US Pat. No. 9,051,902

EGR PULSE MIXER FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE HAVING EGR LOOP

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A mixer, for use with an internal combustion engine, for mixing EGR gas from an EGR loop with fresh air from the engine's
fresh air intake, comprising:
an outer shell having the shape of a hollow cylinder with a side entry port, with one end of the cylinder providing an intake
air entry port and the other end of the cylinder providing an intake air exit port;

a inner sleeve having a generally cylindrical shape, positioned inside the outer shell having an entry end that aligns with
and fits within the intake air entry port and having an exit end that aligns with and fits within the intake air exit port,
such that the inner sleeve provides a passageway through the mixer;

wherein the outer circumference of the inner sleeve is smaller than the inner circumference of the outer shell, such that
a space is provided between the inner sleeve and the outer shell inside the mixer;

wherein the inner sleeve has one or more rows of flow ribs extending from its outer surface within the space over which air
flows, each row extending traverse to the axial length of the inner sleeve; and

wherein the inner shell further has entry holes for providing fluid communication from the space into the passageway.

US Pat. No. 9,200,599

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE HAVING DUAL EGR LOOPS (DEDICATED EGR LOOP AND LOW PRESSURE EGR LOOP) AND DUAL CYLINDER INTAKE PORTS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to improve combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine having
a number of cylinders, comprising:
operating one or more of the cylinders as dedicated EGR cylinder(s), such that all exhaust from the dedicated EGR cylinders)
is recirculated as dedicated EGR, and thereby operating the remaining cylinders as main cylinders;

operating the dedicated EGR cylinder(s) at a different air-fuel ratio than the main cylinders;
providing a dedicated EGR loop for delivering the dedicated EGR to all cylinders;
providing a low pressure EGR loop for delivering recirculated low pressure loop EGR from the main cylinders back to the main
cylinders;

operating the main cylinders to receive a mixture of fresh air and dedicated EGR gas, or to receive a mixture of fresh air,
dedicated EGR gas and low pressure loop EGR gas;

providing each main cylinder with two intake ports, such that each main cylinder may receive a mixture of fresh air and dedicated
EGR through one intake port and a mixture of fresh air and low pressure EGR through the other intake port;

determining a desired EGR rate;
based on the desired EGR rate, providing EGR to all cylinders only from the dedicated EGR loop or also providing additional
EGR to at least the main cylinders from the low pressure EGR loop.

US Pat. No. 9,388,712

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR AN OXY-FUEL BASED POWER CYCLE

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method for sequestering carbon dioxide from an oxy-fuel based power cycle, the method comprising the following steps:
supplying a turbine apparatus that provides energy in the form of a shaft output from a fluid flow and providing gaseous carbon
dioxide and liquid water from said turbine apparatus, wherein said gaseous carbon dioxide and liquid water discharge from
the turbine apparatus at a first density and a first temperature;

feeding said gaseous carbon dioxide and said liquid water directly from the turbine apparatus to a water separator and separating
said liquid water from said gaseous carbon dioxide at approximately the first temperature;

compressing the gaseous carbon dioxide using a compressor to increase the first density to a second density to form a compressed
gaseous carbon dioxide;

converting the compressed gaseous carbon dioxide at the second density to liquid carbon dioxide by cooling the compressed
gaseous carbon dioxide;

converting all or a portion of the liquid carbon dioxide to supercritical carbon dioxide by compressing the liquid carbon
dioxide;

removing a portion of the liquid and/or supercritical carbon dioxide from the cycle;
introducing oxygen, a combustion fuel and the liquid and/or supercritical carbon dioxide remaining in the cycle to an oxy-fuel
combustor;

combusting the oxygen and the combustion fuel with the liquid and/or supercritical carbon dioxide at a temperature ranging
from 800° F. to 1100° F. in the oxy-fuel combustor to generate an exhaust mixture comprising steam and liquid and/or supercritical
carbon dioxide with additional carbon dioxide content where said additional carbon dioxide content is equal to said portion
of the liquid and/or supercritical carbon dioxide removed from the cycle and replaces the portion of the liquid and/or supercritical
carbon dioxide removed from the cycle;

introducing the exhaust mixture into said turbine apparatus that provides energy from a fluid flow; and expanding the liquid
and/or supercritical carbon dioxide so as to convert the liquid and/or supercritical carbon dioxide to said gaseous carbon
dioxide and said liquid water at the first density and at the first temperature.

US Pat. No. 9,279,187

METHOD FOR APPLYING A DIFFUSION BARRIER INTERLAYER FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE COMPONENTS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of forming a diffusion barrier coating system between a substrate and coating comprising:
depositing a diffusion barrier coating onto at least a portion of a substrate surface, wherein said diffusion barrier coating
comprises at least two compositionally different layers,

(i) a first layer having a composition selected from the group consisting of TaN, WN, Ti—Si—N, Zr—Si—N, Ta—Si—N, and Ti—Si—C—N;
and

(ii) a second layer having at least 50 at % aluminum selected from the group consisting of Al2O3, Al, and AlN, wherein said second layer is distal from said substrate surface,

wherein said diffusion barrier coating layers are deposited by vapor deposition by providing a precursor gas including an
element selected from the group consisting of O, N, C, and silicon at a flow rate of 1 sccm to 100 sccm, and providing a target
including an element selected from the group consisting of tantalum, titanium, tungsten, zirconium, silicon, and aluminum
and operating said target at a power in the range of 0.5 kW to 5kW for a deposition time in the range of 5 minutes to 100
minutes; and subsequently

depositing [MaCrbXc]yAl(100-y) coating distinct from the second layer of the diffusion barrier coating on at least a portion of said diffusion barrier coating,
wherein

M is selected from the group consisting of iron, cobalt, nickel, manganese, tungsten, and molybdenum,
X is selected from the group consisting of a carbon and phosphorous, and
“y” is in the range of 85 wt % to 95 wt % of the total composition, “a” is in the range of 70 wt % to 90 wt % of “y”, “b”
is in the range of 5 wt % to 25 wt % of “y”, and “c” is in the range of 0.1 wt % to 5 wt % of “y”,

wherein said [MaCrbXc]yAl(l00-y) coating is deposited by vapor deposition by utilizing a first target including chromium and at least one transition metal
selected from the group consisting of iron, cobalt, nickel, manganese, tungsten, and molybdenum and a second target including
aluminum, wherein said second target is operated at a power P1 that is in the range of 20 to 40 percent of a power P2 said first target is operated, for a deposition time in the range of 100 minutes to 600 minutes, and

wherein said [MaCrbXc]yAl(l00-y) coating exhibits a weight gain of up to 0.0006 g/cm2 and a total loss in aluminum of 80 percent or less when thermally cycled at temperatures of 1010° C. for 50 minutes and force
air cooling to room temperature for 10 minutes, for up to 2015 cycles.

US Pat. No. 10,440,808

HIGH POWER IMPULSE PLASMA SOURCE

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1. A method of generating a surface treating plasma, comprising:positioning a substrate on a substrate holder in a process chamber;
supplying a mixture of gasses to said process chamber, said mixture of gasses including a precursor gas comprising carbon and hydrogen to a hollow power conducting electrode providing a gas nozzle, wherein:
said hollow power conducting electrode comprises a first end formed to include a first cathode opening extending therethrough, and an opposing second end formed to include a second cathode opening extending therethrough, said first cathode opening and said second cathode opening at least partially aligned to define a linear channel that extends between said first and second end of said cathode for gas flow;
said gas flows into said first cathode opening and through and in contact with said hollow power conducting electrode;
applying power pulses to said hollow power conducting electrode with a DC generator in the range of 40 kW to 100 kW at a frequency in the range of 0.1 Hz to 62.5 kHz, and with a pulse duration in the range of 0.1 microseconds to 3,000 microseconds, providing peak currents in the range of 175 Amps to 400 Amps, and forming a plasma from said gas;
said plasma discharges from said second cathode openings directly to said substrate wherein said second cathode opening is closest to said substrate holder and said second cathode opening to said substrate holder is in range of 10 micrometers to 5 millimeters; and
treating a surface of a substrate with said plasma and forming a diamond like carbon coating.

US Pat. No. 9,245,163

OPTICAL VELOCITY TRACKING FOR PAINT SPRAY GUN

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

9. A camera-processor velocity tracking device for mounting on a hand-held paint spray gun operated by a human, for use in
painting an object in an area having at least one wall covered with a constellation of fiducials, comprising:
a memory for storing a three-dimensional location and diameter of each fiducial and a target velocity value;
a camera having a field of view of the at least one wall when the object is being painted;
wherein the field of view of the camera is perpendicular to, or in an opposite direction from, a direction of spray during
painting;

a processor programmed to acquire location and diameter data representing the location and diameter of one or more fiducials
within the camera's field of view during painting of the object by motion of the human hand; to use the location or diameter
data to determine a current velocity of the spray gun; to compare current velocity values to the stored target velocity value;
and

an audio or visual feedback unit for providing feedback, audio or visual, to an operator representing a relationship of the
current velocity to the target velocity value.

US Pat. No. 9,364,579

BIOCIDAL FIBROUS AND FILM MATERIALS UTILIZING SILVER ION

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A biocidal composition comprising:
a transparent compatible blend of a hydrophilic polymer and a hydrophobic polymer containing
(a) a first silver ion chemically bonded to an ionized carboxylate group or a quaternary nitrogen group of said hydrophilic
polymer resulting from a water washed mixture of a first silver salt having a first water soluble anion and a hydrophilic
polymer having a carboxylate salt of a first water soluble cation, wherein said first water soluble anion and first water
soluble cation have been removed from the mixture and been concentrated in the water, said quaternary nitrogen having a halogen
anion; and

(b) a second silver ion chemically bonded to an ionized carboxylate group of said hydrophobic polymer resulting from a water
washed mixture of a second silver salt having a second water soluble anion and a hydrophilic polymer having a carboxylate
salt of a second water soluble cation, wherein said second water soluble anion and second water soluble cation have been removed
from the mixture and been concentrated into the water;

wherein said hydrophilic polymer and hydrophobic polymer provide different binding potential for said first and second silver
ions; and

wherein the composition does not comprise an effective amount of chlorite ions; and
wherein said first silver ion has a different rate of release from said hydrophilic polymer than said second silver ions from
said hydrophobic polymer.

US Pat. No. 9,176,108

METHOD AND DEVICE FOR MEASURING CORROSION METAL LOSS

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1. A method of measuring corrosion loss of a metallic component embedded in concrete, comprising:
(a) providing a guided wave probe that includes an electromechanical device coupled to a corrosion probe, said corrosion probe
being embedded in said concrete and separate from said metallic component,

(b) measuring a baseline guided wave attenuation value of said corrosion probe with no corrosion;
(c) periodically measuring a subsequent guided wave attenuation value of said corrosion probe and calculating an increase
in guided wave attenuation value of said subsequent guided wave attenuation value in relation to said baseline guided wave
attenuation value and identifying metal corrosion of said corrosion probe associated with said increase in guided wave attenuation
value; and

(d) estimating the corrosion metal loss of said embedded metallic component based on step (c).

US Pat. No. 9,162,280

HYBRID CERAMIC/SAND CORE FOR CASTING METAL ENGINE PARTS WITH PASSAGES OR HOLES HAVING A CROSS SECTION TOO SMALL FOR SAND CASTING

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A hybrid ceramic/sand casting method of manufacturing a cylinder block or cylinder head for an internal combustion engine,
the cylinder block or cylinder head having at least one small passage or hole, comprising:
providing a hybrid core having at least one ceramic section and at least one sand section;
wherein the ceramic section is used to create the at least one small passage or hole, either having a cross sectional dimension
or radius of curvature dimension of less than 5 millimeters;

creating a mold cavity for the cylinder head or cylinder block;
positioning the hybrid core in the mold;
introducing molten metal into the mold;
removing the core, after the metal cools, thereby forming the cylinder block or cylinder head;
wherein the hybrid core is used to form one or more of the following parts of the cylinder block or cylinder head: a water
jacket or coolant jacket, fluid flow lines or tubes, and/or an air intake port.

US Pat. No. 9,175,381

PROCESSING TUBULAR SURFACES USING DOUBLE GLOW DISCHARGE

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of sputtering a component, comprising:
positioning a conductive substrate into a vacuum chamber, wherein said conductive substrate is tubular, is formed of a conductive
polymer, a metal, or a conductive ceramic, and has a surface;

inserting a source electrode including a source material into said conductive substrate, wherein said source material is selected
from the group consisting of W, Mo, Nb, Ta or Re;

evacuating said vacuum chamber and supplying a gas to said vacuum chamber to raise pressure in said to chamber to 1×10?2 torr to 1×102 torr;

applying a first bias voltage potential difference ?Vac1 in the range of 100 to 1,000 V between said conductive substrate and said vacuum chamber with a first power supply connected
to said conductive substrate that provides direct current and optionally increasing said first bias voltage potential difference
to the range of 300 to 1,000 V after a given time period;

applying a second bias voltage potential difference ?Vas1 between said source electrode and said vacuum chamber with a second power supply connected to the source electrode that provides
an alternating current or direct current, in addition to applying said first bias voltage potential difference, wherein said
second bias voltage potential difference ?Vas1 is less than said first bias voltage potential difference ?Vac1 while sputtering said source material onto said conductive substrate; and

regulating conductive substrate temperature, source electrode temperature, said first bias voltage potential difference ?Vac1, said second bias voltage potential difference ?Vas1 and said pressure such that said source material diffuses into said substrate in the range of 0.1 ?m to 250 ?m from said surface
of said conductive substrate.

US Pat. No. 9,170,239

MAGNETOSTRICTIVE SENSOR HAVING CRIMPED MAGNETOSTRICTIVE STRIP FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE OPERATION

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A sensor system for use in magnetostrictive testing of a structure, by transmitting a guided wave and receiving a reflected
signal, comprising:
a thin strip made from ferromagnetic material, the strip having a bottom surface for placement against the structure and a
top surface;

wherein the strip has a series of crimps across its width, each crimp being a raised portion of the strip, raised toward or
above the top surface of the strip, such that the strip is non planar on both surfaces;

a first wire coil wrapped around the width of the strip and along its entire length;
wherein wires of the first coil that are wrapped across the bottom surface of the strip are located inside the crimps, and
wires of the first coil that are wrapped across the top surface of the strip are between the crimps;

a second wire coil wrapped around the length of the strip;
wherein the crimps are raised sufficiently from the structure when the strip is coupled to the structure, such that wires
of the first coil are contained within the crimps and do not lift the bottom surface of the strip from the structure.

an AC pulse generator for applying AC pulses to either the first coil or the second coil; and
a DC bias current generator for applying a DC bias current to whichever of the first coil or the second coil does not receive
the AC pulse;

wherein the DC bias current generator is further operable to apply the DC bias current during each AC pulse and for a period
of time corresponding to both transmission of the guided wave and reception of the reflected signal and having a duty cycle
of 10% or less.

US Pat. No. 9,062,577

DIESEL ENGINE OPERATION FOR FAST TRANSIENT RESPONSE AND LOW EMISSIONS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method for operating a diesel engine in different modes to control emissions in the exhaust gas, the engine having an
exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system, the method comprising:
installing an exhaust aftertreatment system having only an oxidation catalyst and a particulate filter and having no NOx reduction
or adsorption device;

operating the diesel engine with a lean air-fuel ratio in normal engine conditions, wherein normal engine conditions are engine
conditions other than transient load increase engine conditions;

during normal engine conditions using the EGR system to reduce engine-out NOx;
monitoring the engine load to determine if the engine is in a transient load increase mode; and
during the transient load increase mode, operating the diesel engine stoichiometrically or near stoichiometrically and discontinuing
use of EGR into the engine's intake;

wherein the transient load increase mode is not limited to high load conditions;
during all modes of engine operation, treating the exhaust gas with only the exhaust aftertreatment system.

US Pat. No. 10,107,564

THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM COMPRISING ENCAPSULATED PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL

Terrafore Technologies, L...

1. A method of encapsulating a phase change material in a capsule, said method comprising:suspending a particle of said phase change material in an air stream;
coating an entire surface of said suspended particle with at least one layer of a sacrificial compound, said step of coating comprising
atomizing a solution of said sacrificial compound;
depositing at least one layer of said atomized sacrificial compound onto said surface of said suspended particle; and
drying said layer of said sacrificial compound deposited on said suspended particle;
coating an entire surface of said layer of said sacrificial compound with at least one layer of a second material and encapsulating said phase change material within a shell formed by said second material, said step of encapsulating comprising
heating said particle coated with said sacrificial compound and said second material;
thermally decomposing said sacrificial compound and vaporizing said sacrificial compound, wherein said sacrificial compound has a decomposition temperature less than a phase change temperature of said phase change material and a phase change temperature of said second material.

US Pat. No. 9,103,046

ELECTROPHORETIC FORMATION OF NANOSTRUCTURED COMPOSITES

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of forming a composite material containing nanostructures comprising:
mixing nanostructured solids with a vinyl-sulfonate and an ionic surfactant to form vinyl-sulfonate, ionic surfactant-coated
nanostructured solids;

mixing said vinyl-sulfonate, ionic surfactant-coated nanostructured solids in an organic liquid media so as to form a mixture,
wherein said media has a water content of less than or equal to 10.0% by volume and said organic liquid media includes an
organic polymerizable matrix material or polymers of the formula:

wherein R1 and R2 may be selected from hydrogen, alkyl groups, alkylene groups, aromatic groups, ester groups, carboxylic
acid groups and metal salts thereof, wherein n has a value of 10-10,000;
applying an electric field to said mixture in the presence of a conductive substrate; and
depositing on said conductive substrate a composite material containing said nanostructured solids and said organic matrix
material.

US Pat. No. 9,963,781

CARBON NANOTUBES GROWN ON NANOSTRUCTURED FLAKE SUBSTRATES AND METHODS FOR PRODUCTION THEREOF

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method for producing substantially aligned, separated carbon nanotubes, wherein the method comprises:coating a catalyst layer having a thickness of about 0.4 to 2 nm on a support layer comprising Al2O3 on a flexible substrate, said support layer having a thickness of 10 nm to 80 nm;
wherein the coating step comprises electron-beam deposition of the catalyst layer in a high-vacuum roll-to-roll thin film deposition system;
flexing said flexible substrate to release said support layer from said flexible substrate without the use of a solvent so as to form nanostructured, catalyst-coated, flake substrates having diameters of about 2 to 8 ?m;
vibrating said nanostructured, catalyst-coated, flake substrates with a piezoelectric oscillator causing the nanostructured, catalyst-coated, flake substrates to become airborne in argon and move through a feed-line to a reactor;
diffusing said nanostructure, catalyst-coated, flake substrates through a coiled tungsten filament in said reactor;
floating said nanostructured, catalyst-coated, flake substrates in a flow of gas of atomic hydrogen and a carbonaceous gas;
growing predominantly separated filaments of substantially aligned single wall carbon nanotubes of greater than 50 ?m to 400 ?m in length at pressures of 1.4 torr to 15 torr on said nanostructured, catalyst-coated, flake substrates as said nanostructured, catalyst-coated, flake substrates are diffused in a collection area and said nanostructured, catalyst-coated, flake substrates are retained in said collection area by mesh, wherein the growing proceeds at a rate of between about 3 ?m per minute and about 20 ?m per minute; and
separating the single wall carbon nanotubes from the nanostructured, catalyst-coated, flake substrates by etching the support layer in a KOH bath and etching the catalyst layer from the single wall carbon nanotubes in an acid bath.

US Pat. No. 9,657,692

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE UTILIZING TWO INDEPENDENT FLOW PATHS TO A DEDICATED EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION CYLINDER

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. An exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system for improved combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine having a
number of cylinders, comprising:
one or more main cylinders connected to an intake manifold;
one or more cylinders operable as a dedicated EGR cylinder(s), having two independent intake flow paths for said dedicated
cylinder(s) where one flow path provides only intake air including a first intercooler in the flow path and one flow path
provides air and recirculated exhaust gas including a second intercooler in the flow path, the exhaust gas output of said
one or more dedicated EGR cylinders connected to an exhaust gas recirculation loop which delivers said exhaust gas output
to said main cylinder intake manifold.

US Pat. No. 9,520,179

ASYNCHRONOUS FIFO MEMORY WITH READ AND WRITE COUNTER CIRCUITRY

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A read count circuit for providing a count of data read from an asynchronous FIFO memory device, the FIFO memory device
providing a read clock signal, a write clock signal, a read enable signal, and a write enable signal, with each of the clock
signals having an associated clock frequency, the circuit comprising:
a shift register comprising a number of cascaded flip-flops, each flip-flop having the write clock signal as its clock input,
and the data output of the preceding flip-flop as its data input, with the data output of the last flip-flop being the data
input to the first flip-flop;

wherein the number of flip-flops is the size of a data vector whose size is based on a ratio of one clock frequency to the
other;

an AND element at the output of each flip-flop, operable to AND the output of the associated flip-flop with the write enable
signal;

a pulse generator at the output of each AND element, operable to synchronize the outputs of the AND elements with the read
clock;

an adder operable to receive and sum the outputs of each pulse generator, thereby providing a write pulse sum; and
a counter operable to increment with the write pulse sum and to decrement with the read enable signal upon each read clock
signal, thereby providing a read count output.

US Pat. No. 9,456,893

ENGINEERED TISSUE IMPLANTS AND METHODS OF USE THEREOF

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method to provide tissue for reconstruction comprising:
providing a perfusion chamber formed with a biodegradable flexible tubular member having a wall defining a fluid flow passage,
a fluid inlet opening and a fluid outlet opening, and composed of a decellularized human or animal tubular body passage; and

inserting and positioning a porous three-dimensional scaffold within the fluid flow passage of the biodegradable flexible
tubular member through the fluid inlet opening or fluid outlet opening, the porous scaffold comprising pores and passageways
for developing vascular tissue;

arranging the tubular member with the porous scaffold such that, in a presence of a perfusion fluid, the perfusion fluid will
flow through the porous scaffold including the passageways and be inhibited from flowing between the porous scaffold and the
wall of the tubular member;

introducing and seeding mesenchymal stem cells into the scaffold;
introducing a perfusion fluid to the scaffold which flows through the fluid flow passage and porous scaffold including the
passageways;

proliferating the cells within the scaffold; and
forming at least a first tissue type selected from muscle, bone, cartilage and epithelial, said tissue including extracellular
matrix and blood vessels within the porous scaffold so as to produce an implant having a vascularized cohesive tissue contained
within the tubular member.

US Pat. No. 9,181,980

FLUID BEARINGS WITH ADJUSTABLE FRICTIONAL LOAD CHARACTERISTICS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of adjusting the load carrying capacity of a fluid bearing including a bore defining a longitudinal axis and a
bearing including a bearing surface, comprising:
providing a fluid bearing including a bore defined in said fluid bearing wherein said bore has a wall and defines a longitudinal
axis, a rotatable bearing positioned within said bore, wherein said rotatable bearing includes a bearing surface and said
bearing surface exhibits a length parallel to said longitudinal axis and said length varies at different points around the
circumference of said rotatable bearing, and a bearing gap between the wall of the bore and the rotatable bearing;

contacting a lubricating fluid in said bore with said bearing surface; wherein said lubricating fluid surrounds said bearing
surface; and

cyclically loading said fluid bearing and altering an effective bearing surface area of said rotatable bearing as points around
the circumference of said rotatable bearing are contacted by the bore wall.

