. to remove the majority of
the water and produce a viscous solution;

heating the viscous solution at a temperature of at least about 200° C. for at least about 2 hours; and
collecting the resulting black particles products, said particles having an average diameter about 10 nm, and wherein said
particles include a fluorescent group appended to the surface thereof.

US Pat. No. 9,296,960

TARGETED DESULFURIZATION PROCESS AND APPARATUS INTEGRATING OXIDATIVE DESULFURIZATION AND HYDRODESULFURIZATION TO PRODUCE DIESEL FUEL HAVING AN ULTRA-LOW LEVEL OF ORGANOSULFUR COMPOUNDS

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A method of processing a straight run gas oil hydrocarbon feed to remove undesired organosulfur compounds comprising:
a. flashing the straight run gas oil hydrocarbon feed at a temperature cut point of about 320° C. to about 360° C. to provide
a low boiling temperature fraction that contains labile organosulfur compounds and
a high boiling temperature fraction that contains refractory organosulfur compounds;
b. subjecting the low boiling temperature fraction to a hydrodesulfurizing process to thereby reduce the sulfur content;
c. contacting the high boiling temperature fraction with an oxidizing agent and an oxidizing catalyst to convert refractory
organosulfur compounds, including dibenzothiophenes, alkyl derivatives of dibenzothiophenes and long-chain alkylated derivatives
of benzothiophene having a boiling point in the range of the high boiling temperature fraction, to sulfoxides and/or sulfones;
and

d. separating the sulfoxides and/or sulfones produced in step (c) and recovering a low sulfur hydrocarbon product.
US Pat. No. 9,334,721

METHOD OF USING A NON-ACIDIC STIMULATION FLUID IN HIGH TEMPERATURE SANDSTONE FORMATIONS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A non-acidic method for the stimulation of a sandstone formation, the method comprising the steps of:
injecting a preflush brine solution into the wellbore such that the brine solution displaces potassium, sodium and calcium
ions in the sandstone formation, wherein the preflush brine solution comprises aqueous solution selected from the group consisting
of: aqueous ammonium chloride brine between about 5% and about 10% by weight and aqueous potassium chloride brine between
about 3% and about 8% by weight;

after injecting the preflush brine solution, then injecting a basic stimulation fluid into the wellbore, without the use of
an acidic stimulation fluid, such that the basic stimulation fluid solubilizes at least a portion of the sandstone formation,
wherein the basic stimulation fluid comprises aqueous sodium hydroxide solution between about 5% and about 28% by weight;
and

injecting an overflush brine solution into the wellbore, wherein the non-acidic method for the stimulation of the sandstone
formation produces substantially no precipitates in the sandstone formation.

US Pat. No. 9,285,307

CHARACTERIZATION OF CRUDE OIL BY ULTRAVIOLET VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A system for determining indicative properties of a gas oil fraction of a crude oil, based upon ultraviolet visible spectroscopy
data derived from a sample of the crude oil and the weight and density of the sample, the system comprising:
a non-volatile memory device that stores calculation modules and data;
a processor coupled to the memory;
a first calculation module that calculates a crude oil ultraviolet visible index value for the gas oil fraction based on the
sample's weight and the absorbance values of the spectroscopy data;

a second calculation module that derives the cetane number for the gas oil fraction of the crude oil as a function of the
ultraviolet visible index and density of the sample;

a third calculation module that derives the pour point for the gas oil fraction of the crude oil as a function of the ultraviolet
visible index and density of the sample;

a fourth calculation module that derives the cloud point for the gas oil fraction of the crude oil as a function of the ultraviolet
visible index and density of the sample; and

a fifth calculation module that derives the aniline point for the gas oil fraction of the crude oil as a function of the ultraviolet
visible index and density of the sample.

US Pat. No. 9,145,523

UPGRADING OF HYDROCARBONS BY HYDROTHERMAL PROCESS

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A method for upgrading a hydrocarbon feedstock, the method comprising the steps of:
supplying a low grade first hydrocarbon feedstock to a first reactor selected from the group consisting of a hydrocracker,
a coker, a visbreaker, a hydrotreater, and a catalytic cracker, wherein said first reactor configured for the upgrading of
the low grade first hydrocarbon feedstock;

recovering an intermediate hydrocarbon stream from the first reactor;
separating the intermediate hydrocarbon stream into a light hydrocarbon stream and a bottoms stream, the bottoms stream comprises
a hydrogen donating composition,

wherein the hydrogen donating composition is selected from the group consisting of tetralin, alkylated tetralin, and combinations
of the same;

pre-heating the bottoms stream to a temperature of at least about 120° C. for a period of at least about 10 minutes to produce
a pre-heated bottoms stream;

mixing said pre-heated bottoms stream, a hydrocarbon feedstock, and water to form a reaction mixture;
supplying the reaction mixture to a main hydrothermal reactor maintained at a temperature greater than about 374° C. and a
pressure greater than about 22.06 MPa for a residence time in the main hydrothermal reactor of between about 30 seconds and
60 minutes to produce a modified stream comprising upgraded hydrocarbons, wherein the main hydrothermal reactor does not include
a catalyst;

withdrawing the modified stream;
separating the modified stream into a gaseous phase and a liquid phase; and
separating the liquid phase into a water stream and an upgraded hydrocarbon stream, wherein the upgraded hydrocarbon stream
has at least one improved physical property as compared with the hydrocarbon feedstock, the physical properties selected from
sulfur content, nitrogen content, metal content, coke content, and API gravity.

US Pat. No. 9,284,497

INTEGRATED SOLVENT DEASPHALTING AND STEAM PYROLYSIS PROCESS FOR DIRECT PROCESSING OF A CRUDE OIL

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. An integrated solvent deasphalting and steam pyrolysis process for the direct processing of a crude oil to produce olefinic
and aromatic petrochemicals, the process comprising:
a. charging the crude oil to a solvent deasphalting zone with an effective amount of solvent to produce a deasphalted and
demetalized oil stream and a bottom asphalt phase;

b. thermally cracking at least a portion of the deasphalted and demetalized oil stream in the presence of steam in a steam
pyrolysis zone to produce a mixed product stream, wherein

at least a portion of the deasphalted and demetalized oil stream is heated in a convection section of the steam pyrolysis
zone;

the heated deasphalted and demetalized oil stream is separated into a vapor phase and a liquid phase with a vapor-liquid separation
device that includes

a pre-rotational element having an entry portion and a transition portion, the entry portion having an inlet for receiving
a flowing fluid mixture and a curvilinear conduit;

a controlled cyclonic section having an inlet adjoined to the pre-rotational element through convergence of the curvilinear
conduit and the cyclonic section and a riser section at an upper end of the cyclonic member through which the vapor phase
passes, and

a liquid collector/settling section through which the liquid passes; the vapor phase is passed to a pyrolysis section of the
steam pyrolysis zone; and the liquid phase is discharged to produce a mixed product stream;

c. separating the thermally cracked mixed product stream;
d. recovering olefins and aromatics from the separated mixed product stream; and
e. recovering pyrolysis fuel oil from the separated mixed product stream.

US Pat. No. 9,447,889

BLOCKED VALVE ISOLATION TOOL

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

2. In a gas flow duct system which includes
(a) a gas flow duct with a central bore,
(b) a valve in said gas flow duct to be blocked from gas leakage therefrom,
(c) a permanent vent duct which has proximal and opposite distal ends, said distal end in permanent intersecting and in fluid
communication with the central bore of said gas flow duct,

(d) a vent duct valve in said permanent vent duct having open and closed states, and
(e) a source of compressed gas and a compressed gas valve to selectively allow flow of said gas, the improvement of a valve
isolation tool to block leakage gas flow through said valve to be blocked,

said valve isolation tool comprising:
(1) an outer tube having proximal and distal ends,
(2) an inner tube having proximal and distal ends and movable axially within said outer tube, said proximal end fluid coupled
to said source of compressed gas,

(3) an inflatable balloon attached to said distal end of said inner tube and inflatable with gas flowed from said source of
compressed gas, and

(4) a balloon deflection device having a first part secured to said inner tube, and a second part that extends distally from
said first part to lie adjacent said balloon, said device being spring biased to bend in a predetermined inclination from
the axis of said inner tube to deflect said balloon after said balloon is transported through said outer tube and into the
bore of said gas duct,

wherein said isolation tool is insertable through said permanent vent duct valve when said valve is in its open state, and
thence through said the vent duct to said gas flow duct, and said inner tube is axially movable through said outer tube until
said balloon is situated within said gas flow duct where said balloon is inflatable and said second part of said balloon deflection
device deflects said balloon in said predetermined direction toward the valve to be blocked, and wherein said vent duct has
a proximal part extending proximally from said vent duct valve and generally axially with said vent duct, said valve isolation
tool further comprising a flexible cover having a proximal end securely disposed airtight about the proximal end of the inner
tube, and a distal end of securely disposed airtight about said duct segment so that said cover encompasses said outer tube
extending proximally of said distal portion of said vent duct and a proximal part of said inner tube.

US Pat. No. 9,303,496

SUBMERSIBLE PUMP SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A submersible pump system that is operable to permit selective access into a production zone of a well bore while a submersible
pumping device is operating, the submersible pump system comprising:
a Y-tool having a production tubing branch, a submersible pump branch and a bypass branch;
a submersible pumping device that couples to and is in fluid communication with the Y-tool through the submersible pump branch,
where the submersible pumping device is operable to receive a pre-designated pump control signal;

a control valve assembly that couples to and is in fluid communication with the Y-tool through the bypass branch, where the
control valve assembly comprises a valve, is operable to receive a pre-designated valve control signal and is operable to
selectively permit access between the interior of the submersible pumping system and the exterior of the submersible pumping
system, and where the valve comprises both a valve disk and a valve bore wall, where the valve bore wall defines a valve bore;

a seal assembly in the control valve assembly that dynamically seals against an outer surface of a well bore tool that selectively
is inserted through the control valve assembly; and

a power conduit that couples to and is in communication with both the submersible pumping device and the control valve assembly,
where the power conduit is operable to convey both power and a pre-designated control signal simultaneously.

US Pat. No. 9,469,599

CARBON-BASED FLUORESCENT TRACERS AS OIL RESERVOIR NANO-AGENTS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method for the preparation of a fluorescent nanoagent for use in a subsurface petroleum reservoir, the method comprising
the steps of:
heating an aqueous solution comprising sugar under high pressure at a temperature of at least 150° C. for at least 4 hours;
adding an amino alcohol to the solution and refluxing the resulting mixture for a period of at least 10 hours,
collecting a solid product comprising carbon-based nanoparticles having fluorescent functional groups attached to the surface
thereof, wherein the fluorescent nanoagent further comprises an organic functional group present in an amount of between 50%
and 90% by weight.

US Pat. No. 9,267,429

EMISSION REDUCTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES BY ON-BOARD CARBON DIOXIDE CONVERSION TO FUEL

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. An on-board catalytic apparatus, the apparatus comprising:
a heat exchanger operable to extract thermal energy from exhaust gases of a combustion engine, the combustion engine powering
propulsion of a vehicle;

a membrane separator operable to separate water and carbon dioxide from the exhaust gases; and
a catalytic reactor contained in a body of the heat exchanger, the catalytic reactor operable to:
receive the water and the carbon dioxide from the membrane separator;
contain a reaction of the water and the carbon dioxide that produces a hydrocarbon fuel, the reaction being facilitated by
a nano catalyst; and

use the thermal energy from the heat exchanger to stimulate the reaction of the water and the carbon dioxide.

US Pat. No. 9,268,057

REAL-TIME DYNAMIC DATA VALIDATION APPARATUS AND COMPUTER READABLE MEDIA FOR INTELLIGENT FIELDS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. An apparatus for managing an intelligent field, the apparatus comprising:
a plurality of hydrocarbon well instruments, the well instruments comprising: a permanent downhole monitoring system (PDHMS),
a multiphase flow meter (MPFM), a wellhead pressure (WHP) and wellhead temperature (WHT) measurement device, a tubing or casing
annulus (TCA) pressure measurement, and optionally an electrical submersible pump (ESP) when desired;

a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for an intelligent hydrocarbon recovery field system, the SCADA
system operably coupled to the plurality of well instruments to receive data from the plurality of well instruments;

a process integration (PI) server for the intelligent field system, the PI server operably coupled to the SCADA system to
receive data from the SCADA system;

a dynamic field data analyzing computer including a processor and memory coupled to the processor, the dynamic field data
analyzing computer operably coupled to the PI server to receive data from the PI server; and

dynamic field data analyzing program code stored in the memory of the dynamic field data analyzing computer and including
instructions that when executed by the dynamic field data analyzing computer, cause the computer to perform the operations
of:

receiving real-time dynamic field data for the intelligent field system, the real-time field data comprising one or more well
instrument data values for each of the plurality of well instruments;

analyzing validity of the dynamic field data, the analysis including comparing the one or more well instrument data values
for at least one of the plurality of well instruments to validation criteria to determine whether one or more of the well
instrument data values fall within respective validation criteria;

in response to determining that one or more of the well instrument data values fall within the respective validation criteria,
validating the one or more well instrument data values that fall within the respective validation criteria;

in response to determining that one or more of the well instrument data values fall outside the respective validation criteria:
flagging the one or more well instrument data values that fall outside the respective validation criteria for the at least
one well instrument;

determining whether the one or more well instrument data values that fall outside the respective validation criteria are reliable;
in response to determining the one or more well instrument data values that fall outside the respective validation criteria
are reliable, generating an alert indicating the that the one or more well instrument data values are reliable and invalid;
and

in response to determining the one or more well instrument data values that fall outside the respective validation criteria
are unreliable, generating a report indicating the that the one or more well instrument data values are unreliable and invalid.

US Pat. No. 9,062,539

HYBRID TRANSPONDER SYSTEM FOR LONG-RANGE SENSING AND 3D LOCALIZATION

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A system to determine a size, extent, and orientation of a hydraulic fracture of a reservoir, the system comprising:
a plurality of transponders each configured to be carried by a fluid into a hydraulic fracture of a reservoir, each transponder
comprising a substrate carrying:

an RF receiver antenna configured to receive radiofrequency (RF) signals comprising a command RF signal,
an acoustic transmitter configured to transmit an acoustic return signal, and
a control circuit operably coupled to the RF antenna and to the acoustic transmitter and configured:
to receive the command RF signal through the RF receiver antenna,
to selectively control a state of the acoustic transmitter of the respective transponder in response thereto,
to determine a power level of the received command RF signal,
to transmit the acoustic return signal from the acoustic transmitter when the power level of the received command signal is
at or above a predetermined power level thereby to define an active state, and

to enter a quiescent state when the power level of the received command signal drops below the predetermined level;
a reader dimensioned to be deployed within a wellbore, the reader comprising:
an RF antenna assembly including an RF antenna,
an RF transmitter operably coupled to the RF antenna and configured to transmit the command RF signal or command RF signals
to the plurality of transponders deployed within the reservoir, and

at least one acoustic receiver configured to receive acoustic return signals from the plurality of transponders deployed within
the reservoir; and

a reader controller, a computer controller, or both the reader controller and the computer controller defining one or more
controllers configured to perform the operations of:

initiating rotation of the reader RF antenna of the reader to actuate one or more of the plurality of transponders,
identifying an approximate center of positive response for each of the one or more of the plurality of transponders responsive
to receiving the respective acoustic return signal therefrom,

determining an approximate azimuth of the one or more of the plurality of transponders,
repeating performing the operations of causing the rotation of the RF antenna of the reader and identifying an approximate
center of positive response for each of one or more other of the plurality of the transponders until determining the approximate
azimuth for each of the plurality of transponders,

determining a three-dimensional position of each of the plurality of transponders responsive to determining the approximate
azimuth of each of the plurality of transponders, and

determining characteristics of the hydraulic fracture responsive to the determining the three-dimensional position of each
of the plurality of transponders.

US Pat. No. 9,297,747

METHOD TO DETERMINE TRACE AMOUNTS OF CRUDE OIL BY SPECTROSCOPIC ABSORPTION

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

10. A method for determining trace amounts of crude oil in water, the method comprising the steps of:
collecting a sample of an oil-containing fluid in a sample container, wherein the oil-containing fluid comprises an amount
of oil and an aqueous fluid;

adding a extraction volume comprising toluene to the sample in the sample container;
perturbing the sample in the sample container, wherein the extraction volume comprising toluene contacts the oil-containing
fluid;

dissolving substantially all of the amount of oil in the extraction volume comprising toluene to create a mixed sample in
the sample container;

extracting the mixed sample to create an oil-in-toluene layer and an aqueous fluid layer in the sample container;
separating the mixed sample to separate the oil-in-toluene layer and the aqueous fluid layer in the sample container;
removing a pre-defined portion of the oil-in-toluene layer into a dilution container;
diluting the pre-defined portion of the oil-in-toluene layer with a toluene dilution volume to create a dilute sample;
measuring an absorption value of the dilute sample using a spectrophotometer; and
comparing the absorption value to a calibration curve to quantify the amount of oil in the oil-containing fluid,
wherein the method for determining trace amounts of crude oil in an oil-containing fluid is in the absence of a fluid assist.

US Pat. No. 9,202,169

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR DRILLING FLUIDS EXPERT SYSTEMS USING BAYESIAN DECISION NETWORKS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A system, comprising
one or more processors;
a non-transitory tangible computer-readable memory, the memory comprising:
a drilling fluids expert system executable by the one or more processors and configured to provide one or more drilling fluids
recommendations based on one or more inputs, the drilling fluids expert system comprising a drilling fluids Bayesian decision
network (BDN) model, the drilling fluids BDN model comprising

a temperature ranges uncertainty node configured to receive one or more temperature ranges from the one or more inputs, each
of the one or more temperature ranges associated with a respective one or more temperature range probabilities;

a formations uncertainty node configured to receive one or more formations from the one or more inputs, each of the one or
more formations associated with a respective one or more formation probabilities;

a potential hole problems uncertainty node dependent on the formations uncertainty node and configured to receive one or more
potential hole problems from the one or more inputs and the one or more formation probabilities, each of the one or more potential
hole problems associated with a respective one or more potential hole problem probabilities;

a drilling fluids decision node configured to receive one or more drilling fluids from the one or more inputs; and
a consequences node dependent on the temperature ranges uncertainty node, the potential hole problems uncertainty node, and
the drilling fluids decision node and configured to output the one or more drilling fluids recommendations based on one or
more Bayesian probabilities calculated from the one or more temperature ranges and the one more temperature range probabilities,
the one or more potential hole problems and the one or more potential hole problem probabilities, and the one or more drilling
fluids.

US Pat. No. 9,611,736

BOREHOLE ELECTRIC FIELD SURVEY WITH IMPROVED DISCRIMINATION OF SUBSURFACE FEATURES

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. An electromagnetic survey apparatus for measuring electrical resistivity properties of subsurface formations of interest,
comprising:
a transmitter providing electric power for an electric current within the subsurface forming an electromagnetic field;
a borehole electrode positioned within a borehole at a depth of interest to inject electric current into the subsurface at
the depth of interest;

a wellhead electrode at the earth surface adjacent the borehole to inject and receive electric current at the earth surface;
a counter electrode at the earth surface and at a spaced position at the earth surface from the borehole to receive electric
current at the earth surface;

a switching mechanism selectively electrically connecting the transmitter to the borehole electrode and the wellhead electrode
for electrical current to flow through subsurface features between the borehole electrode and the wellhead electrode and form
an electromagnetic field regarding the subsurface features of interest of the earth between the borehole depth of interest
and the wellhead;

the switching mechanism selectively electrically connecting the transmitter to the wellhead electrode and the counter electrode
for electrical current to flow through the subsurface earth between the wellhead electrode and the counter electrode and form
an electromagnetic field regarding near surface electrical resistivity anomalies of the earth between the wellhead and the
spaced position at the earth surface from the borehole;

an array of electromagnetic sensors at the earth surface disposed to sense the electromagnetic field between the electrodes
electrically connected to the transmitter as input electromagnetic field data for processing;

a data processor forming a measure of resistivity of the subsurface formation of interest from the sensed electromagnetic
field data regarding the subsurface features of interest between the borehole depth of interest and the wellhead;

the data processor further forming a measure of resistivity of near surface electrical resistivity anomalies from the sensed
electromagnetic field data regarding near surface electrical resistivity anomalies between the wellhead and the spaced position
at the earth surface from the borehole; and

the data processor further removing effects of near surface electrical resistivity anomalies between the wellhead and the
spaced position at the earth surface from the measure of resistivity of the subsurface formations of interest for assessing
electrical properties of the subsurface formations of interest.

