US Pat. No. 9,293,830

ANTENNA ELEMENT WITH HIGH GAIN TOWARD THE HORIZON

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, C...

1. An air-to-ground network communication device, the device comprising:
a conductive groundplane disposed to be substantially parallel to a surface of the earth; and
an antenna element having an omni-directional radiation pattern, the antenna element extending substantially perpendicularly
away from the groundplane and having an effective length between about 1? to about 1.5?, wherein the antenna element is disposed
at a distance of about 0.5? to about 1? from the groundplane,

wherein the antenna element comprises a dipole element.

US Pat. No. 9,444,132

PLASMA AVIATION ANTENNA

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, C...

1. An aircraft window comprising:
an enclosure configured to be provided in a window opening of an aircraft;
a receiving space defined in the enclosure;
a plasma antenna element provided within the receiving space, the plasma antenna element being operably coupled to a controller
to provide control of operation of the plasma antenna element over a selectable range or frequencies, the plasma antenna element
including one or more RF-conductive plasma discharge tubes that are selectively ionizable to a plasma state under control
of the controller; and

a metal antenna element operably coupled to the controller,
wherein the plasma antenna element is controlled by the controller to collimate, reflect or block portions of a radiation
pattern of the metal antenna element to facilitate beam steering.

US Pat. No. 9,503,912

WEDGE SHAPED CELLS IN A WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, C...

1. A network for providing air-to-ground (ATG) wireless communication in various cells, comprising:
a first base station array, each base station of which includes a respective first antenna array defining a directional radiation
pattern that is oriented in a first direction, wherein each base station of the first base station array is disposed spaced
apart from another base station of the first base station array along the first direction; and

a second base station array, each base station of which includes a respective second antenna array defining a directional
radiation pattern that is oriented in the first direction, wherein each base station of the second base station array is disposed
spaced apart from another base station of the second base station array along the first direction, and wherein the second
base station array extends substantially parallel to the first base station array and is spaced apart from the first base
station array to form continuous and at least partially overlapping cell coverage areas between respective base stations of
the first and second base station arrays,

wherein directional radiation patterns of the base stations of the first base station array and the second base station array
each define substantially wedge shaped radiation patterns,

wherein the direction radiation patterns of adjacent base stations of the first base station array overlap each other to extend
coverage of the first base station array up to a predetermined altitude, and directional radiation patterns of adjacent base
stations of overlap each other to extend coverage of the second base station array up to the predetermined altitude; and

wherein for a given base station of each of the first and second base station arrays, coverage up to the predetermined altitude
immediately above the given base station is provided by at least one other base station of the corresponding base station
array.

US Pat. No. 9,325,793

SMART AVIATION DYNAMIC COOKIE

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, C...

1. An information manager comprising processing circuitry configured to:
receive dynamic aircraft information associated with operation of an in-flight aircraft, the dynamic aircraft information
comprising current position information of the in-flight aircraft;

receive a message from a communication device on the in-flight aircraft for transmission to a ground based content server
via a wireless communication network capable of communicating with in-flight assets;

intercept an HTTP or web cookie associated with the message; and
modify the HTTP or web cookie to generate an aviation cookie for communication to the content server along with the message,
the aviation cookie being generated by modification of the HTTP or web cookie to include information indicative of the current
position information of the in-flight aircraft such that the aviation cookie enables the content server to generate content
based at least in part on the current position information of the in-flight aircraft.

US Pat. No. 9,294,933

WEDGE SHAPED CELLS IN A WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, C...

1. A network for providing air-to-ground (ATG) wireless communication in various cells, comprising:
a first base station array, each base station of which includes a respective first antenna array defining a directional radiation
pattern that is oriented in a first direction, wherein each base station of the first base station array is disposed spaced
apart from another base station of the first base station array along the first direction by a first distance; and

a second base station array, each base station of which includes a respective second antenna array defining a directional
radiation pattern that is oriented in the first direction, wherein each base station of the second base station array is disposed
spaced apart from another base station of the second base station array along the first direction by the first distance, and
wherein the second base station array extends substantially parallel to the first base station array and is spaced apart from
the first base station array by a second distance to form continuous and at least partially overlapping cell coverage areas
between respective base stations of the first and second base station arrays,

wherein directional radiation patterns of the base stations of the first base station array each define substantially wedge
shaped radiation patterns that overlap each other to extend coverage of the first base station array up to a predetermined
altitude, and directional patterns of the second base station array each also define substantially wedge shaped radiation
patterns that overlap each other to extend coverage of the second base station array up to the predetermined altitude.