US Pat. No. 9,121,540

SUPERHYDROPHOBIC COMPOSITIONS AND COATING PROCESS FOR THE INTERNAL SURFACE OF TUBULAR STRUCTURES

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of depositing a conformal coating comprising:
creating a vacuum within an interior volume of a tubular structure, wherein said tubular structure includes an iron based
internal surface and said interior volume;

introducing an inert gas and optionally hydrogen and sputter cleaning said iron based internal surface;
directly following said sputter cleaning supplying gas to said interior volume of said tubular structure, wherein said gas
includes a plasma precursor in the gas phase;

biasing said tubular structure relative to ground;
forming a plasma having a density and cyclically positioning said plasma density along the length of said tubular structure;
generating positive ions of said plasma precursor gas which are deposited on said internal surface; and
forming a coating having a surface on said internal surface, wherein said coating exhibits a water contact angle of greater
than 120° and said coating comprises 50 to 60 atomic percent carbon, 20 to 30 atomic percent oxygen and 15-25 atomic percent
silicon, and said atomic percents of carbon, oxygen and silicon are present at the surface of said coating and at a depth
of up to 300 Angstroms into said coating and wherein said coating mitigates the nucleation, growth and adhesion of asphaltenes
waxes and gas hydrates.

US Pat. No. 9,440,850

CARBON MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method for forming a material for releasably storing hydrogen comprising:
supplying a cyclic quinone compound containing at least two ketone groups, wherein said quinone compound includes at least
one metal alkoxide salt and optionally a halogen atom, wherein said quinone compound has a thermal degradation temperature;

pyrolyzing said cyclic quinone compound in air to a temperature that is within +/?20° C. of said thermal degradation temperature
to provide a porous graphite oxide product comprising regions of graphene structure having multiple layers of hexagonally
configured carbon atoms and one or more of the functional groups —COOH, —C?O and —OH and wherein said porous graphite oxide
product has a BET surface area of 600 m2/g to 2500 m2/g;

incorporating metallic nanoparticles on a surface of said porous graphite oxide product, said metallic nanoparticles having
a diameter of 1 nm to 100 nm and wherein said metallic nanoparticles consist essentially of an alloy of Pd and Hg having a
ratio of Pd:Hg selected from 1:10 to 10:1 by weight;

wherein a porosity of the porous graphite oxide product remains undisturbed and an ability to interact with a gas due to diffusion
and transport of the gas within porous regions of the porous graphite oxide product is not compromised due to the metallic
nanoparticles;

wherein said porous graphite oxide product containing said metallic nanoparticles sorbs and desorbs hydrogen at levels of
8.0 to 10.0 percent by weight, at hydrogen pressures of 1-80 bars and isothermal temperatures selected from 20° C. to 30°
C.; and

wherein the metallic nanoparticles are incorporated into said porous graphite oxide product at a level of 5 percent by weight
to 25 percent by weight.

US Pat. No. 9,388,787

METHODS, DEVICES AND SYSTEMS FOR GLOW PLUG OPERATION OF A COMBUSTION ENGINE

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A glow plug control apparatus for an engine of a motor vehicle, comprising:
at least one glow plug;
a power source to apply electric power to the at least one glow plug;
a control unit;
wherein the control unit receives input data from stored vehicle data and from a plurality of engine sensors, wherein the
input data includes data of engine operating parameters including fresh air intake mass airflow, intake manifold total mass
airflow, intake manifold temperature, coolant temperature, reference glow plug temperature and total fuel injection quantity;

wherein the control unit calculates, with an equation, a glow plug supply power level to be provided from the power source
to the at least one glow plug based on the input data with at least one microprocessor;

wherein the control unit causes the glow plug supply power level to be provided from the power source to the at least one
glow plug; and

wherein the reference glow plug temperature is not part of a feedback loop.

US Pat. No. 9,366,762

DETECTION OF DECEPTIVE NAVIGATION SIGNAL

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A receiver system for a satellite navigation system (SNS), comprising:
a navigation receiver operable to receive real and deception signals containing GPS data, and programmed to calculate a navigation
solution;

wherein the navigation solution comprises at least a position solution, and wherein the at least the following types of receiver
measurement values are produced during calculation of the position solution: gain values, carrier-to-noise ratio values, and
Doppler shift values;

a deception detector having the following elements:
memory for storing previously calculated receiver measurement values;
a conditioning unit programmed to receive the position solution and the receiver measurement values from the navigation receiver,
and to condition the position solution and the receiver measurement values by differencing time-delayed position solution
values, dividing carrier-to-noise ratio values by gain values, and differencing time-delayed doppler shift values, thereby
obtaining three types of conditioned values (position, carrier-to-noise, and Doppler shift); and

a classifier unit programmed to receive the conditioned values from the conditioning unit and to determine for each type whether
the conditioned values are within an associated normal deviation, and if not, to generate output data indicating that a deceptive
signal is suspected.

US Pat. No. 9,362,559

NITROGEN SUBSTITUTED CARBON AND SILICON CLATHRATES

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A battery electrode comprising a composition, wherein the composition comprises a Type I clathrate of carbon having a C46 framework cage structure, wherein the carbon atoms on said framework are at least partially substituted by nitrogen atoms,
further includes one or more guest atoms within said cage structure, represented by the formula AxNyC46-y where, A=H, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, Eu, Cl, Br, I, and any metal or metalloid element, with 1 and x is the number of guest atoms within said cage structure wherein x has a value such that the cage structure undergoes
a volume expansion of less than or equal to 50.0%.

US Pat. No. 9,217,116

BIOGAS PURIFICATION SYSTEM AND METHODS OF USE THEREOF

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method for removal of sulfur and halogenated compounds and acidic reaction products from biogas comprising:
supplying a contaminant removal module containing a catalytic oxidation catalyst comprising vanadium oxide (V2O5) on a metal oxide support for oxidation of said sulfur and halogenated compounds;

supplying a contaminant removal module containing alkali impregnated carbon for removal of said acidic reaction products wherein
the alkali comprises an ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal and is present at a level of 5-15% by weight;

introducing biogas and oxidizing 85% or more of said sulfur and halogenated compounds and removing 85% or more of said acidic
reaction products.

US Pat. No. 10,048,165

TWO-DIRECTIONAL RADIAL LOAD AND MISALIGNMENT TESTING DEVICE

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A testing rig, comprising:a bearing housing, wherein the bearing housing includes an opening;
a drive shaft extending into the opening, wherein the drive shaft is rotatable around a bearing axis;
a vertical actuator mounted on the bearing housing for applying a vertical load to the bearing housing;
a horizontal actuator mounted on the bearing housing for applying a horizontal load to the bearing housing;
a first misalignment actuator coupled to the first actuator for applying a first misalignment load to the bearing housing; and
a second misalignment actuator coupled to the bearing housing for applying a second misalignment load to the bearing housing.

US Pat. No. 9,995,206

INTAKE AIR BOOST SYSTEM FOR TWO-CYCLE ENGINE HAVING TURBO-SUPERCHARGER

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

6. A method of providing intake air to a two-cycle engine, the two-cycle engine having a number of cylinders, an intake manifold, an exhaust manifold, comprising:installing a turbo-supercharger having a turbo-supercharger compressor, a turbo-supercharger turbine, and a gear drive assembly;
via a control unit
determining a target air-fuel ratio for the two-cycle engine; and
determining a mid load threshold representing an engine load above which the turbo super-charger is insufficient to provide air flow for the engine at the target air-fuel ratio;
wherein the turbo-supercharger being undersized for the two-cycle engine insufficiently provides air flow for the target air-fuel ratio above the mid load threshold;
installing a turbocharger having a turbocharger compressor and a turbocharger turbine;
wherein the turbocharger is installed in parallel with the turbo-supercharger; and
wherein the turbocharger has a separate path to the turbo-supercharger turbine and the turbocharger turbine;
installing a first valve between the output of the turbocharger compressor and the air intake junction;
installing a second valve between the input of the turbocharger turbine and the exhaust junction; and
controlling the first valve and the second valve via the control unit, to activate the turbocharger to provide boosted intake air at loads above the mid load threshold with air output of the compressors, which combines upstream the intake manifold at an air intake junction, and exhaust gas from each cylinder splits at an exhaust junction downstream the exhaust manifold.

US Pat. No. 9,879,339

NICKEL-CHROMIUM-SILICON BASED COATINGS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of depositing coatings onto a turbine component comprising: supplying a Ni—Cr target and Si target with a dual-gun
magnetron sputtering system; introducing inert gas and negatively biasing the magnet assembly; grounding or negatively biasing
a turbine component to be coated, wherein said turbine component has a surface; maintaining a temperature of said turbine
component not higher than 100° C. during coating; applying a power density of at least 0.1 kW/cm2 in pulses of microseconds
in the range of 10 to 100 microseconds and at duty cycles of less than 10% to each of said targets; and forming a coating
consisting of: (i) a Ni—Cr and Si coating on said turbine component surface; or (ii) a Ni—Cr—Si coating in a single layer
on said turbine surface, and exposing said coating to a temperature in the range of 600° C. to 950° C. and forming a silica
scale on said coating.

US Pat. No. 9,512,871

VARIABLE AREA JOURNAL BEARING

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of adjusting a load-bearing capacity of a hydrodynamic plain journal bearing for a journal, comprising:
providing a hydrodynamic plain journal bearing having a circumference, wherein a load-bearing capacity of the journal bearing
varies around the bearing circumference;

providing the hydrodynamic plain journal bearing in a journal bearing support structure, wherein the support structure supports
the hydrodynamic plain journal bearing around the journal; and

rotating the hydrodynamic plain journal bearing within the support structure to change a position of the load-bearing capacity
of the journal bearing relative to the journal.

US Pat. No. 9,284,921

POWERTRAIN FOR HYBRID VEHICLE HAVING DEDICATED EGR

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

12. A powertrain for a vehicle having both an internal combustion engine and a generator, the engine equipped with a dedicated
EGR loop, comprising:
an engine crankshaft;
at least one cylinder configured as a dedicated exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cylinder, such that all exhaust of that cylinder
is recirculated to the fresh air intake of the engine;

one or more cylinders configured as main cylinders, such that exhaust from the main cylinders exits the engine to atmosphere;
wherein the dedicated EGR cylinder is mechanically decoupled from the crankshaft and is mechanically connected to power the
generator; and

wherein the main cylinders are operable exclusively to provide power to the crankshaft.
US Pat. No. 9,216,222

ISOAMYL NITRITE FORMULATIONS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A composition comprising:
(a) isoamyl nitrite; and
(b) an epoxidized vegetable oil wherein said epoxidized oil is present at 1.0-10.0% by weight and said isoamyl nitrite is
present at a level of 99.0-90.0% by weight.

US Pat. No. 9,206,769

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE HAVING DEDICATED EGR CYLINDER(S) WITH INTAKE SEPARATE FROM INTAKE OF MAIN CYLINDERS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to improve combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine having
a number of cylinders, comprising:
operating one or more of the cylinders as dedicated EGR cylinder(s), such that all of its exhaust, during all or some engine
cycles, may be recirculated via an EGR loop as EGR gas;

operating all non dedicated EGR cylinder(s) as main cylinders that receive a mixture of fresh air and EGR gas via a mixed
intake line and an intake manifold common to only the main cylinders;

wherein the dedicated EGR cylinder(s) are configured to receive only fresh air via a fresh air intake line separate from the
intake manifold to the dedicated EGR cylinder(s);

wherein if the dedicated EGR cylinder(s) receive only fresh air, the main cylinder(s) receive EGR at a first EGR rate;
wherein if the dedicated EGR cylinder(s) receive only the portion of EGR gas and fresh air, the main cylinder(s) receive EGR
at a second EGR rate; and

adjusting the rate of EGR gas received by the main cylinder(s) to the first EGR rate or to the second EGR rate in response
to operating conditions of the engine.

US Pat. No. 9,103,022

AMORPHOUS ALUMINUM ALLOY COATINGS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of forming an amorphous aluminum alloy coating comprising:
providing a vacuum chamber;
providing a substrate for coating, wherein said substrate is an aluminum alloy comprising aluminum present at levels in the
range of 75 atomic percent to 99 atomic percent and one or more of the following elements: Cu, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Si, Ti, and
Zn, present in the range of 1 atomic percent to 25 atomic percent, and said alloy exhibits a density in the range of 2.75
grams per cubic centimeter to 3.0 grams per cubic centimeter and a coefficient of thermal expansion in the range of 24 ?m/m?°
C. to 30 ?m/m?° C.;

providing a target material comprising aluminum and one or more alloying elements;
providing an inert process gas;
applying a bias voltage to said substrate;
applying 1 to 10 kW of power at a negative bias to said target and forming plasma with said inert process gas;
ejecting particles from said target and depositing an amorphous aluminum alloy coating wherein at least 50% of said alloy
is amorphous and includes nanocrystalline domains of 100 nanometers or less as deposited, and said amorphous aluminum alloy
coating consists of aluminum present in the range of 75 to 85 atomic percent, cerium present in the range of 5 to 15 atomic
percent and cobalt present in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent, wherein said coating indicates a ?Epassive of greater than
0.250 Vsce.

US Pat. No. 9,527,275

HIGH ACCURACY INKJET PRINTING

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A liquid application system comprising:
at least one print head that includes:
a first liquid ejector to deposit a pigmented liquid on a surface;
a second liquid ejector to deposit a liquid on the surface; and
at least one image acquisition device;
a plurality of actuateable elements operably coupled to the at least one print head; and
a print head controller communicably coupled to the first liquid ejector, the second liquid ejector, the plurality of actuateable
elements, and the at least one image acquisition device,

the print head controller to:
align the first liquid ejector with an encoder pattern on a first portion of the surface, the alignment based at least in
part on image data received from the at least one image acquisition device;

cause the first liquid ejector to selectively deposit the pigmented liquid as a graphic swathe across at least a portion of
the encoder pattern on the first portion of the surface; and

cause the second liquid ejector to selectively deposit the liquid as the encoder pattern on a second portion of the surface.
US Pat. No. 9,388,054

FLUORIDE-BASED LUMINESCENT PHOSPHORS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method for preparing a luminescent phosphor (AMFz) comprising carrying out the following reaction in a deep eutectic
solvent with heating and under pressure:
A(X)m+M(X)n+zNH4F?AMFz+zNH4X

wherein
A is an alkali (Group 1) or alkali earth (Group 2) metal or a mixture of one or more alkali and/or alkali earth metal;
X is a halogen or NO3 group;

M is a di-, tri- or tetravalent metal or metalloid,
F is fluoride;
z is the integer 4 or 5;
m is the integer 1 or 2; and
n is the integer 3.
US Pat. No. 9,044,530

FABRICATION OF BONE REGENERATION SCAFFOLDS AND BONE FILLER MATERIAL USING A PERFUSION FLOW SYSTEM

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A process to form a bone grafting material, comprising:
providing a porous collagen scaffold;
inserting the collagen scaffold into a perfusion chamber of a perfusion flow system;
continuously providing a mineralization perfusion fluid flow comprising polyaspartic acid through the collagen scaffold at
a flow rate to provide dynamic intrafibrillar mineralization of the collagen scaffold;

forming a collagen/hydroxyapatite composite scaffold;
contacting the collagen/hydroxyapatite composite scaffold with mesenchymal stromal cells to form a cell seeded scaffold;
perfusing a fluid including oxygen and one or more nutrients through the cell seeded scaffold;
remodeling the cell seeded scaffold; and
forming a bone tissue extracellular matrix on the cell seeded scaffold comprising fibronectin, type I collagen and biglycan
so as to form a remodeled scaffold having 95% porosity comprising pore size of about 250 ?m.

US Pat. No. 9,650,468

ENCAPSULATION OF ACTIVE AGENTS FOR ON-DEMAND RELEASE

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of reducing the propagation of stress, comprising:
supplying microcapsules having a total volume and containing an encapsulated mixture of reactant amine compounds comprising
at least a primary amine compound and a secondary amine compound wherein said mixture of amine compounds are present in the
range of 40% to 80% of said microcapsule total volume, said microcapsules having a size of 1 micron to 200 microns including
a shell portion, wherein said shell comprises a polyurea shell of the structure:

(—NH—R—NH—CO—NH—R—NH—CO—)
wherein R is an alkyl group, substituted alkyl group, aromatic group or substituted aromatic group and said polyurea shell
has a thickness of less than or equal to 20 microns;

distributing said microcapsules in the presence of an epoxy prepolymer in a selected structure wherein said epoxy prepolymer
has the following formula:


where n may have a value of 0-1000;
wherein upon introduction of stress into said structure, said microcapsules release said mixture of reactant amine compounds,
such that at least said primary amine compound and secondary amine compound react with said epoxy prepolymer to form a crosslinked
epoxy polymer having a tensile strength of at least 12,500 psi and a tensile modulus of 400,000 psi to 4×106 psi.

US Pat. No. 9,523,146

TI—SI—C—N PISTON RING COATINGS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of coating piston rings, comprising:
placing a piston ring into a process chamber;
reducing gas pressure in said process chamber;
supplying an inert gas to said process chamber and generating a plasma of said inert gas;
supplying nitrogen to said process chamber at a flow rate of 40 sccm to 60 sccm;
supplying hexamethyldisilazane to said process chamber at a rate of 3 grams per hour to 9 grams per hour;
sputtering titanium from a magnetron target in said process chamber; and
depositing a Ti—Si—C—N coating on said piston ring, wherein said coating has a thickness in the range of 10.0 micrometers
to 40.0 micrometers and exhibits a coefficient of friction of less than 0.15, a wear rate of less than 10×10?6 mm3/N/m, and a nanohardness in the range of 10.0 GPa to 30.0 GPa, wherein said coefficient of friction is measured using a Plint
TE77 testing apparatus using 10W-30 oil maintained at 35° C. as a lubricant, under a force of 30 N, and a sliding frequency
of 5 to 20 Hz, and said wear rate is measured against an alumina ball of 0.25 inches in diameter at a load of 1 N at 100 rpm
in a dry environment,

wherein said Ti—Si—C—N coating includes nanocrystalline phases having a grain size in the range of 3 nm to 10 nm in an amorphous
matrix, wherein said nanocrystalline phases include TiCxNy, wherein x is in the range of 0.00 to 1.00 and y is in the range of 1.00 to 0.00.

US Pat. No. 9,518,516

STATE-BASED DIESEL FUELING FOR IMPROVED TRANSIENT RESPONSE IN DUAL-FUEL ENGINE

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of controlling the amount of diesel fuel delivered to a dual-fuel internal combustion engine, the engine being
fueled with both gaseous fuel and diesel fuel, comprising:
receiving a signal from the operator of the engine representing a desired torque;
determining a desired intake manifold pressure and a desired intake manifold oxygen fraction, based on the desired torque;
controlling flow actuators for at least the intake air flow and the intake gaseous fuel such that the desired intake manifold
pressure and the desired intake manifold oxygen fraction will occur;

receiving sensor data from which the engine speed and a current in-cylinder state can be measured or estimated;
wherein the current in-cylinder state comprises at least an in-cylinder amount of gaseous fuel and an in-cylinder amount of
oxygen;

determining a current amount of diesel fuel based at least on the desired torque, the engine speed and the current in-cylinder
state; and

generating a diesel fueling command representing the current amount of diesel fuel.

US Pat. No. 9,283,643

REMOVAL OF LIQUID FROM AIRFOIL OF EQUIPMENT HAVING GAS-LIQUID FLOWS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of removing liquid from the surface of an airfoil, the airfoil having an upper exterior surface, a lower exterior
surface, a generally solid interior, a span dimension and a width dimension, comprising:
drilling at least one passage bore into the generally solid interior of the airfoil, the passage bore extending between the
lower exterior surface and the upper exterior surface and across the width or length of the airfoil, the passage bore operable
to deliver air or other gas from an external source into the interior of the airfoil;

wherein the passage bore has a port for receiving air or other gas into the passage bore;
cross drilling a series of holes from the lower exterior surface or from the upper exterior surface, or from both, to the
passage bore, in a direction generally perpendicular to the passage bore, and such that air or other gas may flow through
the passage bore to the exterior surface of the airfoil via the holes; and

providing air or other gas into the port of the passage bore such that the air or other gas flows through the passage bore
prior to being expelled to the upper exterior surface or the lower exterior surface via the holes.

US Pat. No. 9,216,181

BMP-2 UPREGULATING COMPOUNDS FOR HEALING BONE TISSUE AND SCREENING METHODS FOR SELECTING SUCH COMPOUNDS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of treating a bone defect in a subject, which method comprises administering by parenteral administration to a
subject suffering a bone fracture or having a post-plastic bone surgery an amount of 0.2 to 40 mg/kg/day of a composition
comprising carebastine, thereby stimulating up-regulation of endogenous BMP-2 gene expression by at least two folds or increasing
bone mass by at least 20% in said subject.
US Pat. No. 9,105,363

METHODS FOR VAPORIZATION AND REMEDIATION OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method for collecting volatile radioactive substances from contaminated materials found on the surface of the earth,
comprising:
providing a collection device including a collection hood, a microwave radiation source coupled to said collection hood, and
a recovery unit in fluid communication with said hood;

suspending said collection hood over earth surface material;
irradiating a volatile radioactive substance on or under said earth surface material with microwave radiation from said microwave
radiation source and vaporizing the volatile radioactive substance, wherein said volatile radioactive substance comprises
at least one of cesium and iodine;

collecting said volatile radioactive substance in said collection hood; and
recovering said vaporized volatile radioactive substance from said earth surface material by drawing said vaporized volatile
radioactive substance into said recovery unit.

US Pat. No. 9,568,918

BALLOON SYSTEM

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A balloon comprising:
a. a flexible volume balloon hull configured to contain a lifting gas, wherein said flexible volume balloon hull has a maximum
volume (Vmax);

b. a flexible volume ballonet contained within said balloon hull configured to contain a refrigerant gas;
c. a refrigerant gas transfer device in fluid communication with said ballonet and comprising a radiator/condenser for cooling
said refrigerant gas and a radiator/evaporator for heating said refrigerant gas;

d. a first valve positioned between said ballonet and said radiator/condenser to allow for removal of refrigerant gas from
said ballonet;

e. a second valve positioned between said ballonet and said radiator/evaporator to allow for introduction of refrigerant gas
to said ballonet,

wherein said ballonet is configured to contain refrigerant gas at a first pressure (PB1) and temperature (TB1) including a first compartment configured to contain refrigerant gas removed from said ballonet at a second pressure (PB2) and second temperature (TB2), wherein PB2

US Pat. No. 9,692,529

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR SIGNAL EMITTER IDENTIFICATION USING HIGHER-ORDER CUMULANTS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method comprising:
receiving at least one transient signal from an emitter when said emitter turns on;
processing said at least one transient signal using at least one Higher-Order Cumulant (HOC) to provide a set of entries for
a vector table;

deriving a feature vector from said vector table, said feature vector identifying said emitter; and
using said feature vector to identify said emitter.

US Pat. No. 9,650,976

ENGINE FUEL CONTROL FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE HAVING DEDICATED EGR

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of controlling the amount of fuel delivered to an engine, the engine having at least one dedicated EGR cylinder
with the remaining cylinders being main cylinders, each cylinder having at least one associated fuel injector, the engine
further having an engine control unit:
receiving, from the engine control unit, fueling requirement data representing a current fueling requirement amount for the
main cylinders;

calculating a current amount of fuel to be delivered to the at least one dedicated EGR cylinder as a product of a ratio that
is a function of the number of dedicated EGR cylinders, the number of main cylinders, and the current equivalence ratio for
the dedicated EGR cylinder, times the fueling requirement data;

driving the fuel injector(s) associated with the at least one dedicated EGR cylinder by delivering a first set of control
signals to the fuel injector(s) associated with the at least one dedicated EGR cylinder, the first set of control signals
representing the current amount of fuel to be delivered to the at least one dedicated EGR cylinder;

driving the fuel injectors associated with the main cylinders by delivering a second set of control signals to the fuel injectors
of the main cylinders, the second set of control signals representing the fueling requirement data; and

repeating the above steps during operation of the engine.