US Pat. No. 9,429,668

ITERATIVE DIP-STEERING MEDIAN FILTER FOR SEISMIC DATA PROCESSING

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A computer implemented method of processing a pre-stack seismic gather, in which time-spatial processing results of the
pre-stack seismic gather indicate conflicting dips in subsurface formation structure, to attenuate random noise in the pre-stack
seismic gather, comprising the computer implemented processing steps of:
(a) assembling the time-spatial processing results of the pre-stack seismic gather in the computer to form a series of overlapping
time-spatial sample windows of the pre-stack seismic gather;

(b) transforming an individual one of the time-spatial sample windows of the pre-stack seismic gather into a frequency-wavenumber
domain;

(c) transforming the individual time-spatial sample window from the frequency-wave number domain into a Fourier-radial domain;
(d) determining a map of peak values of the individual time-spatial sample window in the Fourier-radial domain;
(e) transforming selected ones of the peak values of the individual time-spatial sample window in the Fourier-radial domain
to indicate dominant dips in subsurface formation structure in the individual time-spatial sample window;

(f) applying a median filter to the individual time-spatial window along a selected one of the indicated dominant dips in
subsurface formation structure to attenuate noise from the individual time-spatial sample window; and

(g) storing the remaining signal in the median filtered individual time-spatial sample window;
(h) determining whether each of the indicated dominant dips in subsurface formation structure for the individual time spatial
sample window has been selected; and

(i) if not, selecting another indicated dominant dip in subsurface structure and repeating steps (f) and (g) along the selected
another indicated dominant dip in subsurface formation structure; or

(j) if so, forming a sum of the stored remaining signal of the median filtered individual time-spatial sample window along
the selected dominant dips in subsurface formation structure;

(k) determining whether each of the sample windows of the assembled pre-stack seismic gather have been selected; and
(l) if not, selecting an additional one of the sample windows of the assembled pre-stack seismic gather and returning to step
(b) for performing steps (b) through (h) on the data of the additional one of the assembled pre-stack seismic gather; or

(m) is so, storing formed sums as a noise attenuated median filtered pre-stack seismic gather for each of the overlapping
time-spatial sample windows; and

(n) displaying the noise attenuated median filtered pre-stack seismic gather each of the overlapping sample windows for more
accurate representations of the seismic survey results in areas of interest.

US Pat. No. 9,347,006

METHOD FOR OPTIMIZING CATALYST LOADING FOR HYDROCRACKING PROCESS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method for optimizing a layered hydrocracking catalytic process, comprising (i) contacting a model compound capable of
(a) being hydrocracked as well as at least one of (ii) hydrogenation, hydrosulfurization and hydrodenitrogenation to a plurality
of catalysts to determine an optimal catalyst for each of (i) and (ii), (b) following by layering the optimal catalysts for
each of (i) and (ii) in a reaction chamber based on their activity reacting with said model compound, and (c) contacting a
feedstock to the layered catalysts under condition favoring formation of lower weight hydrocarbon from said hydrocarbon containing
feedstock, wherein said model compound boils in the range of 180° C.-520° C. and is selected from the group consisting of
methylnaphthalene, dibenzothiophene, an alkylated or naphtalated derivative thereof, a basic nitrogen compound and a carbazole
molecule.

US Pat. No. 9,267,909

APPARATUS, METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR DETECTING SALT IN A HYDROCARBON FLUID

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method for determining a salt concentration of a hydrocarbon fluid using a conductivity sensor and a hydrocarbon testing
solution, the method comprising the steps of:
forming the hydrocarbon testing solution, where the hydrocarbon testing solution comprises the hydrocarbon fluid, an electropolymerizable
monomer and a non-aqueous solvent, where the hydrocarbon fluid includes a salt, and where the electropolymerizable monomer
is operable in the hydrocarbon testing solution to form a resultant associated polymer at the peak potential of the electropolymerizable
polymer;

introducing the hydrocarbon testing solution into the conductivity sensor, where the conductivity sensor comprises a working
electrode, a counter electrode and a reference electrode;

inducing a range of potential across the hydrocarbon testing solution contained in the conductivity sensor such that at least
a portion of the electropolymerizable monomer in the hydrocarbon testing solution polymerizes into the resultant associated
polymer and such that the hydrocarbon testing solution forms an exhausted hydrocarbon testing solution, where the range of
induced potential includes the peak potential of the electropolymerizable polymer;

detecting a range of electrical current associated with the range of potential induced using the conductivity sensor, where
the range of detected electrical current includes the peak current; and

determining the salt concentration of the hydrocarbon fluid using the range of potential induced across the hydrocarbon testing
solution and the range of electrical current detected by the conductivity sensor.

US Pat. No. 9,250,329

METHOD AND TRACKING DEVICE FOR TRACKING MOVEMENT IN A MARINE ENVIRONMENT WITH TACTICAL ADJUSTMENTS TO AN EMERGENCY RESPONSE

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method for tracking movement in a marine environment, the method comprising:
associating a plurality of tracking devices with a fluid spill event;
deploying the plurality of tracking devices in a fluid spill, each tracking device of the plurality of tracking devices transmitting
a geographic location of the tracking device to a data processing satellite;

monitoring the geographic location of each tracking device of the plurality of tracking devices to track the movement of the
fluid spill over a period of time;

determining a forecasted trajectory of the fluid spill based on the movement of the fluid spill over the period of time;
adjusting a spill response based on the forecasted trajectory;
attaching an asset-tracking device to a spill response asset;
deploying the spill response asset based on the forecasted trajectory of the fluid spill; and
monitoring the asset location of the spill response asset using the asset-tracking device.
US Pat. No. 9,145,512

DUAL-PHASE ACID-BASED FRACTURING COMPOSITION WITH CORROSION INHIBITORS AND METHOD OF USE THEREOF

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A dual-phase acid-based fracturing composition for use in matrix acidizing and acid-fracturing operations in oil and gas
wells for the prevention of corrosion of well tubing and downhole equipment, the composition comprising;
a strong acid present in a concentration between 20% and 28% by weight that is operable to be diluted with treatment water
and to dissolve formation rock;

a liquid hydrocarbon comprising 5 or more carbon atoms;
an emulsifier selected from the group consisting of an amine-based surfactant, linear alkyl amines and alkyl ammoniums;
a hydrocarbon-soluble corrosion inhibitor comprising methanol and present in a range of 0.01% to 3% by volume relative to
the amount of hydrocarbon in the composition; and

an acid-soluble corrosion inhibitor that does not have surfactant properties and present in an amount of up to 3% by volume
relative to the amount of acid in the composition;

where the emulsifier is present in concentrations in a range of from 0.05% to 1.5% by volume relative to the amount of liquid
hydrocarbon in the composition;

where the acid during acid-based oil well operations forms a spent acid upon dissolving formation rock,
where the composition is operable to coat metal tubing and well equipment with the hydrocarbon-soluble corrosion inhibitor
such that the metal tubing and well equipment is protected from the acid during an injection phase; and

where the composition is operable to coat the metal tubing and well equipment with the acid-soluble corrosion inhibitor such
that the metal tubing and well equipment is protected from the spent acid during a flowback phase.

US Pat. No. 9,429,677

HIGH PERFORMANCE AND GRID COMPUTING WITH FAULT TOLERANT DATA DISTRIBUTORS QUALITY OF SERVICE

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A computer implemented method of computerized processing in a data processing system of data for exploration and production
of hydrocarbons, the data processing system including a plurality of master nodes, each with an established quality of service
standard profile including an assigned ownership strength, and with the master node of the plurality of master nodes having
a highest assigned ownership strength being designated master publisher node for the exploration and production data being
processed, the data processing system further including a plurality of processor nodes established as subscribers to receive
exploration and production data from the designated master publisher, and a data memory, the method comprising the computer
processing steps of:
(a) transmitting the established quality of service standard profile from the designated master publisher to the subscriber
processor nodes;

(b) establishing with the designated master publisher a domain for exploration and production processing by the designated
master publisher and designated ones of the plurality of processor nodes as subscriber processor nodes;

(c) sending a source data sample of the exploration and production data from the designated master publisher to the designated
subscriber processor nodes of the domain;

(d) processing the transmitted exploration and production data in the designated subscriber processor nodes of the domain;
(e) monitoring at the designated master publisher the processed exploration and production data of the designated subscriber
processor nodes of the domain;

(f) determining in the designated master publisher whether the designated subscriber processor nodes of the domain comply
with the transmitted established quality of service standard profile from the designated master publisher; and

(g) if so, receiving at the designated master publisher the processed exploration and production data from the designated
subscriber processor nodes which comply with the transmitted established quality of service standard profile; and

(h) if not, inhibiting at the designated master publisher transfer to the designated master publisher of the processed exploration
and production data from the designated subscriber processor nodes which do not comply with the transmitted established quality
of service standard profile;

(i) joining additional processor nodes as designated subscriber processor nodes of the domain during processing of exploration
and production data;

(j) delivering the published exploration and production data to the joined additional processor nodes;
(k) assembling in the data memory of the data processing system the processed exploration and production data received at
the designated master publisher;

(l) monitoring performance of the designated master publisher node during the processing of the exploration and production
data to determine operating status of the designated master publisher node;

(m) if the step of monitoring performance of the designated master publisher node indicates the designated master publisher
node is operating, continuing the processing of the exploration and production data; and, if not

(n) determining ownership strength of the others of the plurality of master nodes according to their respective ownership
strength quality of service profile; and

(o) establishing as designated master publisher node the master node having the highest ownership strength quality of service
profile and resuming the processing of the exploration and production data.

US Pat. No. 9,403,155

CATALYST ADDITIVE FOR REDUCTION OF SULFUR IN CATALYTICALLY CRACKED GASOLINE

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) mixture consisting of (i) an FCC catalyst and (ii) separate particles of sulfur reduction
additive, said particles of sulfur reduction additive consisting of:
a clay support consisting of porous montmorillonite clay; a zirconium component; and zinc, wherein the zirconium component
is incorporated into the pore structure of the porous montmorillonite clay support to thereby increase surface area of said
clay support and the zinc is impregnated on the surface of the porous montmorillonite clay support.

US Pat. No. 9,353,584

PERMEABLE LOST CIRCULATION DRILLING LINER

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method of wellbore operations comprising:
providing a first wellbore liner having a tubular shape with an inner radius and an outer radius and perforations extending
through a sidewall of the first wellbore liner;

disposing the first wellbore liner in a first wellbore and adjacent a location where fluid flow communicates between the first
wellbore and a formation adjacent the first wellbore;

providing a first fluid with entrained particles;
creating a flow barrier across the first wellbore liner by flowing the first fluid through the perforations, so that the entrained
particles become wedged in the perforations;

providing a second liner having perforations substantially the same size as perforations in the first liner;
disposing the second liner in a second wellbore and at a location where fluid communication takes place between the second
wellbore and a formation adjacent the second wellbore;

providing a second fluid having entrained particles that are of a different size than particles entrained in the first fluid;
and

forming a flow barrier across the second liner by flowing the second fluid through the perforations in the second liner.

US Pat. No. 9,273,242

HIGH DENSITY CEMENT FORMULATION TO PREVENT GAS MIGRATION PROBLEMS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A cement composition for preventing gas migration and fluid loss consisting essentially of:
silica sand in an amount of 10% by weight of cement;
silica flour in an amount of 25% by weight of cement;
hematite in an amount of 45% by weight of cement;
manganese tetraoxide in an amount of 45% by weight of cement;
calcined magnesium oxide in an amount of 5% by weight of cement;
ethylene glycol in an amount of 1.2% by weight of cement;
calcium lignosulfate in an amount of 0.45% by weight of cement; and
acrylamide copolymer in an amount of 0.3% by weight of cement.
US Pat. No. 9,249,304

HEAVY OIL ASH IN ROOFING, DAMP-PROOFING, AND WATER PROOFING APPLICATIONS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A heavy oil ash asphalt composition comprising:
a base asphalt having a stiffness;
a styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) block copolymer in a concentration range of 5%-10% by weight;
sulfur in a concentration range of 10%-30% by weight; and
heavy oil ash in a concentration range of 15%-25% by weight;
such that the heavy oil ash combines with the base asphalt and sulfur to create the heavy oil ash asphalt composition, where
the heavy oil ash is present in the heavy oil ash asphalt composition in an amount effective to improve stiffness of the heavy
oil ash asphalt composition as compared to the stiffness of the base asphalt.

US Pat. No. 9,176,251

ASPHALTENE EVALUATION BASED ON NMR MEASUREMENTS AND TEMPERATURE / PRESSURE CYCLING

Schlumberger Technology C...

1. A method of asphaltene evaluation of a hydrocarbon-bearing rock sample from a subterranean rock formation comprising:
making a first NMR measurement representative of the hydrocarbon-bearing rock sample at temperature and pressure conditions
prior to asphaltene precipitation onset;

lowering temperature and/or pressure of the hydrocarbon-bearing rock sample below an expected asphaltene precipitation onset
condition;

subsequently raising the temperature and/or pressure conditions above the expected asphaltene precipitation onset condition;
making a second NMR measurement on the hydrocarbon-bearing rock while at conditions above the expected asphaltene precipitation
onset condition; and

evaluating asphaltene content of oil in the hydrocarbon-bearing rock sample based at least in part on a comparison of the
first and second NMR measurements.

US Pat. No. 9,371,726

EXPERT SYSTEMS FOR WELL COMPLETION USING BAYESIAN PROBABILITIES, AND A PACKERS CONSEQUENCE NODE DEPENDENT ON WELLBORE FLUIDS, HYDROCARBON TYPES, COMPLETION FLUIDS, PACKERS DECISION, AND TREATMENT FLUIDS NODES

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A system, comprising:
one or more processors;
a non-transitory tangible computer-readable memory, the memory comprising:
a well completion expert system executable by the one or more processors and configured to provide one or more well completion
recommendations based on one or more inputs, the well completion expert system comprising a well completion Bayesian decision
network (BDN) model, the well completion BDN model comprising:

a wellbore fluids uncertainty node configured to receive one or more wellbore fluids from the one or more inputs;
a hydrocarbon types uncertainty node configured to receive one or more hydrocarbon types from the one or more inputs;
a completion fluids uncertainty node configured to receive one or more completion fluids from the one or more inputs;
a packers decision node configured to receive one or more packers from the one or more inputs;
a treatment fluids decision node configured to receive one or more treatment fluids from the one or more inputs; and
a packers consequences node dependent on the wellbore fluids uncertainty node, the hydrocarbon types uncertainty node, the
completion fluids uncertainty node, the packers decision node, and the treatment fluids decision node and configured to output
the one or more well completion recommendations based on one or more Bayesian probabilities calculated from the one or more
wellbore fluids, the one or more hydrocarbon types, the one or more completion fluids, the one or more packers, and the one
or more treatment fluids.

US Pat. No. 9,228,427

COMPLETION METHOD TO ALLOW DUAL RESERVOIR SATURATION AND PRESSURE MONITORING

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A well completion method comprising the steps of:
(a) drilling a wellbore through an upper reservoir and a lower reservoir that are within a subterranean formation, wherein
the upper reservoir is at a higher elevation than the lower reservoir;

(b) running a casing string through the upper and the lower reservoir;
(c) setting a lower external casing packer between the upper and the lower reservoirs in an outer annulus between the outer
diameter of the casing string and the wellbore;

(d) setting an upper external casing packer in the outer annulus above the upper reservoir;
(e) cementing the outer annulus below the lower external casing packer;
(f) cementing the outer annulus above the upper external casing packer, thereby creating a cement free zone in the outer annulus
between the lower external casing packer and the upper external casing packer to facilitate logging measurements of the upper
reservoir; and

(g) saturation logging in the cement free zone, after cementing the outer annulus below the lower external casing packer and
after cementing the outer annulus above the upper external casing packer to obtain information about the subterranean formation
adjacent the cement free zone.

US Pat. No. 9,205,514

HIGH PRESSURE GREASE FITTING TOOL FOR ONLINE REPLACEMENT

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A grease fitting replacement tool, the grease fitting replacement tool comprising:
a housing having a housing longitudinal axis, a housing anchor end, a housing drive end, a top, and a bottom;
a shaft, the shaft at least partially enclosed within and extending from the housing drive end, wherein the shaft comprises
a shaft body, a shaft first end, and a shaft second end, wherein the shaft is configured to move along the housing longitudinal
axis;

an adaptive socket, the adaptive socket comprising a cupped end and a shaft end, wherein the shaft end is removably mounted
on the shaft first end, wherein the cupped end is configured to grip a grease fitting;

a loosening device, the loosening device removably coupled to the housing drive end, wherein the loosening device comprises:
a packed coupling, the packed coupling connected to the housing drive end, the packed coupling configured to create a seal
around the shaft body;

a stem housing, the stem housing attached to the packed coupling, wherein the stem housing is configured to guide a stem,
the stem housing having a longitudinal axis; and

a stem drive system, the stem drive system mounted to the stem housing, the stem drive system comprising:
the stem, the stem connected to the shaft second end and at least partially enclosed within and extending from the stem drive
system, wherein the stem is configured to move the shaft along the longitudinal axis of the stem housing;

a threaded mount, the threaded mount connected to the stem housing, wherein the threaded mount is configured to pass the stem
along the longitudinal axis of the stem housing; and

an actuator, the actuator connected to the threaded mount, wherein the actuator is configured to drive the stem along the
longitudinal axis of the stem housing;

a main valve positioned in the housing through which the shaft passes, the main valve configured to achieve a closed position,
wherein the closed position seals the housing anchor end from the housing drive end;
a fall-out trap positioned in the housing between the main valve and the housing anchor end, the fall-out trap configured
to hold the grease fitting clear of the housing longitudinal axis;

a pressure port valve positioned in the housing, the pressure port valve configured to allow for pressurizing the housing
anchor end to a predetermined housing pressure;

a vent valve positioned in the housing between the main valve and the housing drive end, the vent valve is configured to relieve
the pressure in the housing drive end when the main valve is in the closed position;

a pressure gauge, the pressure gauge configured to display the predetermined housing pressure in the housing; and
a temporary mounting system configured to temporarily secure the grease fitting replacement tool to a piece of equipment,
such that the housing anchor end is flush with the piece of equipment.

US Pat. No. 9,196,058

AUTOMATED WORKFLOW FOR 3D CORE DIGITAL MODELING FROM COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY SCANNER (CTS) IMAGES

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A computer-implemented method to process two-dimensional images of a core sample, the method comprising:
approximating, using one or more computer processors, a circular boundary for each of a plurality of polygon shaped images
of a substantially cylindrical core sample, each image having a representation of a different transverse section of the core
sample and a background that substantially surrounds the representation;

selecting, using one or more computer processors, a center point of each of the approximated circular boundaries of the images
to define a reference point;

determining, using one or more computer processors, an imaginary line passing through the reference point of a first end of
the representation of one of the plurality of transverse sections and extending substantially perpendicular to the plane of
the representation of the first end to thereby define a simulated axis; and

aligning, using one or more computer processors, each of the representations of transverse sections along the simulated axis,
each reference point being positioned on the simulated axis.

US Pat. No. 9,493,700

CARBON-BASED FLUORESCENT TRACERS AS OIL RESERVOIR NANO-AGENTS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method of analyzing a subsurface petroleum formation, comprising the steps of:
injecting a fluid comprising a plurality of fluorescent nanoagents produced from a solution comprising a sugar, an amino alcohol
and deionized water reacted under conditions capable of synthesizing the fluorescent nanoagent into an injection well, said
injection well being fluidly connected to the subsurface petroleum formation;

recovering the fluid injected into the injection well at a production well, said production well being fluidly connected to
said subsurface petroleum formation; and

analyzing the recovered fluid for the presence of the fluorescent nanoagents present therein.

US Pat. No. 9,471,723

INPUT PARSING AND ARRAY MANIPULATION IN RESERVOIR SIMULATION

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. In history matching the results of computer implemented simulation with reservoir field production data from the reservoir
to conform the reservoir simulation with the field production data, a computer implemented method to modify input data regarding
the reservoir to more satisfactorily match the reservoir to the field production data based on specified modify instructions
regarding simulator input data about the reservoir, the computer implemented method comprising the steps of:
converting the modify instructions into a computer recognizable token;
parsing the computer recognizable token according to a grammar to form a modify data structure;
determining in the computer if the modify data structure identifies a reservoir variable, and if so, finding a pointer in
computer memory to the variable; and

determining in the computer if the modify data structure identifies an operator, and if so, performing the operation according
to the identified operator data to modify the simulator input data.

US Pat. No. 9,128,203

RESERVOIR PROPERTIES PREDICTION WITH LEAST SQUARE SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A computer implemented method of modeling a reservoir property of subsurface reservoir structure by support vector machine
processing in the computer of input data available from the reservoir to form measures of the reservoir property at regions
of interest in the subsurface reservoir by regression analysis of the available input data, the method comprising the computer
processing steps of:
(a) receiving training input data about subsurface attributes from seismic survey data obtained from seismic surveys of the
reservoir;

(b) receiving training target data about formation rock characteristics from data obtained from wells in the reservoir;
(c) partitioning the subsurface attributes training data and the formation rock characteristics training target data into
a plurality of subsets;

(d) selecting formation attribute parameters for support vector machine modeling by performing the steps of:
(1) cross-validating the subsets of subsurface attributes training data each with the other subsets of the plurality of subsets
for a radial based kernel function pair comprising a kernel parameter value and a penalty parameter pair value;

(2) forming an error function for each of the cross-validated subsets;
(3) repeating the steps of cross-validating the subsets of subsurface attributes training data and forming an error function
for a plurality of different radial based kernel function pairs;

(e) optimizing the selected formation attribute parameters by determining a minimum error function of the formed error functions
for the plurality of different radial based kernel function pairs;

(f) providing the training data, the selected formation attribute parameters, the cross-validated subsets of subsurface attributes
training data, and the error functions for the plurality of radial based function kernel pairs as training inputs for support
vector machine modeling;

(g) performing support vector machine modeling by regression analysis to determine a minimum error function of the error functions
of the provided training inputs;

(h) predicting the reservoir property based on the support vector modeling of the training inputs; and
(i) forming an output display of the predicted reservoir property.