US Pat. No. 9,380,465

NETWORK DESIGN IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, C...

1. A method for generating an air-to-ground (ATG) network design in an automated design system comprising input interfaces
and output interfaces based on existing network assets, the method comprising:
receiving a request at an input interface, the request comprising network design criteria specifying existing wireless network
assets and an ATG wireless communication technology;

determining one or more parameters regarding a plurality of existing wireless network assets used to provide support for a
ground based wireless communication technology;

obtaining a multidimensional set of technology specific criteria of the ATG wireless communication technology necessary to
implement the ATG network;

automatically analyzing the plurality of existing wireless network assets for supporting equipment of the ATG wireless communication
technology at least in part by comparing the set of specified criteria defining technology specific considerations for ATG
communication to the one or more determined parameters to determine a subset of the plurality of existing wireless network
assets; and

generating, at the output interface, an indication of the subset of the plurality of existing wireless network assets for
supporting the equipment of the ATG wireless communication technology;

wherein the ATG wireless communication technology is technology for wireless communications between air vehicles and ground
based communication equipment.

US Pat. No. 9,497,640

CONCENTRIC CELLS IN A WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

Smartsky Networks LLC, C...

1. A base station for providing air-to-ground (ATG) wireless communication over various altitudes of an ATG cell, the base
station comprising:
a first antenna array comprising one or more antennas configured to form a first cell coverage area extending substantially
from the horizon up to a first elevation angle away from the first antenna array to a predetermined elevation relative to
the first antenna array along each of a plurality of directions from the base station;

a second antenna array configured at an uptilt elevation angle to form a second cell coverage area extending away from the
second antenna array at least from the first elevation angle to a second elevation angle, wherein the first cell coverage
area and the second cell coverage area are concentric to combine to define the ATG cell to provide continuous coverage within
the ATG cell having a substantially cylindrical shape up to the predetermined elevation and out to a radial distance defined
at an intersection of the first elevation angle with the predetermined elevation.

US Pat. No. 9,277,420

CONCENTRIC CELLS IN A WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, C...

1. A base station for providing air-to-ground (ATG) wireless communication over various altitudes of an ATG cell, the base
station comprising:
a first antenna array comprising one or more antennas configured to form a first cell coverage area extending substantially
from the horizon up to a first elevation angle away from the first antenna array to a predetermined distance from the first
antenna array along each of a plurality of directions from the base station;

a second antenna array configured at an uptilt elevation angle to form a second cell coverage area extending at least from
the first elevation angle to a second elevation away from the second antenna array, wherein the first cell coverage area and
the second cell coverage area are concentric to define the ATG cell at least to the predetermined distance along each of the
plurality of directions from the base station and up to a predetermined elevation; and

a patch antenna disposed concentric with the first and second antenna arrays to provide a third coverage area from the second
elevation to at least a point directly above the base station at the predetermined elevation,

wherein the first, second, and third coverage areas combine to define the ATG cell to provide continuous coverage within the
ATG cell to the predetermined distance and to a height of the predetermined elevation, the predetermined elevation being about
45,000 feet.

US Pat. No. 9,491,635

ARCHITECTURE FOR SIMULTANEOUS SPECTRUM USAGE BY AIR-TO-GROUND AND TERRESTRIAL NETWORKS

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, C...

1. A network for providing air-to-ground (ATG) wireless communication in various cells, comprising:
an in-flight aircraft including an antenna assembly;
a plurality of ATG base stations, each of which defines a corresponding radiation pattern focusing energy toward the horizon,
wherein the base stations are spaced apart from each other to define at least partially overlapping coverage areas to communicate
with the antenna assembly in an ATG communication layer defined between a first altitude and a second altitude via an ATG
communication network; and

a plurality of terrestrial base stations configured to communicate primarily in a ground communication layer below the first
altitude via a terrestrial communication network;

wherein the terrestrial base stations and the ATG base stations are each configured to communicate using the same radio frequency
(RF) spectrum in the ground communication layer and ATG communication layer, respectively.

US Pat. No. 9,627,778

ANTENNA ELEMENT WITH HIGH GAIN TOWARD THE HORIZON

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, C...