US Pat. No. 9,279,361

PISTON BOWL WITH SPRAY JET TARGETS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A piston for a direct injection engine, the piston comprising:
a bowl at an upper end, the bowl forming a portion of a combustion chamber, wherein the piston has a top face defining a plane
and the bowl includes an inner surface that defines a volume configured to receive a fuel-air mixture;

the inner surface of the bowl including a sidewall surface which extends from the top face of the piston to a bottom of the
bowl, said sidewall surface from the top face of the piston to the bottom of the bowl formed at an angle ?relative to said
plane of said top face, said angle ?in a range from 10° and 8020 relative to said plane of said top face;

at least one first surface feature comprising a protrusion from said sidewall surface as a target for fuel spray, the at least
one first surface feature including a central portion angled between 20° and 80° from said plane of said top face and having
a cross-section that protrudes from said sidewall surface by 0.5mm to 12.7 mm, wherein at least one edge formed as a projection
is disposed adjacent the top and bottom and along the central portion of the at least one first surface feature;

wherein said bowl includes a central axis and a dome portion is arranged at said central axis;
wherein said inner surface of the bowl includes at least one second surface feature different from said at least one first
surface feature;

wherein said at least one second surface feature protrudes from said inner surface of the bowl from a location that is disposed
below said at least one first surface feature of the bowl;

wherein said at least one second surface feature is located on the bottom of the bowl; and
wherein said at least one second surface feature comprises a separation ramp which protrudes from a lowest point of the bottom
of the bowl.

US Pat. No. 9,169,220

OXIMES FOR TREATMENT OF PERIPHERAL AND CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM EXPOSURE TO ACETYL CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. An acetyl cholinesterase reactivator compound of the formula:
wherein
V is independently a hydrogen, alkyl (C1 to C5) groups, benzyl or substituted benzyl groups;
Z is independently an optionally substituted methylene or methine group from 1 to 8 carbon atoms in length and wherein in
the case of optionally substituted methylene or methine;

X is independently H, cyano (CN) or COR, wherein said R group is alkyl (C1 to C3):
wherein R1 is a H and said reactivator has the following structure:


US Pat. No. 9,046,026

PARTICULATE OXIDATION CATALYST WITH DUAL PRESSURE-DROP SENSORS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of treating the exhaust from a diesel engine having an exhaust line from the engine, and having an exhaust aftertreatment
system on the exhaust line comprising in the following order: at least one diesel oxidation catalyst, a set of one or more
upstream particulate oxidation catalysts, and a last particulate oxidation catalyst, the upstream particulate oxidation catalysts
and the last particulate oxidation catalyst being operable to be actively regenerated with heat applied to the exhaust aftertreatment
system; the method comprising:
measuring pressure differences across the upstream particulate oxidation catalysts, using a first differential pressure sensor,
repeatedly during operation of the engine;

measuring pressure differences across the last particulate oxidation catalyst, using a second differential pressure sensor,
repeatedly during operation of the engine;

actively regenerating the upstream particulate oxidation catalysts when the pressure difference across the upstream particulate
oxidations catalysts is above a predetermined pressure difference threshold; and

actively regenerating the last particulate oxidation catalyst when the pressure difference across the last particulate oxidation
catalyst deviates from a constant or near constant value that is near the initial pressure difference value of the last particulate
oxidation catalyst in a clean condition and that is lower than the predetermined pressure difference threshold.

US Pat. No. 9,650,949

EGR RATE CONTROL FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH DUAL EXHAUST-PORTED CYLINDERS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in an internal combustion engine having a number of cylinders, at least
two of the cylinders being “dual exhaust-ported cylinders” having two exhaust ports, the engine further having an EGR loop
and a main exhaust line, comprising:
for at least two dual exhaust-ported cylinders, connecting, via exhaust valves, one of the exhaust ports to the EGR loop and
the other of the exhaust ports to the main exhaust line;

controlling the at least two dual exhaust-ported cylinders such that during each engine cycle, only one exhaust valve is opened
and the other exhaust valve is closed;

determining, for a selected engine cycle, one or more of the dual exhaust-ported cylinders to be operated as EGR cylinder(s),
such that all of the exhaust produced by that cylinder is delivered to the EGR loop;

operating the engine by providing the EGR cylinder(s) with air and fuel at a greater air-fuel ratio than the other cylinders;
repeating the operating step for successive engine cycles, such that whether or not at least one of the cylinders is operated
as an EGR cylinder varies at least once from one cycle to another, and such that where n is the number of dual exhaust-ported
cylinders, each dual exhaust-ported cylinder is operated as an EGR cylinder no more frequently than every nth engine cycle.

US Pat. No. 9,651,974

ELECTRICAL POWER TRANSMISSION LINE LENGTH MEASUREMENT AND AVERAGE TEMPERATURE ESTIMATION

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of controlling the amount of electrical power delivered to an electric transmission line (conductor), comprising:
applying an electrical signal to the conductor;
detecting a reflection signal reflected from a reflection point on the conductor;
using processing equipment to perform the following: calculate the reflection propagation delay of the reflected signal; calculate
the present length of the conductor based on the propagation delay; receive data representing the present tension of the conductor;
receive data representing conductor reference parameters, comprising a reference tension value and reference length value
both taken at a reference temperature value; receive data representing conductor characteristic parameters, comprising conductor
weight, span length, elasticity, thermal expansion, and plastic deformation; and calculate the average temperature of the
conductor based on the present length, present temperature, reference parameters and characteristic parameters;

delivering average temperature data to a transmission capacity controller; and
dispatching power to the conductor based on the average conductor temperature data.

US Pat. No. 9,573,284

METHOD AND APPARATUS TO PROPAGATE CRACK GROWTH IN A WORKPIECE

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method for forming a starter notch in a work-piece comprising:
providing a cutting wire;
supplying said work-piece having a thickness and engaging said work-piece with said cutting wire and forming a starter notch
at least partially along the thickness and into said work-piece to define a penetration length direction of said starter notch;

providing a wire cutting apparatus, including said cutting wire having a first end portion and a second end portion, wherein
a weight is coupled with the first end portion of the cutting wire;

a housing, wherein the housing includes a work-piece receiving opening and a plurality of pulleys arranged in series, wherein
the plurality of pulleys comprise a first guide pulley, a second guide pulley and a third guide pulley;

introducing the cutting wire onto said first guide pulley;
routing the cutting wire from the first guide pulley through a fully enclosed hole formed in the work-piece and onto said
second guide pulley;

routing the cutting wire from the second guide pulley onto a third guide pulley;
arranging the third pulley such that the weight coupled with the first end portion of the cutting wire is suspended from the
third guide pulley;

arranging at least one of the first guide pulley and the second guide pulley such that the cutting wire is positioned to cut
said starter notch in the fully enclosed thru-hole of the work-piece;

moving at least a portion of a length of the cutting wire through the thru-hole and simultaneously cutting said starter notch
in the thru-hole which extends outward from the thru-hole; and

wherein said starter notch is configured to promote fatigue-cracking in said work-piece from said notch in a direction extending
along said penetration length within a region of +/?5 degrees of said penetration length direction of said starter notch,
without said fatigue-cracking within a region of greater than 5 degrees to 90 degrees of said penetration length direction
of said starter notch.

US Pat. No. 9,470,514

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR USING LASER SCAN MICROMETER TO MEASURE SURFACE CHANGES ON NON-CONCAVE SURFACES

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of comparing surface profiles of an object, the object being rotatable on an axis in angular increments, such
that the object has a longitudinal dimension and an axial dimension, comprising:
mounting the object on an axis;
acquiring a pre-test longitudinal profile of the object by: using a laser scan micrometer to scan the object in a longitudinal
direction, rotating the object about the axis, re-scanning the object, measuring the scan length thereby obtaining a longitudinal
height value, and repeating the preceding steps for a number of incremental rotations thereby obtaining a longitudinal height
profile;

repeatedly and incrementally moving the object in an axial direction and acquiring additional longitudinal height profiles,
thereby acquiring a pre-test set of longitudinal height profiles;

acquiring a post-test set of longitudinal height profiles for the object in the same manner as the pre-test set of longitudinal
profiles;

axially and rotationally aligning one or more pre-test longitudinal height profiles with corresponding post-test longitudinal
height profiles; and

comparing the difference between the pre-test longitudinal height profiles and the post-test longitudinal height profiles.

US Pat. No. 9,797,349

COMBINED STEAM REFORMATION REACTIONS AND WATER GAS SHIFT REACTIONS FOR ON-BOARD HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method to process exhaust gas expelled from at least one cylinder of a plurality of cylinders of an internal combustion
engine, the method comprising:
(a) providing an internal combustion engine having an intake manifold wherein the engine includes an exhaust gas recirculation
pathway containing a hydrocarbon steam reformer including a steam reformation catalyst and a water gas shift reformer including
a water gas shift catalyst wherein said water gas shift reformer is serially coupled downstream of said hydrocarbon steam
reformer;

(b) introducing hydrocarbon fuel and air into one or more cylinders of the engine;
(c) operating the engine such that internal combustion occurs in one or more cylinders of the engine and generating an untreated
exhaust gas in one or more cylinders of the engine and expelling said untreated exhaust gas from said one or more cylinders
wherein the untreated exhaust gas contains: (1) unreacted hydrocarbon fuel and water; or (2) water and no hydrocarbon fuel;

(d) determining a level of hydrocarbon in said untreated exhaust gas with a hydrocarbon sensor;
(e) based on said level of hydrocarbon determined by said hydrocarbon sensor, i) in the case that the untreated exhaust gas
contains unreacted hydrocarbon and water, optionally introducing additional hydrocarbon to the untreated exhaust gas and ii)
when said untreated exhaust gas contains water and no hydrocarbon, introducing hydrocarbon to the untreated exhaust gas to
provide a treated exhaust gas, wherein both the untreated and treated exhaust gas contain hydrocarbon and water,

wherein said level of hydrocarbon is set in the range of 1.0% to 5.0% by volume;
(f) introducing the untreated and/or treated exhaust gas into the hydrocarbon steam reformer and reacting the hydrocarbon
and water in the untreated and/or treated exhaust gas in the presence of the steam reformation catalyst at a temperature of
400° C. to 800° C. and outputting an exhaust gas containing increased levels of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, and wherein
said hydrogen in said exhaust gas output after said reaction in said water gas shift reformer is at a level of 2.0% by volume
to 10.0% by volume;

(g) introducing the exhaust gas output from step (e) to said water gas shift reformer and reacting the carbon monoxide and
water in said exhaust gas output in the presence of the water gas shift catalyst and forming carbon dioxide and hydrogen;
and

(h) introducing said exhaust gas output to said intake manifold of said engine.

US Pat. No. 9,926,901

HYDRAULIC STARTER AND PRE-LUBRICATION SYSTEM FOR AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. An internal combustion engine oil utilization system, the system comprising:one or more oil pumps to receive and discharge engine oil;
an engine oil circulation loop comprising a first flow path and a second flow path;
the first flow path to receive at least a portion of the oil discharged from the one or more oil pumps and utilize the oil to lubricate the engine during running operation of the engine; and
the second flow path to receive at least a portion of the oil discharged from the one or more oil pumps and accumulate the oil to start the engine and/or to lubricate the engine during at least one of a pre-starting operation and a starting operation of the engine.

US Pat. No. 9,316,509

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR MEASURING ROTATION SPEED AND DIRECTION OF TAPPETS (LIFTERS) OF AN ENGINE VALVE TRAIN

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of measuring direction of rotation of a tappet of an engine valve train, comprising:
providing two notches in the outer surface of the tappet each notch having the same or different notch width;
wherein the notches are radially spaced and have a common circumferential path on the outer surface of the tappet;
providing two sensors proximate the outer surface of the tappet, radially spaced on a path around the perimeter of the tappet
and operable to detect changes in circumference of the tappet resulting from the notches as the tappet rotates;

wherein there is a predetermined difference angle of separation between the arc distance between the notches and the arc distance
between the sensors;

wherein the arc distance between the sensors is greater than the arc width of each of the notches;
receiving a square wave output from each of the sensors, each square wave output having pulses whose width represents detection
of the notches by the sensor; and

comparing the location of the pulses of the two square wave outputs to determine direction of rotation of the tappet.

US Pat. No. 9,309,804

DUAL PATH (LOW PRESSURE LOOP AND HIGH PRESSURE LOOP) EGR FOR IMPROVED AIR BOOSTING EFFICIENCY

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

7. An exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system for an internal combustion engine having a single turbocharger, the turbocharger
having a compressor and a turbine, the engine further having a main exhaust line, an exhaust manifold, and an intake manifold,
the method comprising:
a high pressure EGR loop and a low pressure EGR loop that are both in communication with fresh air into or from only the compressor,
with the high pressure EGR loop mixing fresh air with recirculated exhaust downstream the compressor and the low pressure
EGR loop mixing fresh air with recirculated exhaust upstream the compressor;

wherein the high pressure EGR loop directs exhaust gas from the exhaust from a point on the main exhaust line between the
exhaust manifold and the turbine to a point on the air intake line between the compressor and the intake manifold;

wherein the low pressure EGR loop directs exhaust gas from the exhaust from a point on the main exhaust line downstream the
turbine to a point on the air intake line upstream the compressor;

a high pressure EGR loop valve for controlling the amount of recirculated exhaust gas delivered to the intake of the engine
from the high pressure EGR loop;

a low pressure EGR loop valve for controlling the amount of recirculated exhaust gas delivered to the intake of the engine
from the low pressure EGR loop;

a controller that stores data defining a low speed range, mid-speed range and high-speed range of revolutions per minute (rpm)
of the engine at full load; and is programmed to receive data representing engine speed and engine load, and to determine
whether the engine is operating at full load or part load engine conditions; and is further programmed to control the high
pressure EGR loop valve and the low pressure EGR loop valve such that during low-speed full-load engine conditions, all recirculated
exhaust gas is directed to the intake from the low pressure EGR loop, and such that during high-speed full-load and during
part-load engine conditions, all recirculated exhaust gas is directed to the intake from the high pressure EGR loop, and such
that during mid-speed full-load engine conditions recirculated exhaust gas is directed through both the low pressure EGR loop
and the high pressure EGR loop.

US Pat. No. 9,303,320

HYDRIDING OF METALLIC SUBSTRATES

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method for accelerated hydriding of a metallic substrate comprising:
supplying a metallic substrate wherein said metal substrate has an activation energy for hydrogen adsorption (Easubstrate);

cleaning the substrate surface by etching with an acid;
coating at least a portion of a substrate surface of the metallic substrate with a metal having an activation energy for hydrogen
adsorption (Eametal) that is lower than Easubstrate;
hydriding the coated substrate at a temperature of less than or equal 500°C. and for a period of less than or equal to 24
hours;

wherein said hydriding occurs in said metallic substrate.

US Pat. No. 10,001,436

IN-SITU MEASUREMENT OF CORROSION IN BURIED PIPELINES USING VERTICALLY MEASURED PIPE-TO-SOIL POTENTIAL

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of using a vertical probe for collecting corrosion data from a location of interest on a pipeline buried in soil, the pipeline being under cathodic protection, comprising:drilling a vertical hole in the soil such that the hole is drilled into the ground above the location of interest, and such that its axis is perpendicular or close to perpendicular to the location of interest, and to a depth approaching but not reaching the pipeline;
placing a probe in the hole, the probe having a vertical rail, a slider attached to the rail and moveable along the length of the rail, a single reference electrode attached to the slider, a ruler also attached to the slider;
wherein the reference electrode and the ruler move with the slider and the ruler indicates the depth of the reference electrode;
positioning the reference electrode at a first position along the rail, thereby positioning the reference electrode at a first depth above the location of interest;
measuring the structure-to-soil electric potential at the first depth;
re-positioning, without removing the probe from the hole, the reference electrode to a second position along the rail, thereby positioning the reference electrode at a second depth at relative to the same location of interest;
measuring a second structure-to-soil potential at the second depth; and
repeating the re-positioning and subsequent measuring steps at least three times at varying depths until a data set representing the structure-to-soil potential at the varying depths relative to the same location of interest, over a distance of multiple feet, of the single reference electrode, to a predetermined depth not reaching the pipeline is obtained.

US Pat. No. 9,651,086

BRUSH DAMPER RINGS FOR RADIAL FLUID BEARING

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

8. A tilt-pad bearing for a rotating shaft, comprising:
a tilt-pad bearing mechanism having at least a hollow sleeve and a ring of pads proximate the inner surface of the sleeve,
the ring of pads having an outer surface, and the pads operable to generally comply with the motion of the rotating shaft
by tilting;

wherein the pads extend beyond the sleeve on at least one end of the sleeve;
a sleeve extension over the portions of the pads that extend beyond the sleeve, the sleeve extension having an inner surface;
an inner brush ring on the outer surface of the ring of pads where the pads extend beyond the sleeve, and having bristles
that extend outwardly from the ring of pads; and

an outer brush ring on the inner surface of the sleeve extension and having bristles that extend inwardly from the sleeve
extension;

wherein the bristles of the inner brush ring and the bristles of the outer brush ring are interposed.

US Pat. No. 9,512,762

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE HAVING DEDICATED CYLINDER(S) FOR GENERATION OF BOTH EGR AND EXHAUST AFTERTREATMENT REDUCTANT FOR NOX-REDUCING CATALYST

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

5. A method of using an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system for a lean burn internal combustion engine, the engine having
a number of cylinders and being equipped with an exhaust aftertreatment system with at least a first three-way catalyst and
an ammonia-activated NOx-reducing device, comprising:
operating one or more cylinders as a dedicated EGR cylinder, such that all or part of the exhaust produced by the dedicated
EGR cylinder(s) is recirculated to the engine's main (non dedicated) cylinders;

providing an EGR loop for recirculating EGR from the dedicated EGR cylinder(s) to the engine's intake manifold;
connecting the EGR loop to the exhaust aftertreatment system via a diversion line, the diversion line connecting to the exhaust
system downstream the first three-way catalyst and upstream the NOx-reducing device;

providing ammonia to the NOx-reducing device by means of a second three-way catalyst installed on the diversion line; and
modulating, with a valve on the diversion line, the flow of syngas to the NOx-reducing device.

US Pat. No. 9,500,626

METHODS AND DEVICES FOR LONG TERM STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF PIPELINES AND VESSELS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A system for non-destructive monitoring of a component, comprising:
a guided wave sensor positioned around a surface of said component, wherein said component has a perimeter;
a first spring mounting clamp positioned around said component perimeter and a second spring mounting clamp positioned around
said component perimeter, wherein said first and second mounting clamps are positioned a distance of 0.1 inches to 5.0 inches
on either side of said guided wave sensor;

a plurality of elongated springs, each elongated spring including a first end, a second end opposing said first end, and a
central portion between said first end and said second end, wherein each of said elongated springs is attached at said first
end to said first spring mounting clamp and attached at said second end to said second spring mounting clamp and said central
portion applies a first pressure of at least 10 psi to said guided wave sensor against said component surface and;

wherein said spring mounting clamps do not contact said component.

US Pat. No. 9,803,571

DUAL-FUEL DIESEL ENGINE WITH CYLINDER FUELING CONTROL OF GASEOUS FUELING AT LESS THAN FULL LOADS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of fueling a dual-fuel internal combustion engine, the engine being fueled with both gaseous fuel and diesel fuel,
and the engine being configured so that the amount of gaseous fuel delivered to its cylinders can be controlled individually
or in groups of cylinders, comprising:
determining the current engine equivalence ratio;
comparing the current engine equivalence ratio to a predetermined threshold;
if the current engine equivalence ratio is above the threshold, operating the cylinders at a predetermined percentage of diesel
fuel to gaseous fuel with each cylinder receiving an equal amount of gaseous fuel;

if the current engine equivalence ratio is below the threshold, determining a number of cylinders for which gaseous fuel is
to be shut off and a number of cylinders for which gaseous fuel is to be increased;

determining the amounts of gaseous fuel for the cylinders with increased fueling such that the increased fueling compensates
for engine output lost from the cylinders for which gaseous fuel is shut off;

delivering control signals to the cylinders for which gaseous fuel is to be shut off; and
delivering control signals to the cylinders for which gaseous fuel is to be increased.

US Pat. No. 9,566,216

BONE CEMENTS CONTAINING MAGNETIC CALCIUM PHOSPHATE NANOPARTICLES

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method for fixing a prosthetic implant to a patient's bone which comprises applying a bone cement formulation to a prosthesis
attachment site, said bone cement containing:
a. magnetic calcium phosphate nanoparticles present in an amount of 5.0-95 wt. % and having a largest linear dimension of
150 nm to 50 microns;

b. polymerizable acrylate monomer present in an amount of 5.0-95 wt. %;
c. polyacrylate polymer present in an amount of 0-80 wt. % and having a largest linear dimension from 5.0 to 500 microns;
and

exposing said bone cement formulation to an alternating magnetic field and generating heat sufficient to promote polymerization
of said polymerizable acrylate monomer, wherein said alternating magnetic field is at a frequency of 100 KHz at a field strength
of 5 KA/m to 40 KA/m.

US Pat. No. 9,464,584

IGNITION AND KNOCK TOLERANCE IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE BY CONTROLLING EGR COMPOSITION

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of matching the ignitability of the charge provided to combustion cylinders of an internal combustion engine to
the current state of the engine's ignition system, the engine having an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) loop such that at
least one of the combustion cylinders is an EGR cylinder that generates an EGR stream carried only by the EGR loop, comprising:
receiving current combustion charge data representing at least air, fuel and EGR components of the combustion charge;
estimating the ignitability of the combustion charge based on the combustion charge data;
determining whether the current ignition energy of the ignition system is sufficient to ignite the charge based on at least
data representing whether the engine is in cold start mode and further based on the results of the estimating step; and

if the current energy of the ignition system is not sufficient to ignite the charge, increasing the amount of hydrogen in
the EGR stream;

wherein the step of increasing the amount of hydrogen in the EGR stream is performed in at least one of the following ways:
providing a more rich air-fuel ratio to one or more of the EGR cylinder(s), by providing post-combustion fuel injection to
one or more of the EGR cylinder(s) for one or more engine cycles, by injecting hydrogen into the EGR stream, or by injecting
fuel into the EGR stream and using a reformer catalyst to generate hydrogen from this injected fuel.

US Pat. No. 9,461,642

RADIATION-TOLERANT HIGH-SPEED HIGH-VOLTAGE PULSER

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A pulse generator for providing a pulse signal to a capacitive load, comprising:
a primary-side driver, operable to receive a low voltage differential signal, and having a differential amplifier, a top multi-stage
driver and a bottom multi-stage driver, a top primary side output switch, and a bottom primary side output switch;

wherein the differential amplifier generates complementary output signals, and delivers one to the top multi-stage driver
and the other to the bottom multi-stage driver;

wherein the top multi-stage driver and bottom multi-stage driver comprise multiple stages of complementary bipolar transistors;
wherein the top primary side output switch and bottom primary side output switch comprise field effect transistors (FETs),
and are operable to provide amplified complementary output signals;

a gate-drive isolation transformer having a primary winding driven by the output signals from the primary side driver, and
having a number of secondary windings;

a set of secondary-side top drivers, each driven by one of the secondary windings, and each comprising multiple stages of
complementary bipolar transistors;

a set of secondary-side bottom drivers, each driven by one of the secondary windings, and each comprising multiple stages
of complementary bipolar transistors;

a top secondary side output switch, comprising a set of FETs arranged in series, each receiving the output of a secondary-side
top driver; and

a bottom secondary side output switch, comprising a set of FETs arranged in series, each receiving the output of a secondary-side
bottom driver;

wherein the top secondary side output switch charges the capacitive load when on, and the bottom secondary side output switch
discharges the capacitive load when on.

US Pat. No. 9,437,895

H2—CL2 PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS, FUEL CELL ASSEMBLIES INCLUDING THE SAME AND SYSTEMS FOR COGENERATION OF ELECTRICITY AND HCL

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A H2—Cl2 fuel cell, comprising:
an anode assembly comprising a catalyst to catalytically oxidize H2 to H+
a cathode assembly comprising a catalyst to catalytically reduce Cl2 to Cl?;

a proton exchange membrane between the anode assembly and the cathode assembly; and
a flow through electrolyte assembly between the proton exchange membrane and the cathode assembly, the flow through electrolyte
assembly comprising a frame and a porous flow through field;

and wherein:
the frame comprises an inlet for receiving an incoming electrolyte and providing said incoming electrolyte to said flow through
field; and

the frame comprises an outlet for receiving an outgoing electrolyte from said flow through field and transporting said outgoing
electrolyte out of said flow through electrolyte assembly.