US Pat. No. 9,435,906

SIMULTANEOUS WAVELET EXTRACTION AND DECONVOLUTION PROCESSING IN THE TIME DOMAIN

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A computer implemented method of processing seismic data obtained in the form of seismic traces from a reflection seismic
survey of subsurface portions of the earth for analysis of subsurface features of interest, the computer implemented method
comprising the computer implemented processing steps of:
forming a wavelet from the seismic survey data;
resolving a time of occurrence of maximum energy in the wavelet from the seismic survey data;
forming a normalized amplitude of energy for the wavelet from traces in the seismic survey data;
forming a composite trace at the resolved time of occurrence and normalized amplitude from an ensemble of the traces in the
seismic survey data;

applying a time filter to the wavelet based on the composite trace to form a resultant deconvolution wavelet having a main
frequency in the seismic frequency band;

performing a deconvolution operation on the seismic traces by applying the resultant deconvolution wavelet to the seismic
data for analysis of subsurface features of interest;

migration processing the seismic data, after the step of performing a deconvolution operation on the seismic traces, to move
reflections in the data to their correct spatial locations; and

forming displays of the migrated seismic data for analysis of subsurface features of interest.
US Pat. No. 9,394,491

PROCESS FOR IN-SITU ELECTROCHEMICAL OXIDATIVE GENERATION AND CONVERSION OF ORGANOSULFUR COMPOUNDS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

13. A process for converting organosulfur compounds in a liquid hydrocarbon feedstock to oxidation products sulfoxides and/or
sulfones of the organosulfur compounds, including in-situ production of oxidant, the process comprising:
a. providing an electrochemical reactor in which both in-situ production of oxidant and oxidative conversion of organosulfur
compounds occur, the reactor including a gas diffusion electrode as a cathode in communication with a catholyte compartment,
and an anode within an anolyte compartment, the cathode and the anode electrically coupled to an electrical power source and
spaced apart from one another, and the catholyte compartment and anolyte compartment in fluid isolation and ionic communication
via an ion-conducting membrane;

b. conveying acidic catholyte and the liquid hydrocarbon feedstock into the catholyte compartment, and conveying acidic anolyte
into the anolyte compartment, wherein hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen peroxide ions are electrosynthesized, and wherein the
acidic catholyte and the acidic anolyte are selected from the group consisting of

0.01 to 1.0 M of Na2SO4 adjusted with H2SO4 to a pH 1 to 3 as catholyte, and 0.05 to 0.8 M H2SO4 as anolyte;

0.01 to 1.0 M of HCl mixed with 0.1 to 1.0 M NaCl as catholyte, 0.1 to 1.0 M HCl as anolyte;
0.05 to 1.0 M of H2SO4 mixed with 0.05 to 1.0 M K2SO4 as catholyte, and 0.1 to 1.0 M Na2SO4 as anolyte;

acetic acid having a pH of 1 to 4 catholyte, and comprises 0.1to 1.0M Na2SO4 as anolyte; and

adipic acid having a pH of 1 to 4 as catholyte, and 0.1 to 1.0 M Na2SO4 as anolyte;

c. oxidizing organosulfur compounds in the hydrocarbon feedstock with oxidant formed in step (b) to produce oxidation products
sulfoxides and/or sulfones of the organosulfur compounds; and

d. removing a mixture of catholyte and hydrocarbons including oxidation products from the catholyte compartment.

US Pat. No. 9,371,755

MEMBRANE SEPARATION METHOD AND SYSTEM UTILIZING WASTE HEAT FOR ON-BOARD RECOVERY AND STORAGE OF CO2 FROM MOTOR VEHICLE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE EXHAUST GASES

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method for reducing the amount of CO2 discharged into the atmosphere with the exhaust gas stream emitted by a hydrocarbon-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE)
used to power a vehicle, the method comprising:
a. passing the hot exhaust gas stream from the ICE to a first waste heat recovery zone on board the vehicle and contacting
the high temperature exhaust gas stream with at least one heat exchanger having an inlet for receiving the hot exhaust gas
stream from the ICE for passage in heat exchange relation and a discharge outlet for discharging a cooled exhaust stream at
a lower temperature,

the waste heat recovery zone further including at least one heat recovery device for converting the waste heat in the exhaust
gas stream to at least one of electrical and mechanical energy;

b. passing the cooled exhaust gas stream to a membrane separation zone that is in fluid communication with the exhaust gas
stream discharge outlet of the waste heat recovery zone and in contact with at least one membrane module having a membrane
with a permeate side to which CO2 permeates, the permeate side having a CO2 discharge outlet, and a retentate side that is in contact with the cooled exhaust gas stream, the retentate side including
a treated exhaust gas stream outlet;

c. passing the CO2 from the permeate side of the membrane module to a densification zone and using the electrical and/or mechanical energy converted
by the heat recovery device in step (a) to reduce the temperature and volume of the CO2;

d. transferring the densified CO2 to a storage zone for temporary storage on hoard the vehicle; and

e. passing the treated exhaust gas stream having a reduced CO2 content to an exhaust gas conduit that is in fluid communication with the treated exhaust gas stream outlet of the membrane
module and discharging the treated stream into the atmosphere.

US Pat. No. 9,219,760

OIL FIELD PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEM

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A field versatile control gateway (FVCG) operable to communicate with control equipment within a remote CCR and/or PIB
and adapted to interface with a plurality of field devices that constitute a process control system, the FVCG comprising a
microprocessor, memory, routing database, routing module, protocol translator, wireless interface card and antenna;
wherein the FVCG provides for control-in-the-field capabilities, and
wherein the FVCG communicates with field devices using one or more protocols selected from the group consisting of 4-20 mA,
Fieldbus Foundation H1, on/off interface, wireless, serial, and EI, and

wherein the FVCG provides for multiplexed communication of data between the FVCGs and a central control location via one or
more of a hardwired HSL protocol, a wireless connection, or a hardwired HSL protocol and wireless connection, and

wherein the routing database and routing module routes data between the field devices and the FVCG microprocessor and between
the FVCG microprocessor and a remote CCR and/or PIB,

wherein the protocol translator converts field device data from 4-20 mA, Fieldbus Foundation H1, serial, EI and on/off interface
protocols into HSL protocol for communication with the remote CCR and/or PIB

wherein the FVCG monitors smart field device self-diagnostics and applies the monitored diagnostics to the FVCG control-in-the-field
capabilities, and

wherein the control equipment within the CCR and/or PIB monitors the FVCG status and determines whether to allow the FVCG
to continue control-in-the-field, or whether to transfer control functions back to the control equipment within the CCR and/or
PIB.

US Pat. No. 9,150,455

UTILIZATION OF HEAVY OIL ASH TO PRODUCE SELF-CONSOLIDATED CONCRETE

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A heavy oil ash self-compacting concrete, consisting essentially of:
a pozzolanic aggregate;
heavy oil ash fines, the heavy oil ash fines comprising at least 90% carbon and at least 80% of the heavy oil ash fines being
finer than 45 micrometer (#325 sieve), where the heavy oil ash fines do not have cementitious or pozzolanic properties and
do not react with lime;

water; and
Portland cement;
wherein the heavy oil ash cement concrete is produced by the mixing of the water and the Portland cement in the presence of
the heavy oil ash fines and aggregate; and

wherein the heavy oil ash self-compacting concrete is capable of flowing under its own weight.

US Pat. No. 9,073,101

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR UNPLUGGING HYDROCARBON DRAINS OR VENTS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

19. A method for unplugging a component connected to a fluid containing unit and venting or draining a fluid from the fluid
containing unit through the component, the method useful in hydrocarbon application, and comprising the steps of:
(a) connecting a component connector end of a device to the component, the device comprising:
a central passage through a length of a main body;
a secondary passage extending transverse to, and from the central passage through a first side of the main body;
a device valve in fluid communication with the secondary passage, the device valve joined with and spaced from, the first
side of the main body;

a pressure gauge in fluid communication with the device valve, the pressure gauge joined with and spaced from, the first side
of the main body; and

a poker rod operable to move axially along the central passage and enter the component;
(b) connecting a system connector of the device to a closed system;
(c) evaluating if a pressure gauge of the device reads a pressure greater than zero;
(d) passing fluid through the device from the fluid containing unit and into to the closed system;
(e) monitoring the pressure gauge until the pressure becomes substantially equal to zero; and
(f) disconnecting the device from the component and the closed system.

US Pat. No. 9,069,102

SCALABLE SIMULATION OF MULTIPHASE FLOW IN A FRACTURED SUBTERRANEAN RESERVOIR WITH MULTIPLE INTERACTING CONTINUA BY MATRIX SOLUTION

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A computer implemented method of simulation of multiphase flow of fluids within cells of a subterranean reservoir organized
into a grid of reservoir cells based on input reservoir data, the reservoir cells having multiple interacting continua in
which the multiphase fluid flow takes place, the reservoir being partitioned into active cells of a global cell domain according
to the presence of collocated interacting continua in the cells, the partitioned reservoir cells having flow interchange between
the continua therein and being assigned global cell numbers, the computer implemented method comprising the steps of:
organizing in the computer a fully coupled nonlinear set of conservation equations with reservoir data of the global cell
domain into a full system computation matrix [A], a vector {x} of fluid flow unknowns and a vector {R} of system residuals;

partitioning the full system computation matrix [A] into a [P] matrix containing block diagonal submatrices, intercontinuum
block submatrices and vertical intra-continuum submatrices and an [E] matrix containing lateral intra-continuum block submatrices,
the active cells of the [P] matrix and the [E] matrix being arranged in an order in which the inter-continuum connections
of the cells are located nearest the diagonal of the matrix, and next vertical interporosity continua and next lateral interporosity
continua;

linearizing the solution of the fully coupled nonlinear set of conservation equations to obtain simulation values of multiphase
flow of the fluids within the cells of the reservoir;

extracting pressure coefficients of the [P] and [E] matrices;
extracting pressure residuals from the system residuals {R};
solving an approximate pressure solution for pressures within active cells of the full system computation matrix [A] by minimizing
the extracted pressure residuals;

updating fluid pressures and the full system residuals for the active cells of the computation matrix [A] based on the approximate
pressure solution; and

solving the full system computation matrix [A] using the fully coupled nonlinear set of conservation equations and the updated
system residuals.

US Pat. No. 9,539,541

MIXED SALT CO2 SORBENT, PROCESS FOR MAKING AND USES THEREOF

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A method for removing CO2 from a gas or gas mixture produced by combustion of hydrocarbon fuel by an internal combustion engine on a mobile source comprising
contacting a mixed salt composition which consists of: (i) MgCO3, (ii) at least one carbonate salt of Na, Li, K, or Rb, and (iii) at least one nitrate salt of Na, Li, K, or Rb, wherein the
Mg of (i) and the Na, Li, K, or Rb of (ii) and (iii) are present in a molar ratio of from about 6:1 to about 4:1, with said
gas or gas mixture produced by said internal combustion engine at a temperature of from about 100° C. to about 450° C. for
a time sufficient for said mixed salt composition to remove a portion of CO2 therefrom and releasing adsorbed CO2 to regenerate said composition by heat exchange with hot exhaust gas discharged from said internal combustion engine.

US Pat. No. 9,429,556

RELATIVE VALUATION METHOD FOR NAPHTHA STREAMS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A system for assigning a value to a naphtha sample derived from a crude oil sample based upon analysis of the crude oil
sample, the system comprising:
a non-volatile memory device that stores calculation modules and crude oil analysis data;
a processor coupled to the memory;
a first calculation module that calculates and assigns a total products yield as a function of the crude oil analysis data;
a second calculation module that calculates and assigns raw product yield to each of methane, ethane, propane, butane and
gasoline as a function of the assigned total liquid products yield;

a third calculation module that calculates and assigns a raw product yield of hydrogen as a function of the assigned total
liquid product yield; and

a fourth calculation module that calculates and assigns values to each of hydrogen, methane, ethane, propane, butane and gasoline
as a function of the raw product yields of each of hydrogen, methane, ethane, propane, butane and gasoline and a unit value
of each product.

US Pat. No. 9,228,141

INTEGRATED HYDROPROCESSING, STEAM PYROLYSIS AND SLURRY HYDROPROCESSING OF CRUDE OIL TO PRODUCE PETROCHEMICALS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. An integrated hydroprocessing, steam pyrolysis and slurry hydroprocessing process for direct conversion of crude oil to
produce olefinic and aromatic petrochemicals, the process comprising:
a. hydroprocessing the crude oil in the presence of hydrogen under conditions effective to produce a hydroprocessed effluent
having a reduced content of contaminants, an increased paraffinicity, reduced Bureau of Mines Correlation Index, and an increased
American Petroleum Institute gravity;

b. thermally cracking hydroprocessed effluent and a slurry process product in the presence of steam in a steam pyrolysis zone
under conditions effective to produce a mixed product stream;

c. processing residuals or bottoms derived from one or more of the hydroprocessed effluent, a heated stream within the steam
pyrolysis zone, or the mixed product stream, in a slurry hydroprocessing zone to produce the slurry process product;

d. separating the mixed product stream;
e. purifying hydrogen recovered in step (d) and recycling it to the step of hydroprocessing; and
f. recovering olefins and aromatics from at least a portion of the separated mixed product stream.

US Pat. No. 9,068,415

WIRELESS DRILL STRING DISCONNECT

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method for using a disconnector drill string in a well bore comprising the steps of:
introducing the disconnector drill string into the well bore, where the disconnector drill string has a disconnection sub,
an internal fluid conduit, an operative length, first uphole section and a downhole section that are coupled together by the
disconnection sub, the first uphole section positioned uphole of the downhole section along the operative length of the disconnector
drill string, and where the well bore is defined by a well bore wall extending from the surface into a hydrocarbon-bearing
formation and contains a well bore fluid;

transmitting wirelessly a pre-designated command signal to the disconnection sub such that the disconnection sub selectively
operates to uncouple the first uphole section of the disconnector drill string from the downhole section of the disconnector
drill string, severing the internal fluid conduit of the disconnector drill string; and

removing the first uphole section of the disconnector drill string from the well bore such that the downhole section of the
disconnector drill string remains in the well bore; and

introducing a second uphole section into the well bore, where the second uphole section has a disconnection sub on a distal
end of the second uphole section, such that the disconnection sub is positioned proximate to the downhole section.

US Pat. No. 9,056,315

DUAL PHASE CATALYSTS SYSTEM FOR MIXED OLEFIN HYDRATIONS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A dual phase catalyst system for the production of mixed alcohols from mixed olefins, the dual phase catalyst system comprising:
a water soluble acid catalyst selected from phosphotungstic acid hydrate and tungstosilicic acid hydrate and a solid acid
catalyst that is insoluble in water,
where the dual phase catalyst system is capable of hydrating the mixed olefins without requiring separation of the mixed olefins
prior to contacting the dual phase catalyst system, andwhere the dual phase catalyst system is capable of converting the mixed olefins into the mixed alcohols at a conversion rate
that is greater than either the conversion rate of the water soluble acid catalyst or the conversion rate of the solid acid
catalyst.

US Pat. No. 9,447,679

INFLOW CONTROL VALVE AND DEVICE PRODUCING DISTINCT ACOUSTIC SIGNAL

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

16. A method of monitoring fluid flow in a wellbore, the method comprising:
(i) producing a production fluid from the wellbore through a first inflow control tool disposed in a first annular region
within the wellbore;

(ii) actively generating a first acoustic signal only in response to the production fluid from the first annular region flowing
through the first inflow control tool;

(iii) detecting the first acoustic signal; and
(iv) distinguishing the first acoustic signal from a second acoustic signal, wherein the second acoustic signal is actively
generated only in response to the production fluid from a second annular region flowing through a second inflow control tool
disposed in the second annular region within the wellbore.

US Pat. No. 9,383,032

INTEGRITY MONITORING OF 4-WAY DIVERTER VALVE

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method for determining the seal integrity of a four way valve, the four way valve having a valve body with an inlet,
an outlet, a first circulation port, and a second circulation port, the four way valve further having a valve plug located
within the valve body with valve body seals fluidly sealing between the valve body and the valve plug, the valve plug being
rotatable between a forward seated position to direct a fluid from the inlet to the first circulation port, and a reverse
seated position to direct the fluid from the inlet to the second circulation port, the method comprising:
tracking a fluid line pressure in a fluid line that is in fluid communication with the inlet, with a line pressure transmitter;
tracking a body cavity pressure in a body cavity of the four way valve, with a body cavity pressure transmitter, the body
cavity being a space within the valve body outside of the valve plug;

insulating the four way valve with a thermal insulation that reduces the effect of an ambient temperature on the body cavity
pressure; and

tracking a valve body temperature with a valve body temperature transmitter.

US Pat. No. 9,353,318

SULFONE CRACKING USING SUPERCRITICAL WATER

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A process to convert and separate from a hydrocarbon stream containing oxides of sulphur, sulfones and sulfoxides into
their salt derivatives and SOx, wherein x is 2 or 3, the hydrocarbon stream obtained from oxidative desulfurization, which comprises the steps of:
a) contacting the hydrocarbon stream with water in a reaction zone of a reactor wherein the temperature and pressure of the
reaction zone are at or above the critical point of water in the presence of a water-soluble catalyst selected from the group
consisting of Group IVB, Group V and Group VI metals of the Periodic Table;

b) subjecting an effluent hydrocarbon stream to a vapor/liquid separation whereby a hydrocarbon fraction substantially free
of oxides of sulphur, sulfoxides, sulfones and water containing salts and derivatives of oxides of sulfur are obtained.

US Pat. No. 9,234,974

APPARATUS FOR EVALUATING ROCK PROPERTIES WHILE DRILLING USING DRILLING RIG-MOUNTED ACOUSTIC SENSORS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. An apparatus for identifying rock properties in real-time during drilling, the apparatus comprising:
an acoustic signal recording and transmitting system including an acoustic sensor connected to one of the following: (i) a
drive shaft of a drill rig, the drive shaft including a plurality of extensions, and (ii) an extension of the plurality of
extensions of the drive shaft the drive shaft connected to a drill string, a drill bit connected to the downhole end of the
drill string; and

a computer in communication with one or more components of the acoustic signal recording and transmitting system, the computer
configured to perform the following operations:

receiving an acoustic sensor data signal from the acoustic signal recording and transmitting system, the acoustic sensor data
signal representing an acoustic signal generated real-time by the acoustic sensor as a result of rotational contact of the
drill bit with rock during drilling, and

analyzing the acoustic sensor data signal to determine, real-time, at least one of the following: lithology type and one or
more petrophysical properties of rock engaged by the drill bit during drilling operations, analyzing the acoustic sensor data
signal comprising the steps of:

deriving a plurality of acoustic characteristics from the acoustics sensor data signal, the plurality of acoustic characteristics
including mean frequency, mean amplitude, normalized deviation of frequency, normalized deviation of amplitude, and apparent
power, and

correlating the man frequency, the mean amplitude, the normalized deviation of frequency, the normalized deviation of amplitude,
and the apparent power with the same types of the acoustic characteristics of a rock sample of known lithology type to identify,
in real-time, one or moare of the following: the lithology type and one or more pertrophysical properties of the rock engaged
by the drill bit during drilling operations.

US Pat. No. 9,205,467

ROBOTIC VEHICLE FOR HOLIDAY TESTING OF COATING ON STORAGE TANK BASE PLATES

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A robotic holiday testing apparatus for detecting and marking holidays in the protective coating atop a metal base plate
of a storage tank, comprising:
a. a vehicle having front, rear, left and right parts,
b. a first set of wheels mounted to said vehicle such that the bottoms of said first set of wheels lie at a first elevation
below said vehicle for enabling said vehicle to roll in the forward and rearward directions,

c. a second set of wheels mounted to said vehicle such that the bottoms of said second set of wheels lie at a second elevation
higher than said first elevation for enabling said vehicle to roll in the left and right directions,

d. a power drive unit selectively coupled:
i. to said first set of wheels to move said vehicle in the forward or backward direction, and
ii. to said second set of wheels to move said vehicle and the right or left direction,
e. an elevator unit for selectively:
i. lowering said second set of wheels so that the bottoms of said second set of wheels lie at a third elevation lower than
said first elevation, whereby said first set of wheels is elevated off the base plate, and said second set wheels will engage
said base plate and said vehicle is movable in said left and right directions, and

ii. subsequently elevating said second set of wheels at least until said first set of wheels re-engages said base plate,
f. a holiday detection apparatus having a wettable sponge electrical contact element for establishing an electric circuit
with the base plate through each of said holidays,

g. a tank for containing an electrolytic fluid supplied into said wettable sponge, and
h. a controller which selectively operates said power drive unit to:
i. move said vehicle on said first set of wheels in the forward direction for selected distance, and
ii. lower said second set of wheels to contact said base plate and elevate said first set of wheels out of contact with said
base plate, and

iii. move said vehicle in the left or right direction for selected distance, and
iv. elevate said second set of wheels out of contact with said base plate, until said first set of wheels regains contact
with said base plate,

said vehicle thus being movable along a path while said holiday testing apparatus thereon detects and marks holidays for subsequent
repair.