US Pat. No. 9,347,859

ACTIVE FLUID SAMPLING FROM PISTON TOP LAND CREVICE OF PISTON ENGINE

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A system for sampling fluid from a top land piston crevice of a reciprocating piston engine, during operation of the engine,
comprising:
a collector having a receiving end operable to receive sampled fluid from the piston crevice;
wherein the collector comprises a housing, a valve, and a shuttle;
wherein the housing is an elongated hollow shell having a bore through its length;
wherein the bore contains the valve and the shuttle and communicates the sampled fluid from the receiving end of the housing
to the valve;

wherein the valve is operable to allow the sampled fluid to pass along the bore toward the shuttle when the valve is in an
open position;

wherein the shuttle is operable to move back and forth within the bore, thereby opening the valve, and to further store sampled
fluid within its interior or between at least some of its exterior surface and the interior surface of the housing; and

an actuator operable to move the shuttle back and forth within the bore.

US Pat. No. 9,080,521

METHOD AND RELATED SYSTEM OF USING CRANKCASE PRESSURE TO TO DETECT PRE-IGNITION IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINE

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of preventing a low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) event in a four stroke spark ignition engine comprising the steps
of:
taking a plurality of engine crankcase pressure measurements;
utilizing the engine crankcase pressure measurements to determine if pressure fluctuations within the engine crankcase exist;
and

if pressure fluctuations within the crankcase exist, adjusting one or more engine control parameters in order to prevent a
follow-on LSPI event.

US Pat. No. 9,650,556

ENCAPSULATION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE MOLTEN SALTS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of encapsulating microcapsules containing phase change material, comprising:
supplying a phase change material comprising an inorganic salt selected from nitrates, nitrites, and hydroxides of potassium,
lithium and combinations thereof, having a melting point of 200° C. to 600° C., and a largest cross-sectional dimension of
0.5 mm to 100 mm;

applying a coating to said phase change material wherein said coating includes an inorganic binder, a film former comprising
an organic polymer at a MW of greater than or equal to 5000, and an inorganic filler at a particle size of less than or equal
to 50 ?m and wherein said coating has a thickness of 50 ?m to 1000 ?m; and

heating said coating at a temperature in the range 200° C. to 400° C. wherein at least a portion of said organic polymer of
said film former is removed to form said microcapsules, wherein from 0% to 5% of said microcapsules rupture at temperatures
of 200° C. to 600° C.

US Pat. No. 9,660,299

STRAIN MEASUREMENT BASED BATTERY TESTING

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method for estimating a capacity degradation of a battery from an initial state to an aged state, said method comprising:
applying a strain gauge to said battery;
measuring a first strain of said battery (S1), using said strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of said battery and
at said initial state of said battery;

measuring a second strain of said battery (S2), using said strain gauge, at said selected charge capacity of said battery
and at said aged state of said battery;

receiving, by a controller, said measured first strain (S1) and said measured second strain (S2) and estimating said capacity
degradation equal to (S2?S1)/S1;

determining, by said controller, an absolute charge capacity (Q) for said battery based on said estimated capacity degradation;
and

performing, by said controller, a subsequent charge-discharge cycle via a charging circuit based at least in part on the determined
absolute charge capacity (Q).

US Pat. No. 10,111,743

WRAPPING CLIP FOR SECURING A FLEXIBLE LINE TO ANOTHER OBJECT

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A securing device configured to facilitate the securing of a flexible line to another object, the device comprising:a single continuous length of wire, shaped to form the following elements:
a main shaft having a working end and a clip end;
a first loop extending from the main shaft in a first direction;
wherein the first loop is formed as a continuous loop having a first loop beginning at the clip end of the main shaft, curving away from the main shaft, and curving back toward the main shaft to a first loop end;
second loop extending from the main shaft in a second direction and in the same plane as the first loop;
wherein the second loop is formed as a continuation of the wire, beginning from where the first loop ends at the main shaft, extending past the main shaft, and curving back toward the beginning of the first loop, such that the second loop has a second loop end tightly adjacent to the first loop beginning, such that when the line is wrapped between the first loop and the second loop, there is a first point of contact between the line and the clip that contributes to frictional retention of the line in the clip
a locking clip formed as straight secondary shaft extending from the second loop end, parallel to and tightly adjacent to the main shaft such that when the line is wedged between the main shaft and the secondary shaft, there is a second point of contact between the line and the clip that contributes to frictional retention of the line in the clip;
wherein the working end of the main shaft ends at the lowermost extremity of the securing device and the first and second loop form the uppermost extremity of the securing device.

US Pat. No. 9,869,216

SYSTEM AND METHOD TO DECREASE WARMUP TIME OF COOLANT AND ENGINE OIL IN ENGINE EQUIPPED WITH COOLED EGR

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A cooling system for an engine equipped with an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system, comprising: a pump for providing
pressure for circulating liquid through the cooling system; an engine cooling loop from the pump, the engine cooling loop
configured to deliver a portion of liquid from the pump to the engine and to return the liquid from the engine to the pump;
an EGR cooling loop from the pump; a valve connected directly downstream of the pump, operable to divide all or part of the
output of the pump between the engine cooling loop and the EGR cooling loop; an EGR cooler; an oil cooler; wherein the EGR
cooling loop is configured to deliver a portion of liquid from the pump to the EGR cooler and to deliver the liquid from the
EGR cooler to the oil cooler; wherein the EGR cooler is operable to cool recirculated exhaust and to warm the coolant by means
of heat exchange; wherein the oil cooler is located sufficiently proximate the EGR cooler such that the oil cooler is operable
to warm engine lubrication oil within the oil cooler by means of heat exchange with coolant delivered from the EGR cooler;
and wherein the EGR cooling loop is further configured to deliver coolant from the oil cooler to a return portion of the engine
cooling loop.

US Pat. No. 10,563,625

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE HAVING DEDICATED EGR CYLINDER(S) AND START-STOP OPERATION

Southwest Research Instit...

1. A method of implementing start-stop in an internal combustion engine, the engine having exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) from at least one dedicated EGR (D-EGR) cylinder, with the other cylinders being main cylinders, comprising:stopping all cylinders of the engine at an engine operating condition in which no drive power is required from the engine;
for only a D-EGR cylinder, performing the stopping step such that the piston is at a top dead center (TDC) position;
wherein the stopping step is performed by stopping the motion of the camshaft and using a cam phaser to lock the camshaft; and
when engine drive power is again required, restarting the engine by directly injecting fuel into only the D-EGR cylinder.

US Pat. No. 9,465,011

FLEXIBLE MAGNETOSTRICTIVE PROBE HAVING SENSOR ELEMENTS WITHOUT PERMANENT MAGNETS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A probe for use in magnetostrictive sensor (MsS) testing of a structure, comprising:
a flexible backing;
a number of sensor elements attached to the backing, each sensor element being substantially larger in length than in width,
the sensor elements being attached to the backing in a side by side pattern, parallel to each other;

each sensor element comprising a thin strip made from magnetostrictive material, the strip having an elongated shape with
a short dimension and a long dimension, a first coil wrapped around the short dimension of the strip and operable to provide
a DC bias magnetic field, and a second coil wrapped around the short dimension of the strip and operable for MsS generation
and detection;

wherein the first coils of all strips are in parallel arrangement to the second coils of all strips; and
wherein the first coils of all strips are electrically connected to each other and the second coils of all strips are electrically
connected to each other, to form two separate coil circuits, such that a combination of DC current in the first coil and time-varying
current in the second coil causes guided waves to be generated in the strips, which guided waves, when positioned against
the structure, travel to and are reflected by anomalies in the structure.

US Pat. No. 9,638,667

DETECTION OF COATING DEFECTS ON BURIED PIPELINES USING MAGNETIC FIELD VARIATIONS WITHIN THE PIPELINE

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method for detecting coating defects in a coated and electrically conductive pipeline, the pipeline being under cathodic
protection or otherwise carrying a current applied to its pipe walls, comprising:
placing a magnetic field sensor array within the pipeline;
wherein the sensor array comprises a number of magnetic field sensors, arranged in a shape that generally matches but is smaller
than the interior profile of the pipeline;

moving the sensor array along a length of the pipeline; receiving output from each sensor of the array;
comparing the output with the interior magnetic fields of a pipeline without coating defects;
analyzing the results of the comparing step to determine if a coating defect is indicated, and;
further analyzing the results of the comparing step to determine the location of the defect both along the length of the pipeline
and around the circumference of the pipeline.

US Pat. No. 9,285,545

COMPRESSIVE SENSING IMAGING SYSTEM

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A compressive sensing apparatus comprising:
a compressive sensing optic (CSO) comprising a plurality of compressive sensing elements (CSEs), each CSE configured to capture
a respective random CSE optical sample, each CSE optical sample related to a respective portion of a scene; and

a fiber optic bundle (FOB) coupled to the CSO at a first end of the FOB, the FOB comprising a number of fiber optic elements
(FOEs), each FOE configured to integrate one or more accepted scene optical samples to produce an associated compressed optical
sample, each scene optical sample corresponding to at least a portion of a respective CSE optical sample,

wherein each CSE is configured to provide the respective CSE optical sample to the FOB and each FOE is configured to carry
the associated compressed optical sample from the first end to a second end of the FOB configured to be coupled to a sensor.

US Pat. No. 10,048,217

CALIBRATED VOLUME DISPLACEMENT APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF SPECIFIC HEAT OF A GAS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method for the direct measurement of specific heat at constant pressure (Cp), comprising:supplying a control fluid of a known amount to a test chamber having a volume, wherein said test chamber exhibits less than 1% heat loss of the total energy input;
inflating a collapsible bladder with an incompressible fluid to change the volume of said test chamber and measuring a change in pressure and a change in temperature of said control fluid relative to said change in said volume of said test chamber as said collapsible bladder is inflated;
calculating the actual change in enthalpy of said control fluid and calculating a process efficiency parameter;
supplying a sample fluid of a known amount to said test chamber;
inflating said collapsible bladder with said incompressible fluid to change the volume of said test chamber and measuring a change in pressure and a change in temperature of said sample fluid relative to said change in said volume of said test chamber as said collapsible bladder is inflated;
determining a change in isentropic enthalpy of said sample fluid based on 1) said change in pressure of said sample fluid measured relative to said change in volume, 2) said known amount of said sample fluid, and 3) said process efficiency parameter; and
determining the specific heat at constant pressure of said sample fluid based on said change in temperature of said sample fluid measured and said change in isentropic enthalpy of said sample fluid.

US Pat. No. 9,957,958

RECIPROCATING INTEGRAL LINEAR ENGINE COMPRESSOR

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A reciprocating compressor for moving a process fluid from a suction line to a discharge line, comprising: a hollow cylinder tube having a central bore; a piston assembly operable to reciprocate within the central bore, the piston assembly having two pistons and a piston rod, each piston having an outer end and an inner end, with the inner ends being connected with the piston rod; a pair of end plates, one end plate at each end of the cylinder tube, each end plate configured to provide a sealed outer chamber between the end plate and an outer end of the piston proximate to respective end plate; wherein each sealed outer chamber and the outer end of the proximate piston form a power cylinder; each power cylinder further comprising an igniter, an air intake valve, and an exhaust valve; a center divider in the central bore between the inner ends of the pistons, the center divider having an aperture operable to allow the piston rod to reciprocate through the center divider; wherein the inner end of each piston defines an inner chamber between each inner end and the center divider; wherein each inner chamber and the inner end of the proximate piston form a compression cylinder; wherein each compression cylinder further comprises a discharge valve and a suction valve; a common suction manifold shared by the suction valves of the compression cylinders; wherein each suction valve is in direct fluid communication from the respective compression cylinder to the common suction manifold; a common discharge manifold shared by the discharge valves of the compression cylinders; and wherein each discharge valve is in direct fluid communication from the respective compression cylinder to the common discharge manifold; wherein reciprocating movement of the piston assembly alternatingly opens and closes the suction valves such that the compression chambers alternatingly receive process fluid via the common suction manifold, and alternatingly opens and closes the discharge valves such that the compression chambers alternatingly discharge the process gas via the common discharge manifold.

US Pat. No. 9,772,777

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR IMPROVED ACCESS TO FLASH MEMORY DEVICES

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1. A system for improved access to a flash memory, said system comprising:
control state circuitry to receive memory access commands;
at least a first and a second operation sequencer circuit, each operation sequencer circuit associated with one or more flash
memory die of said flash memory and configured to sequence execution of said memory access commands based on a pipeline schedule
for performance of said received memory access commands, said pipeline schedule configured to cause, over a given time T,
the first and second operation sequencer circuit to perform parallel execution of a first type of said memory access commands
on said associated one or more flash memory die, and while parallel execution of the first type of said memory access commands
occur, perform sequential execution of a second type of said memory access commands, wherein only one of said first and second
operation sequencer circuits performs execution of said second type of said memory access commands at a time during time T;
and

an operation generator module associated with each of said operation sequencer, said operation generator module configured
to translate said memory access commands to a format compatible with said flash memory.

US Pat. No. 9,689,802

SYSTEMS, METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR ANALYSIS OF MULTIPHASE FLUID MIXTURE IN PIPELINES

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1. An apparatus to measure water content and pH of a flowing multiphase fluid mixture of water and oil, the apparatus comprising:
a first enclosure and a second enclosure spaced apart with a spacer to define a flow passage, wherein each of the enclosures
are sealed and include a cavity;

a first layer of an oleophobic coating applied to external surfaces of the first enclosure, the second enclosure and the spacer;
the flow passage having an inlet and an outlet for the continuous passage of the flowing multiphase fluid mixture in through
the inlet and out through the outlet of the flow passage;

a water content sensor comprising an infrared light source arranged in said second enclosure and at least one photodetector
arranged in said first enclosure on opposite sides of the flow passage such that light from the light source is passable through
the second enclosure, through the flowing multiphase mixture in the flow passage, and through said first enclosure and is
detectable by the photodetector, the photodetector arranged to convert the detected light from the light source to an electrical
output indicative of the water content of the multiphase fluid mixture,

a pH sensor comprising:
a wearable oleophobic coating applied to at least a portion of said first layer of said oleophobic coating in said flow passage
defined by said first enclosure, wherein said wearable oleophobic coating contains halochromic pH indicator particles that
exhibit a color change indicative of a pH level of the water and said first layer of said oleophobic coating does not include
said pH indicator particles, wherein a portion of said pH indicator particles are exposed to water and a portion of said pH
particles are fully encapsulated by said wearable oleophobic coating, the wearable oleophobic coating being in direct contact
with the flowing multiphase fluid mixture, and said wearable oleophobic coating provides continuous operation of said pH sensor,

a porous, polytetrafluoroethylene mesh barrier overlying the wearable oleophobic coating and in direct contact with the flowing
multiphase fluid mixture, wherein said porous mesh barrier is permeable to the water and is less permeable to the crude oil
than the water, and

an image recording device arranged in the first enclosure to record the color change of the pH indicator.

US Pat. No. 9,511,572

NANOCRYSTALLINE INTERLAYER COATING FOR INCREASING SERVICE LIFE OF THERMAL BARRIER COATING ON HIGH TEMPERATURE COMPONENTS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A coated substrate comprising:
a substrate having a surface;
a bond coat proximate to the substrate surface, wherein said bond coat comprises NiCoCrAlY and exhibits a duplex structure
containing fine ?-phase [(Co and/or Ni)Al] particles in a Ni solid solution matrix; and

at least one interlayer disposed between the bond coat and a yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier layer, wherein
the interlayer comprises NiCoCrAlSi and exhibits a grain size of less than 100 nm as measured by x-ray diffraction,

wherein said bond coat is susceptible to loss of Al at elevated temperature and formation of an aluminum oxide layer as between
said bond coat and said yttrium stabilized zirconia thermal barrier layer and said interlayer slows down said loss of Al from
said bond coat at elevated temperature.

US Pat. No. 9,448,211

ANALYSIS OF EXHAUST GAS

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1. A method of measuring non-methane hydrocarbons in exhaust gas, comprising:
sampling exhaust gas, wherein said exhaust gas includes native carbon dioxide, non-methane hydrocarbons and methane;
removing said native carbon dioxide present in said exhaust gas at a temperature in the range of ?100° C. to 700° C. to provide
a mixture of non-methane hydrocarbons and methane;

oxidizing said non-methane hydrocarbons present in said mixture of said non-methane hydrocarbons and said methane at a temperature
in the range of 200° C. to 400° C. to produce carbon dioxide and provide a mixture of said carbon dioxide and said methane;
and

measuring a concentration of said carbon dioxide in said mixture of said carbon dioxide and said methane to provide a non-methane
hydrocarbon concentration.

US Pat. No. 9,218,660

MACHINE VISION SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR ANALYSIS AND TRACKING OF STRAIN IN DEFORMABLE MATERIALS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A system for analysis of a viscoelastic response in a deformable material, said system comprising:
a light source configured to provide linearly polarized light;
a polariscope configured to receive said linearly polarized light and to generate an image associated with a viscoelastic
response of said deformable material, wherein said deformable object comprises a viscoelastic, transparent, thermoplastic,
birefringent material;

a machine vision system configured to operate on said image to locate said response on said deformable material and to classify
said response as one of a plurality of predefined types of responses; and

a display configured to provide feedback of said location of said viscoelastic response and classification of said response
to a user of said system.

US Pat. No. 9,164,514

COOPERATIVE PERIMETER PATROL SYSTEM AND METHOD

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1. A method of patrolling a perimeter of a geographic area, using two or more unmanned vehicles having means for locomotion
along a perimeter path, comprising:
equipping each vehicle with a navigation system operable to autonomously navigate the unmanned vehicle along the path;
equipping each vehicle with an anomaly detection system, operable to detect objects on and near the path while in a continuous
detection mode;

equipping each vehicle with a communications system operable to communicate at least the following types of messages: anomaly
alert messages, anomaly update request messages, and anomaly update messages;

equipping each vehicle with an anomaly tracking system, operable to track, visually or by following, a detected anomaly;
equipping each vehicle with an alert evaluation system, the evaluation system having memory for storing evaluation rules;
wherein each vehicle is operable to: travel the path on a predetermined route while in the continuous detection mode, broadcast
an alert message to all other vehicles if that vehicle detects an anomaly, to perform an evaluation of any received alert
message to determine if it will travel to an anomaly based on the evaluation rules, and to respond to an alert message based
on the evaluation.

US Pat. No. 10,125,726

APPARATUS AND METHODS FOR EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION FOR AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE UTILIZING AT LEAST TWO HYDROCARBON FUELS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of operating an internal combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders, the method comprising:operating the engine as a spark-ignition engine;
operating the engine with at least one of the cylinders of the engine as a dedicated exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cylinder, wherein 90%-100% by volume of exhaust gas expelled from the dedicated EGR cylinder is recirculated to an intake system of the engine,
the intake system including a dedicated EGR cylinder intake charge flow restrictor configured to restrict flow of a combustible charge to the dedicated EGR cylinder without restricting flow of the combustible charge to other cylinders of the plurality of cylinders which are not dedicated EGR cylinders;
mixing exhaust gas expelled from the dedicate EGR cylinder with air in the intake system of the engine to provide a mixture of exhaust gas and air;
providing a first hydrocarbon fuel from a first fuel tank, wherein the first hydrocarbon fuel is gasoline;
providing a second hydrocarbon fuel from a second fuel tank;
introducing a charge comprising the first hydrocarbon fuel, the second hydrocarbon fuel and the mixture of exhaust gas and air to the dedicated EGR cylinder,
the second hydrocarbon fuel introduced to the dedicated EGR cylinder from a second fuel injector arranged in the intake system downstream of the dedicated EGR cylinder charge flow restrictor;
igniting the charge in the dedicated EGR cylinder;
expelling exhaust gas from the dedicated EGR cylinder; and
recirculating the exhaust gas to the intake system of the engine.

US Pat. No. 9,927,005

TWO-STAGE HYPOCYCLOIDAL GEAR TRAIN

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1. A gear train comprising:a rotatable drive shaft;
a clutch roller in rotatable contact with said drive shaft or mounted on said drive shaft;
a first wobble gear and a second wobble gear suspended around said drive shaft, wherein said first wobble gear is affixed to said second wobble gear and said clutch roller is biased against said first and second wobble gears;
a first ring gear surrounding and engaged by said first wobble gear;
a second ring gear surrounding and engaged by said second wobble gear; and
a gap present between said first and second wobble gears and said first and second ring gears and a counterweight suspended in said gap;
wherein said drive shaft rotates said clutch roller and said clutch roller drives said first wobble gear and said second wobble gear, such that said wobble gears rotate around said drive shaft and at least one of said first ring gear and said second ring gear rotates around said drive shaft, and
wherein said clutch roller deforms and slips upon application of a torque to said clutch roller greater than a rated torque.

US Pat. No. 9,748,640

HELIX-LOADED MEANDERED LOXODROMIC SPIRAL ANTENNA

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. An all-metal antenna for sending and receiving broadband radio frequency waves, comprising:
at least two conductive antenna arms;
wherein the antenna arms wind along and around a three-dimensional profile;
wherein the profile is generally a domed top portion atop a rotationally symmetric body portion;
wherein each antenna arm is a metallic plating following a path of a meandered loxodromic spiral on the domed top portion
and a path of a meandered helix spiral on the body portion; and

wherein the antenna arms have non metallic space between them and wherein the antenna arms and the space between them have
the same shape and size and are rotationally offset versions of each other;

a radio frequency absorbing material that fills the bottom of the body portion to a height at least halfway up the body portion
and defines an air cavity between the absorbing material and the top of the domed top portion;

wherein the body portion has a base and wherein a diameter of the base is as small as 11.2% of the wavelength of a lowest
frequency of interest.

US Pat. No. 9,625,904

UNMANNED GROUND/AERIAL VEHICLE SYSTEM HAVING AUTONOMOUS GROUND VEHICLE THAT REMOTELY CONTROLS ONE OR MORE AERIAL VEHICLES

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. An unmanned vehicle system, comprising:
at least one autonomous ground vehicle operable to autonomously navigate across ground on a surface of the earth in a direction
of travel;

wherein the autonomous ground vehicle has a set of on-board on-ground perception sensors, which have a field of view that
contains at least a portion of the ground ahead of the autonomous ground vehicle in its a direction of travel;

wherein the autonomous ground vehicle further has an on-board on-ground control system;
at least one remote controlled aerial vehicle operable to fly in an aerial path in response to flight commands received from
the on-board on-ground control system;

wherein the aerial vehicle has a communications interface for receiving the flight commands;
wherein the aerial vehicle carries in-sky perception sensors having a field of view that contains at least a portion of a
ground path to be followed by the autonomous ground vehicle

wherein the field of view of the on-board on-ground perception sensors further contains the aerial vehicle;
where the on-board on-ground control system further has a perception process that receives perception data from the on-board
on-ground perception sensors and perception data from the in-sky perception sensors, and further has a localization process
that uses the perception data to locate the aerial vehicle in a frame of reference of the autonomous ground vehicle, and further
has a perception area process that combines the perception data; and

further has a movement manager process that uses the combined perception data to determine the ground path for the autonomous
ground vehicle and an aerial path for the aerial vehicle;

wherein the movement manager process calculates at least part of the ground path in response to perception data from the in-sky
perception sensors, and further calculates at least part of the aerial path in response to perception data from the on-board
on-ground perception sensors.

US Pat. No. 9,612,015

OXY-COMBUSTOR OPERABLE WITH SUPERCRITICAL FLUID

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. An oxy-combustor, comprising:
a combustion vessel including at least one solid fuel slurry inlet port, at least one oxygen inlet port and at least one supercritical
fluid inlet port;

wherein the combustion vessel is operable at an operating pressure of at least 1,100 psi;
wherein an interior of the combustion vessel comprises a combustion chamber and a supercritical fluid infusion chamber at
least partially surrounding the combustion chamber;

wherein the supercritical fluid infusion chamber and the combustion chamber are separated by a porous liner surrounding the
combustion chamber; and

wherein the supercritical fluid infusion chamber is located between the porous liner and an outer casing of the combustion
vessel.