US Pat. No. 9,175,591

PROCESS AND SYSTEM EMPLOYING PHASE-CHANGING ABSORBENTS AND MAGNETICALLY RESPONSIVE SORBENT PARTICLES FOR ON-BOARD RECOVERY OF CARBON DIOXIDE FROM MOBILE SOURCES

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method for reducing the amount of CO2 discharged into the atmosphere with an exhaust gas stream emitted by an internal combustion engine (ICE) used to power a vehicle,
the method comprising:
a. contacting the exhaust gas stream with a CO2 capture agent on board the vehicle to produce a mixture containing a modified sorbent having captured CO2 and a treated exhaust gas stream having a reduced CO2 content, where the capture agent is selected from a phase-changing liquid that reversibly reacts with CO2 to form a new solid or liquid phase, and magnetically responsive sorbent particles formed from a magnetic core securely coated
with a CO2 adsorbing material;

b. separating the sorbent having captured CO2 from the treated exhaust gas stream;

c. passing the sorbent having captured CO2 in heat exchange relation with hot engine coolant, transmission fluid, a hot engine compound or the hot exhaust gas stream
before the exhaust gas stream is brought into contact with the CO2 capture agent to release CO2 and regenerate the CO2 capture agent;

d. recycling the regenerated CO2 capture agent for use in step (a);

e. discharging the treated exhaust gas stream having a reduced CO2 content into the atmosphere;

f. recovering an essentially pure CO2 gas stream;

g. compressing the recovered CO2 on board the vehicle to reduce its volume; and

h. temporarily storing the recovered CO2 on board the vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,140,073

DRILL BIT FOR USE IN BORING A WELLBORE AND SUBTERRANEAN FRACTURING

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. An earth boring bit comprising:
a body;
a connection selectively attachable to a drill string;
a chamber in the body in selective fluid communication with an inside of the drill string;
an exit nozzle having a discharge on an outer surface of the body and in selective communication with the chamber;
a fracturing port having a discharge on an outer surface of the body and in selective communication with the chamber; and
a valve assembly in the chamber selectively moveable from a drilling position that blocks fluid communication between the
fracturing port and chamber to a fracturing position that blocks fluid communication between the exit nozzle and chamber;

wherein the valve assembly comprises a sleeve, an elongated plunger mounted to the sleeve, and apertures in the sleeve.

US Pat. No. 9,091,121

INFLATABLE PACKER ELEMENT FOR USE WITH A DRILL BIT SUB

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A system for use in a subterranean wellbore comprising:
an earth boring bit coupled to an end of a string of drill pipe to define a drill string;
a seal assembly on a body of the earth boring bit comprising,
a seal element;
a flow line between an axial bore in the drill string and the seal element, and
an inlet valve in the flow line that is moveable to an open configuration when a pressure in the drill string exceeds a pressure
for earth boring operations, so that the seal element is in fluid communication with the annular space in the pipe string
and the seal element expands radially outward into sealing engagement with a wall of the wellbore;

a fracturing port between an end of the bit that is distal from the string of drill pipe and the seal: and
a fracturing valve in the bit adjacent the fracturing port and that selectively changes to an open configuration when the
inlet valve is in the open configuration and opens fluid communication between the annular space in the pipe string and the
fracturing port.

US Pat. No. 9,378,311

MULTI-LEVEL SOLUTION OF LARGE-SCALE LINEAR SYSTEMS IN SIMULATION OF POROUS MEDIA IN GIANT RESERVOIRS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method of computerized simulation of a giant subsurface reservoir in a data processing system of a plurality of data
processors, the computerized simulation being an iterative linear solution of equations for reservoir parameters of a giant
subsurface reservoir, the giant subsurface reservoir being simulated as a model partitioned into a number of cells arranged
in an organized system of cells, the simulation further being based on geological and fluid characterization information for
the cells of the reservoir, the method comprising the computer processing steps of:
(a) mapping information from the organized system of cells of the reservoir from an original fine grid scale into a coarse
cell grid of a reduced number from the original grid;

(b) initializing a postulated system solution matrix in the computer system for reservoir parameters for the coarse cell grid;
(c) performing a preconditioned conjugate-gradient extrapolation in the computer system on the initialized postulated system
solution matrix received for reservoir parameters for the coarse cell grid by determining a preconditioned matrix-vector product;

(d) transforming in the computer system the results of the preconditioned conjugate-gradient extrapolation for the coarse
cell grid to the original cell grid; and

(e) performing an iterative linear solution in the computer system for reservoir parameters for the original grid of cells.

US Pat. No. 9,194,773

SAMPLING AND BLOCKAGE REMOVAL TOOL

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A sampling and blockage removal tool for mounting at a drain point of a pipeline or vessel having an isolation valve, the
tool comprising a body; a connection valve mounted on the body and having a threaded fitting for threadably engaging in a
threaded opening provided in the isolation valve of a pipeline and for securing the tool in fluid communication with the isolation
valve; a sampling tube extendable into the body and formed as hollow rod having an outer thread; means rotatably secured to
the body without a possibility of longitudinal displacement relative thereto and having an inner thread cooperating with the
outer thread of the sampling tube for longitudinally displacing the tube in opposite directions; and means provided at an
end of the sampling tube remote from the body for controlling fluid flow through the sampling tube.

US Pat. No. 9,145,885

ELECTRICAL SUBMERSIBLE PUMP WITH RECIPROCATING LINEAR MOTOR

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A linear pump apparatus for pumping wellbore fluids, the linear pump apparatus comprising:
coiled production tubing operable to extend axially into a wellbore;
a first pump body suspended from the coiled production tubing, wherein an outer diameter the first pump body is substantially
equal to an outer diameter of the coiled production tubing;

a first chamber located within the first pump body, the chamber including a first port extending through a wall of the coiled
production tubing and operable to place the first chamber in fluid communication with a wellbore and a second port in fluid
communication with the coiled production tubing extending toward a surface of the earth;

a first piston located within the first chamber, wherein the first port and the second port are located on a downstream side
of the first piston, relative to a flow of wellbore fluids through the wellbore; and

a first actuator located at an upstream side of the first piston, relative to a flow of wellbore fluids through the wellbore
comprising an expandable material exhibiting at least one of piezoelectric, electrostriction, magnetostrictive, and piezomagnetism
properties such that the expandable material is operable to change from a first shape to a second shape in response to an
electromagnetic stimulus applied thereto, the change from the first shape to the second shape causing the piston to move axially
from a first piston position to a second piston position, pushing the wellbore fluids in a downstream direction towards the
surface of the earth;

a second pump body suspended from the coiled production tubing and axially spaced from the first pump body, wherein an outer
diameter the second pump body is substantially equal to the outer diameter of the coiled production tubing;

a second chamber located within the second pump body, the second chamber including a third port extending through the wall
of the coiled production tubing and operable to place the second chamber in fluid communication with the wellbore and a fourth
port and in fluid communication with the coiled production tubing extending toward the surface of the earth;

a second piston located within the second chamber, wherein the third port and the fourth port are located on a downstream
side of the second piston, relative to a flow of wellbore fluids through the wellbore; and

a second actuator located at an upstream side of the second piston, relative to a flow of wellbore fluids through the wellbore
comprising an expandable material exhibiting at least one of piezoelectric, electrostriction, magnetostrictive, and piezomagnetism
properties such that the expandable material is operable to change from a first shape to a second shape in response to an
electromagnetic stimulus applied thereto, the change from the first shape to the second shape causing the second piston to
move axially from a first piston position to a second piston position, pushing the wellbore fluids in a downstream direction
towards the surface of the earth.

US Pat. No. 9,110,094

MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE ENERGY COMPONENTS AND WETTABILITY OF RESERVOIR ROCK UTILIZING ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY

Schlumberger Technology C...

1. A method of characterizing properties of a sample of reservoir rock comprising:
i) configuring an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) instrument to have a probe with a tip realized from reservoir rock that corresponds
to the reservoir rock of the sample;

ii) using the AFM instrument as configured in i) to derive and store data representing adhesion forces between the tip and
the sample at one or more scan locations in the presence of a number of different fluids disposed between the tip and the
sample; and

iii) performing computational operations that process the data as derived and stored in ii) for a given scan location in order
to characterize at least one property of the rock sample at the given scan location.

US Pat. No. 9,499,915

ENCAPSULATED IMPRESSED CURRENT ANODE FOR VESSEL INTERNAL CATHODIC PROTECTION

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A cathodic protection system, the cathodic protection system comprising:
a vessel for containing a fluid;
an anode positioned inside the vessel;
an encapsulant encapsulating the anode, wherein the encapsulant comprises a wax repellant cementitious material that is sufficiently
porous to allow ions to pass therethrough, wherein the encapsulant comprises grains having a resin coating, the grains comprising
a plurality of crystalline compounds including mullite and corundum; and

an impressed current source electrically connected to the anode and the vessel, the vessel being a cathode when current is
applied from the current source.

US Pat. No. 9,447,681

APPARATUS, PROGRAM PRODUCT, AND METHODS OF EVALUATING ROCK PROPERTIES WHILE DRILLING USING DOWNHOLE ACOUSTIC SENSORS AND A DOWNHOLE BROADBAND TRANSMITTING SYSTEM

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. An apparatus for identifying rock properties in real-time during drilling, the apparatus comprising:
a downhole sensor subassembly connected between a drill bit and a drill string;
one or more acoustic sensors carried by the downhole sensor assembly and operably coupled to a downhole data interface; and
a surface computer operably coupled to the downhole data interface through a data acquisition unit, a surface data interface,
and a communication medium extending between the surface data interface and the downhole data interface, the computer including
a processor, memory in communication with the processor, and a petrophysical properties analyzing program, the computer configured
to perform the following operations:

receiving digitized raw acoustic sensor data transmitted from the data acquisition unit over the communication medium to the
surface data interface, the raw acoustic sensor data representing an acoustic signal generated real-time as a result of rotational
contact of the drill bit with rock during drilling,

transforming the raw acoustic sensor data into the frequency domain,
filtering the transformed data, and
performing one or more of the following processing operations:
deriving a plurality of acoustic characteristics from the filtered data, the plurality of acoustic characteristics including
mean frequency and normalized deviation of frequency, and

deriving petrophysical properties from the filtered data utilizing a petrophysical properties evaluation algorithm employable
to identify one or more petrophysical properties of rock undergoing drilling.

US Pat. No. 9,435,892

METHOD AND TRACKING DEVICE FOR TRACKING MOVEMENT IN A MARINE ENVIRONMENT WITH TACTICAL ADJUSTMENTS TO AN EMERGENCY RESPONSE

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A tracking device for tracking movement in a marine environment, the tracking device comprising:
a global positioning system (GPS) unit including:
a GPS receiver adapted to receive global positioning signals from three or more remote global positioning satellites, the
global positioning signals being broadcast at a GPS frequency in a range of about 1.17-1.58 GHz,

a satellite transmitter adapted to send a geographic location of the GPS unit to a data processing satellite at a frequency
of around 1.6 GHz, the data processing satellite further transmitting the geographic location for storage in a positioning
satellite data repository,

a processor, operatively connected to the GPS receiver and the satellite transmitter, adapted to determine the geographic
location of the GPS unit based on the global positioning signals, and

a housing adapted to be held by a user of the GPS unit and having the GPS receiver, the satellite transmitter, and the processor
therein;

a waterproof container of a flexible material having an interior region adapted to receive the GPS unit and having the GPS
unit therein, the waterproof container sealable to prevent an ingress of fluid and to float the tracking device on a sea surface
to measure movement of the sea surface; and

a local transmitter adapted to send the positioning signal over a mesh network to a plurality of tracking devices adapted
to be deployed in the fluid spill, each of the plurality of tracking devices adapted to communicate with other tracking devices,
and to send the positioning signal corresponding to itself and another tracking device to the data processing satellite;

the tracking device adapted to generate an impact notification when the tracking device is within a predetermined distance
of a critical location.

US Pat. No. 9,423,526

METHODS FOR ESTIMATING MISSING REAL-TIME DATA FOR INTELLIGENT FIELDS

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A computer implemented method of managing an intelligent field, the method comprising the steps of:
detecting faulty data from one of a plurality of well instruments for a well in an intelligent field defining a faulty well
instrument;

estimating data values in at least substantially real-time to provide as a substitute for at least portions of the faulty
data associated With the faulty well instrument, the estimated data values being based upon observed substantially real-time
well instrument data values of at least two other of the plurality of well instruments associated with the well in the intelligence
field; and

performing real-time dynamic data substitution responsive to the steps of detecting and estimating to thereby provide a substantially
continuous stream of valid, reliable, and substantially complete well instrument data values for the faulty well instrument.

US Pat. No. 9,366,130

EXPERT SYSTEM FOR WELL COMPLETION USING BAYESIAN PROBABILITIES AND A CONSEQUENCES NODE DEPENDENT ON THE ZONAL ISOLATION TYPES, RELIABILITY LEVEL, COST LEVEL, PRODUCTIVITY LEVEL, THE COMPLETION TYPE, AND THE JUNCTION CLASSIFICATION

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A system, comprising:
one or more processors;
a non-transitory tangible computer-readable memory, the memory comprising:
a well completion expert system executable by the one or more processors and configured to provide one or more well completion
recommendations based on one or more inputs, the well completion expert system comprising a well completion Bayesian decision
network (BDN) model, the well completion BDN model comprising:

a zonal isolation types uncertainty node configured to receive one or more zonal isolation types from the one or more inputs;
a reliability level uncertainty node configured to receive one or more reliability levels from the one or more inputs;
a cost level uncertainty node configured to receive one or more cost levels from the one or more inputs;
a productivity level uncertainty node configured to receive one or more productivity levels from the one or more inputs; and
a completion type decision node configured to receive one or more completion types from the one or more inputs;
a junction classification decision node configured to receive one or more junction classifications from the one or more inputs;
and

a completion consequences node dependent on the zonal isolation types uncertainty node, the reliability level uncertainty
node, the cost level uncertainty node, the productivity level uncertainty node, the completion type decision node, and the
junction classifications decision node and configured to output one or more well completion recommendations based on one or
more Bayesian probabilities calculated from the one or more zonal isolation types, the one or more reliability levels, the
one or more cost levels, the one or more productivity levels, the one or more completion types, and the one or more junction
classifications.

US Pat. No. 9,115,318

HYDROCRACKING PROCESS WITH INTEGRAL INTERMEDIATE HYDROGEN SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. An integrated hydrotreating and single-stage hydrocracking process comprising:
a. hydrotreating a feedstock with a hydrotreating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen to produce a hydrotreated effluent
containing a reduced amount of sulfur-containing and/or nitrogen-containing hydrocarbon compounds as compared to the feedstock;

b. separating the hydrotreated effluent in a high-pressure separation zone to produce a vapor stream and a hydrocarbon liquid
stream;

c. purifying at least a portion of the vapor stream in an absorption zone in the presence of at least a portion of relatively
heavy components of the vapor stream from step (b) to produce a high purity hydrogen gas stream and a fuel gas stream;

d. hydrocracking at least a portion of the hydrocarbon liquid stream from step (b) with a hydrocracking catalyst in the presence
of hydrogen gas in a single-stage reactor configuration to produce a hydrocracked effluent, wherein the hydrogen gas includes
at least a portion of the high purity hydrogen gas stream from step (c); and

e. separating and fractionating the hydrocracked effluent.

US Pat. No. 9,499,403

CATALYST AND PROCESS FOR THERMO-NEUTRAL REFORMING OF LIQUID HYDROCARBONS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A thermo-neutral reforming process for the production of a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas from a liquid hydrocarbon fuel,
which comprises:
a. providing a mixture of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel, an oxygen (O2)-rich gas or air and steam to an interior zone of a reactor, said interior zone including a catalyst bed consisting of a
combined combustion and steam and/or CO2 reforming catalyst containing Ni, La2O3, Ce2O3, Pt, ZrO2, Rh and Re supported on magnesium aluminate, the catalyst prepared by:

impregnating a magnesium aluminate support with an aqueous solution containing a rhodium salt and a rhenium salt, followed
by drying in an NH3-rich atmosphere, calcination and hydrogen reduction to obtain a rhodium-rhenium/magnesium aluminate support,

impregnating the rhodim-rhenium/magnesium aluminate support with an aqueous solution of a zirconium salt and a platinum salt
followed by drying in an NH3-rich atmosphere, calcination and hydrogen reduction to obtain a Pt—ZrO2—Rh—Re/magnesium aluminate support, and

impregnating the Pt—ZrO2—RH—Re/magnesium aluminate support with an aqueous solution of a lanthanum sald, a cerium salt and a nickel salt followed
by drying in an NH3-rich atmosphere, calcination and reduction conducted between 700° C. and 750° C.;

b. pre-heating the fuel, the O2-rich gas or air and steam mixture to a temperature in the range of about 350° C. to about 450° C.; and,

c. bringing the pre-heated mixture into contact with the catalyst bed at a gas hour space velocity of about 30,000 h?1 to about 70,000 h?1 causing an exothermic combustion reaction raising the reaction temperature to about 800° C. to about 900° C., and also causing an endothermic steam reforming reaction for a period of time sufficient to reform the liquid fuel to
yield a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas.

US Pat. No. 9,429,678

APPARATUS, COMPUTER READABLE MEDIA, AND COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR ESTIMATING MISSING REAL-TIME DATA FOR INTELLIGENT FIELDS

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. Non-transitory computer readable medium having processor readable code embodied thereon for programming one or more processors
to perform operations for managing an intelligent field, the processor readable code comprising a set of instructions, that
when executed by one or more processors, causes the one or more processors to perform the operations of:
detecting faulty data from one of a plurality of well instruments for a well in an intelligent field defining a faulty well
instrument;

estimating data values in at least substantially real-time to provide as a substitute for at least portions of the faulty
data associated with the faulty well instrument, the estimated data values being based upon observed substantially real-time
well instrument data values of at least two other of the plurality of well instruments associated with the well in the intelligence
field; and

performing real-time dynamic data substitution responsive to the operations of detecting and estimating to thereby provide
a substantially continuous stream of valid, reliable, and substantially complete well instrument data values for the faulty
well instrument.

US Pat. No. 9,428,700

HYDROVISBREAKING PROCESS FOR FEEDSTOCK CONTAINING DISSOLVED HYDROGEN

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A process for reducing the viscosity of a liquid hydrocarbon feedstock into lower molecular weight hydrocarbon compounds
in a hydrovisbreaking reaction zone comprising:
a. mixing the liquid hydrocarbon feedstock and an excess of hydrogen gas in a mixing zone to dissolve a portion of the hydrogen
gas in the liquid hydrocarbon feedstock and produce a two-phase mixture of a hydrogen-enriched liquid hydrocarbon feedstock
and the remaining excess hydrogen gas;

b. introducing the mixture of hydrogen gas and the hydrogen-enriched liquid hydrocarbon feedstock into a flashing zone under
predetermined conditions to separate the undissolved excess hydrogen gas and optimize the amount of hydrogen dissolved in
the hydrogen-enhanced liquid hydrocarbon feedstock, and recovering a single-phase hydrogen-enriched liquid hydrocarbon feedstock;

c. conveying the single-phase hydrogen-enriched liquid hydrocarbon feedstock under conditions that maximize the amount of
dissolved hydrogen in the hydrocarbon feedstock into a hydrovisbreaking reaction zone in the presence of steam to crack the
feedstock into relatively smaller molecules; and

d. recovering converted hydrocarbon products of reduced viscosity from the hydrovisbreaking reaction zone.

US Pat. No. 9,404,351

APPARATUS FOR DOWNHOLE WATER PRODUCTION CONTROL IN AN OIL WELL

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. An apparatus capable of controlling pressure and production fluids in a circular pipe in a downhole region of a well bore,
the apparatus comprising:
the circular pipe comprising at least one pipe orifice on a lower side of the circular pipe, the pipe orifice operable to
allow the flow of production fluids through the orifice into the circular pipe;

an inclined wall within the circular pipe, the inclined wall having a plurality of flow control members positioned at different
horizontal levels relative to the inclined wall;

the flow control members each having a housing with an inner chamber and a buoyant element within the inner chamber of the
housing, such that the buoyant element moves vertically within the inner chamber relative to a density of the production fluids;

each housing having a lower housing orifice and an upper housing orifice;
and a space located between the pipe orifice and the inclined wall.