US Pat. No. 9,429,628

APPLICATION INDEPENDENT MAP-BASED CYCLE LIFE TESTING OF BATTERY CELLS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method for cycle life testing of a battery, said method comprising:
selecting a target depth of discharge (DOD) for said battery test;
selecting a DOD range that includes a DOD range minimum value that is less than the target depth of discharge and a DOD range
maximum value that is greater than the target depth of discharge for said battery test;

selecting a charge current (Ic) and a discharge current (Id) for said battery test;

discharging said battery to said target DOD;
cycling said battery within said DOD range one or more times, wherein said cycling comprises a charge pulse at Ic and a discharge pulse Id;

performing a reference performance test (RPT) on said battery, wherein said RPT comprises a static capacity test and a dynamic
power test;

determining if an end of test condition has occurred;
repeating said cycling and said RPT testing until said end of test condition occurs; and
wherein said test is performed at a first power level, a second power level and a third power level, wherein said first power
level is 39% to 41% of a rated power of said battery, said second power level is 24% to 26% of said rated power and said third
power level is 9% to 11% of said rated power.

US Pat. No. 9,162,983

REACTIVATORS OF ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS INHIBITED ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. An acetylcholinesterase reactivator compound comprising the formula:

wherein R1 is a ketone functionality (C(O)R) or hydrogen and R is a H or an alkyl group containing up to five carbon atoms;

R2 is a hydrogen or an alkyl group containing up to five carbon atoms;

R3 is a H;

Y is a carbon or nitrogen; and
n has a value of 0-4.

US Pat. No. 10,073,066

NON-CONTACT MAGNETOSTRICTIVE SENSOR FOR GUIDED WAVE MONITORING OF WIRE ROPES OR OTHER SOLID FERROUS OBJECTS WITHOUT FERROMAGNETIC COUPLING

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A non-contact sensor for use in magnetostrictive testing of an elongated longitudinal structure, comprising:a set of permanent magnets arranged in two semicircles, with all the magnets having the same polarity, such that when the sensor is placed around the circumference of the structure, the magnetic polarization is vertical or near-vertical to the surface of the structure, and the same polarization is directed inwardly into the surface;
an electrical coil wrapped around the set of magnets, wrapped in a direction parallel to the common poles of the magnets, thereby forming a top portion above the set of magnets and a bottom portion below the set of magnets, such that the bottom portion of the coil is the lowermost element of the sensor; and
a metal shield interposed between the top portion of the coil and the set of magnets;
wherein a time varying current in the coil causes compressional guided waves to travel to the structure and to be reflected from anomalies in the structure even when there is no ferromagnetic coupling material between the sensor and the structure and there is a only an air gap between the lowermost element of the sensor and the surface of the structure.

US Pat. No. 9,869,220

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR REMOVAL OF GAS PHASE ARTIFACTS FROM ENGINE EXHAUST DURING TESTING

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method for removal of gas phase artifacts from an exhaust stream of a hydrocarbon combustion engine undergoing evaluation
for the presence of particulate matter as collected on a particulate matter filter comprising:
diluting said exhaust stream with a dilution air flow to provide a diluted exhaust stream that includes solid particles or
liquid droplets in the size range of 5 nm to 1000 nm;

passing said diluted exhaust stream through a cyclonic separator to remove respiratory particles from said diluted exhaust
stream;

passing said diluted exhaust stream through a gas phase denuder that includes a cellular cordierite substrate having an aluminum-zeolite
coating, wherein said gas phase denuder exhibits a surface area in the range of 5,000 m2 to 15,000 m2;

wherein said gas phase denuder removes 90% by weight or volume said gas phase artifacts from said diluted exhaust stream,
said gas phase artifacts including one or more of the following:

(a) hydrocarbons having four or more carbon atoms; or
(b) sulfur dioxide and sulfate species of the formulas SO2, SO3, SO42?, H2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 and;

wherein said gas phase denuder passes 95% to 100% of said solid particles or liquid droplets in said diluted exhaust stream
for collection by a downstream particulate filter.

US Pat. No. 9,845,747

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE HAVING DEDICATED EGR CYLINDER(S) WITH SPLIT FUEL INJECTION TIMING

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of controlling fuel injection to the cylinders of an internal combustion engine, the engine having exhaust gas
recirculation (EGR) from at least one dedicated EGR (D-EGR) cylinder, with the other cylinders being main cylinders, comprising:
for only the dedicated EGR cylinder:
dividing the fuel injection at each engine cycle into two or more fuel injection events;
wherein each fuel injection event occurs during the intake valve lift period of the engine cycle;
wherein the total amount of fuel injected during the multiple injection events provides a D-EGR cylinder equivalence ratio
that is greater than could be achieved with a single injection event without loss of combustion stability to the main cylinders;
and

for the main cylinders, providing fuel injection at a main cylinder equivalence ratio lower than the D-EGR equivalence ratio.

US Pat. No. 9,797,334

TECHNIQUES FOR MITIGATING LOW-SPEED PRE-IGNITION CONDITIONS IN AN ENGINE AND A FUEL DELIVERY SYSTEM USING THE SAME

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method for determining conditions giving rise to low-speed pre-ignition events in an engine, the method comprising:
receiving, by a controller, a first and second fuel pressure measurement, the first and second fuel pressure measurement corresponding
to a high pressure region and a low pressure region, respectively;

determining, by the controller, a pressure differential based on the difference between the second fuel pressure measurement
and the first fuel pressure measurement;

calculating, by the controller, a specific gravity value based in part on the determined pressure differential; and
detecting, by the controller, a condition giving rise to low-speed pre-ignition events in response to the calculated specific
gravity value exceeding a predefined threshold.

US Pat. No. 9,752,117

HYBRID TISSUE SCAFFOLD FOR TISSUE ENGINEERING

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A hybrid tissue scaffold comprising:
a porous primary scaffold of biodegradable polymer having pores in a pore size range of 1.0 mm to 4.0 mm;
a porous secondary scaffold formed from a biomaterial injectable into the pores of the porous primary scaffold, the biomaterial
comprising a hydrated hydrogel including living cells, wherein the secondary scaffold resides in the pores of the primary
scaffold to provide a hybrid scaffold;

wherein the biomaterial provides an environment to culture the living cells and the biomaterial has a pore size range of 50
?m to 600 ?m; and

wherein the primary scaffold provides 5% to 30% of a volume of the hybrid scaffold and said hybrid scaffold has a Young's
modulus of 0.1 MPA to 100 GPa.

US Pat. No. 9,714,922

MAGNETOSTRICTIVE PROBE WITH MECHANICAL AND FLUID COUPLING FOR GUIDED WAVE TESTING OF TUBULAR STRUCTURES

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A probe for use in magnetostrictive testing of a tubular structure, comprising:
an outer tube having a probe head portion for insertion into the tubular structure, the outer tube being radially expandable
at the probe head portion;

a pair of magnetostrictive sensors in or on the probe head portion of the outer tube, each sensor comprising a ring-shaped
magnet and a ring-shaped strip made from ferromagnetic material, the strip being concentric to and having a larger diameter
than the magnet, the strip having an electrical coil wrapped around its width, and the magnet being polarized in a direction
parallel to the longitudinal dimension of the outer tube;

a flexible bladder located inside the outer tube in the area of the probe head;
a probe handle attached to the outer tube at the end opposite the probe head;
a pressurizing cartridge located in or on the probe handle, operable to store pressurizing fluid;
a bladder tube extending longitudinally inside the outer tube, the bladder tube operable to deliver the pressurizing fluid
from the pressurizing cartridge to the bladder, thereby causing the bladder to expand;

a couplant cartridge located in or on the probe handle, operable to store couplant fluid;
a couplant tube around and concentric to the bladder tube extending to the probe head, the couplant tube having nozzles for
fluid communication of the couplant fluid out of the couplant tube;

wherein the outer tube has openings operable to communicate the couplant fluid from the couplant tube toward the inner surface
of the tubular structure.

US Pat. No. 9,701,869

SUPERHYDROPHOBIC COMPOSITIONS AND COATING PROCESS FOR THE INTERNAL SURFACE OF TUBULAR STRUCTURES

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A conformal coating disposed on a tubular structure, comprising:
a tubular structure having an internal surface and an interior volume; and
a carbo-siloxane coating disposed on said internal surface, wherein said coating has a water contact angle of greater than
120°, wherein said coating comprises 50 to 60 atomic percent carbon, 20 to 30 atomic percent oxygen, and 15 to 25 atomic percent
silicon, wherein said coating, at a depth of up to 300 Angstrom, comprises:

(a) Si—O at a relative concentration of 38.5(±12) %;
(b) Si—C at a relative concentration of 25.6(±5) %;
(c) C—O at a relative concentration of 4.5(±3) %;
(d) C—C at a relative concentration of 31.4(±2) %.

US Pat. No. 9,564,633

HYBRID SILICON AND CARBON CLATHRATES

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. An electrode for a battery wherein said electrode comprises a type 1 clathrate of silicon at a particle size of 0.1 ?m
to 100.0 ?m having a Si46 framework cage structure wherein the silicon atoms on said framework are at least partially substituted by carbon atoms, said
composition represented by the formula CySi46-y with 1?y?45, wherein said electrode comprises a metal substrate and said type 1 clathrate particles are present on the surface
of said metal substrate, further including one or more guest atoms A within said cage structure, represented by the formula
AxCySi46-y wherein A=H, Li, K, Na, Rb, Cs, Fr, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, Eu, Cl, Br, or I or any metal or metalloid element and x is the
number of said guest atoms within said cage structure and wherein x is greater than zero and has a value such that the cage
structure due to the presence of said guest atom undergoes a volume expansion of 0.1% to 50.0% and said volume expansion does
not lead to irreversible structural damage to said framework cage structure characterized by a volume contraction in the range
of 0.1% to 50.0% upon removal of said guest atom.

US Pat. No. 9,560,174

NETWORK ROUTING OVERLAY

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1. A network routing overlay (NRO) system comprising:
an NRO master comprising NRO master circuitry and a master network interface, the master network interface configured to communicatively
couple to each of a plurality of NRO remote systems via a respective Ethernet data channel and a respective Ethernet control
channel, and wherein the NRO master circuitry is configured to:

receive a NRO message comprising an NRO prefix and an Ethernet frame from a first NRO remote system of the plurality of NRO
remote systems via the respective Ethernet data channel, the NRO prefix comprising a length and a frame identifier (ID) and
the Ethernet frame including an identifier of a destination end system coupled to at least one of the plurality of NRO remote
systems and an identifier of a source end system coupled to the first NRO remote system,

extract the Ethernet frame based, at least in part, on the length and frame ID; and
implement one or more network traffic management policies by sending each of the plurality of NRO remote systems one or more
commands to prioritize transmission of NRO messages having encapsulated Ethernet frames to the NRO master.

US Pat. No. 9,218,529

3-D IMAGING SENSOR BASED LOCATION ESTIMATION

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method for estimating a location of an object comprising:
obtaining a plurality of images of a region encompassing said object, said plurality of images providing a three dimensional
(3-D) view frame of said region;

collecting a plurality of said view frames along a direction of travel of said object;
generating a three dimensional (3-D) map along said direction of travel of said object, said map based on said plurality of
view frames and further based on an estimate of motion of said object at times associated with said plurality of view frames;

extracting a first set of features from said 3-D map;
searching a geo-referenced feature database for a second set of features that match said first set of features;
retrieving a geo-location from said feature database, wherein said geo-location is associated with said second set of features;
and

estimating said location of said object based on said retrieved geo-location.

US Pat. No. 10,190,717

PULSATION DAMPING FOR DAMPING PULSATIONS UPSTREAM OF A GAS FLOW METER

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of damping pulsations within a flow line carrying a gas to a flow meter, the pulsations resulting from an engine or other driver, comprising:delivering the gas to a damping device comprising an input tube, a chamber, and an output tube, the input tube having a tubing diameter, D, tubing length, L, and cross sectional area, A, and the chamber having a volume, V;
wherein the chamber receives the gas via the input tube and expels the gas to the flow meter via the output tube, and is otherwise sealed;
determining the following fluid properties of the gas in the flow line: kinematic viscosity, v0, dynamic viscosity, ?0, and expansion component, m;
specifying a target damping efficiency, ?L/?0;
determining the following operating conditions of the engine or other driver: angular frequency, ?, and pressure, p0;
selecting an input tubing diameter, D, by solving the following equation:

calculating an attenuation factor, ?, required to achieve the target damping efficiency as follows:

and
calculating a tubing length, L, and chamber volume, V, as follows:

US Pat. No. 9,958,560

NEUTRON IMAGER WITH SPACED DIAMOND DETECTOR ARRAYS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A neutron detector system for detecting the approximate angle of arrival of an incident neutron; comprising:a diamond detector, comprising two diamond detector layers, spaced a predetermined distance apart; two silicon layers, one of the two silicon layers associated with each diamond detector layer; wherein the diamond detector layers are both inner layers, and the two silicon layers are outer layers of a sandwich configuration of the diamond detector;
a pulse height analyzer, operable to measure the pulse height from the diamond detector layer that the incident neutron first encounters, thereby obtaining pulse height data;
a response time measurement circuit, operable to measure the response time of a recoil between the diamond detector layers, thereby obtaining response time data; and
a direction of arrival process programmed to calculate carbon recoil energy based on pulse height data, to calculate scattered neutron energy based on response time data, and to calculate a direction cone, representing an approximate direction of arrival of the incident neutron, based on carbon recoil energy and scattered neutron energy.
US Pat. No. 9,951,702

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE HAVING DEDICATED CYLINDER(S) FOR GENERATION OF BOTH EGR AND EXHAUST AFTERTREATMENT REFORMATE FOR THREE-WAY CATALYST

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

3. An exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system for a stoichiometric internal combustion engine having a number of cylinders and having an intake manifold, an exhaust manifold, and an exhaust aftertreatment system with a three-way catalyst, comprising:one or more cylinders that operate as a dedicated EGR cylinder, such that all of the exhaust produced by the dedicated EGR cylinder(s) may be recirculated to the engine's main (non dedicated) cylinders, and that further operate at a more rich air-fuel ratio than the main cylinders;
wherein the dedicated EGR cylinder(s) and the main cylinders each have an exhaust port to the same exhaust manifold;
an EGR loop for recirculating EGR from the dedicated EGR cylinder(s) to the engine's intake manifold;
a three-way valve configured to provide direct fluid communication from the exhaust port of the dedicated EGR cylinder(s) to either or both the exhaust manifold and the EGR loop;
wherein the three-way valve is operable to modulate relative amounts of flow of syngas to be recirculated and relative amounts of flow of syngas to be delivered to the exhaust manifold;
a first oxygen sensor to measure oxygen in the intake manifold;
a second oxygen sensor to measure oxygen in the exhaust manifold;
a control unit, comprising a processor and memory, that performs the following tasks: based on data from only the first oxygen sensor, estimates the air-fuel ratio of intake to all cylinders; based on data from only the second oxygen sensor, estimates the air-fuel ratio of exhaust from all cylinders; controls an amount of flow of syngas to be recirculated to the intake manifold relative to an amount of flow of syngas to be delivered to the three-way catalyst; controls an air-fuel ratio of the main cylinders and an air-fuel ratio of the dedicated EGR cylinder(s) such that a mixture of exhaust from the main cylinders and the EGR delivered as syngas to the three-way catalyst is stoichiometric during all operation of the engine.

US Pat. No. 9,874,193

DEDICATED EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION ENGINE FUELING CONTROL

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of operating a dedicated exhaust gas recirculation engine including a water gas shift catalyst located in a flow
path of an exhaust gas recirculation flow path, comprising:
supplying air to a main cylinder and a dedicated cylinder, wherein said air includes ambient air;
supplying exhaust recirculated from said dedicated cylinder into said main cylinder with said air;
supplying fuel to said main cylinder and said dedicated cylinder;
combusting said air and fuel in said main cylinder and said dedicated cylinder;
recirculating exhaust from said dedicated cylinder to said main cylinder;
wherein for a first number of engine cycles said air and said fuel are supplied to said dedicated cylinder at a first fuel
to air equivalence ratio in the range of greater than 1.0 to 1.6 and for a second number of engine cycles said air and fuel
are supplied to said dedicated cylinder at a second fuel to air equivalence ratio in the range of 0.7 to less than 1.0;

adjusting a first spark timing of said dedicated cylinder during said second number of cycles at said second fuel to air equivalence
ratio;

determining a time delay when exhaust recirculated from said dedicated cylinder will be inducted into said main cylinder;
at the end of said time delay adjusting a second spark timing of said main cylinder and adjusting an amount of said fuel supplied
to said main cylinder by increasing said amount.

US Pat. No. 9,797,287

RUTHENIUM BASED CATALYSTS FOR NOX REDUCTION

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method for selective catalytic reduction of exhaust gases from hydrocarbon combustion in an internal combustion engine
comprising:
operating one or more cylinders as non-dedicated exhaust gas recirculation cylinder(s);
operating one or more cylinders as dedicated exhaust gas recirculation cylinder(s) such that its exhaust, during all or some
engine cycles, is recirculated via an exhaust gas recirculation loop as exhaust gas recirculation gas,

providing a ruthenium based catalyst on an inorganic support;
introducing to said ruthenium based catalyst said exhaust gas from said one or more exhaust gas recirculating cylinders, where
said exhaust gas contains NOx in combination with carbon monoxide and hydrogen;

reducing said NOx to nitrogen wherein carbon monoxide and hydrogen act as reductants and said NOx is reduced to nitrogen at a selectivity of greater than or equal to 90%.

US Pat. No. 9,770,533

FABRICATION OF BONE REGENERATION SCAFFOLDS AND BONE FILLER MATERIAL USING A PERFUSION FLOW SYSTEM

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A process to form a bone grafting material, comprising:
providing a porous collagen scaffold containing collagen fibers;
inserting the collagen scaffold into a perfusion chamber of a perfusion flow system;
continuously providing a mineralization perfusion fluid flow through the collagen scaffold at a flow rate through said collagen
scaffold of 1 ?m/s to 10 mm/s, said mineralization fluid containing an ion-containing extracellular fluid, which supplies
mineral ions to said collagen scaffold such that hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals form on said collagen fibers and wherein said
collagen scaffold has a geometry that inhibits said mineralization perfusion fluid from flowing around said scaffold rather
than through said scaffold.

US Pat. No. 9,693,967

BIODEGRADABLE MICROPARTICLE PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS EXHIBITING IMPROVED RELEASED RATES

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A microcapsule comprising:
(A) a solidified core material melt formed and shaped into a microsphere, wherein the microsphere comprises a first hot-melt
biodegradable polymer and a pharmacologically active agent comprising in the range of more than 20 wt. % of said microsphere
to 30 wt. % of said microsphere, wherein said pharmacologically active agent is selected from the group consisting of anecortave
acetate, an alcohol form of anecortave acetate, derivatives thereof, and combinations thereof and is dispersed in said first
hot-melt biodegradable polymer;

(B) a uniform layer of a coating material consisting essentially of a second hot-melt biodegradable polymer, wherein said
coating material forms about 0.003 vol. % to about 50 vol. % of said microcapsule and said first and second hot-melt biodegradable
polymers are independently selected from the group consisting of polylactic acids, polyglycolic acids, poly lactic-glycolic
acids, polycaprolactone, triglycerides, polyethylene glycols, polyorthoesters, polyanhydrides, polyesters, cellulosics, and
combinations thereof;

where said microcapsule is present in a 5% sodium dodecyl sulfate/phosphate buffer solution;
wherein the microcapsule is prepared by a process comprising:
(i) combining said microspheres with said coating material to form a composition comprising said microspheres and said coating
material, (ii) introducing said composition to a spinning disk apparatus, wherein said spinning disk apparatus comprises a
substantially circular spinning disk comprising:

(a) a substantially smooth annular disk surface, wherein
(I) said annular disk surface has an inner peripheral edge and an outer peripheral edge, wherein said outer peripheral edge
defines a first diameter of said annular disk surface,

(II) said annular disk surface has a second diameter defined by said area circumscribed by the inner peripheral edge, wherein
said area circumscribed by said inner peripheral edge is disposed substantially in a center portion of said spinning disk,
and

(III) said annular disk surface between said inner peripheral edge and said outer peripheral edge comprises a substantially
flat incline, and

(b) a reservoir disposed in said area circumscribed by said inner peripheral edge of said annular disk surface, wherein
(I) said reservoir comprises a top portion thereof defined by said inner peripheral edge of said annular disk surface, and
(II) said reservoir is partially defined by a third diameter, located between said bottom of the reservoir and said top portion
of said reservoir, wherein said third diameter is greater than said second diameter,

wherein said introducing said composition to said apparatus comprises introducing said composition to the reservoir, and
(iii) operating said apparatus to produce microcapsules comprising said microspheres having a coating comprising the coating
material; and

(C) wherein each microsphere is individually encapsulated by said melt-formed coating material and said microcapsules have
a particle size distribution of between about 175 pm to 500 um and having a pharmaceutically active agent profile when administered
to a living organism at a zero order rate, and the release of the pharmacologically active agent extends over a time period
of at least four weeks at the zero order rate.

US Pat. No. 9,689,776

APPARATUS FOR GENERATING AND APPLYING LINEAR FORCES

Southwest Research Instit...

1. An apparatus, comprising:
a piston bore, wherein said piston bore exhibits a longitudinal axis;
a piston, including a piston head and a piston shaft, wherein said piston is axially displace-able within said piston bore
along said longitudinal axis, wherein said piston bore and a first surface of said piston head form a first working volume
and displacement of said piston alters said first working volume;

a first plurality of injectors coupled to said first working volume and a first common rail, wherein said first plurality
of injectors are configured to inject a hydraulic fluid from said common rail into said first working volume;

said first common rail configured to store said hydraulic fluid at an elevated pressure of 1,000 bar or greater;
a pump coupled to said first common rail configured to maintain said hydraulic fluid in said common rail at said elevated
pressure; and

a flow path between said first working volume and a reservoir for said hydraulic fluid.

US Pat. No. 9,613,789

COMPACT DUAL ION COMPOSITION INSTRUMENT

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A dual ion composition instrument for measuring plasma and ion populations comprising:
a. a deflector/electrostatic analyzer subsystem and a time of flight versus energy subsystem wherein said deflector/electrostatic
analyzer includes deflectors to bend a first collection of ions between greater than 1 eV/q to 100 keV/q into an electrostatic
analyzer which focuses said ions onto carbon foil and wherein said carbon foil is positioned at an entrance of said time of
flight versus energy subsystem and wherein said first collection of ions contact said carbon foil and generate secondary electrons
and neutralized ions from said first collection of ions;

b. entrance apertures in said deflector/electrostatic analyzer subsystem for introduction of a second collection of ions between
15 keV to 10 MeV/nucleon which contact said carbon foil and generate secondary electrons and ions from said second collection
of ions;

c. a start micro-channel plate in said deflector analyzer subsystem which detects said secondary electrons from said first
and second collection of ions;

d. one or more avalanche photo diodes in said time of flight versus energy subsystem which generates additional secondary
electrons due to an impact of said neutralized ions from said first collection of ions;

e. one or more solid state detectors in said time of flight versus energy subsystem which generate additional secondary electrons
due to an impact of said ions from said second collection of ions; and

f. a stop micro-channel plate in said time of flight versus energy subsystem, wherein said stop micro-channel plate detects
additional secondary electrons due to impact of said ions from both of said first and second collection of ions.

US Pat. No. 9,605,613

COORDINATED CONTROL OF ENGINE AND AFTER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

9. A control device for a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system of an internal combustion engine and intake oxygen concentration,
the control device configured to:
identify for a selected engine the relationship between fuel consumption and NOx output as a function of intake oxygen concentration
(f1), wherein said selected engine includes a SCR system containing a SCR catalyst;

determine for the SCR system associated with said selected engine a current amount of reductant stored in said SCR catalyst
and the reductant storage capacity of said SCR catalyst, wherein


identify a first targeted value for a identified as (a*1);

identify a second and relatively lower targeted value for a as (a*E);

modulate the injected amount of reductant to increase the value of a towards (a*1); and

modulate the production of NOx by controlling the intake oxygen concentration to drive the value of a towards (a*E).

US Pat. No. 9,217,119

EXTRACTION OF LIPIDS FROM LIVING CELLS UTILIZING LIQUID CO2

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A process for extracting lipids from microalgae cells comprising:
supplying living microalgae cells containing lipids to an extractor and extracting said lipids from said cells with liquid
and/or supercritical carbon dioxide medium, wherein said liquid CO2 is at or above 216.5° K and 517 kPa and wherein said supercritical CO2 is at or above 304.3° K (31.1° C.) and 7.39 MPa;

wherein said cells are exposed to liquid and/or supercritical carbon dioxide for said extraction in said extractor, and said
pressure of said liquid and/or supercritical carbon dioxide is reduced to atmospheric conditions in sequence wherein successive
portions of said pressure are released using two or more depressurizers; and wherein said microalgae cells are viable after
said extraction process.

US Pat. No. 10,495,035

DEDICATED EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION CONFIGURATION FOR REDUCED EGR AND FRESH AIR BACKFLOW

Southwest Research Instit...

1. An internal combustion engine comprising an air intake passage in communication with an intake manifold including a plurality of cylinders, at least one of the cylinders arranged as a dedicated exhaust gas recirculation cylinder, wherein a volume of exhaust gas expelled from the dedicated exhaust gas cylinder is capable of recirculating via an exhaust gas recirculation loop to said intake manifold, including a first one-way valve positioned in said air intake passage and a second one-way valve positioned in said exhaust gas recirculation loop,wherein said first one-way valve positioned in said air intake passage is capable of restricting the flow of exhaust gas from said exhaust gas recirculation loop into said air intake passage and said second one-way valve positioned in said exhaust gas recirculation loop is capable of restricting the flow of air from said air intake passage into said exhaust gas recirculation loop.

US Pat. No. 10,267,224

INTERNAL COMBUSTION TEST ENGINE WITH SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR ADJUSTING CYLINDER OFFSET

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A test engine for testing cylinder offset during operation of an internal combustion cylinder, comprising:a crankcase base;
a cylinder barrel having a cylinder bore and having a cylinder barrel flange around the cylinder bore;
a cylinder head mounted above the cylinder barrel;
a crankshaft supported within the crankcase base, the crankshaft having a connecting rod and piston;
wherein the crankcase base has an opening in its top surface for receiving the cylinder bore; a transit plate interposed between the barrel flange and the top of the crankcase base, and having an opening for receiving the cylinder bore;
wherein the transit plate is configured to be fixedly attached to the crankcase base and cylinder barrel during operation of the test engine, but slidably moveable across the top surface of the crankcase base in a direction normal to the crankshaft axis when the test engine is not in operation.

US Pat. No. 10,243,580

DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTER WITH ITERATIVE STEPPING TO EACH OUTPUT VALUE

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. An iterative digital-to-analog converter (DAC), the iterative DAC having a serial clock signal, comprising:a shift register for receiving a serial data stream, comprising data words, each data word having address bits and input data bits;
a DAC value register for storing a digital input value as DAC Value, whose analog is to be the output of the iterative DAC as VOUT;
an iteration value register for storing a DAC Iteration Value;
a timer count value register for storing a number of clock periods that occur between iterations of the iterative DAC;
a state machine for receiving the serial clock signal and for calculating VOUT, and having the following states: Idle, Value Load, DAC Calculate, and Exit;
wherein in the Idle state, the state machine compares DAC Value to a current DAC Value Out, and if the values are not equal, activates a busy signal and proceeds to the Value Load state;
wherein in the Value Load state, the state machine stores the current DAC Value Out and proceeds to the DAC Calculate state;
wherein in the DAC Calculate state, the state machine compares the DAC Value to the current DAC Value Out, and if the difference is less than or equal to the DAC Iteration Value, changes DAC Value Out to DAC Value, and if the difference is greater than the DAC Iteration Value, adds or subtracts the DAC Iteration Value to or from the DAC Value Out; updates a DAC Timer Count, and jumps to the Exit state; and
wherein in the Exit state, the state machine decrements the DAC Timer Count until it reaches zero.

US Pat. No. 10,199,711

DEPLOYABLE REFLECTOR ANTENNA

The Arizona Board Of Rege...

1. A balloon reflector antenna, comprising:a spherical balloon with a first hemisphere comprising a transparent surface that is transparent to electromagnetic waves and a second hemisphere, opposite the first hemisphere, comprising a reflective surface having a line of focus; and
a feed system extending along one or more radial lines from a center of the spherical balloon that receives electromagnetic waves reflected off the reflective surface along the line of focus,
wherein the balloon reflector antenna is configured such that the spherical balloon and the feed system are stowable in a canister during launch of a satellite.

US Pat. No. 10,235,629

SENSOR DATA CONFIDENCE ESTIMATION BASED ON STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method for estimation of sensor data confidence, said method comprising:selecting an initial set of classifier and feature-set (CF) configurations;
performing an iteration for each of said CF configurations, said iteration comprising:
training said classifier of said CF configuration based on a training set of nominal sensor data values,
executing said classifier on said training set to generate a first set of confidence values,
collecting statistics on said first set of confidence values,
calculating a confidence decision threshold based on said collected statistics,
executing said classifier on an evaluation set of nominal and degraded sensor data values, to generate a second set of confidence values,
deciding whether said sensor data values of said evaluation set are nominal or degraded based on a comparison of said second set of confidence values to said confidence decision threshold, and
calculating a score to evaluate said trained classifier based on said second set of confidence values; and
generating a next-generation set of CF configurations using a genetic selection algorithm based on said scores, said genetic selection algorithm including at least one random selection of CF features to introduce a mutation in said generated next-generation set of CF configurations; and
determining said generated next-generation set of CF configurations is valid based on executing said classifier on an evaluation set of nominal and degraded sensor data values, and in response to determining the generated next-generation set of CF configurations is valid, providing the sensor data values and a confidence value based on the generated next-generation set of CF configurations to a decision-making system.

US Pat. No. 10,190,543

METHOD OF OPERATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE HAVING INCREASED RICH LIMIT FOR DEDICATED EGR CYLINDER

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of operating an engine having at least one dedicated EGR cylinder, with the remaining cylinders being main cylinders, comprising:operating the main cylinders at a first air-fuel ratio;
determining a rich operating limit of the dedicated EGR cylinder operating without internal EGR;
operating the dedicated EGR cylinder at a second air-fuel ratio that is at or below the rich operating limit;
controlling the intake and/or exhaust valves of the main cylinders such that the main cylinders retain exhaust gas, thereby providing internal EGR to only those cylinders, during all or some operating conditions of the engine; and
controlling the intake and/or exhaust valves of the dedicated EGR cylinder independently of the intake and/or exhaust valves of the dedicated EGR cylinder, such that the dedicated EGR cylinder never receives internal EGR at any load of the engine.

US Pat. No. 10,181,181

DENOISING WITH THREE DIMENSIONAL FOURIER TRANSFORM FOR THREE DIMENSIONAL IMAGES, INCLUDING IMAGE SEQUENCES

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of mitigating noise in source image data representing pixels of a 3-D image, comprising:dividing the 3-D image into three-dimensional chunks of pixels;
wherein each chunk is aligned from the same horizontal and vertical pixel positions of successive image frames;
apodizing each chunk;
performing a three-dimensional Fourier transform on each chunk, thereby producing transformed values of the pixels within each chunk and a three-dimensional spectrum of each transformed chunk;
processing one or more transformed chunks to estimate a noise floor based on spectral values of the pixels within each chunk;
determining a noise threshold based on the noise floor;
filtering the spectrum of each transformed chunk with a denoising filter based on the noise threshold;
inverse transforming the transformed chunks; and
recombining the inverse transformed chunks into a denoised 3-D image.

US Pat. No. 10,119,500

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE HAVING EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION LOOP WITH CATALYZED HEAT EXCHANGER FOR STEAM REFORMATION

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of providing recirculated exhaust to an internal combustion engine having a number of cylinders, the cylinders receiving an intake charge via an intake line, with at least one cylinder being a dedicated EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) cylinder and the remaining cylinders being main cylinders whose exhaust is emitted via an exhaust manifold to a main exhaust line, comprising:providing an EGR loop to route recirculated exhaust from the dedicated EGR cylinder to a point on the intake line;
installing a catalyzed heat exchanger on the EGR loop; wherein the catalyzed heat exchanger has a catalyst reactor and a heat exchanger;
wherein the catalyst reactor is operable to perform a steam reformation process;
installing a fuel injector on the EGR loop upstream of the catalyzed heat exchanger;
receiving a hydrocarbon fuel via the fuel injector into the EGR loop upstream of the catalyzed heat exchanger;
receiving exhaust from the main exhaust line into the heat exchanger and using the exhaust from the main exhaust line to heat the catalyst reactor;
wherein the heat exchanger has at least one loop around the catalyst reactor, such a given portion of exhaust gas is heated simultaneously with the steam reformation process of that portion of exhaust, and the exhaust from the main exhaust line is used to keep the surface of the catalyst reactor at the same temperature as the main exhaust stream; and
using the catalyzed reactor to increase the amount of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the recirculated exhaust.

US Pat. No. 10,054,083

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE HAVING SIX CYLINDERS WITH TWO OF THE CYLINDERS BEING DEDICATED EGR CYLINDERS CONTROLLED WITH DUAL EGR VALVE

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine, the internal combustion engine having a high pressure EGR loop and a main exhaust line, comprising:a first dedicated EGR cylinder;
a second dedicated EGR cylinder;
wherein the first dedicated EGR cylinder and the second dedicated EGR cylinder are the only cylinders of the internal combustion engine that provide recirculated exhaust to the internal combustion engine;
a dual valve system comprising:
a housing for containing the dual valve system, wherein the housing has a first input port for receiving exhaust from the first dedicated EGR cylinder, a second input port for receiving exhaust from the second dedicated EGR cylinder, an exhaust outlet to the main exhaust line, and an EGR outlet to the high pressure EGR loop;
wherein the housing only receives exhaust from the first dedicated EGR cylinder and the second dedicated EGR cylinder;
a first EGR input connection line;
a second EGR input connection line;
a first three-way valve having one input from the first EGR input connection line and two outputs;
a second three-way valve having one input from the second EGR input connection line and two outputs;
a first internal cross-flow line providing fluid flow from one of the two outputs of the first three-way valve to the EGR outlet;
a second internal cross-flow line providing fluid flow from one of the two outputs of the second three-way valve to a point on the first EGR input connection line upstream of the first three-way valve;
wherein the first three-way valve is operable to direct exhaust from the first EGR input connection line to either the exhaust outlet or to the first internal cross-flow line; and
wherein the second three-way valve is operable to direct exhaust from the second EGR input connection line to either the second internal cross-flow line or to the EGR outlet.

US Pat. No. 9,926,467

SUPERHYDROPHOBIC COMPOSITIONS AND COATING PROCESS FOR THE INTERNAL SURFACE OF TUBULAR STRUCTURES

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A system for forming a conformal coating on a tubular structure, comprising:a tubular structure including an internal surface defining an interior volume and at least two opposing ends, wherein each opposing end includes an opening;
at least two vacuum pumping stations, wherein each vacuum pumping station is coupled to one of said openings;
a gas supply port coupled to said interior volume;
a plurality of magnetic field coils, wherein each magnetic field coil is arranged around said tubular structure and said magnetic field coils are spaced along the length of said tubular structure; and
an arbitrary waveform generator electrically connected to said magnetic field coils configured to impose a variable current to said magnetic field coils and configured to provide a phase offset between at least two of said magnetic field coils.
US Pat. No. 9,770,415

DELIVERY SUBSTRATES FROM ALIGNED POLYMER BIOMATERIALS FOR TISSUE REPAIR

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of forming an article, comprising:
mixing a polymer in solution with nanoparticles to form a polymer-nanoparticle mixture, wherein said nanoparticles exhibit
an effective diameter in the range of 1 nm to 300 nm and encapsulate a pharmaceutical composition including a growth factor,
bovine serum albumin or combinations thereof;

placing said mixture in an electrochemical cell;
contacting said mixture with at least one electrode;
applying a voltage in the range of 1 V to 30 V to said electrochemical cell and generating a pH gradient in the range of 3.0
to 11.0;

aligning said polymer at the isoelectric point of the polymer in solution; and
forming an article of aligned polymer including said nanoparticles without covalently bonding said nanoparticles to said polymer,
wherein said nanoparticles exhibit polar interactions between the nanoparticles and the aligned polymer and said nanoparticles
are loaded into said polymer in an amount of at least 25 wt % and said aligned polymer exhibits a modulus in the range of
50 MPa to 1.5 GPa, a tensile stress in the range of 0.5 MPa to 150 MPa, and a tensile strain in the range of 0.05% to 30%,
wherein said modulus, tensile stress and tensile strain are obtained at a testing rate of 10 mm/min and using a 22.24 N load
cell.

US Pat. No. 10,772,246

ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING FOR SHIELDING NEUTRON AND PHOTON RADIATION

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method for making a radiation shielding component comprising:providing a resin material;
providing a metal selected from W, Pb, Sn or Sb;
providing B4C;
combining said resin, metal and B4C and depositing successive layers in a 3D printer to form an additively manufactured component wherein said component provides shielding for both neutron and photon based radiation.

US Pat. No. 10,657,443

DETECTION OF HAZARDOUS LEAKS FROM PIPELINES USING OPTICAL IMAGING AND NEURAL NETWORK

Southwest Research Instit...

1. A method of training a learning machine to detect spills of hydrocarbon liquids from pipelines, comprising:collecting samples of a number of different ground materials;
collecting samples of a number of hydrocarbon materials that are or become liquid when spilled from a pipeline;
for each hydrocarbon material, simulating a spill on each ground material, thereby providing a collection of spill samples;
for each spill sample, performing the following steps: using a thermal camera to capture a thermal image of the spill sample; using a visible wavelength camera to capture a red, blue, green (RGB) image of the spill sample; fusing the thermal image and the RGB image, thereby providing a fused image; inputting the fused image to a neural network, comparing the output of the neural network to at least one hydrocarbon classification represented by the fused image, and adjusting the neural network to provide output data that more closely matches the hydrocarbon identifier.

US Pat. No. 10,445,930

MARKERLESS MOTION CAPTURE USING MACHINE LEARNING AND TRAINING WITH BIOMECHANICAL DATA

Southwest Research Instit...

1. A method of training a learning machine to receive video data captured from an animate subject, and from the video data to generate biomechanical states of the animate subject, comprising:placing markers on the animate subject;
using both marker-based motion capture camera(s) and markerless motion capture camera(s) to simultaneously acquire video sequences of the animate subject, thereby acquiring marker-based video data and markerless video data;
wherein the marker-based camera(s) detect the markers on the animate subject in a manner differently from detection of the rest of the animate subject;
fitting the marker-based video data to a kinematic model of the animate subject, thereby providing a ground truth dataset;
combining the ground truth dataset with the markerless video data, thereby providing a training dataset;
inputting the markerless video data to the learning machine;
comparing the output of the learning machine to the training dataset;
iteratively using the results of the comparing step to adjust operation of the learning machine; and
using the learning machine to generate at least one of the biomechanical states of the animate subject.

US Pat. No. 10,352,239

INLET FILTER FOR GAS TURBINE ENGINES USING DISPOSABLE SURFACE ADHESIVE

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of filtering air entering the intake opening of a gas turbine engine of an aircraft, comprising:installing a straightening tube upstream the intake opening, the straightening tube providing a straight channel for incoming air flow;
interposing a flow redirector between a downstream end of the straightening tube and the intake opening, the flow redirector providing a path for air flow that is at right angles to the channel provided by the straightening tube and that leads to the intake opening of the gas turbine engine; wherein the flow redirector has an upstream end for receiving air flow from the straightening tube and a downstream end opposite the receiving end;
installing a filter at the downstream end of the flow redirector, the filter comprising a first roller for storing and unrolling a roll of adhesive tape and a second roller for re-rolling and storing the roll of adhesive tape;
wherein the first roller and the second roller are spaced across the downstream end of the flow redirector, such that an exposed section of tape passing from the first roller to the second roller blocks the downstream end of the flow redirector with the adhesive side of the tape facing the air flow; and
incrementally unrolling the first roller and rolling the second roller such that a fresh exposed section of the adhesive tape blocks the downstream end of the flow redirector; and
moving the filter away from the downstream end of the flow redirector during flight conditions in which particle filtering is not desired.

US Pat. No. 10,310,091

GPS-BASED TIME STAMP SYSTEM

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A time stamp validation system, comprising:a GPS receiver operable to receive a GPS time signal representing GPS time data;
a local clock operable to provide local time data;
wherein the local clock is initialized by, and disciplined by, the GPS time signal to provide time stamp data, unless a compromise of the GPS signal is detected;
an error detector operable to determine a current time difference between the GPS time data and the local time data, thereby determining an error value;
a threshold comparator operable to determine if the time difference exceeds a predetermined threshold;
a delay and reject process operable to determine whether the GPS time data is to be accepted;
wherein the delay and reject process operates on past GPS time data and past local time data;
a proportional integral (PI) controller operable to output discipline values to discipline the local clock in either of two ways: if the GPS time is accepted, to provide a current discipline value based on the error value, or if the GPS time is not accepted, to provide a prior discipline value based on the most recent prior output of the PI controller; and
a main controller operable to generate time stamps, using current discipline values if the GPS time is accepted, and if the GPS time is not accepted, using the same prior discipline value without reference to any external time source until the GPS time is verified;
wherein the delay and reject process operates on past GPS time data and past local time data, such that main controller applies discipline values to current local time data.

US Pat. No. 10,267,196

TREATMENT OF REDUCTANT UREA SOLUTIONS WITH CATALYST PRECURSORS TO ASSIST SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of reducing oxides of nitrogen in a diesel engine producing diesel exhaust comprising:providing a diesel emission fluid containing an aqueous based urea solution including a catalyst precursor comprising a water soluble organometallic compound;
introducing said diesel emission fluid into the diesel exhaust wherein said urea converts to ammonia and isocyanic acid and said catalyst precursor converts to a catalyst;
converting said isocyanic acid to ammonia with said catalyst wherein said ammonia is provided to a selective catalytic reduction system and reacts with said oxides of nitrogen and provides nitrogen and water.

US Pat. No. 10,236,511

NITROGEN SUBSTITUTED CARBON AND SILICON CLATHRATES

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A composition comprising a Type I clathrate of silicon having a Si46 framework cage structure in the form of a battery electrode wherein the silicon atoms on said framework are at least partially substituted by nitrogen atoms, further including one or more guest atoms within said cage structure, represented by the formula AxNySi46?y where, A=H, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, Eu, Cl, Br, I, and any metal or metalloid element, with 1

US Pat. No. 10,232,090

ELECTROPHORETICALLY DEPOSITED STRONTIUM FLUORIDE NANOPARTICLE/POLYMER COATINGS FOR MEDICAL IMPLANTS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method for forming a SrF2 particle/polymer coating or self-supporting film on a metallic cathode comprising:(a) supplying particles of SrF2 capable of providing Sr2+ ions wherein said particles have a largest linear dimension of 20 nm to 10.0 ?m;
(b) supplying a hydrophobic polymer and forming an ionic association between said hydrophobic polymer and said Sr2+ ions of said SrF2 particles, wherein said hydrophobic polymer comprises polylactic acid, polyglycolic acid, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), co-polymers of polylactic acid, or co-polymers of polyglycolic acid, wherein said co-polymers include polycaprolactone;
(c) placing said SrF2 particles that are ionically associated with said hydrophobic polymer in an aprotic solvent, wherein said aprotic solvent is selected from the group consisting of tetrahydrofuran, methyltetrahydrofuran, ethyl acetate, dimethylformamide, acetonitrile, dimethylsulfoxide and dichloromethane, and applying a potential in the range of 5 V/cm to 5 kV/cm between a charged plate in said aprotic solvent and said metallic cathode and depositing a coating or self-supporting film containing SrF2 particles that are ionically associated with said hydrophobic polymer on said metallic cathode, wherein said metallic cathode is a stainless steel substrate or a degradable Mg alloy;
(d) removing said coating or self-supporting film containing SrF2 particles from said metallic cathode;
(e) wrapping said coating or self-supporting film containing SrF2 particles around a metal implant; and
(f) heating said coating or self-supporting film containing SrF2 particles at a temperature above the Tg of the hydrophobic polymer or above the Tm of the hydrophobic polymer and fusing said hydrophobic polymer.

US Pat. No. 10,162,060

DETERMINATION OF INTEGRITY OF INCOMING SIGNALS OF SATELLITE NAVIGATION SYSTEM

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1. A method for testing the integrity of signals received by a receiver of a satellite navigation system, comprising:receiving an incoming signal that is or purports to be from a navigation satellite, using a receiver system having an array of antenna elements and a receiver associated with each antenna element;
wherein the distance between antenna elements is known;
and wherein the antenna elements are arranged on, or resolvable to, two orthogonal baselines, with at least one common antenna element and at least one antenna element along each baseline;
wherein the carrier phase of the incoming signal is received by at least three antenna elements;
calculating phase differences between the antenna elements; based on the phase differences and the distance between antenna elements, using a geometry algorithm to calculate a measured angle of arrival of the incoming signal arriving at the antenna elements;
calculating locations of one or more navigation satellites, based at least in part on ephemeris data obtained independently of the incoming signal, thereby generating at least one calculated satellite location;
determining an expected angle of arrival of the incoming signal, based on the calculated satellite location and on the location of the receiver system;
wherein both the expected angle of arrival and the measured angle of arrival are three dimensional angles including azimuth and elevation; and
comparing the measured angle of arrival to the expected angle of arrival of the incoming signal;
if the results of the comparing step do not indicate an acceptable match, rejecting the signal for use by the receiver in calculating the location of, or time at, the receiver.

US Pat. No. 9,964,093

TWO-DIMENSIONAL IGNITER FOR TESTING IN-CYLINDER GAS VELOCITY AND/OR GAS COMPOSITION

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of measuring exhaust gas dilution of the in-cylinder charge within the combustion chamber of a spark ignition engine, comprising:installing an igniter in place of a spark plug, the igniter comprising: a cylindrical insulator body; a conductive shell around the circumference of a top portion of the insulator body; two pairs of electrodes, each pair of electrodes providing a spark gap at the face of the igniter, and each pair of electrodes having an cathode electrode and a ground electrode; wherein the pairs of electrodes are positioned such that the spark gaps are angled relative to each other and in the same plane relative to and extending from the face of the igniter; an activation and measurement unit in electrical connection with each pair of electrodes and operable to: activate the cathode electrodes to generate a spark in each spark gap, to provide sufficient current to the cathode electrodes to generate a sustained arc in each spark gap, to measure the voltage and current in each measurement circuit;
activating both pairs of electrodes during an engine combustion cycle;
wherein one pair of electrodes is activated solely to initiate combustion and the other pair of electrodes is activated solely to measure capacitance between the electrodes;
measuring the capacitance, thereby obtaining a measured capacitance value;
accessing stored data representing relationships between measured capacitance values and the ratios of carbon dioxide to oxygen in the in-cylinder charge to determine a current ratio of carbon dioxide to oxygen in the in-cylinder charge; and
based on the current ratio of carbon dioxide to oxygen in the in-cylinder charge, estimating the amount of exhaust gas dilution in the in-cylinder charge.

US Pat. No. 10,598,070

NO/NO2 RATIO ADJUSTMENT USING NON-THERMAL PLASMA

Southwest Research Instit...