US Pat. No. 9,346,956

FOAMED SULFUR ASPHALTS FOR PAVEMENT RECYCLING AND SOIL STABILIZATION

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method of manufacturing a foamed sulfur asphalt stabilized soil comprising the steps of:
introducing an asphalt binder, elemental sulfur, foaming air, and foaming water into a foaming mixer, where the foaming water
has a water introduction pressure, where the foaming air has an air introduction pressure, and where the water introduction
pressure is greater than the air introduction pressure;

operating the foaming mixer such that a foamed sulfur asphalt forms with a water content of about 3.45%, where the foamed
sulfur asphalt has a foam half-life equal to or greater than about 6 seconds and has a foam expansion ratio equal to or greater
than 8, and where the foaming mixer operates at a temperature of about 150° C.;

introducing the foamed sulfur asphalt, an aggregate having a moisture content, and Portland cement into an aggregate mixer;
and

operating the aggregate mixer such that the foamed sulfur asphalt stabilized soil forms.

US Pat. No. 9,208,268

GIGA-CELL LINEAR SOLVER METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MASSIVE PARALLEL RESERVOIR SIMULATION

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. In computer implemented simulation of fluid characteristics of a subsurface reservoir with a reservoir simulator, the fluid
characteristics being governed by fluid flow, material balance and pressure-volume-temperature relationships, the reservoir
being partitioned into a number of subdomains, each subdomain representing a finite volume of the reservoir containing multiphase,
multicomponent fluids and being organized into a group of grid cells having data regarding the fluids, the reservoir simulation
being performed in a cluster computer formed of at least one master node and a plurality of processor nodes, with each processor
node being assigned a subdomain of the partitioned reservoir, a computer implemented method to simulate by Newtonian iterations
fluid characteristics parameters of interest for the grid cells, a computer implemented method comprising the steps of:
arranging the data for each of the reservoir subdomains into a Jacobian matrix A composed of: a matrix P composed of the block
diagonal of the subdomain and non-zero data blocks adjacent the block diagonal, a matrix E composed of non-zero data blocks
not included in the block diagonal matrix P, the matrix E being composed of a matrix E? of interior grid blocks within the
subdomain and a matrix E? of boundary grid cell blocks with grid cells of adjacent subdomains in the reservoir;

performing parallel approximate solutions of the fluid characteristics for the grid blocks of each of the subdomains in the
assigned processor nodes using a chosen local preconditioner for the subdomain;

updating full system residuals for the Jacobian matrix for the reservoir based on the parallel approximate solutions;
restricting the full system residuals into a global reduced space according to a global reduced space matrix;
performing a parallel approximate solution of the full system residuals using a global reduced space preconditioner;
forming a combined approximate solution update in the assigned processor nodes of the parallel approximate solutions of each
of the subdomains and the parallel approximate solution of the full system residuals to form a solution vector;

updating the full system residuals using the solution vector;
applying an iterative solver to the full system to obtain measures of the fluid material balances of each composition for
the grid cells of the reservoir;

testing the measures of the fluid material balances of each composition obtained by applying the iterative solver to determine
if convergence is achieved; and

if convergence is not achieved, returning to the step of performing parallel approximate solutions; or
if convergence is achieved, returning to the reservoir simulator.
US Pat. No. 9,144,753

SELECTIVE SERIES-FLOW HYDROPROCESSING SYSTEM AND METHOD

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. An integrated hydrocracking process for producing cracked hydrocarbons from a feedstock including:
a. separating the hydrocarbon feed into an aromatic-lean fraction and an aromatic-rich fraction;
b. hydrocracking the aromatic-rich fraction in a first stage hydroprocessing reaction zone to produce a first hydroprocessing
reaction zone effluent;

c. hydrocracking a mixture of first hydroprocessing reaction zone effluent and aromatic-lean fraction in a second stage hydroprocessing
reaction zone to produce a second stage hydroprocessing reaction zone effluent; and

d. fractionating the second stage hydroprocessing reaction zone effluent to produce one or more product streams and one or
more bottoms streams.

US Pat. No. 9,499,751

PROCESS FOR OXIDATIVE CONVERSION OF ORGANOSULFUR COMPOUNDS IN LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A process for reducing the sulfur content of hydrocarbon mixture containing sulfur compounds comprising:
a. contacting the hydrocarbon mixture with an oxidant in a reactor in the presence of a catalyst that includes Anderson structure
molecules for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the sulfur compounds in the hydrocarbon mixture;
and

b. removing the oxidized sulfur compounds from the hydrocarbon mixture by a countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction with an
aqueous solution of polar solvent.

US Pat. No. 9,488,752

SYSTEM FOR COMPUTING THE RADIUS OF INVESTIGATION IN A RADIAL, COMPOSITE RESERVOIR SYSTEM

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A system for calculating the radius of investigation of a radial, composite reservoir, said system comprising:
a processor, a memory electronically coupled to said processor, a clock for providing a starting time and an elapsed time
to the processor, a display electronically coupled to said processor, and an electronic input, coupled to said processor,
for entering data;

wherein said processor is programmed
(a) to divide the reservoir into a predetermined number (n) of concentric regions;
(b) to store in memory, for each region (n), data relating to the reservoir rock, fluids, and geometries of each of the n
regions; and

(c) to calculate the current radius of investigation in the reservoir for a plurality of selected regions (n) based upon the
stored data for each such region (n) and a starting elapsed time, using at least one of Equations (1), (2), and (6) through
(12) as expressed in the following:

where:
rij is the radius of investigation (ft.) which is located in the jth concentric region;

? is the total number of concentric regions in a composite system;
?j is the hydraulic diffusivity in the jth concentric region, determined by equation (3) below;

Rj is the location of the boundary between the jth and the (j+1)th concentric regions;

j is an arbitrary region (the boundary of the region of influence is located in the jth region;

?I and ?I+1 are the hydraulic diffusivities in the Ith and (I+1)th concentric regions;

I is an indexing (also known as dummy) variable, which is temporarily utilized while performing the calculations in the summation
loop in Equation (1);

Rj?1 is the location of the boundary between the (j?I)th and the jth concentric regions;

?j?1 is the hydraulic diffusivity in the (j?I)th region;

C is a constant (0.0566950796 in the case of the System of Oilfield Units); and
?t is the elapsed time in hours since the disturbance has been initiated at the well due to production or injectionOR
OR

OR
OR
OR
OR
OR
OR

US Pat. No. 9,207,199

ANALYZER FOR MONITORING SALT CONTENT IN HIGH RESISTIVITY FLUIDS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A salt content analyzer that performs multiple sequential determinations of a salt content of an analyte in a test fluid
comprising the analyte and an electro-polymerizable monomer without requiring intermediate cleaning or polishing of a working
electrode between determinations, the salt content analyzer comprising:
an analysis vessel that accommodates the test fluid, a counter electrode, and a reference electrode;
a working electrode assembly comprising the working electrode and an access control mechanism, the working electrode assembly
being immersible in the test fluid; and a voltage source that applies an electrical potential to the working electrode;

a measurement apparatus that measures an electrical current passed between the working electrode and the counter electrode
when the electrical potential is applied to the working electrode;

wherein:
the working electrode and the counter electrode form an electrochemical cell;
the access control mechanism of the working electrode assembly comprises a movable barrier that exposes a measuring portion
of the working electrode to the test fluid through an access gap and forms a fluid tight seal around a covered portion of
the working electrode, the fluid tight seal preventing exposure of the covered portion to the test fluid;

during a single determination of the analyte in the test fluid, electropolymerization of the electro-polymerizable monomer
occurs at the measuring portion of the working electrode and a polymer film is deposited onto the measuring portion to form
a used measuring portion;

after the single determination, movement of the movable barrier exposes a fresh measuring portion of the working electrode
for use in a subsequent determination without requiring intermediate cleaning or polishing of the working electrode and forms
the fluid tight seal around the used measuring portion formed during the single determination.

US Pat. No. 9,194,611

SELF-BALLASTED, ROOF-INTEGRATED, LIGHTWEIGHT FRC PV MOUNTING SYSTEM

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A ballast tile system for supporting photovoltaic modules, the system comprising:
at least one fiber-reinforced concrete ballast tile including:
a first mounting member extending upwardly from a top surface of the at least one ballast tile, the first mounting member
configured to receive a lower end of a photovoltaic module;

a second mounting member extending upwardly from the top surface of the at least one ballast tile, the second mounting member
configured to secure an upper edge of the photovoltaic module;

wherein the first mounting member has a horizontal slot arranged to receive the lower end of the photovoltaic module, and
the horizontal slot is located at a first elevation on the first mounting member measured from the top surface of the at least
one ballast tile;

the second mounting member secures the upper edge of the photovoltaic module with a connector located at a second elevation
on the upper mounting member measured from the top surface of the at least one ballast tile: and

the second elevation is at least as high as the first elevation.

US Pat. No. 9,483,871

360-DEGREE CORE PHOTO IMAGE INTEGRATION AND INTERPRETATION IN A 3D PETROPHYSICAL MODELING ENVIRONMENT

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A computer-implemented method comprising:
receiving a dimensionless 360-degree well core sample photo image;
geospatially anchoring, by a computer, the received dimensionless 360-degree well core sample photo image by enhancing the
dimensionless 360-degree well core sample photo image with three-dimensional geospatial positioning data;

decomposing, by a computer, the geospatially-anchored 360-degree well core sample photo image along strips at a particular
depth measurement into a set of color numerical array samples as a first intermediate data set, wherein higher color complexity
along a strip results in a higher number of color numerical array samples for the particular depth measurement;

transforming, by a computer, the set of color numerical array samples into a formation image log as a secondary intermediate
data set;

calibrating, by a computer, the formation image log for consistency with additionally available data; and
generating, by a computer, 3D lithofacies interpretation and prediction data using the calibrated formation image log.

US Pat. No. 9,482,782

SYSTEMS, METHODS, TRANSMITTER ASSEMBLIES, AND ASSOCIATED POWER SUPPLIES AND CHARGING STATIONS TO EXPLORE AND ANALYZE SUBTERRANEAN GEOPHYSICAL FORMATIONS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A system to measure properties in a geophysical formation, the system comprising:
a wellbore lining positioned in a wellbore;
a plurality of fixed radio frequency receivers spaced apart along the longitudinal extent of and connected to the wellbore
lining to receive radio frequency transmissions at one or more preselected radio frequencies;

a plurality of transmitter assemblies positioned external to the wellbore lining and at a plurality of substantially horizontally
and vertically spaced apart locations within the geophysical formation, each of the plurality of transmitter assemblies including:

a body,
a sensor connected to the body and positioned to detect the presence of one or more hydrocarbons within the geophysical formation,
a radio frequency transmitter connected to the body and configured to transmit positional data and hydrocarbon characteristic
data from the geophysical formation when the transmitter assembly is positioned therein, and

a power supply connected to the body to supply power to the transmitter and the sensor, the power supply deriving energy from
a fluid within the geophysical formation;

a machine in communication with each of the plurality of fixed radio frequency receivers, the machine including a processor,
a display in communication with the processor, and a non-transitory, computer-readable storage medium with an executable program
stored therein, wherein the program instructs the processor to perform the following steps:

receiving positional data from each of the plurality of transmitter assemblies, the positional data indicating the location
of the transmitter assemblies at a point in time and comprising interior surface location data received from a plurality of
the transmitter assemblies, each of the interior surface location data defining a sensed three-dimensional location of a point
on an interior surface within the geophysical formation for the respective transmitter assembly;

plotting, responsive to receipt of the positional data, at least one positional data point for each of the plurality of transmitter
assemblies;

combining the positional data from the plurality of transmitter assemblies to create a representation of a three-dimensional
physical map of at least a portion of the geophysical formation, the physical map including an indication of a three dimensional
location of each of the plurality transmitter assemblies within the interior surface of the geophysical formation;

receiving fluid data from each of the plurality of transmitter assemblies, the fluid data indicating the type and location
of fluid located at each of the plurality of substantially horizontally and vertically spaced apart locations within the geophysical
formation; and

creating a fluid map on the display by plotting the type and location of fluids onto the physical map, the fluid map comprising
pathways through the geophysical formation, pockets of hydrocarbons within the geophysical formation, and interior surface
boundaries of the geophysical formation.

US Pat. No. 9,442,470

METHODS FOR PLANNING AND RETROFIT OF ENERGY EFFICIENT ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS THROUGH INTER-TIME-INTER-SYSTEMS ENERGY INTEGRATION

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A computerized method comprising the steps of:
identifying, by a computer processor, a plurality of functional areas for an eco-industrial park, the plurality of functional
areas comprising a plurality of industrial functional areas and one or more non-industrial functional areas in adjacent geographical
locations, each of the plurality of industrial functional areas containing one or more process streams comprising one or more
of the following: one or more hot process streams to be cooled and one or more cold process streams to be heated, each of
the one or more non-industrial functional areas containing one or more of the following: one or more hot streams and one or
more cold streams;

identifying, by the computer processor, a plurality of significant heating and cooling tasks for each significant time-dependent
and non-time-dependent industrial and non-industrial activity within the eco-industrial park;

responsive to the identified functional areas and identified significant heating and cooling tasks, determining, by the computer
processor, one or more inter-time zone thermal energy integration thermal targets and one or more intra-time zone thermal
energy integration thermal targets; and

responsive to the determined one or more inter-time zone thermal energy integration thermal targets and one or more intra-time
zone thermal energy integration thermal targets, performing, by the computer processor, inter-time zone thermal energy integration
matching comprising identifying one or more inter-time zone thermal energy integration matching solutions across a plurality
of time zones to satisfy a thermal load to be integrated via inter-time zone thermal energy integration.

US Pat. No. 9,424,674

TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGING OF MULTIPHASE FLOWS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. An apparatus for forming tomographic images of three phase flow in a conduit, comprising:
(a) a first array of a plurality of transmitters mounted about the periphery of the conduit emitting energy at a first frequency
to travel through the fluid in the conduit;

(b) a first array of a plurality of receivers mounted about the periphery of the conduit receiving energy at the first frequency
after travel through the fluid in the conduit;

(c) a second array of a plurality of transmitters mounted about the periphery of the conduit emitting energy at a second frequency
to travel through the fluid in the conduit;

(d) a second array of a plurality of receivers mounted about the periphery of the conduit receiving energy at the second frequency
after travel through the fluid in the conduit; and

(e) a data processing system forming tomographic images of the three phase flow in the conduit, comprising:
(1) a processor forming measures of the speed of travel of the energy between individual ones of the plurality of transmitters
and receivers of the first and second arrays;

(2) the processor further forming measures of the attenuation of the energy between individual ones of the plurality of transmitters
and receivers of the first and second arrays;

(3) the processor further forming a synthesized composite image of the relative presence and position of the three fluid phases
over a cross-sectional area of the conduit based on the formed measures of the speed of travel and attenuation of the energy
in the conduit; and

(f) a display presenting the synthesized composite image for evaluation and analysis.

US Pat. No. 9,417,161

DRAINABLE SIGHT GLASS AND ASSOCIATED METHODS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A drainable sight glass assembly to view the condition of fluid when disposed within a vessel, the drainable sight glass
assembly comprising:
a sight glass housing including an upper disk layer having a first diameter and a first receptacle, a lower disk portion having
a second diameter and a second receptacle, and a substantially transparent wall portion connecting the upper disk layer to
the lower disk portion;

an upper valve connected to the first receptacle, the upper valve for controlling fluid into the sight glass housing;
a lower valve connected to the second receptacle for controlling fluid flow out of the sight glass housing; and
a measurement assembly adapted to determine the level of fluid in the sight glass housing;
the sight glass housing having a frustoconically shaped interior that tapers to a minimum diameter at a lower end substantially
equal to the diameter of the lower valve; and

the upper valve having one port connected to the sight glass housing, and one port connected to the measurement assembly.

US Pat. No. 9,382,791

EXPERT SYSTEMS FOR WELL COMPLETION USING BAYESIAN DECISION NETWORKS INCLUDING A FLUIDS DAMAGE AND TEMPERATURE EFFECTS UNCERTAINTY NODE, A PERFORATION CONSIDERATIONS UNCERTAINTY NODE, A PERFORATION ANALYSIS UNCERTAINTY NODE, AND A

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A system, comprising:
one or more processors;
a non-transitory tangible computer-readable memory, the memory comprising:
a well completion expert system executable by the one or more processors and configured to provide one or more well completion
recommendations based on one or more inputs, the well completion expert system comprising a well completion Bayesian decision
network (BDN) model, the well completion BDN model comprising:

an underbalanced (UB) perforation utility uncertainty node configured to receive one or more UB perforation utilities from
the one or more inputs;

a fluids damage and temperature effects uncertainty node dependent on the UB perforation utility uncertainty node and configured
to receive one or more fluid damages, temperature effects, or a combination thereof from the one or more inputs;

a perforation considerations uncertainty node dependent on the fluids damage and temperature effects uncertainty node and
configured to receive one or more perforation considerations from the one or more inputs;

a perforation analysis uncertainty node dependent on the perforation considerations uncertainty node and configured to receive
one or more perforation analyses from the one or more inputs;

a perforation type uncertainty node configured to receive one or more perforation types from the one or more inputs;
a completion type decision node configured to receive one or more completion types from the one or more inputs; and
a perforation consequences node dependent on the perforation analysis uncertainty node, the perforation type decision node,
and the completion type decision node and configured to output one or more well completion recommendations based on one or
more Bayesian probabilities calculated from the one or more perforation analyses, the one or more perforation types, and the
one or more completion types.

US Pat. No. 9,366,129

EXPERT SYSTEMS FOR WELL COMPLETION USING BAYESIAN DECISION NETWORKS WITH A MULTILATERAL JUNCTION DESIGN, AND A JUNCTION CLASSIFICATION DECISION NODE

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A system, comprising:
one or more processors;
a non-transitory tangible computer-readable memory, the memory comprising:
a well completion expert system executable by the one or more processors and configured to provide one or more well completion
recommendations based on one or more inputs, the well completion expert system comprising a well completion Bayesian decision
network (BDN) model, the well completion BDN model comprising:

a multilateral junction design considerations uncertainty node configured to receive multilateral junction design considerations
from the one or more inputs;

a junction classification decision node configured to receive one or more junction classifications from the one or more inputs;
and

a junction classification consequences node dependent on the multilateral junction design considerations uncertainty node
and the junction classification decision node and configured to output one or more well completion recommendations based on
one or more Bayesian probabilities calculated from the one or more multilateral junction design considerations and the one
or more junction classifications.

US Pat. No. 9,260,671

PROCESS FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEAVY OILS USING LIGHT HYDROCARBON COMPONENTS AS A DILUENT

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A process for upgrading of heavy oils comprising the steps of:
feeding a heavy oil feed stream to a hydrodemetalization reaction vessel, the hydrodemetalization reaction vessel containing
a hydrodemetalization catalyst, the hydrodemetalization catalyst being operable to remove a substantial quantity of metal
compounds from the heavy oil feed stream;

feeding a hydrogen source to the hydrodemetalization reaction vessel, the hydrogen source having a hydrogen pressure in the
range of 50 to 150 bar; and

feeding a light hydrocarbon diluent to the hydrodemetalization reaction vessel, the light hydrocarbon diluent being substantially
in liquid phase,

wherein the feeding of the heavy oil feed stream and the hydrogen source and the light hydrocarbon diluent to the hydrodemetalization
reaction vessel defines a feed rate, the feed rate further defining a total liquid hourly space velocity within a predetermined
liquid hourly space velocity range of 0.1 hr?1 to 5 hr?1 such that a combined effluent stream is produced and removed from the hydrodemetalization reaction vessel;

the process further comprising;
feeding the combined effluent stream to a hydrodesulfurization reaction vessel, the hydrodesulfurization reaction vessel containing
a hydrodesulfurization catalyst operable to remove a substantial amount of sulfur from the combined effluent such that a hydrodesulfurization
catalyst effluent is produced;

feeding the hydrodesulfurization catalyst effluent to a hydroconversion reaction vessel, the hydroconversion reaction vessel
containing a hydroconversion catalyst, the hydroconversion catalyst being operable to convert the hydrodesulfurization catalyst
effluent to a hydroconverted product, the hydroconverted product having, an increased API gravity as compared to the heavy
oil feed stream;

feeding the hydroconverted product to a separation unit, the separation unit operable to separate the hydroconverted product
into a process gas component stream and a liquid product;

feeding the liquid product to a flash vessel to separate a light hydrocarbon fraction and a final liquid product, the final
liquid product having a reduced sulfur content, reduced metal content and increased API gravity in comparison to the heavy
oil feed stream;

recycling at least a portion of the light hydrocarbon fraction to the hydrodemetalization reaction vessel; and
combining the recycled light hydrocarbon fraction with a fresh light hydrocarbon diluent to form the light hydrocarbon diluent
and to thereby recycle the light hydrocarbon diluent to the hydrodemetalization reaction vessel to reduce coke formation.