1. A method to generate an exit gas having a defined exit NO/NO2 ratio, the method comprising:apportioning a feed gas having a first NO/NO2 ratio into a first feed gas portion and a second feed gas portion;
flowing the first feed gas portion through a non-thermal plasma generator;
converting, via the non-thermal plasma generator, at least a portion of NO present in the first feed gas portion to NO2 to provide an intermediate gas having a second NO/NO2 ratio;
selectively adjusting a flow of the second feed gas portion through a bypass around the non-thermal plasma generator;
combining the intermediate gas with the second feed gas portion to provide an exit gas having the defined exit NO/NO2 ratio;
wherein selectively adjusting the flow of the second feed gas portion through the bypass around the non-thermal plasma generator further comprises:
measuring, by a gas analyzer, an NO/NO2 ratio in the exit gas;
determining, by control circuitry coupled to the gas analyzer, a flow of the second feed gas portion through the bypass to achieve the defined exit NO/NO2 ratio, the flow of the second feed gas portion based on the measured NO/NO2 ratio in the exit gas; and
adjusting, by the control circuitry, the flow of the second feed gas portion to achieve the defined exit NO/NO2 ratio.

US Pat. No. 10,465,636

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE HAVING DEDICATED EGR CYLINDER(S) WITH DELAYED FUEL INJECTION

Southwest Research Instit...

1. A method of controlling fuel injection to cylinders of an internal combustion engine, the internal combustion engine having exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) from at least one dedicated EGR (D-EGR) cylinder, with the other cylinders being main cylinders, comprising:recirculating exhaust gas from the at least one D-EGR cylinder in an EGR loop that routes recirculated exhaust gas back to an intake manifold of the internal combustion engine where the recirculated exhaust gas is mixed with fresh intake air;
estimating a net IMEP (indicated mean effective pressure) of the at least one D-EGR cylinder;
estimating a net IMEP of the main cylinders;
comparing the net IMEP of the at least one D-EGR cylinder to the net IMEP of the main cylinders to determine an IMEP relationship between the main cylinders and the at least one D-EGR cylinder;
for the main cylinders: beginning fuel injection at a main cylinder injection time;
for only the at least one D-EGR cylinder: delaying the start of fuel injection by a calculated delay time after the main cylinder injection time,
wherein the calculated delay time is determined in response to the results of the comparing step and is determined such the calculated delay time results in a desired IMEP relationship between the net IMEP of the main cylinders and the net IMEP of the at least one D-EGR cylinder;
for the main cylinders, providing fuel injection at a stoichiometric equivalence ratio;
for the at least one D-EGR cylinder, providing fuel injection at a rich equivalence ratio.
US Pat. No. 10,350,200

AQUEOUS SUSPENSIONS OF OXIMES FOR AUTOINJECTORS

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1. An aqueous formulation comprising a mixture of:2-pyridine aldoxime methyl chloride at an average particle size in the range of 30.0 ?m to 50.0 ?m present at a level of at least about 600 mg; and
water in the range of about 205 mg to about 550 mg, wherein the volume of the formulation is in the range of 0.7 cc to 1.0 cc,
wherein said formulation remains stable over a temperature range of ?20° C. to 70° C.

US Pat. No. 10,266,774

FEEDSTOCK CONVERSION TO FUEL ON HIGH PRESSURE CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED

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1. A process for the production of fuel product components comprising:(a) providing in a reaction vessel a carbonaceous feedstock, a lift gas mixture of inert gas components, hydrogen, water, methane, a fluidized bed of inert particulate solids, a steam reformation catalyst, and a hydrogenation catalyst; and
(b) simultaneously (1) pyrolyzing and hydrotreating the carbonaceous feedstock to form said fuel product components and (2) steam reforming said methane to form carbon monoxide and hydrogen under a temperature and pressure such that at least one of the carbonaceous feedstock, lift gas mixture of inert gas components, hydrogen, water, or fuel product components is a supercritical fluid, wherein:
(i) said pressure is at least 22.1 MPa,
(ii) the carbonaceous feedstock has a residence time in said reaction vessel of less than or equal to 5.0 seconds, and
(iii) the steam reformation catalyst comprises a Ni-M composition, wherein M is selected from the group consisting of gold, silver, tin, copper, cobalt, iron, gadolinium, and boron.

US Pat. No. 10,267,603

OFF-AXIS ANNULAR PRECISION INITIATION CHARGE

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1. An apparatus comprising:a substrate body comprising a top end, an opposing bottom end and a curved outer surface positioned there between;
a clear sight bore aperture centered at a longitudinal axis of the substrate body;
a trunk line extending along the substrate body, the trunk line having a first end positioned at a top end of the substrate body, off-center from the longitudinal axis, the first end of the trunk line configured to couple to a detonator;
a plurality of helical tracks extending along the substrate body, a respective first end of each helical track coupled to the trunk line; and
a plurality of terminations adjacent the bottom end of the substrate body, one termination coupled to the trunk line at a second end of the trunk line, the second end opposing the first end and each remaining termination coupled to a respective helical track,
the trunk line, the plurality of helical tracks and the plurality of terminations containing an explosive material.

US Pat. No. 10,246,347

BIOCHAR TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED WATER

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1. A method for treatment of water to produce recycled water comprising:providing water for treatment containing organic and inorganic contaminants;
filtering the water containing organic and inorganic contaminants through a particulate filter to remove 60 mesh or larger particulate contaminants present in the water thereby providing filtered water containing organic and inorganic contaminants;
supplying a plurality of biochar sorbent bed pairs, each biochar sorbent bed pair including a first biochar sorbent bed and a second biochar sorbent bed arranged in parallel such that flow alternates between the first biochar sorbent bed and the second biochar sorbent bed,wherein biochar contained in said biochar sorbent beds is made by heating biomass in a low or no oxygen environment for 1.0-3.0 hours a temperature of 300° C. to 600° C. to provide biochar sorbent having a surface area in the range of 200 m2-500 m2;supplying said filtered water containing organic and inorganic contaminants to at least one biochar sorbent bed in at least one of said plurality of biochar sorbent bed pairs wherein said biochar removes all or a portion of said contaminants to produce recycled water;
recovering said recycled water wherein said levels of contaminants are reduced or removed;
regenerating said at least one biochar sorbent bed in at least one of said plurality of biochar sorbent bed pairs using steam to remove at least a portion of said contaminants from said at least one biochar sorbent bed followed by washing the biochar absorbent bed with a solution of sodium carbonate to precipitate and remove metal ions from the biochar absorbent bed; and
recycling at least a portion of a condensate from said steam used to regenerate said at least one biochar sorbent bed to said particulate filter.

US Pat. No. 10,161,283

UREA DEPOSIT DETECTION FOR USE WITH SCR EMISSIONS CONTROL SYSTEM

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of detecting urea-derived deposits in the exhaust line of an internal combustion engine, comprising:providing the engine with an SCR (selective catalyst reduction) aftertreatment system with an injector, mixer, and SCR catalyst;
identifying a region of interest within the exhaust line between the injector and the mixer likely to collect deposits;
placing a radio frequency (RF) transmitter upstream of the region of interest;
placing an RF receiver in the exhaust line downstream of the region of interest;
placing a first temperature sensor at a location to measure the temperature of exhaust upstream of the region of interest;
placing a second temperature sensor at a location to measure the temperature of exhaust downstream of the region of interest;
during operation of the engine, using the RF transmitter and the RF receiver to acquire baseline data representing a clean condition of the region of interest without deposits;
storing the baseline data in a processor;
during subsequent operation of the engine, using the transmitter and receiver to acquire RF response data representing overall density in the region of interest;
using temperature data from the first temperature sensor and from the second temperature sensor to calculate a density correction factor due to gas density within the region of interest;
using the temperature correction factor to isolate changes in density within the region of interest due to deposits from changes in density within the region of interest due to gas temperature, thereby determining corrected RF response data;
using the processor to compare the baseline data to the corrected RF response data; and
if the comparison indicates the presence of one or more deposits, using the processor to generate an alert signal.
US Pat. No. 10,117,859

DOSAGE SUSPENSIONS OF ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENTS

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1. A method for forming a drug suspension comprising:a) providing a first active pharmaceutical ingredient (API-1);
b) providing a second active pharmaceutical ingredient (API-2);
c) co-dissolving said API-1 and API-2 in a common solvent;
d) removing said solvent and recovering a mixture of API-1 and API-2; and
e) forming said drug suspension of said mixture of API-1 and API-2 in a liquid carrier, wherein in said drug suspension, API-1 is present at a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL to 10.0 mg/mL and API-2 is present at a concentration of 20.0 mg/mL to 800 mg/mL.

US Pat. No. 10,123,294

MEDIA ACCESS CONTROL METHOD WITH TIME-COHERENCE AND DETERMINISTIC SCHEDULING FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK

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1. A method of synchronizing the transmission and receipt of messages by radios within a wireless communications network, each radio having a chip scale atomic clock, comprising:placing each radio in sleep mode, such that its receive and transmit circuitry is inactive, and such that each radio remains in sleep mode unless that radio is directed to transmit or listen for a message;
storing a channel plan in memory of each radio, the channel plan representing a set of pre-determined base transmit times, which are used to determine transmit opportunities in lieu of a timing signal;
wherein the channel plan is based on a shared algorithm that provides a transmit pattern with random delays between transmit opportunities, such that the start of each transmission opportunity is determined by a shared seed and a random time delay generator;
continuously estimating worst case time drift values between clocks within the network;
continuously estimating propagation delay values between each combination of radios;
beginning at each base transmit time, performing the following steps by each radio: if a radio has an outgoing message to transmit to a receiving radio, subtracting a value representing a current propagation delay to the receiving radio from the base transmit time, thereby determining an actual transmit time; at the actual transmit time, removing the transmitting circuitry from sleep mode and delivering the outgoing message; returning to sleep mode after the outgoing message is transmitted; subtracting a current time drift value from the base transmit time, thereby determining a receive time window; during each receive time window, removing the receiving circuitry from sleep mode and receiving an incoming message from the other radio; and returning to sleep mode after the incoming message is received;
wherein any radio is capable of receiving an incoming message at the same time in response to the same base transmit time.

US Pat. No. 10,662,766

SEALING DEVICE TEST SYSTEMS AND METHODS

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1. A test apparatus, comprising:a shaft having a first end and a second end and a first diameter;
an axial force measurement device coupled to the first end of the shaft wherein said axial force measurement device measure the force to reciprocate the shaft;
a first seal assembly under test disposed about a perimeter of the shaft
a second seal assembly under test disposed about the perimeter of the shaft, the second seal assembly spaced apart from the first seal assembly;
a body including a bore extending completely through the body, the bore having a second diameter that is larger than the first diameter, the bore to receive the shaft such that a reciprocating fluid-tight cavity forms between the first seal assembly and the second seal assembly;
an inlet port fluidly coupled to the enclosed chamber; and
an outlet port fluidly coupled to the enclosed chamber.

US Pat. No. 10,574,320

MATRIX METHODS TO SPEED PROCESSING FOR MVDR BEAMFORMING

Southwest Research Instit...

1. A method of performing efficient downdating and updating calculations for a Minimum Variance Distortionless Response (MVDR) adaptive beamforming system having an array of antenna elements, comprising:calculating weights for the antenna elements, using an MVDR algorithm that calculates the weights based on a covariance matrix, input data values, and steering vector values;
performing a Cholesky factorization of the covariance matrix;
wherein the MVDR algorithm has a downdating term and an updating term, for downdating and updating the Cholesky factorization, respectively;
combining upper and lower Cholesky factors of the covariance matrix with input data vectors and steering vectors during computation of the MVDR algorithm, thereby generating pre-whitened input data vectors and steering vectors, as an alternative to re-forming and inverting the covariance matrix;
for downdating, subtracting the downdating term from a previous value of the Cholesky factorization; and
for updating, adding the updating term to the difference between the Cholesky factorization and the downdating term;
wherein a unitary matrix is formed to represent a downdating or updating transformation.

US Pat. No. 10,316,970

TI—SI—C—N PISTON RING COATINGS

Southwest Research Instit...

1. A coated piston ring, comprising:a split ring formed of an iron based alloy including a surface;
a Ti—Si—C—N coating including titanium present in the range of 35 to 49 atomic percent, silicon present in the range of 1 to 5 atomic percent, carbon present in the range of 17 to 41 atomic percent, and nitrogen present in the range of 19 to 35 atomic percent deposited on said surface having a thickness in the range of 10.0 micrometers to 40.0 micrometers that exhibits a coefficient of friction of less than 0.15, a wear rate of less than 10×10?6 mm3/N/m, and a nanohardness in the range of 10.0 GPa to 30.0 GPa, wherein said coefficient of friction is measured using a Plint TE77 testing apparatus using 10W-30 oil maintained at 35° C. as a lubricant, under a force of 30 N, and at a sliding frequency of 5 to 20 Hz, and said wear rate is measured against an alumina ball of 0.25 inches in diameter at a load of 1 N at 100 rpm in a dry environment,
wherein said Ti—Si—C—N coating includes nanocrystalline phases having a grain size in the range of 3 nm to 10 nm in an amorphous matrix, wherein said nanocrystalline phases include TiCxNy, wherein x is in the range of 0.00 to 1.00 and y is in the range of 1.00 to 0.00.

US Pat. No. 10,120,035

MONITORING AND CONTROL OF ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL DEGRADATION VIA STRAIN BASED BATTERY TESTING

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1. A computer-implemented method for monitoring and control of electrochemical cell degradation and state of health (SOH) of a battery comprising:applying a strain gauge to said battery;
measuring a first strain of said battery (S1) using said strain gauge at an initial state of said battery ?;
exposing said battery to charge/discharge cycling;
measuring a second strain ? of said battery (S2) after said charge/discharge cycling, using said strain gauge, wherein said second strain is equal to ?o+??, where ?? is the measured change in strain;
determining, by a controller, said measured change in strain ?? based on said measured first (S1) strain and said measured second strain (S2) of said battery, wherein said measured change in strain ?? is a function of battery voltage and the rate of change of said battery SOH varies with respect to strain;
determining, by the controller, a change in the SOH of said battery after said charge/discharge cycling; and
subsequent to determining the change in the SOH of said battery after said charge/discharge cycling, exposing said battery to a revival cycle comprising thermal treatment based on the SOH of said battery.

US Pat. No. 10,627,370

ADDITIVE MANUFACTURE OF METAL OBJECTS; INSPECTION AND PART VALIDATION

Southwest Research Instit...

1. A method of testing the material of a metal object made by an additive manufacturing process, comprising:acquiring a calibration value from a known good object made by the same additive manufacturing process, using an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT);
using the EMAT to transmit transmitted acoustic signals into the object;
wherein the transmitted acoustic signals have a time duration exceeding the usual time to reverberate within the material of the object;
using the EMAT to receive a response signal representing resonance of acoustic waves within the material;
identifying at least one resonance peak in the response signal;
measuring the time for the response signal to decay from the resonance peak;
determining measured attenuation value based on the measuring step;
comparing the measured attenuation value to the calibration value; and
evaluating porosity of the material, based on the comparing step.

US Pat. No. 10,576,077

PHARMACEUTICAL SALT FORMS OF CEPHARANTHINE AND TETRANDRINE

Southwest Research Instit...

1. A method of forming an enteric formulation of Cepharanthine.2HCl comprising:(a) providing Cepharanthine and dissolving in ethyl acetate containing hydrochloric acid and forming the dihydrochloride salt of Cepharanthine comprising Cepharanthine.2HCl of the following formula:

(b) recrystallizing said Cepharanthine.2HCl salt from an ethanol-water solution and forming a mixture of at least two polymorphs at a purity of ?99.4% wherein said polymorphs indicate a distinct x-ray diffraction peak at 2? angles of 5.5 or 8.9;
(c) introducing said recrystallized Cepharanthine.2HCl in combination with a polymer into a mixture of a water soluble organic solvent containing water to provide a liquid mobile phase;
(d) forming a solid enteric formulation from said liquid mobile phase to produce an enteric particle containing an amorphous liquid crystal form of said Cepharanthine.2HCl salt wherein said amorphous liquid crystal form indicates an amorphous x-ray diffraction pattern comprising a first peak distributed over a 20 range of 7° to 22° and a second peak distributed over a 20 range of 25° to 35°.

US Pat. No. 10,466,206

NON DESTRUCTIVE MAGNETOSTRICTIVE TESTING WITH UNIDIRECTIONAL GUIDED WAVES GENERATED BY FERROMAGNETIC STRIP SENSOR

Southwest Research Instit...

1. A sensor for use in magnetostrictive testing of a structure, comprising:a strip made from a ferromagnetic material, and having a first dimension and a second dimension, the first dimension having a center axis;
an electrical coil wrapped around the second dimension of the strip;
a magnet attached to the strip located along the first dimension of the strip but offset from the center axis, such that the magnet asymmetrically magnetizes the second dimension of the strip;
wherein the magnet is arranged in a fixed location relative to the strip to produce, upon excitation of the electrical coil, a first wave that travels in opposite directions within the strip, and in one of the directions is reflected by an edge of the strip to form a second wave that constructively superimposes the first wave in the other of the directions;
wherein the sensor is operable to generate guided waves that travel within the structure and remain predominant in one direction within the structure.

US Pat. No. 10,378,411

DOSING METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR REDUCTANT UREA SOLUTIONS WITH CATALYST PRECURSORS TO ASSIST SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION

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1. A method of reducing oxides of nitrogen in a diesel engine producing diesel exhaust comprising:providing a first reservoir of diesel emission fluid containing an aqueous based urea solution;
providing a second reservoir of a catalyst precursor containing an organometallic compound dissolved in water;
mixing said diesel emission fluid and said water soluble organometallic compound and introducing said mixture into said diesel exhaust wherein the urea converts to ammonia and isocyanic acid and said catalyst precursor converts to a catalyst;
converting the isocyanic acid to ammonia with said catalyst wherein the ammonia is provided to a selective catalytic reduction system and reacts with the oxides of nitrogen and provides nitrogen and water.

US Pat. No. 10,277,520

PACKET TRANSFER BUFFER FOR COMPUTER SYSTEM WITH MULTIPLE SOURCE AND DESTINATION INTERFACES

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1. A packet transfer buffer for buffering packet data transfers between a source device and a destination device of a computing system, the computing system having packet handling software, the buffer comprising:a source packet FIFO (first-in first-out) buffer;
a source packet length counter;
wherein the source packet FIFO is configured to deliver end of packet bit signals to the source packet length counter;
wherein the source packet length counter is configured to count packet lengths and to output the end of packet bit signals and packet length values;
a destination packet FIFO;
a destination packet length counter, configured to receive the packet length values from the packet handling software and to generate destination data-in strobe signals;
a data bus for directly communicating packet data into the source packet FIFO, from the source packet FIFO to the destination packet FIFO, and out of the destination packet FIFO;
an indexed packet array configured to receive the end of packet bit signals and packet length values from the source packet length counter, and to output an end of packet flag signal and the packet length values;
a state machine configured to respond to the end of packet bit signals, to increment a read pointer and a write pointer to the indexed packet array, and to control read signals to the source packet FIFO and write signals to the destination packet FIFO;
wherein the packet transfer buffer is implemented solely with hardware devices, and has external communication only with the packet handling software and only by receiving the end of packet flag bit signals and indexed packet length values from the indexed packet array for delivery to the packet handling software and by receiving packet length values from the packet handling software for delivery to the destination packet length counter.

US Pat. No. 10,233,809

APPARATUS AND METHODS FOR EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION FOR AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE POWERED BY A HYDROCARBON FUEL

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1. A method to process exhaust gas expelled from at least one cylinder of a plurality of cylinders of an internal combustion engine, the method comprising:providing an internal combustion engine, wherein the engine includes an exhaust turbine, an exhaust gas recirculation passage, a catalytic converter, an injection device and a steam hydrocarbon reformer, including a steam reformation catalyst,
wherein the exhaust gas recirculation passage is located downstream of the exhaust turbine and upstream of the catalytic converter,
wherein the exhaust gas recirculation passage of the engine located downstream of the exhaust turbine and upstream of the catalytic converter includes the steam hydrocarbon reformer and the injection device, and
wherein the injection device is located in the exhaust gas recirculation passage upstream of the steam hydrocarbon reformer;
forming a mixture of air and treated exhaust gas to enter the cylinders of the engine, wherein the mixture of air and treated exhaust gas is formed before entering the cylinders of the engine;
introducing hydrocarbon as a fuel, and the mixture of air and treated exhaust gas, into the cylinders of the engine, wherein the hydrocarbon fuel is not from the mixture of air and treated exhaust gas;
operating the engine such that internal combustion occurs in the cylinders of the engine;
generating untreated exhaust gas in the cylinders of the engine;
expelling the untreated exhaust gas from the cylinders of the engine through the exhaust turbine to the exhaust gas recirculation passage, wherein the untreated exhaust gas contains: (1) unreacted hydrocarbon and water; or (2) water and no hydrocarbon;
wherein in the case that the untreated exhaust gas contains unreacted hydrocarbon and water, optionally introducing additional hydrocarbon to the untreated exhaust gas using the injection device such that the additional hydrocarbon is introduced in the exhaust gas recirculation passage of the engine upstream of the steam hydrocarbon reformer, and when the untreated exhaust gas contains water and no hydrocarbon, introducing hydrocarbon to the untreated exhaust gas using the injection device such that the hydrocarbon is introduced in the exhaust gas recirculation passage of the engine upstream of the steam hydrocarbon reformer;
introducing the untreated exhaust gas containing the hydrocarbon and water into the steam hydrocarbon reformer;
treating the untreated exhaust gas containing the hydrocarbon and water by reacting the hydrocarbon and water in the untreated exhaust gas in the presence of the steam reformation catalyst in the steam hydrocarbon reformer to provide treated exhaust gas, wherein the treated exhaust gas includes carbon monoxide gas and hydrogen gas produced from the reaction; and
mixing the treated exhaust gas, including the carbon monoxide gas and hydrogen gas produced in the steam hydrocarbon reformer, with air to provide the mixture of air and treated exhaust gas introduced into the cylinders of the engine.

US Pat. No. 10,671,093

AZIMUTHAL POINTING SYSTEM FOR SCIENTIFIC BALLOONING

Southwest Research Instit...

1. An apparatus comprising:calibration circuitry configured to determine a pendulation rate (?P) of a torsion pendulum suspended from a balloon, the torsion pendulum comprising a torsion member, a payload and a motor, the payload coupled to the torsion member by the motor;
steering circuitry configured to drive the motor to adjust a twist angle (?L) of the torsion member, the adjusting the twist angle configured to adjust a payload pointing angle (?S) to a new target pointing angle or maintain the payload pointing angle to within a predetermined tolerance of a current target payload pointing angle;
wherein the steering circuitry is configured to determine a target motor displacement angle (??M,target) based, at least in part, on a target payload angular velocity (?S,target), based, at least in part, on the pendulation rate (?P) and based, at least in part, on the target payload pointing angle, and wherein the target payload angular velocity (?S,target) is determined at a start of a first time interval having duration t1 and the motor is maintained at the target motor displacement angle for a second time interval during the first time interval, the second time interval having duration t2, t2 less than a pendulation period of the torsion pendulum.

US Pat. No. 10,633,340

SYNTHESIS OF OXIME NERVE AGENT ANTIDOTES

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A method of forming bis-quaternary pyridinium oximes comprising:supplying benzoic anhydride having the following structure:

reacting said benzoic anhydride with trioxane to form a dibenzoyloxymethyl ether having the following structure:

supplying a substituted pyridine having the following structure:

wherein R1 and R2 may be independently selected from the group consisting of consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, —CH?NOH or —CONH2;
combining said dibenzoyloxymethyl ether with said substituted pyridine and forming a salt having the following structure:

reacting said salt with a substituted pyridine having the following structure:

and forming a bis-pyridinium aldoxime salt of the following structure:

wherein R3 and R4 may be independently selected from the group consisting of consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, —CH?NOH or —CONH2 and X? comprises Cl— or ?OSO2CH3.

US Pat. No. 10,465,618

MICROWAVE ENHANCED COMBUSTION WITH DYNAMIC FREQUENCY, POWER, AND TIMING CONTROL AND WITH POWER SENSOR FOR POWER FEEDBACK

Southwest Research Instit...