US Pat. No. 9,235,724

SYSTEMS, METHODS, AND COMPUTER MEDIUM TO SECURELY TRANSFER BACKUP DATA BETWEEN PHYSICALLY ISOLATED NETWORKS HAVING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NETWORK PROTECTION

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A computer-implemented method to transfer data between two or more networks configured to have different levels of network
protection, the method comprising:
partitioning each of one or more relatively large data backup files into a set of two or more relatively smaller partitioned
files, the two or more relatively smaller partitioned files of each of the one or more relatively large data backup files
collectively defining a plurality of partitioned files, the one or more relatively large data backup files associated with
and positioned within a first network;

decoding a plurality of data barcodes each indicative of contents of one of the plurality of partitioned files, responsive
to receipt of a scan of a display of a first computer in communication with and positioned within the first network, by use
of one or more barcode scanning devices in communication with a second computer positioned remote from the first computer
and in communication with and positioned within a second network, to produce contents of the plurality of partitioned files
represented by the plurality of data barcodes, the second network configured to have a different level of network security
protection than the first network and configured to allow only one-way secure communication from the second network to the
first network;

decoding a plurality of validation barcodes indicative of contents of one or more validation files, responsive to receipt
of a scan of a display of the second computer, by use of a different one or more barcode scanning devices in communication
with the first computer, to produce contents of the one or more validation files represented by the plurality of validation
barcodes, the one or more validation files configured to include decoded contents of the plurality of partitioned files, to
thereby securely communicate decoded contents of the plurality of partitioned files in one-way communication from temporary
storage associated with the second network to the first network;

decoding one or more verification barcodes indicative of contents of one or more verification files, responsive to receipt
of a scan of the display of the first computer by use of the one or more barcode scanning devices in communication with the
second computer, to produce contents of the one or more verification files represented by the one or more verification barcodes,
the one or more verification files configured to indicate whether successful transmission of contents of each of the plurality
of partitioned files from the first network to the second network has occurred;

merging decoded contents of each set of two or more relatively smaller partitioned files into a reassemblage of the respective
one of the one or more relatively large data backup files responsive to an indication from decoded contents of the one or
more verification files of successful transmission of contents of each of the plurality of partitioned files from the first
network to the second network; and

storing each reassemblage of the one or more relatively large data backup files in more permanent storage associated with
the second network responsive to an indication from decoded contents of the one or more verification files of successful transmission
of contents of each of the plurality of partitioned files from the first network to the second network.

US Pat. No. 9,228,139

INTEGRATED HYDROPROCESSING AND STEAM PYROLYSIS OF CRUDE OIL TO PRODUCE LIGHT OLEFINS AND COKE

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. An integrated hydroprocessing, steam pyrolysis and coker process for production of petroleum coke and olefinic and aromatic
petrochemicals from a crude oil feed, the process comprising:
a. hydroprocessing the crude oil and a coker liquid product in the presence of hydrogen under conditions effective to produce
a hydroprocessed effluent having a reduced content of contaminants, an increased paraffinicity, reduced Bureau of Mines Correlation
Index, and an increased American Petroleum Institute gravity;

b. thermally cracking at least a portion of the hydroprocessed effluent in the presence of steam in a steam pyrolysis zone
by heating the hydroprocessed effluent in a convection section of a steam pyrolysis zone, separating the heated hydroprocessed
effluent into a vapor fraction and a residual liquid fraction, and passing the vapor fraction to a pyrolysis section operating
under conditions effective to produce a mixed product stream;

c. thermally cracking the residual liquid fraction under conditions effective to produce coke and the coker liquid product,
wherein the coker liquid product is recycled to the step of hydroprocessing and wherein petroleum coke is recovered;

d. separating the thermally cracked mixed product stream into hydrogen, olefins, aromatics and pyrolysis fuel oil;
e. purifying hydrogen recovered step (d) and recycling it to step (a);
f. recovering olefins and aromatics from at least a portion of the separated mixed product stream; and
g. recycling at least a portion of the pyrolysis fuel oil to step (c).

US Pat. No. 9,202,175

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR AN EXPERT SYSTEM FOR WELL CONTROL USING BAYESIAN INTELLIGENCE

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A system, comprising:
one or more processors;
a non-transitory tangible computer-readable memory, the memory comprising:
a well control expert system executable by the one or more processors and configured to provide one or more well control recommendations
based on one or more inputs, the well control expert system comprising a well control Bayesian decision network (BDN) model,
the well control BDN model comprising:

a kick indicators uncertainty node configured to receive one or more kick indicators from the one or more inputs;
a kick verifications uncertainty node dependent on the kick indicators uncertainty node and configured to receive one or more
kick verifications from the one or more inputs;

a kick details uncertainty node dependent on the kick verifications uncertainty node and configured to receive one or more
kick details from the one or more inputs;

a circulations decision node configured to receive one or more circulations from the one or more inputs;
a circulations consequences node dependent on the kick details uncertainty node and the circulations decision node and configured
to output the one or more well control recommendations based on one or more Bayesian probabilities calculated from one or
more kick details and the one or more circulations; and

a well control practices consequences node dependent on (a) a well control scenarios uncertainty node, (b) a well control
operations uncertainty node, and (c) a recommended practices decision node, the well control practices consequences node being
configured to output the one or more well control recommendations based on one or more Bayesian probabilities calculated from:

one or more well control scenarios input to the well control uncertainty node,
one or more well control operations input to the well control operations uncertainty node, and
one or more recommended practices input to the recommended practices decision node.

US Pat. No. 9,189,637

SYSTEMS, METHODS, AND COMPUTER MEDIUM TO SECURELY TRANSFER BUSINESS TRANSACTIONAL DATA BETWEEN PHYSICALLY ISOLATED NETWORKS HAVING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NETWORK PROTECTION UTILIZING BARCODE TECHNOLOGY

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A computer-implemented method to transfer data between two or more networks configured to have different levels of network
protection, the method comprising:
decoding a first set of one or more barcodes indicative of contents of transactional data associated with and positioned within
a first network to thereby define one or more data barcodes, responsive to receipt of a scan of a display of a first computer
in communication with and positioned within the first network, by use of one or more barcode scanning devices in communication
with a second computer positioned remote from the first computer and in communication with and positioned within a second
network, to produce contents of the transactional data represented by the one or more data barcodes, the second network configured
to have a different level of network security protection than the first network and configured to allow only one-way secure
communication from the second network to the first network;

decoding a second set of one or more different barcodes indicative of contents of one or more validation files to thereby
define one or more validation barcodes, responsive to receipt of a scan of a display of the second computer, by use of a different
one or more barcode scanning devices in communication with the first computer, to produce contents of the one or more validation
files represented by the one or more validation barcodes, the one or more validation barcodes configured to encode contents
of the one or more validation files, the one or more validation files configured to include decoded contents of the transactional
data, to thereby securely communicate decoded contents of the transactional data in one-way communication from temporary storage
associated with the second network to the first network for comparison to contents of the transactional data associated with
the first network;

decoding a third set of one or more different barcodes indicative of contents of one or more verification files to thereby
define one or more verification barcodes, responsive to receipt of a scan of the display of the first computer by use of the
one or more barcode scanning devices in communication with the second computer, to produce contents of the one or more verification
files represented by the one or more verification barcodes, the one or more verification barcodes configured to encode contents
of the one or more verification files, the one or more verification files configured to indicate success of transmission of
contents of the transactional data from the first network to the second network; and

storing decoded contents of the transactional data in more permanent storage associated with the second network responsive
to an indication from decoded contents of the one or more verification files of successful transmission of contents of the
transactional data associated with the first network to the second network.

US Pat. No. 9,164,191

SEQUENTIAL FULLY IMPLICIT WELL MODEL FOR RESERVOIR SIMULATION

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A computer implemented method of forming a model of determined well completion rates of component fluids of a subsurface
reservoir from measured total well production by reservoir simulation of well production, at a time step during life of the
subsurface reservoir, from a vertical well in the subsurface reservoir with a coupled well reservoir simulator model, the
reservoir simulator model having formation layers having unknown formation pressures and completion rates at the time step,
the formation layers comprising vertical fluid flow layers having vertical fluid flow therefrom and flow barrier layers with
no vertical fluid flow therefrom, the coupled well reservoir simulator model being organized into a plurality of cells including
a plurality of well cells at locations of the vertical well in formation layers of the reservoir, and a plurality of reservoir
cells adjacent the well and having unknown formation pressures and completion rates at the time step, the method comprising
the computer implemented steps of:
forming a reduced system model consisting of:
interval well cells between flow barrier layers of the reservoir assembled by combining vertically disposed well cells of
the vertical flow formation layers having vertical fluid communication therebetween and being located between flow barrier
layers in the coupled reservoir model; and

reservoir cells adjacent the interval well cells;
solving the reduced system model for a bottom hole pressure of the well;
solving by reservoir simulation the coupled well reservoir model of the well cells and reservoir cells for layer completion
rates of component fluids of the well cells of each of the formation layers of the coupled well reservoir model at the time
step, treating the well as having the determined bottom hole pressure of the well;

determining a simulator total well production rate for the well from the layer completion rates of the component fluids of
the formation layers of the coupled reservoir model of the well at the time step;

comparing the simulator total well production rate for the well with the measured total well production at the time step to
determine if simulator convergence is achieved; and, if so,

forming a record of the layer completion rates of the component fluids for the layers at the well cells and of the determined
total well production rate for the well at the time step; and

if the results of the step of comparing indicate convergence is not achieved, iterating to the step of solving by reservoir
simulation the coupled well reservoir model, determining a simulator total well production rate for the well from the well
completion rates of the component fluids, and comparing.

US Pat. No. 9,127,369

SYSTEM, APPARATUS, AND METHOD FOR UTILIZATION OF BRACELET GALVANIC ANODES TO PROTECT SUBTERRANEAN WELL CASING SECTIONS SHIELDED BY CEMENT AT A CELLAR AREA

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A bracelet anode assembly to provide enhanced cathodic protection to one or more vertical well casing sections in a cellar
area, the cellar area being bounded by a cellar ring and being partially filled with a backfill containing an electrolytic
composition surrounding the one or more vertical well casing sections, the one or more vertical well casing sections in the
cellar area defining a cellar-area well casing, the bracelet anode assembly comprising:
a plurality of arc-shaped bracelet anodes adapted to circumferentially surround a cylindrical subsection of an outer surface
of the cellar-area well casing such that the plurality of arc-shaped bracelet anodes being operable to be mechanically connected
in a substantially circular tightenable bracelet form that, when tightened, is operable to clamp the plurality of arc-shaped
bracelet anodes to a fixed vertical position on the cylindrical subsection of the outer surface of the cellar-area well casing,
each respective arc-shaped bracelet anode of the plurality of arc-shaped bracelet anodes comprising:

an arc-shaped anode frame to provide mechanical support to the respective arc-shaped bracelet anode, the arc-shaped anode
frame being a separately formed support structure and having one or more brackets at each distal end to allow a mechanical
connection to be made to one or more brackets of adjacent arc-shaped bracelet anodes in the substantially circular tightenable
bracelet form,

an arc-shaped anode core connected to the arc-shaped anode frame such that the arc-shaped anode frame is substantially embedded
within the arc-shaped anode core, to allow a surface of the arc-shaped anode core to substantially circumferentially surround
the cylindrical subsection of the outer surface of the cellar-area well casing to operably provide an ion pathway through
the electrolytic composition between the surface of the arc-shaped anode core and the outer surface of the cellar-area well
casing, the arc-shaped anode core defining an anode orifice therein;

a plurality of connectors to mechanically connect each of the plurality of arc-shaped bracelet anodes to the one or more adjacent
arc-shaped bracelet anodes in the substantially circular tightenable bracelet form, each of the plurality of connectors adaptable
to be connected to the bracket at one of the distal ends of the arc-shaped anode frame of the respective arc-shaped bracelet
anode and further connected to the bracket of one of the distal ends of the arc-shaped anode frame of the one or more adjacent
arc-shaped bracelet anodes, thereby allowing the substantially circular tightenable bracelet form to be operably tightened
by force applied to the plurality of connectors;

one or more metallic shorting rods, each of the one or more metallic shorting rods to be positioned through the anode orifice
of a respective arc-shaped anode core for each of the plurality of arc-shaped bracelet anodes so that the respective metallic
shorting rod is operable to contact the outer surface of the cellar-area well casing, each of the plurality of metallic shorting
rods thereby being operable to be in direct electrical contact with the respective arc-shaped anode core such that each of
the one or more metallic shorting rods is operable to complete an electrical connection between the respective arc-shaped
anode core and the outer surface of the cellar-area well casing to provide an electron pathway between the respective arc-shaped
anode core and the outer surface of the cellar-area well casing, the electron pathway and the ion pathway completing an enhanced
galvanic anode cathodic protection circuit.

US Pat. No. 9,104,585

COUPLED PIPE NETWORK—RESERVOIR MODELING FOR MULTI-BRANCH OIL WELLS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A computer implemented method of forming a model of fluid flow rates of a multilateral well in which fluid from a subsurface
reservoir enters perforations in a plurality of pipes off a main bore of the well, the model being based on data measurements
regarding the fluid, well and reservoir, and comprising the computer implemented steps of:
determining an initial measure of transmissibility of the pipes based on the data measurements and on the pipes having fluid
flow characteristics of a porous media;

forming a linear model of postulated well potentials at perforations in the pipes based on the initial measure of transmissibility;
determining a measure of well potential at the perforations in the pipes by computer processing to solve the linear model;
testing the determined measures of well potential at the perforations in the pipes for satisfactory convergence within a specified
limit of accuracy; and

if convergence is not achieved, adjusting the postulated well potentials of the linear model, and repeating the steps of determining
and testing measures of well potential;

or, if convergence is achieved, determining flow rates for the pipes of the multilateral well based on the determined measures
of well potential at the perforations in the pipes.

US Pat. No. 9,096,806

INTEGRATED HYDROPROCESSING AND FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING FOR PROCESSING OF A CRUDE OIL

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. An integrated hydroprocessing and fluid catalytic cracking process for the direct processing of a crude oil to produce
olefinic and aromatic petrochemicals, the process comprising:
a. charging the crude oil and hydrogen to a hydroprocessing zone operating under conditions effective to produce a hydroprocessed
effluent having a reduced content of contaminants, an increased paraffinicity and an increased American Petroleum Institute
gravity;

b. separating the hydroprocessed effluent into a low boiling fraction and a high boiling fraction;
c. cracking the low boiling fraction in a first downflow reactor of a fluid catalytic cracking unit in the presence of a predetermined
amount of catalyst to produce cracked products and spent catalyst;

d. cracking the high boiling fraction in a second downflow reactor of the fluid catalytic cracking unit in the presence of
a predetermined amount of catalyst to produce cracked products and spent catalyst;

e. regenerating spent catalyst from both the first and second downflow reactors in a common regeneration zone and recycling
the regenerated catalyst back to the first and second downflow reactors; and

f. recovering the first and second cracked product streams.

US Pat. No. 9,498,772

UNSUPPORTED METAL SUBSTITUTED HETEROPOLYACID CATALYSTS FOR DIMERIZATION AND/OR OLIGOMERIZATION OF OLEFINS

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A process for dimerizing and oligomerizing a hydrocarbon feed comprising mixed olefins to produce mixed branched higher
olefins, said process comprising the steps of:
introducing the hydrocarbon feed into a reactor vessel under oligomerization conditions;
contacting the mixed hydrocarbon feed with a catalyst within the reactor vessel to convert the mixed branched olefins into
the mixed branched higher olefins, wherein the catalyst consists of an unsupported metal substituted heteropolyacid catalyst
represented by Formula (I):

CsxHyPMo12O40  (I)
wherein, x and y represent numbers; and
producing a product stream comprising the mixed branched higher olefins from the reactor vessel;
wherein the hydrocarbon feed comprises at least two butene isomers and the mixed branched higher olefins comprise olefins
having more than 4 carbons.

US Pat. No. 9,448,221

METHOD, SOLVENT FORMULATION AND APPARATUS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF THE SALT CONTENT IN PETROLEUM FLUIDS

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A method for determining a salt concentration of a crude oil, the method comprising the steps of:
introducing a volume of the crude oil to a mixing zone, the crude oil having salt and water;
introducing a volume of a solvent to the mixing zone, wherein the solvent has a normal boiling point higher than ambient air
temperature and comprises a single solvent that solubilizes both water and the crude oil into a single phase;

mixing the crude oil and the solvent to form a homogenized mixture;
taking a temperature measurement of the homogenized mixture using a temperature sensor;
taking a conductivity measurement of the homogenized mixture using a pair of electrodes;
determining the salt concentration of the homogenized mixture based on the temperature measurement and the conductivity measurement
of the homogenized mixture; and

determining the salt concentration of the crude oil based on the salt concentration of the homogenized mixture, the volume
of the crude oil, and the volume of the solvent,

wherein the single solvent is selected from the group consisting of NMP, ethyl alpha-hydroxy propionate, benzonitrile, and
dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether.

US Pat. No. 9,243,167

SULFUR MODIFIED POLYVINYL ACETATE (PVAC)

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A sulfur modified polyvinyl acetate polymer composition, the polymer composition comprising:
a polyvinyl acetate polymer having a melting point of less than 140° C.; and
sulfur, wherein the sulfur is present in a range of 65.8% to 73% by weight, based on the weight of the polymer, such that
the sulfur modified polymer has an increased melting point as compared to the melting point of the unmodified polyvinyl acetate
polymer.

US Pat. No. 9,228,140

INTEGRATED HYDROPROCESSING, STEAM PYROLYSIS AND CATALYTIC CRACKING PROCESS TO PRODUCE PETROCHEMICALS FROM CRUDE OIL

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. An integrated hydroprocessing, steam pyrolysis and catalytic cracking process for production of olefinic and aromatic petrochemicals
from a crude oil feed, the process comprising:
a. charging the crude oil and hydrogen to a hydroprocessing zone operating under conditions effective to produce a hydroprocessed
effluent having a reduced content of contaminants, an increased paraffinicity, reduced Bureau of Mines Correlation Index,
and an increased American Petroleum Institute gravity;

b. thermally cracking at least a portion of the hydroprocessed effluent in the presence of steam in a steam pyrolysis zone
to produce a mixed product stream;

c. catalytically cracking residuals or bottoms derived from a combined product stream, and optionally one or more of the hydroprocessed
effluent or a heated stream within the steam pyrolysis zone, to produce catalytically cracked products;

d. separating the combined product stream including thermally cracked products and catalytically cracked products;
e. purifying hydrogen recovered in step (d) and recycling it to step (a);
f. recovering olefins and aromatics from the separated combined product stream; and
g. recovering pyrolysis fuel oil from the separated combined product stream for use as at least a portion of the residuals
or bottoms cracked in step (c).

US Pat. No. 9,052,146

COMBINED COOLING OF LUBE/SEAL OIL AND SAMPLE COOLERS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A heat exchanger for analyzing samples, the heat exchanger comprising:
a. an outer wall of the heat exchanger, the outer wall forming a coil;
b. an inner tube for containing cooling water, the inner tube forming a coil that is circumscribed by the outer wall and that
has a cooling water inlet and cooling water outlet so that the inner tube is in fluid communication with a cooling water system;

c. an annulus for containing steam so that heat exchange occurs between the cooling water and the steam so that condensate
is formed in the annulus; the annulus being located between an outer surface of the inner tube and an inner surface of the
outer wall of the heat exchanger, the annulus having a steam inlet and steam outlet so that the annulus is in fluid communication
with the steam system; and

d. an external shield attached to the heat exchanger to prevent contact with the steam contained within the annulus of the
heat exchanger and to allow air to provide additional cooling between the outer wall of the heat exchanger and the external
shield.

US Pat. No. 9,891,004

RECOVERY AND RE-USE OF WASTE ENERGY IN INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method implemented in a crude oil refining facility, the method comprising:
in a crude oil refining facility comprising a plurality of oil refining plants, each oil refining plant configured to perform
at least one oil refining process, wherein a plurality of streams at respective temperatures flow between the plurality of
oil refining plants:

flowing a first plurality of streams from a first subset of the plurality of oil refining plants to a plurality of heat exchangers,
wherein the first subset comprises a naphtha hydrotreating plant, a gas separation plant, an amine regeneration plant, a sulfur
recovery plant, a sour water stripper plant, and an aromatics plant which comprises an aromatics plant xylene products separation
unit and an aromatics complex benzene extraction unit, wherein the plurality of first streams comprises a sulfur recovery
plant amine regeneration unit stripper bottom stream in the sulfur recovery plant, a raffinate splitter bottoms stream in
the aromatics complex benzene extraction unit, an acid gas regenerator bottoms stream in the amine regeneration plant, a sour
water stripper bottoms stream in the sour water stripper plant, a benzene column bottoms stream in the aromatics complex benzene
extraction unit, a C3/C4 stripper bottom stream in the gas separation plant, and a de-ethanizer bottoms stream in the gas
separation plant;

flowing a second plurality of streams from a second subset of the plurality of oil refining plants to the plurality of heat
exchangers, wherein the plurality of heat exchangers transfer heat from the first plurality of streams to the second plurality
of streams, wherein the second subset comprises a hydrogen plant, a diesel hydrotreating plant, and hydrocracking plant wherein
the second plurality of streams comprises a kerosene pumparound stream in the hydrocracking plant, a kerosene product stream
in the diesel hydrotreating plant, a diesel stripper overheads stream in the diesel hydrotreating plant, a stripper bottom
product stream in the diesel hydrotreating plant, a diesel stripper bottoms stream in the diesel hydrotreating plant, and
a low temperature shift converter steam in the hydrogen plant; and

utilizing the heated second plurality of streams in one or more oil refining processes at the second subset of the plurality
of oil refining plants.

US Pat. No. 9,810,052

MULTILATERAL WELLS PLACEMENT VIA TRANSSHIPMENT APPROACH

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A computer implemented method of formulating well completions of at least one multilateral well in a subsurface reservoir
producing hydrocarbon fluids, the reservoir being organized as a reservoir model partitioned into a number of cells, the computer
implemented method comprising the steps of:
performing a reservoir simulation to determine hydrocarbon fluid content of the cells in reservoir model;
forming a measure of expected cumulative production for the cells based on productivity of the determined hydrocarbon fluid
content of the cells;

generating a model for the at least one multilateral well by transshipment network analysis of the measures of expected cumulative
production to maximize produced hydrocarbons for the cells;

optimizing placement of the generated model of the at least one multilateral well in the reservoir model; and
forming an output display of the at least one multilateral well at a location in the reservoir model according to the step
of optimizing placement; and

placing the at least one multilateral well in the subsurface reservoir according to the location in the reservoir model formed
in the output display.

US Pat. No. 9,579,639

TETHERED TRANSITION METALS PROMOTED PHOTOCATALYTIC SYSTEM FOR EFFICIENT HYDROGEN EVOLUTIONS

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

14. A process for producing a photocatalyst that is capable of converting H2S into hydrogen and sulfur comprising the steps of:
preparing a photocatalyst material; and
using an organic ligand to attach a transition metal species to a surface of the photocatalyst material without the formation
of a dopant layer, wherein the organic ligand comprises 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT).

US Pat. No. 9,404,781

MULTIPHASE METERING WITH ULTRASONIC TOMOGRAPHY AND VORTEX SHEDDING

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. An apparatus for forming in situ measures of multiphase flow of a fluid in a conduit, comprising:
(a) a bluff body in the conduit forming a vortex street in the fluid in the conduit;
(b) an orifice plate in the conduit amplifying the vortex street and lowering the frequency of the vortex street formed by
the bluff body;

(c) a sensor sensing measures of the fluid flow in the conduit downstream of the orifice plate;
(d) an array of a plurality of ultrasonic transceivers mounted about the periphery of the conduit transmitting and receiving
energy for travel through the fluid in the conduit; and

(e) the array of a plurality of ultrasonic transceivers mounted about the periphery of the conduit further receiving energy
after travel through the fluid in the conduit; and

(f) a data processing system forming measures of multiphase flow of the fluid in the, comprising:
(1) a processor forming measures of the fluid flow velocity based on the sensed measures of the fluid flow in the conduit;
and

(2) the processor further forming tomographic images of the multiphase flow in the conduit based on ultrasonic energy travel
through the fluid in the conduit from transmitting transceivers of the array of a plurality of transceivers to receiving transceivers
of the array.

US Pat. No. 9,394,489

METHODS FOR RECOVERING ORGANIC HETEROATOM COMPOUNDS FROM HYDROCARBON FEEDSTOCKS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method for reducing or removing one or more organic heteroatom compounds from a hydrocarbon feedstock to form a lean
hydrocarbon, the method comprising:
feeding a hydrocarbon feedstock into a contactor, the hydrocarbon feedstock comprising at least one hydrocarbon and at least
one organic heteroatom compound, the at least one organic heteroatom compound chosen from nitrogen-containing heterocyclic
compounds, sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds, porphyrins, organometallic compounds, and combinations thereof;

feeding an aqueous solvent into the contactor to form an extraction mixture of the aqueous solvent with the hydrocarbon feedstock,
the aqueous solvent comprising an ionic liquid formed from pressurized carbon dioxide and water;

establishing a contactor pressure and a contactor temperature of the extraction mixture in the contactor that together tune
the aqueous solvent to selectively form a mixture containing a lean hydrocarbon and a solvent complex with the at least one
organic heteroatom compound, wherein the contactor temperature is from greater than the critical temperature of carbon dioxide
to about 100° C.;

extracting the solvent complex to a recovery vessel from the extraction mixture in the contactor; and
recovering the lean hydrocarbon from the contactor.

US Pat. No. 9,360,910

SYSTEMS, COMPUTER READABLE MEDIA, AND COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR ENHANCING ENERGY EFFICIENCY VIA SYSTEMATIC HYBRID INTER-PROCESSES INTEGRATION

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A non-transitory computer readable medium having processor readable code to provide enhanced energy efficiency and reduced
greenhouse gas emissions for a mega industrial site, the processor readable code embodied on the computer readable medium
and comprising a set of instructions, that when executed by one or more processors, cause the one or more processors to perform
operations comprising:
analyzing a plurality of possible inter-processes energy integration combinations between a plurality of functional areas
of a mega industrial site, the plurality of functional areas comprising one or more of the following: a plurality of zones,
a plurality of blocks, a plurality of facilities, a plurality of plants, and a plurality of units of the mega industrial site,
each including a plurality of resource streams, the resource streams comprising one or more cold streams to be heated or one
or more hot streams to be cooled, the inter-process energy integration combinations being analyzed including those using direct
inter-processes energy integration employing one or more of the resource streams as a buffer, indirect inter-processes energy
integration employing only water, steam or hot oil buffer systems as a buffer, and a combination of both direct and indirect
inter-processes energy integration defining hybrid inter-processes energy integration employing one or more of the resource
streams as a buffer and one or more of water, steam or hot oil buffer systems as a buffer; and

determining when direct inter-processes energy integration, indirect inter-processes energy integration, or hybrid inter-processes
energy integration provides for a greater total energy recovery for the mega industrial site;

providing, for display to a user, data indicative of when a direct inter-processes energy integration, an indirect inter-processes
energy integration, or a hybrid inter-processes energy integration provides for a greater total energy recovery for the mega
industrial site to thereby assist the user in identifying the combination of the plurality of possible inter-processes energy
integration combinations providing for an optimal solution for total waste heat recovery between the respective functional
areas to define an optimal inter-processes energy integration combination;

generating a plurality of technically viable energy efficient industrial site inter-processes heat exchange system design
alternatives;

identifying the industrial site inter-process heat exchange system design having an inter-processes connection and matching
scheme providing a balance between most efficient waste heat recovery and capital cost allocation; and

providing, for display to a user, data indicative of the industrial site inter-process heat exchange system design having
an inter-processes connection and matching scheme providing a balance between most efficient waste heat recovery and capital
cost allocation.

US Pat. No. 9,279,088

INTEGRATED HYDROTREATING AND STEAM PYROLYSIS PROCESS INCLUDING HYDROGEN REDISTRIBUTION FOR DIRECT PROCESSING OF A CRUDE OIL

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. An integrated hydrotreating and steam pyrolysis process for the direct processing of a crude oil to produce olefinic and
aromatic petrochemicals, the process comprising:
a. separating the crude oil into light components and heavy components;
b. charging the heavy components and hydrogen to a hydroprocessing zone operating under conditions effective to produce a
hydroprocessed effluent having a reduced content of contaminants, an increased paraffinicity, reduced Bureau of Mines Correlation
Index, and an increased American Petroleum Institute gravity;

c. charging hydroprocessed effluent and steam to a convection section of a steam pyrolysis zone for heating;
d. separating the heated hydroprocessed effluent into a light fraction and a heavy fraction with a vapor-liquid separation
section that includes

a pre-rotational element having an entry portion and a transition portion, the entry portion having an inlet for receiving
a flowing fluid mixture and a curvilinear conduit,

a controlled cyclonic section having an inlet adjoined to the pre-rotational element through convergence of the curvilinear
conduit and the cyclonic section and a riser section at an upper end of the cyclonic member through which the light fraction
passes, and

a liquid collector/settling section through which the heavy fraction is discharged;
e. charging light components from step (a) and at least a portion of the light fraction of the heated hydroprocessed effluent
to a pyrolysis section of the steam pyrolysis zone for thermal cracking;

f. recovering a mixed product stream from the steam pyrolysis zone;
g. separating the thermally cracked mixed product stream;
h. purifying hydrogen recovered in step (g) and recycling it to step (b);
i. recovering olefins and aromatics from the separated mixed product stream; and
j. recovering pyrolysis fuel oil from the separated mixed product stream.
US Pat. No. 9,233,349

OLEFIN HYDRATION PROCESS WITH AN INTEGRATED MEMBRANE REACTOR

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A reactor for the catalytic hydration of olefins, the reactor comprising:
a catalytic reaction zone separated by a permeable membrane comprising poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) that separates the
catalytic reaction zone into permeate and retentate sides of the reaction zone, where the retentate side includes an olefin
hydration catalyst;

a first outlet configured for the removal of fluids from the permeate side of the reaction zone; and
a second outlet configured for the removal of fluids from the retentate side of the reaction zone;
where the permeable membrane is operable to selectively remove at least one olefin hydration product.
US Pat. No. 9,145,521

SELECTIVE TWO-STAGE HYDROPROCESSING SYSTEM AND METHOD

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. An integrated hydrocracking process for producing cracked hydrocarbons from a feedstock including:
a. separating the hydrocarbon feed into an aromatic-lean fraction and an aromatic-rich fraction;
b. hydroprocessing the aromatic-rich fraction in a first vessel of a first stage hydroprocessing reaction zone to produce
a first vessel first stage hydroprocessing reaction zone effluent;

c. hydroprocessing the aromatic-lean fraction in a second vessel of the first stage hydroprocessing reaction zone to produce
a second vessel first stage hydroprocessing reaction zone effluent;

d. fractionating a mixture of first vessel first stage hydroprocessing reaction zone effluent and second vessel first stage
hydroprocessing reaction zone effluent to produce one or more fractionating zone product streams and one or more fractionating
zone bottoms streams;

e. hydroprocessing at least a portion of the fractionating zone bottoms stream in a second stage hydroprocessing reaction
zone to produce a second stage hydroprocessing reaction zone effluent; and

f. conveying the second stage hydroprocessing reaction zone effluent to the step of fractionating.

US Pat. No. 9,109,169

MAXIMIZING AROMATICS PRODUCTION FROM HYDROCRACKED NAPHTHA

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method for producing gasoline blending components while maximizing aromatic production using naphtha, the method comprising
the steps of:
introducing stabilized hydrocracked naphtha to a light hydrocracked naphtha splitter of a gasoline blending components production
system;

introducing straight run naphtha to a naphtha hydrotreater (NHT) of the gasoline blending components production system;
operating the gasoline blending components production system such that the light hydrocracked naphtha splitter forms both
a light hydrocracked naphtha and a light hydrocracked naphtha splitter bottoms from the stabilized hydrocracked naphtha,

the light hydrocracked naphtha passes into the NHT and the light hydrocracked naphtha splitter bottoms passes into a medium
hydrocracked naphtha splitter,

the medium hydrocracked naphtha splitter forms both a medium hydrocracked naphtha and a heavy hydrocracked naphtha from the
light hydrocracked naphtha splitter bottoms,

where the medium hydrocracked naphtha product is useful for gasoline blending without additional treatment,
the heavy hydrocracked naphtha passes into the NHT, and
an isomerate, a benzene product, a para-xylene product, a C7s cut and a C9+ cut form from the introduced straight run naphtha,
the light hydrocracked naphtha and the heavy hydrocracked naphtha, where the isomerate, the C7s cut, and the C9+ cut are useful
for gasoline blending without additional treatment,

where the gasoline blending components production system includes:
the light hydrocracked naphtha splitter that is operable to produce a light hydrocracked naphtha and a light hydrocracked
naphtha splitter bottoms from the received stabilized hydrocracked naphtha;

the medium hydrocracked naphtha splitter that couples to the light hydrocracked naphtha splitter and that is operable to produce
a medium hydrocracked naphtha product and a heavy hydrocracked naphtha from the received light hydrocracked naphtha splitter
bottoms;

the naphtha hydrotreater (NHT) that couples to both the light hydrocracked naphtha splitter and the medium hydrocracked naphtha
splitter and that is operable to hydrotreat a naphtha feed for producing and separating a sweetened light hydrotreated naphtha
and a sweetened heavy hydrotreated naphtha from the received straight run naphtha, the light hydrocracked naphtha and the
heavy hydrocracked naphtha;

an isomerization unit that couples to both the NHT and an aromatics complex operable to produce a refined benzene product,
a refined para-xylene product, a C7s cut product, a C9+ cut product and a raffinate and that is operable to produce an isomerate
from the received sweetened light hydrotreated naphtha and the raffinate;

a continuous catalytic reformer (CCR) that couples to the NHT and that is operable to produce a reformate from the received
sweetened heavy hydrotreated naphtha using one or more processes selected from naphthene dehydrogenation, naphthene hydrodecyclization,
paraffin isomerization, demethylation and hydrocracking from the received sweetened heavy hydrotreated naphtha; and

the aromatics complex that couples to the CCR.

US Pat. No. 9,464,241

HYDROTREATING UNIT WITH INTEGRATED OXIDATIVE DESULFURIZATION

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A hydrotreating unit for desulfurizing a hydrocarbon feed stream containing organosulfur compounds, the hydrotreating unit
comprising:
a catalytic hydrotreating reaction zone having
a feedstock inlet,
a hydrogen inlet, and
a hydrotreated hydrocarbon effluent outlet;
a high pressure separator having
a hydrotreated hydrocarbon inlet in fluid communication with the hydrotreated hydrocarbon effluent outlet, and
a separated hydrotreated hydrocarbon outlet;
a low pressure separator having
an inlet in direct fluid communication with the separated hydrotreated hydrocarbon outlet and without a separate oxidative
reactor vessel between the high pressure separator and the low pressure separator,

a gas overhead outlet,
a water outlet, and
a liquid hydrocarbon outlet;
an oxidant inlet between the separated hydrotreated hydrocarbon outlet and the low pressure separator inlet;
a catalyst inlet between the separated hydrotreated hydrocarbon outlet and the low pressure separator inlet; and
an extraction unit having
an extraction unit inlet in fluid communication with the liquid hydrocarbon outlet of the low pressure separator,
a solvent inlet in fluid communication with a source of extraction solvent,
an extractor bottoms outlet; and
an extractor tops outlet.

US Pat. No. 9,403,148

SYNTHESIS OF ULTRA-SMALL PORE ALUMINOSILICATES BY CONTROLLED STRUCTURAL COLLAPSE OF ZEOLITES

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method of forming a highly selective ultra-small pore amorphous adsorbent; the method comprising the steps of:
introducing an ion-exchange material to a sodium. aluminosilicate zeolite such that an ion-exchanged zeolite forms;
calcinating the ion-exchanged zeolite at a calcination temperature such that the ion-exchanged zeolite collapses and forms
a decationized amorphous adsorbent; and

introducing a back ion-exchange material to the decationized amorphous adsorbent such that the highly selective ultra-small
pore amorphous adsorbent forms,

where the highly selective Ultra-small pore amorphous adsorbent has a pore aperture size operable to permit carbon dioxide
to adsorb into the amorphous adsorbent and operable to deny methane from adsorbing into the amorphous adsorbent, and

where the pore aperture size is in a range of from 0.33 nm to 0.38 nm.
US Pat. No. 9,382,485

PETROLEUM UPGRADING PROCESS

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A method for upgrading of petroleum feedstock, comprising the steps of:
providing a pressurized and heated petroleum feedstock, wherein said petroleum feedstock is maintained at a temperature of
between about 10° C. and 250° C. and a pressure of at least about 22.06 MPa;

providing a pressurized and heated water feed, wherein said water feed is maintained at a temperature of between about 250°
C. and 650° C. and a pressure of at least about 22.06 MPa;

combining said pressurized and heated petroleum feedstock and said pressurized and heated water feed to form a combined petroleum
and water feed stream;

supplying the combined petroleum and water feed stream to a hydrothermal reactor to produce a first product stream, wherein
said reactor is maintained at a temperature of between 380° C. and 550° C., the combined petroleum and water feed stream being
maintained within the hydrothermal reactor for a residence time operable to crack hydrocarbons present in the combined petroleum
and water feed stream;

transferring the first product stream to a post-treatment device to produce a second product stream, wherein said post-treatment
device is maintained at a temperature of between about 100° C. and 300° C., wherein water present in the post-treatment device
is maintained in a liquid phase;

collecting the second product stream from the post treatment device, the second product stream comprising hydrocarbon product
and water, wherein the hydrocarbon product has a reduced sulfur content relative to the petroleum feedstock.

US Pat. No. 9,378,313

METHODS FOR ENHANCED ENERGY EFFICIENCY VIA SYSTEMATIC HYBRID INTER-PROCESSES INTEGRATION

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A computer-assisted method of providing enhanced energy efficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions for a mega industrial
site, the method comprising the steps of:
analyzing, with the assistance of a computer, a plurality of possible inter-processes energy integration combinations between
a plurality of functional areas of a mega industrial site, the plurality of functional areas comprising one or more of the
following: a plurality of zones, a plurality of blocks, a plurality of facilities, a plurality of plants, and a plurality
of units of the mega industrial site, each including a plurality of resource streams, the resource streams comprising one
or more cold streams to be heated or one or more hot streams to be cooled, the inter-process energy integration combinations
being analyzed including those using direct inter-processes energy integration employing one or more of the resource streams
as a buffer, indirect inter-processes energy integration employing only water, steam or hot oil buffer systems as a buffer,
and a combination of both direct and indirect inter-processes energy integration defining hybrid inter-processes energy integration
employing one or more of the resource streams as a buffer and one or more of water, steam or hot oil buffer systems as a buffer;
and

determining, with the assistance of the computer, when direct inter-processes energy integration, indirect inter-processes
energy integration, or hybrid inter-processes energy integration provides for a greater total energy recovery for the mega
industrial site;

providing, for display, data indicative of when a direct inter-processes energy integration, an indirect inter-processes energy
integration, or a hybrid inter-processes energy integration provides for a greater total energy recovery for the mega industrial
site to assist in identifying the combination of the plurality of possible inter-processes energy integration combinations
providing for an optimal solution for total waste heat recovery between the respective functional areas to define an optimal
inter-processes energy integration combination;

generating a plurality of technically viable energy efficient industrial site inter-processes heat exchange system design
alternatives;

identifying the industrial site inter-process heat exchange system design having an inter-processes connection and matching
scheme providing a balance between most efficient waste heat recovery and capital cost allocation; and

providing, for display, data indicative of the industrial site inter-process heat exchange system design having an inter-processes
connection and matching scheme providing a balance between most efficient waste heat recovery and capital cost allocation.

US Pat. No. 9,256,711

SYSTEMS, COMPUTER MEDIUM AND COMPUTER-IMPLEMENTED METHODS FOR PROVIDING HEALTH INFORMATION TO EMPLOYEES VIA AUGMENTED REALITY DISPLAY

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

4. A system for providing feedback of health information to an employee when the employee is engaged in their work duties,
the system comprising:
a set of one or more health sensors configured to be provided on or near the employee when the employee is engaged in their
work duties, the one or more health sensors comprising at least one of biometric sensors configured to sense biometric characteristics
of the employee and biomechanic sensors configured to sense biomechanic characteristics of the employee, the one or more health
sensors configured to output health data corresponding to at least one of biometric characteristics and biomechanic characteristics
sensed by the set of one or more health sensors;

an augmented reality display device; and
an augmented reality processor configured to:
receive the health data output by the one or more health sensors;
process the health data received to identify health status information for the employee, the processing comprising:
determining an action taken by the employee based at least in part on the health data; and
determining a predicted health consequence of the action taken by the employee;
provide, for display via the augmented reality display device, augmented reality content comprising the health status information
for the employee, wherein the augmented reality content comprises the predicted health consequence; and

provide for display of a health report comprising the predicted health consequence of the action and one or more suggested
actions the employee should take to reduce the employee's risk of developing health problems; and

the augmented reality display device configured to be worn by the employee when the employee is engaged in work duties and
configured to display an augmented reality view visible to the employee when the employee is engaged in work duties, and the
augmented reality view comprising a head-up display of the health status information for the employee overlaid on a real world
view of an environment surrounding the employee when the employee is engaged in work duties, the health status information
comprising computer-generated sensory input representative of real-time health status, and the real world view comprising
the employee's line-of-sight view of the employee's surroundings such that the employee is provided with an augmented reality
view comprising the real world view of the surrounding environment having an overlay of the predicted health consequence of
the action taken by the employee.