1. A system for generating microwaves for microwave enhanced combustion (MEC) input to an MEC antenna of an internal combustion engine, the internal combustion engine further having at least one combustion cylinder, comprising:a microwave generator configured to generate an incident signal, the incident signal having a desired frequency and desired power;
a directional coupler for delivering the incident signal to the MEC antenna and for receiving a reflected signal from the MEC antenna;
a frequency feedback path comprising a feedback controller configured to receive the incident signal and the reflected signal from the directional coupler, to estimate impedance within the cylinder, to match the impedance to a desired frequency value, and to deliver the desired frequency value to the microwave generator;
a power feedback path configured to measure a power value of the incident signal and to determine a power correction value based on the power value;
an open loop control path comprising a feedforward controller that receives engine data and matches the engine data to a desired power;
wherein the engine data comprises at least one or more of the following engine conditions: engine position or ignition timing; and
a desired power adjuster configured to correct the desired power with the power correction value and to deliver the corrected desired power to the microwave generator.

US Pat. No. 10,432,729

AUTONOMOUS TEAM FORMATION AND TASK NEGOTIATION AMONG UNMANNED VEHICLES

Southwest Research Instit...

1. A system of autonomous vehicles for forming a team of autonomous vehicles to perform a designated set of tasks:a first autonomous vehicle having a processing system for storing a first set of agent capability data representing those of the tasks that the first autonomous vehicle is able to perform;
a second autonomous vehicle having a processing system for storing a second set of agent capability data representing those of the tasks that the second autonomous vehicle is able to perform;
one or more additional autonomous vehicles each having a processing system for storing an additional set of agent capability data representing those of the tasks that the additional autonomous vehicle is able to perform;
wherein each autonomous vehicle, after acceptance into the team, further stores needed capability data representing capabilities needed to perform the designated set of tasks, and further stores team capability data representing the capabilities of all vehicles who have joined the team;
wherein each of the autonomous vehicles is equipped with a communications system operable to send and receive at least the following types of messages: join request messages and join response messages; wherein each join request message contains received agent capabilities data representing the sending vehicle's capabilities; wherein each join response message contains team capabilities data representing the capabilities of all current team members;
wherein each of the autonomous vehicles is programmed, upon receipt of a join request message, to compare the needed capabilities data to the received capabilities data, thereby determining if there are matched capabilities, and if there are matched capabilities, to update the team capabilities data and to transmit a join response message;
wherein each of the autonomous vehicles is programmed, upon receipt of a join response message from a sending vehicle, if the message indicates the sending vehicle has joined the team, to update the team capabilities data; and
a new team member comprising a newly accepted autonomous vehicle that has been accepted into the team in response to a join request when no other autonomous vehicle and no other control process shad prior stored capabilities data representing capabilities of the newly accepted autonomous vehicle.

US Pat. No. 10,428,707

PARTIAL-FLOW DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER USING PRESSURE REGULATED BYPASS

Southwest Research Instit...

1. A system for particulate matter reduction, comprising:a diesel particulate filtration system, wherein said diesel particulate filtration system includes an inlet, a first outlet, and an exhaust path between said inlet and said first outlet, 1 to 20 diesel particulate filter elements positioned in said exhaust path between said inlet and said first outlet, a maintenance flag indicator, and a bypass valve having an opening providing a cross-section area in the range of one to 100 percent of said 1 to 20 diesel particulate filter elements,
wherein said diesel particulate filtration system is configured to have a diesel engine having a horsepower of 500 or greater operatively coupled to said inlet and said 1 to 20 diesel particulate filter elements have a total volume that is less than 1.9 times a swept volume of said diesel engine wherein said diesel engine provides a maximum allowable engine backpressure in the range of 0.4 in Hg to 10 in Hg
wherein said bypass valve is configured to open when said maximum allowable engine backpressure in the range of 0.4 in Hg to 10 in Hg is exceeded,
wherein said system further comprising a controller with control program logic that is configured to perform the steps of considering whether said maximum allowable engine backpressure is reached while operating at an engine load lower than expected to reach said maximum allowable backpressure and setting said maintenance flag indicator indicating said 1 to 20 diesel particulate filter elements are clogged when said maximum allowable backpressure is reached operating at said lower than expected engine load,
wherein when said bypass valve is closed, exhaust gas including particulate matter passes through said 1 to 20 diesel particulate filter elements and said diesel particulate filtration system removes at least 90 percent of said particulate matter from said exhaust gas, and
when said bypass valve is open, a portion of said exhaust gas passes through said 1 to 20 diesel particulate filter elements and a remainder of said exhaust gas passes through said bypass valve without the benefit of filtration wherein said diesel particulate filtration system removes at least 40 percent of said particulate matter from said exhaust gas.

US Pat. No. 10,429,855

METHOD OF DETERMINING GAP SPACING FOR VEHICLES IN PLATOONS

Southwest Research Instit...

1. A method of determining the optimum gap distance for a following vehicle in a platoon, the vehicle having a cooling fan and a coolant-based cooling system, comprising:storing a fan turn-on threshold temperature, representing a coolant temperature at or above which the cooling fan will become activated;
determining a base gap distance, representing a gap distance from another vehicle in front of the vehicle, the base gap distance based on the following vehicle's braking capability;
receiving a current coolant temperature value;
comparing the coolant temperature value to the fan turn-on threshold temperature;
if the coolant temperature is below the fan turn-on threshold temperature, operating the vehicle to maintain the base gap distance; and
if the coolant temperature is at or above the fan turn-on threshold temperature, operating the vehicle to increase the base gap distance such that the fan is not activated; and
using a feedback loop of repeated coolant temperature measurements to determine the amount of increase of the base gap distance; and
wherein coolant temperature is the only parameter used for predicting fan activation.

US Pat. No. 10,352,909

PAIRED MAGNETOSTRICTIVE TRANSDUCERS FOR NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF TUBULAR STRUCTURES WITH SELECTIVE TORSIONAL OR FLEXURAL WAVE MODES

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A magnetosrictive transducer for testing a tubular structure when placed in a probe that moves along the length of the tubular structure, comprising:a pair of electrically conductive coils wrapped around a shielding material;
wherein the coils are positioned 180 degrees apart relative to the inner circumference of the tubular structure, and each has a width corresponding to 30 degrees or less of the inner circumference of the tubular structure;
wherein each coil is wound in a direction parallel to the direction of motion of the probe;
a permanent magnet positioned between the coils, the permanent magnet being polarized in the direction of motion of the probe; and
a pulse generator electrically connected to each coil, operable to selectively activate the coils such that alternating current in the coils flows in the same direction or in opposite directions, thereby making the magnetostrictive transducer selectively operable to produce either flexural or torsional guided waves.

US Pat. No. 10,739,314

OMNI-DIRECTIONAL GUIDED WAVE TESTING OF PLATE STRUCTURES USING PROBE HAVING ROTATING GUIDED WAVE SENSOR

Southwest Research Instit...

1. A probe for use in magnetostrictive guided wave testing of a plate structure, comprising:a magnetostrictive sensor;
wherein the magnetostrictive sensor is a reversed Wiedermann effect sensor, such that it has a magnetostrictive strip, an AC excitation coil wrapped around a short dimension of the strip, and a permanent magnet atop the strip, with poles of the magnet each located along a short side of the strip;
wherein the magnetostrictive sensor is further a uni-directional sensor with the permanent magnet configured to partially magnetize the magnetostrictive strip and produce wave that travel predominantly in one direction when the sensor is activated atop the plate structure;
a cup having a flat or nearly flat bottom and raised sides;
a couplant layer partially filling the cup;
wherein the sensor is positioned near the bottom of the cup and in the couplant layer;
wherein the couplant layer is operable to couple ultrasonic energy from the sensor to the cup and to the plate structure when the cup is placed on top of the plate structure, such that ultrasonic waves travel within the plate structure under the cup and radiate outwardly within the plate in a direction parallel to the surface of the plate;
a shaft attached to the sensor; and
a motor operable to incrementally rotate the shaft, thereby rotating the sensor within the cup.

US Pat. No. 10,690,045

INTAKE AIR BOOST SYSTEM FOR TWO-CYCLE ENGINE HAVING ROOTS BLOWERS

Southwest Research Instit...

1. A throttle and air boost system for a scavenged two-cycle engine, the engine having a number of cylinders, an exhaust system, and an intake manifold, comprising:a throttle system operable to adjust engine fueling in response to operator-selected notch positions;
at least one blower operable to deliver pressurized air to the cylinders via the intake manifold, wherein the at least one blower includes at least one roots blower or at least one centrifugal blower;
wherein the at least one blower provides an airflow output of all combustion air and air necessary for scavenging of the cylinders;
wherein the at least one blower is the sole supplement to naturally aspirated air intake into the engine, receiving air intake directly from ambient air, and is operable to provide output during all operation of the engine at mid and high notch positions;
wherein the at least one blower is installed between and directly interfaces a gear box and an air box and delivers pressurized air to the air box;
a variable transmission associated with one or more of the at least one blower, operable to drive the one or more of at least one blower to a desired amount of airflow output;
a camshaft gear associated with the variable transmission, operable to drive the variable transmission;
wherein the camshaft gear and the variable transmission are installed within the gear box; and
a control unit programmed to to deliver control signals to the variable transmission to adjust the variable transmission such that the airflow output is reduced at all times during low notch positions.

US Pat. No. 10,677,456

WAVEGUIDE ANTENNA FOR MICROWAVE ENHANCED COMBUSTION

Southwest Research Instit...

1. A combustion method comprising:providing a combustor having a combustion region for introducing a combustible mixture, including an elongated waveguide antenna positioned in said combustor wherein said antenna is connected to a microwave power source and wherein said waveguide antenna indicates a thermal conductivity of at least 150 W/m?K;
introducing a combustible mixture into said combustor;
igniting said combustible mixture;
using microwave energy from said waveguide antenna to enhance combustion of said ignited mixture
wherein igniting of said combustible mixture comprises spark initiation or sufficiently compressing said combustible mixture and igniting said mixture.

US Pat. No. 10,677,460

THERMITE BAG FOR CHEMICAL / BIOLOGICAL AGENT MUNITION AND HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A thermite bag, comprising:a sealable exterior pouch;
a sealable interior pouch receivable within said exterior pouch;
a thermite charge receivable within said sealable interior pouch;
an igniter wire contacting thermite within said thermite charge;
a power supply electrically coupled to the ignitor wire;
a trigger electrically coupled to the ignitor wire and power supply;
a vent including a filter, wherein said vent is fluidly coupled to said exterior pouch; and wherein a hazardous material is positioned within a first volume defined by said sealable interior pouch with said thermite charge affixed to said hazardous material and said sealable interior pouch is positioned within a second volume defined by said sealable exterior pouch.

US Pat. No. 10,680,310

BALLOON REFLECTOR ANTENNA

The Arizona Board of Rege...

1. A balloon reflector antenna, comprising:a spherical balloon with a first hemisphere comprising a transparent surface that is transparent to electromagnetic waves and a second hemisphere, opposite the first hemisphere, comprising a reflective surface having a line of focus; and
a stationary feed system extending along one or more radial lines from a center of the spherical balloon that receives electromagnetic waves reflected off the reflective surface along the line of focus.

US Pat. No. 10,617,832

HIGH PRECISION, LOW DOSE ATOMIZER

Southwest Research Instit...

14. A method of dispensing an atomized spray from a syringe, comprising:affixing an adapter to a syringe, wherein said syringe includes: a barrel including a liquid formulation, and a cannula extending from the barrel, and said adapter comprises: an adapter guide including a side wall, an interior surface of said side wall defining a through-bore and a shoulder in said through-bore, wherein said cannula is inserted into said through-bore and said cannula includes a terminal opening, a pin guide including a seat and a sleeve extending from said seat located within said through-bore and a portion of said cannula is passed through said pin guide, a spring positioned around said pin guide sleeve and between said pin guide seat and said shoulder, wherein said spring and said sleeve provide a passageway therebetween, and a pin extending through said passageway from said pin guide and said pin is seated on said terminal opening; and
dispensing said liquid formulation from said syringe as an atomized spray.

US Pat. No. 10,612,893

VEHICULAR EXTERNAL FORCE ABSORPTION SYSTEMS AND METHODS

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A vehicular energy absorption system, comprising:a first breakaway member having a first end and a second end, the first end including a first attachment feature and the second end couplable to a vehicle external hull;
a second breakaway member having a first end and a second end, the first end including a second attachment feature complimentary to the first attachment feature to permit the operable coupling of the second breakaway member to the first breakaway member and the second end couplable to an internal vehicle structure spaced apart from the vehicle external hull;
a first curved member having a first end and a second end, the first end of the first curved member affixed proximate the second end of the first breakaway member and the second end of the first curved member affixed proximate the second end of the second breakaway member; and
a second curved member having a first end and a second end, the first end of the second curved member affixed proximate the second end of the first breakaway member and the second end of the second curved member affixed proximate the second end of the second breakaway member;
wherein the first breakaway member, the second breakaway member, the first curved member, and the second curved member include a unitary structure formed by a single member.

US Pat. No. 10,584,665

INTERNAL COMBUSTION, DEDICATED EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION ENGINE

Southwest Research Instit...

1. A method of operating an engine, comprising:inducting fuel, intake air and recirculated exhaust gas, which provides a first mixture, into a first combustion cylinder;
combusting said first mixture in said combustion cylinder wherein combustion generates a first exhaust gas that applies pressure to a piston within said combustion cylinder;
reciprocating said piston, wherein said piston is coupled to a primary crankshaft, and rotating said primary crankshaft;
exhausting said first exhaust gas;
inducting fuel and intake air, which provides a second mixture, into a rotary combustion chamber, wherein said rotary combustion chamber is formed by a rotor in a rotor housing;
combusting said second mixture in said rotary combustion chamber, wherein said combustion generates a recirculated exhaust gas that applies pressure to said rotor;
rotating said rotor, which is coupled to a secondary crankshaft, and rotating said secondary crankshaft, wherein said secondary crankshaft is coupled to said primary crankshaft by a gear mechanism;
exhausting said recirculated exhaust gas into an exhaust gas recirculation loop; and
recirculating said recirculated exhaust gas.

US Pat. No. 10,369,742

REINFORCEMENT SYSTEM FOR ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, DEVICES AND METHODS USING THE SAME

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. A print head assembly for additive manufacturing, comprising:a print head configured to deposit a plurality of layers during the production of an additively manufactured article; and
a reinforcement head configured to form at least one reinforcement element on or within a working layer of said plurality of layers;wherein:said at least one reinforcement element comprises a reinforcement structure;
said reinforcement head comprises:
a housing comprising an opening; and
a biasing member;
the biasing member is movable between a retracted position and an extended position;
in the retracted position the biasing member is disposed within said housing; and
in the extended position at least a portion of the biasing member extends out of the opening and is at least partially inserted into the working layer to form said at least one reinforcement element.

US Pat. No. 10,317,332

SYSTEM, APPARATUS OR METHOD FOR CHARACTERIZING PITTING CORROSION

Southwest Research Instit...

1. A computer-implemented method for identifying corrosion surface pits on a metal surface comprising:receiving, by a processor, measurements corresponding to a plurality of pits on the metal surface from a profilometer, said measurements including a value of x, y, and z for each pit of said plurality of pits, where x and y are positions on the metal surface and z is the depth, wherein said metal surface has a surface incline and curvature;
correcting, by the processor, for the presence of surface incline and curvature by initially fitting the values of x, y, and z into the following relationship:
zplane(x,y)=a+bx+cx2+dy+ey2+fxy  (1)
wherein the coefficients a, b, c, d, e and f are all real numbers and vary according to the incline and curvature of the metal surface;
identifying, by the processor, a collection of differences, ?z=zmeas?zplane, that satisfy the expression below
|?z|=|zmeas?zplane|?zo
where zmeas is the measured value of the z coordinate at a given x, y location on the metallic surface and zplane is the value of z at that location according to equation (1), and zo is assigned a depth value (=?dpit) that is selected to compensate for the precision of the profilometer and the surface roughness present and not due to corrosion;
mapping of pit depths, by the processor, that are less than dpit into a two-dimensional matrix of pixels (M), wherein a value of ?z of greater than dpit is ignored and an associated pixel is assigned a value of zero, and a value of ?z of less than dpit is entered and mapped into said two-dimensional matrix of pixels (M);
identifying, by the processor, pit depths in said two-dimensional matrix of pixels (M) associated with corrosion by mapping a group of spikes within proximity of each other based on corresponding pixel values;
identifying, by the processor, pit depths in said two-dimensional matrix of pixels (M) associated with surface roughness based on isolated spikes represented within corresponding pixel values; and
producing a view of the metal surface that visually identifies a relative position of the identified pit depths associated with corrosion.

US Pat. No. 10,774,715

STABILIZATION OF AQUEOUS UREA SOLUTIONS CONTAINING ORGANOMETALLIC CATALYST PRECURSORS

Southwest Research Instit...

1. A method of controlling tie a pH level of a diesel emission fluid comprising:(a) providing a diesel emission fluid reservoir containing an aqueous based urea solution including a catalyst precursor comprising a water soluble organometallic compound, wherein said reservoir includes a pH probe to monitor a pH of said solution;
(b) controlling the pH to a value of ?10.0.

US Pat. No. 10,775,136

EDGE-ON ARMOR SYSTEM WITH TRANSLATING AND ROTATING ARMOR PANELS

Southwest Research Instit...

1. An armor system for protecting equipment against projectiles and similar threats, comprising:a track mounted on the equipment;
an upper sled moveably attached to the track; a lower sled moveably attached to the track; wherein the upper sled and lower sled are independently moveable along the track;
at least one armor panel having rectangular dimensions, with a length, width, and thickness, and having a projectile-facing edge and an equipment-facing edge;
wherein the armor panel is pivotally connected to the upper sled at the equipment-facing edge;
at least one arm for connecting the armor panel, at a point along its length, to the lower sled, wherein the connections are pivotal at both ends of the arm; and
an actuator for providing translational motion to the upper sled and the lower sled;
wherein the actuator controls the translational motion of the upper sled independently of the motion of the lower sled.

US Pat. No. 10,753,246

TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCING EXHAUST GAS WITH CONTROLLED HYDROCARBON SPECIATION

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTIT...

1. An apparatus for producing exhaust gas, comprising:a burner coupled to a burner fuel inlet;
an exhaust pipe coupled to the burner;
a hot fuel inlet coupled to the exhaust gas pipe; and
a cool fuel inlet coupled to the exhaust gas pipe downstream of the hot fuel inlet;
wherein,
the burner is configured to produce an exhaust gas stream with a first hydrocarbon speciation profile by combusting primary fuel provided via the burner fuel inlet;
the exhaust gas pipe is configured to receive the exhaust gas stream;
at least first and second exhaust gas temperature regions are present within the exhaust gas pipe when the primary fuel is combusted;
the hot fuel inlet is configured to deliver a first supplemental fuel into the exhaust gas stream within a portion of the exhaust gas pipe corresponding to the first exhaust gas temperature region;
the cool fuel inlet is configured to deliver a second supplemental fuel into the exhaust gas stream within a portion of the exhaust gas pipe corresponding to the second exhaust gas temperature region;
addition of the first supplemental fuel, the second supplemental fuel, or a combination of the first and the second supplemental fuels into the exhaust gas stream adjusts the first hydrocarbon speciation profile to a second hydrocarbon speciation profile different from the first hydrocarbon speciation profile;
a metering unit fluidly coupled to at least the hot fuel inlet and the cool fuel inlet, wherein the metering unit is configured to add the first supplemental fuel to the hot fuel inlet and to add the second supplemental fuel to the cool fuel inlet; and
a controller, wherein the controller is configured to transmit at least one control signal to the metering unit, the at least one control signal configured to cause the metering unit to adjust one or more of a flow of the first supplemental fuel to the hot fuel inlet and a flow of the second supplemental fuel to the cool fuel inlet so as to adjust the first hydrocarbon speciation profile such that the second hydrocarbon speciation profile is within a threshold range of a target hydrocarbon speciation profile.

US Pat. No. 10,722,856

MULTI-DISK SPINNING DISK ASSEMBLY FOR ATOMIZATION AND ENCAPSULATION

Southwest Research Instit...

1. A multi-disk spinning disk assembly for atomizing or encapsulating fluids during rotation of the assembly, comprising:a disk stack, comprising a number of annular disks arranged one atop the other, each disk having a center opening;
an annular spacer associated with each disk, each spacer having a center opening and having a radius the same as or smaller than that of each disk;
the disk stack further comprising a spacing disk atop each spacer, each spacing disk having a center opening the same size as the center opening of the annular disks and having a radius smaller than that of the annular disks;
wherein the spacing disks are arranged in a plane parallel to the plane of the annular disks to provide a gap between the bottom of each annular disk and the top of each spacer, from which the fluid exits circumferentially from the disk stack when the disk stack is rotating;
wherein the spacing disks are removeable from, and exchangeable in, the disk stack;
an inner well within the disk stack, the inner well defined by arranging the spacers between disks such that the center openings of the spacers, the center openings of the annular disks, and the center openings of the spacing disks form the inner well, and such that the inner well is perpendicular to the plane of the disks;
and wherein each spacer has solid portions extending radially from the inner well toward the outer edge of the spacer, each solid portion blocking flow of the fluids between the disk above and below the spacer;
wherein each spacer further has a plurality of channels between the solid portions, each channel operable to provide fluid communication in a path extending from the inner well to the outer periphery of the spacer, and the path being entirely parallel to the plane of the disks or sloped in a single direction.

US Pat. No. 10,513,992

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE HAVING DEDICATED EGR CYLINDER(S) WITH SPLIT INTAKE AND CYLINDER DEACTIVATION AT LOW LOADS

Southwest Research Instit...

1. A method of operating a split intake D-EGR (dedicated exhaust gas recirculation) engine having at least one D-EGR cylinder and a number of non-EGR cylinders, the D-EGR cylinder(s) having a separate air intake line from the main throttle and intake manifold of the non-EGR cylinders and delivering EGR to the non-EGR cylinders via an EGR loop, comprising:providing the engine with a D-EGR valve, for controlling intake of recirculated exhaust to non-EGR cylinders;
providing the engine with a D-EGR throttle on the separate air intake line;
providing the engine with a three-way valve,
selectively operable to allow no exhaust from the non-EGR cylinders to be exhausted from the engine or to allow no exhaust from the D-EGR cylinder(s) to be exhausted from the engine;
during operation of the engine, determining whether the engine is in a low load operating condition;
if the engine is in a low load operating condition, performing either a first cylinder deactivation mode or a second cylinder deactivation mode;
wherein the first cylinder deactivation mode is performed by disabling fuel delivery to the D-EGR cylinder(s), closing the D-EGR throttle, closing the D-EGR valve, and operating the three-way valve such that no exhaust from the D-EGR cylinder(s) is exhausted;
wherein the second cylinder deactivation mode is performed by disabling fuel delivery to the non-EGR cylinders, opening the D-EGR throttle, closing the D-EGR valve, closing the main throttle, and operating the three-way valve such that no exhaust from the main cylinders is exhausted.

US Pat. No. 10,478,488

LIPOSOMAL FLU VACCINE FORMULATION

Southwest Research Instit...

1. An immunogenic composition comprising:an oligopeptide consisting of the sequence set forth by SEQ ID NO: 1;
an oligopeptide consisting of the sequence set forth by SEQ ID NO: 2;
an oligopeptide consisting of the sequence set forth by SEQ ID NO: 3;
an oligopeptide consisting of the sequence set forth by SEQ ID NO: 4;
an oligopeptide consisting of the sequence set forth by SEQ ID NO: 5;
an oligopeptide consisting of the sequence set forth by SEQ ID NO: 6;
an oligopeptide consisting of the sequence set forth by SEQ ID NO: 7;
an oligopeptide consisting of the sequence set forth by SEQ ID NO: 8;
an oligopeptide consisting of the sequence set forth by SEQ ID NO: 9; and
an oligopeptide consisting of the sequence set forth by SEQ ID NO: 10.