US Pat. No. 9,684,084

THREE-DIMENSIONAL MULTI-MODAL CORE AND GEOLOGICAL MODELING FOR OPTIMAL FIELD DEVELOPMENT

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A computer implemented method of forming with a computer system a static geological model of petrophysical properties representing
the nature and structure, and the relative presence of microporosity and macroporosity, of the formations of a subsurface
reservoir, the static geological model being organized into a number of cells arranged in an organized three-dimensional grid
of cells according to the dimensions and volume of the reservoir, the static geological model being formed based on well logs
obtained from wells in the subsurface reservoir, rock types of the subsurface rock formations, and well core description data
comprising petrophysical measurements obtained from analysis of well core samples of rock formations adjacent cored wells
of the wells in the subsurface reservoir in which core samples have been obtained, the method comprising the computer processing
steps of:
(a) forming a geostatistical model of the presence of lithofacies over the subsurface reservoir based on the well logs obtained
from wells in the subsurface reservoir and the well core samples from the cored wells in the reservoir in which well core
samples have been obtained;

(b) forming a lithofacies model of postulated facies logs for the wells in the reservoir in which core samples have not been
obtained, based on the petrophysical measurements from the well core samples for the cored wells in the reservoir;

(c) forming a digital core description of the lithology of the cells of the subsurface reservoir as functions of depth in
the well bores based on the formed initial geostatistical model of spatial distribution of the presence of lithofacies and
the formed lithofacies model;

(d) receiving identifications of the presence of macroporosity and microporosity in the subsurface lithofacies in the three
dimensional grid of cells of the static geological model based on the testing of the well core samples obtained from the cored
wells in the subsurface reservoir;

(e) forming the static geological model of the petrophysical properties of the reservoir representing the nature and structure,
and the relative presence of microporosity and macroporosity, of the formations of the reservoir by petrophysical uncertainty
modeling based on: the well logs obtained from wells in the subsurface reservoir; the rock types of the subsurface rock formations;
the well core description data obtained from analysis of the well core samples; and the identified presence of macroporosity
and microporosity in the subsurface lithofacies; and

(f) forming an output display of the static geological model of petrophysical properties representing the nature and structure,
and the relative presence of microporosity and macroporosity, in the cells of the formations of the reservoir model for development
of the reservoir.

US Pat. No. 9,447,346

TWO-STEP PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF RON-ENHANCED MIXED BUTANOLS AND DIISOBUTENES

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A two-stage process for oligomerizing and hydrating a hydrocarbon feed comprising mixed olefins including mixed butenes
including isobutene and n-butenes, the process comprising the steps of:
introducing the hydrocarbon feed into a first reactor vessel under reaction conditions that are operable to oligomerize the
isobutene into diisobutenes;

contacting the mixed hydrocarbon feed with an oligomerization catalyst within the first reactor vessel, the oligomerization
catalyst being of a type that selectively oligomerizes the isobutene into diisobutenes;

separating the diisobutenes from unreacted butenes to form a diisobutene stream;
introducing the unreacted butenes into a second reactor vessel in the presence of water and under reaction conditions that
operable to hydrate the unreacted butenes including the unreacted n-butenes and any unreacted isobutene;

contacting the unreacted butenes with a hydration catalyst within the second reactor vessel to hydrate the unreacted butenes
to form a mixed butanols stream; and

combining the diisobutene stream and mixed butanols stream to form a product stream.

US Pat. No. 9,605,913

TURBULENCE-INDUCING DEVICES FOR TUBULAR HEAT EXCHANGERS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

21. A turbulence-inducing element positioned in a tube to direct a flowing fluid toward an adjacent inner surface of the tube,
the turbulence-inducing element comprising:
a first portion facing upstream, wherein the distal end of the first portion forms an apex that faces upstream;
a structural support element attached directly to the apex and extending axially from the apex, wherein the structural support
element is disposed entirely within the tube; and

a second portion facing downstream,
wherein the turbulence-inducing element is dimensioned and configured so that the exterior surface of the turbulence-inducing
element does not touch the adjacent inner surface of the tube,

wherein the entire exterior surface of the first portion forms a continuous solid surface that is configured to block and
deflect the path of the flowing fluid;

wherein the first portion is conically configured or pyramidally configured.

US Pat. No. 9,441,420

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR FORMING A LATERAL WELLBORE

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method of branching a lateral wellbore from a primary wellbore comprising:
a. providing a drill bit assembly having a body with one or more cutting elements disposed thereon and a selectively deployable
pilot bit;

b. inserting the drill bit assembly into the primary wellbore;
c. excavating a groove in a formation on a lateral side of the primary wellbore;
d. pulling back the drill bit assembly up the wellbore and away from the groove;
e. deploying the pilot bit;
f. repeating the steps of excavating and backing off until a desired offset angle is achieved from forming the lateral wellbore;
g. engaging the groove with the pilot bit; and
h. rotating the drill bit assembly, so that the pilot bit guides the drill bit assembly into excavating contact with the groove
and in an orientation for forming the lateral wellbore.

US Pat. No. 9,394,761

FLEXIBLE ZONE INFLOW CONTROL DEVICE

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A device for controlling fluid flow from a subsurface fluid reservoir into a production tubing string, the device comprising:
a tubular member defining a central bore, wherein a first end and a second end of the tubular member are coupled to the production
tubing string,

at least one nozzle extending through a side wall of the tubular member;
a popper, wherein the popper is moveable between an open position where fluids can flow into the central bore through the
nozzle, and a closed position where the nozzle is fluidly sealed, the popper comprising:

a stem with an outer diameter less than an inner diameter of the nozzle;
a hat located at an end of the stem, wherein the hat has an inward facing hat surface for contacting an outer tool surface
of an inflatable vessel to move the popper from an open position to a closed position; and

a circumferential external head profile located on the stem; and
a circumferential groove located in the nozzle for mating with the head profile of the stem and maintaining the popper in
a closed position after the popper is moved from the open position to the closed position.

US Pat. No. 9,388,347

TWO STAGE HYDROCRACKING PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR MULTIPLE GRADE LUBE OIL BASE FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method for producing multiple grades of lube oil feedstock comprising:
charging a feedstock and hydrogen to a first hydrocracking zone to produce a first hydrocracking zone effluent that is separated
into a hydrogen recycle stream and a first intermediate product effluent;

heating at least a portion of the first intermediate product effluent in a first cell of a multiple cell fractionator charge
heater;

passing the heated first intermediate product effluent to a first flash zone of a divided wall fractionation column to produce
a first flash zone bottom stream;

recovering a portion of the first flash zone bottom stream as a first type of lube oil feedstock;
passing a second portion of the first flash zone bottom stream to a second hydrocracking zone to produce a second hydrocracking
zone effluent that is separated into a hydrogen recycle stream and a second intermediate product effluent;

heating at least a portion of the second intermediate product effluent in a second cell of a multiple cell fractionator charge
heater;

passing the heated second intermediate product effluent to a second flash zone of a divided wall fractionation column to produce
a second flash zone bottom stream;

recovering a portion of the second flash zone bottom stream as a second type of lube oil feedstock; and
recovering one or more distillate product streams from overhead and/or side cuts of the fractionation column.

US Pat. No. 9,376,905

EXPERT SYSTEMS FOR WELL COMPLETION USING BAYESIAN PROBABILITIES, OPEN HOLE GRAVEL PACK TYPES, GRAVEL PACK DESIGN DETAILS, OPEN HOLE GRAVEL PACKS, AND COMPLETION TYPES

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A system, comprising:
one or more processors;
a non-transitory tangible computer-readable memory, the memory comprising:
a well completion expert system executable by the one or more processors and configured to provide one or more well completion
recommendations based on one or more inputs, the well completion expert system comprising a well completion Bayesian decision
network (BDN) model, the well completion BDN model comprising:

a fluid loss formation uncertainty node configured to receive one or more fluid loss formations from the one or more inputs;
an open hole gravel pack type uncertainty node dependent on the fluid loss formation uncertainty node and configured to receive
one or more open hole gravel pack types from the one or more inputs;

a gravel pack design details uncertainty node configured to receive one or more gravel pack design details from the one or
more inputs;

an open hole gravel pack decision node uncertainty node configured to receive one or more open hole gravel packs from the
one or more inputs;

a completion type decision node configured to receive one or more completion types from the one or more inputs; and
an open hole gravel pack consequences node dependent on the open hole gravel pack type uncertainty node, the gravel pack design
details uncertainty node, the open gravel pack decision node, and the completion type decision node and configured to output
one or more well completion recommendations based on one or more Bayesian probabilities calculated from the one or more open
hole gravel pack types, the one or more gravel pack design details, the one or more open hole gravel packs, and the one or
more completion types.

US Pat. No. 9,365,131

METHOD AND A SYSTEM FOR COMBINED HYDROGEN AND ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION USING PETROLEUM FUELS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method of using a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for producing a refined carbon dioxide product, electrical power,
and a compressed hydrogen product, the method of using the SOFC system comprising the steps of:
introducing a hydrocarbon fuel to the SOFC system;
introducing steam to the SOFC system; and
operating the SOFC system such that an anode exhaust recycle forms and passes into a pre-reformer such that a steam-to-carbon
molar ratio in the pre-reformer is in a range of from about 3:1 to about 4:1; oxygen passes into a reformer combustion chamber
in excess of a stoichiometric amount required to fully combust all hydrocarbons and hydrogen present in the reformer combustion
chamber; the refined carbon dioxide product, electrical power, and the compressed hydrogen product are produced; and greater
than 90% of total carbon dioxide produced within the SOFC system is converted into the refined carbon dioxide product;

where the SOFC system includes
a hydrodesulfurization system that fluidly couples to a hydrogen compression and storage system and is operable to receive
hydrocarbon fuel;

a steam reformer having catalytic reactor tubes and the reformer combustion chamber, where the catalytic reactor tubes couple
to the hydrodesulfurization system and are operable to receive steam and where the reformer combustion chamber thermally couples
to the catalytic reactor tubes and fluidly couples to both an outlet of an anode side of a solid oxide fuel cell and an oxygen
generation system, and is operable to receive a hydrocarbon fuel;

a hydrogen purification system that fluidly couples to the catalytic reactor tubes and is operable to produce a purified hydrogen
gas;

a hydrogen compression and storage system that fluidly couples to the hydrogen purification system and is operable to produce
a compressed hydrogen product;

the pre-reformer, that fluidly couples to the outlet of the anode side of the solid oxide fuel cell and is operable to receive
the hydrocarbon fuel and to produce a pre-reformer syngas product;

the solid oxide fuel cell, that is operable to produce electrical power and has the anode side, the anode side having an inlet
that fluidly couples to both the pre-reformer, the pre-reformer followed by a sorbent bed for removing hydrogen sulfide, and
a pressure-swing absorber (PSA) off-gas conduit of the hydrogen purification system and is operable to produce the anode exhaust
gas,

the anode side operable to receive a methane-rich anode feed gas without a reformer, the methane-rich anode feed gas comprising
the pre-reformer syngas product and an off-gas stream from the hydrogen purification system, where the off-gas stream comprises
methane, carbon oxides, and inert gases,

where the methane-rich anode feed gas comprises methane, carbon oxides, hydrogen, and water,
the anode side further operable to reform, by a reforming catalyst in the solid oxide fuel cell, and electrochemically convert
methane and water contained in the methane-rich anode feed gas into hydrogen and carbon oxides to generate the electrical
power;

the oxygen generation system that is operable to produce oxygen; and
a C02 purification and liquidification system that fluidly couples to the reformer combustion chamber and is operable to produce
a refined carbon dioxide product,

where the oxygen generation system of the SOFC system includes an electrolysis cell that electrically couples to the solid
oxide fuel cell and is operable to receive water and electrical power and to produce electrolysis hydrogen and electrolysis
oxygen and the hydrogen compression and storage system also fluidly couples to the oxygen generation system, the method further
comprising the steps of:

introducing water to the SOFC system; and
operating the SOFC system such that electrical power passes to the oxygen generation system such that the oxygen generation
system produces both an electrolysis oxygen and an electrolysis hydrogen separately; and the electrolysis hydrogen passes
to the hydrogen compression and storage system.

US Pat. No. 9,354,337

SYSTEM, MACHINE, AND COMPUTER-READABLE STORAGE MEDIUM FOR FORMING AN ENHANCED SEISMIC TRACE USING A VIRTUAL SEISMIC ARRAY

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

8. A system to generate a seismic image having enhanced resolution, the system comprising:
a plurality of (L) real seismic sensors to sense a plurality of (I) statistically independent seismic signals originating
from a seismic energy source and to generate a plurality of seismic signal responses responsive thereto;

a filter bank comprising a plurality of band-pass filters to separate each of the plurality of (I) statistically independent
seismic signals into a plurality of components, each component of the plurality of components carrying a single-frequency
sub-band of the original signal; and

a server positioned in communication with the plurality of (L) real seismic sensors to form a seismic trace responsive to
the plurality of seismic signal responses, the server having a processor and a non-transitory memory, positioned in communication
with the processor, to store computer program products therein, the non-transitory memory being a tangible computer-readable
storage medium having stored therein a computer program product operable on the processor, the computer program product comprising
a set of instructions that, when executed by the processor, cause the server to perform the following operations:

decomposing each seismic signal response of the plurality of seismic signal responses into one or more narrowband signals
for the seismic signal response responsive to the filter bank, wherein each narrowband signal comprises a plurality of components
and each component carries a single-frequency sub-band of the original signal,

defining a plurality of narrowband signals, responsive to receiving the plurality of seismic signal responses for the (I)
statistically independent seismic signals from the plurality of (L) real seismic sensors,

calculating a plurality of fourth-order crosscumulants responsive to each of the plurality of narrowband signals, defining
a plurality of fourth-order crosscumulants,

calculating a virtual steering vector for each of the plurality of (I) statistically independent seismic signals responsive
to the fourth-order crosscumulants for the plurality of narrowband signals, defining a plurality of virtual steering vectors,
each of the virtual steering vectors being a true steering vector for a virtual array of (L2) virtual sensors, and

generating an enhanced seismic trace comprising the plurality of fourth-order crosscumulants for the plurality of narrowband
signals and the plurality of virtual steering vectors for each of the plurality of (I) statistically independent seismic signals
so that the enhanced seismic trace is output to fourth-order direction-finding processing for the virtual seismic array responsive
to the plurality of virtual steering vectors, and

generating, using the enhanced seismic trace, a seismic image having enhanced resolution.

US Pat. No. 9,223,991

SYSTEMS, METHODS, AND COMPUTER MEDIUM TO SECURELY TRANSFER LARGE VOLUMES OF DATA BETWEEN PHYSICALLY ISOLATED NETWORKS HAVING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NETWORK PROTECTION

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A computer-implemented method to transfer data between two or more networks configured to have different levels of network
protection, the method comprising:
decoding a first set of one or more barcodes indicative of contents of a plurality of transactional database records associated
with and positioned within a first network to thereby define one or more data barcodes, responsive to receipt of a scan of
a display of a first computer in communication with and positioned within the first network, by use of one or more barcode
scanning devices in communication with a second computer positioned remote from the first computer and in communication with
and positioned within a second network, to produce contents of the plurality of transactional database records represented
by the one or more data barcodes, the second network configured to have a different level of network security protection than
the first network and configured to allow only one-way secure communication from the second network to the first network;

decoding a second set of one or more different barcodes indicative of contents of one or more validation files to thereby
define one or more validation barcodes, responsive to receipt of a scan of a display of the second computer, by use of a different
one or more barcode scanning devices in communication with the first computer, to produce contents of the one or more validation
files represented by the one or more validation barcodes, the one or more validation barcodes configured to encode contents
of the one or more validation files, the one or more validation files configured to include decoded contents of the plurality
of transactional database records, to thereby securely communicate decoded contents of the plurality of transactional database
records in one-way communication from temporary storage associated with the second network to the first network for comparison
to contents of the plurality of transactional database records associated with the first network;

decoding a third set of one or more different barcodes indicative of contents of one or more verification files to thereby
define one or more verification barcodes, responsive to receipt of a scan of the display of the first computer by use of the
one or more barcode scanning devices in communication with the second computer, to produce contents of the one or more verification
files represented by the one or more verification barcodes, the one or more verification barcodes configured to encode contents
of the one or more verification files, the one or more verification files configured to indicate success of transmission of
contents of the plurality of transactional database records from the first network to the second network; and

storing decoded contents of the plurality of transactional database records in more permanent storage associated with the
second network responsive to an indication from decoded contents of the one or more verification files of successful transmission
of contents of the plurality of transactional database records associated with the first network to the second network.

US Pat. No. 9,142,111

FLARE NETWORK MONITORNG SYSTEM AND METHOD

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A flare monitoring system to ascertain quantitative data concerning flare events within a commercial or industrial processing
facility, the flare monitoring system comprising:
a network of flare-through elements in controlled or passive fluid communication with one or more upstream fluid sources and
each generating a data signal;

a processor coupled to a memory;
the fluid sources being flare fluid contributors for which the quantity of flare fluid at each source is estimated by a plurality
of processing modules associated with the processor and the memory including:

a data historian module operable to:
store into memory parameters of the flare-through elements concerning the relationship between generated data signals and
quantitative fluid flow values;

store into memory data concerning the fluid sources upstream of the flare-through elements;
receive (and store) real-time data signals generated by the plurality of flare-through elements; and
a computation module that computes estimated flare fluid contributor quantities from each flare-through element associated
with a fluid source as a function of received data signals associated with each flare-through element, parameters of the flare-through
element and information concerning the fluid source.

US Pat. No. 9,103,192

METHODS FOR GEOSTEERING A DRILL BIT IN REAL TIME USING DRILLING ACOUSTIC SIGNALS

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A method for steering a drill bit within a pay zone in a lateral well, the method comprising:
receiving acoustic signature data from a downhole processor assembly, wherein the acoustic signature data comprises an amplitude
spectrum and one or more acoustic characteristics evaluated from an acoustic signal provided by a sensor arranged adjacent
to a drill bit and generated in real-time as a result of rotational contact of the drill bit with encountered rock in the
lateral well during drilling;

comparing the received real-time acoustic signature data to predetermined acoustic signatures determined for a plurality of
rock samples;

identifying a lithology type of the rock being encountered by the drill bit based on the comparison; and
steering the drill bit in a predefined direction, in real-time, based on the identified lithology type of the rock, for maintaining
the drill bit within the pay zone of the lateral well.

US Pat. No. 9,500,073

ELECTRICAL SUBMERSIBLE PUMP FLOW METER

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method for metering fluid in a subterranean well comprising: (a) deploying an electric submersible pump in the subterranean
well to define an annulus, the electric submersible pump comprising a motor, a seal section and a pump assembly; (b) flowing
fluid through the annulus and to the pump assembly to create a flow of fluid; (c) measuring pressure at axially spaced apart
locations in the flow of fluid along a first axial space where pressure losses in the flow of fluid include gravitational
and frictional losses; (d) measuring pressure at axially spaced apart locations in the flow of fluid along a second axial
space, that is axially disposed from the first axial space, and where pressure losses in the flow of fluid comprise gravitational
losses and frictional losses, wherein the gravitational losses exceed the frictional losses; (e) estimating the pressure differential
between the axially space apart locations along the second axial space with the equation PG=(g)(?m)/((gc)(144)); and (f) communicating pressure loss data along a power cable that is in electronic communication with the motor and
with a metering assembly that measures pressure.

US Pat. No. 9,405,033

INDUCED POLARIZATION MAPPING WITH BOREHOLE TO SURFACE ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSMITTER DATA

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method of mapping the induced polarization response of an investigative layer of a subsurface earth formation at a location
of interest as a function of depth in a well borehole which has a casing installed along its extent into the earth to a location
of interest near a formation of interest in the investigative layer, the casing being formed of lengths of tubular members
connected at end portions to adjacent tubular members by casing collars, the method comprising the steps of:
lowering a borehole to surface electromagnetic survey transmitter with a sonde body connected therewith to the location of
interest in the borehole below the casing;

locating a ground electrode at the surface of the earth;
locating an array of surface electromagnetic field receivers at spaced positions over a surface area on the earth surface;
forming a measure with the casing collar locator of the number of casing collars past which the source and sonde body travel
during the step of lowering to determine the depth of the source and sonde body in the borehole based on the measured number
of casing collars;

deactivating the casing collar locator when the source and the sonde body are at the location of interest; and
emitting an electromagnetic field from the borehole to surface electromagnetic survey transmitter at the location of interest
to travel through the subsurface formations to the surface and form an electromagnetic field;

detecting with the array of surface electromagnetic field receivers at spaced positions over the earth surface a measure of
induced polarization as a function of borehole depth resulting from the emitted electromagnetic field from the borehole to
surface electromagnetic survey transmitter at the location of interest; and

forming an areal map of the detected measure of induced polarization for induced polarization mapping of the investigative
layer of the subsurface earth formations at the location of interest.