1. An air-to-ground network communication device, the device comprising:
a conductive groundplane formed at a skin of an aircraft; and
an antenna element having an omni-directional radiation pattern, the antenna element extending substantially perpendicularly
away from the groundplane and having an effective length between about 1? to about 1.5?, wherein the antenna element is disposed
at a distance of about 0.5? to about 1? from the groundplane,

wherein the antenna element comprises a monopole element, and
wherein the groundplane is formed as a metallic mesh provided within a composite material forming the skin of the aircraft.

US Pat. No. 9,730,077

ARCHITECTURE FOR SIMULTANEOUS SPECTRUM USAGE BY AIR-TO-GROUND AND TERRESTRIAL NETWORKS

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, C...

1. An air-to-ground (ATG) network providing wireless communication to an in-flight aircraft capable of passing through various
cells of the ATG network, the ATG network comprising:
a first ATG base station defining a first radiation pattern focusing energy toward the horizon;
a second ATG base station defining a second radiation pattern focusing energy toward the horizon; and
a plurality of additional ATG base stations, each of which defines a corresponding radiation pattern focusing energy toward
the horizon,

wherein the first, second and additional ATG base stations are spaced apart from each other to define at least partially overlapping
coverage areas to communicate with an antenna assembly on the in-flight aircraft in an ATG communication layer defined between
a first altitude and a second altitude via the ATG network,

wherein a plurality of terrestrial base stations are configured to communicate primarily in a ground communication layer below
the first altitude via a terrestrial communication network, and

wherein the first, second and additional ATG base stations are each configured to communicate in the ATG communication layer
using the same radio frequency (RF) spectrum used by the terrestrial base stations in the ground communication layer.

US Pat. No. 9,830,827

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DYNAMIC AIRCRAFT TRAJECTORY MANAGEMENT

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, C...

1. A computer implemented method for predicting the capacity of an airspace comprising:
A) upon entry of an aircraft into an airspace, acquiring and storing in computer memory data describing a first trajectory
representing the aircraft, the trajectory comprising a plurality of control point values and a moment buffer;

B) periodically re-calculating trajectory;
C) identifying conflicts between the first trajectory and another trajectory or the first trajectory and an obstacle in real
time or near real time;

D) applying momentum to at least the first trajectory; and
E) in response to identifying the conflicts, generating optimal choices for resolution of the conflicts to be provided to
a pilot or flight controller,

wherein the data describing the trajectory for the aircraft comprises a multi-dimensional data structure stored in a computer
memory representing three spatial dimensions and two time dimensions.

US Pat. No. 9,900,892

POSITION INFORMATION ASSISTED NETWORK CONTROL

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, C...

1. A network controller comprising processing circuitry configured to:
receive dynamic position information indicative of a three dimensional position of at least one mobile communication node
moving between cells of an air to ground network;

compare fixed position information indicative of fixed geographic locations of respective access points of the network to
the dynamic position information to determine a relative position of the at least one mobile communication node relative to
at least one of the access points based on the fixed position information and the dynamic position information;

determine a predicted future position of the at least one mobile communication node based on the dynamic position information;
determine a predicted interference in a cell corresponding to the predicted future position; and
provide network control instructions to the cell corresponding to the predicted future position and at least one adjacent
cell to reduce interference when the at least one mobile communication node reaches the cell corresponding to the predicted
future position,

wherein the at least one adjacent cell is not involved in a handover of the at least one mobile communication node, and
wherein the at least one adjacent cell is a cell through which a route corresponding to the predicted future position passes
near a cell edge of the cell corresponding to the predicted future position.

US Pat. No. 10,057,783

ARCHITECTURE FOR SIMULTANEOUS SPECTRUM USAGE BY AIR-TO-GROUND AND TERRESTRIAL NETWORKS

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, C...

1. A system for supporting air-to-ground (ATG) wireless communication in various cells, the system comprising:a plurality of ATG base stations, each of which defines a corresponding radiation pattern focusing energy toward the horizon, wherein the base stations are spaced apart from each other to define at least partially overlapping coverage areas to communicate with an antenna assembly of an aircraft in an ATG communication layer defined between a first altitude and a second altitude via an ATG communication network;
a high altitude service craft disposed in a high altitude service layer above the second altitude; and
a plurality of terrestrial base stations configured to communicate primarily in a ground communication layer below the first altitude via a terrestrial communication network;
wherein the terrestrial base stations and the ATG base stations are each configured to communicate using the same radio frequency (RF) spectrum in the ground communication layer and ATG communication layer, respectively,
wherein the terrestrial base stations and the ATG base stations are each configured to communicate using the same radio frequency (RF) spectrum in the ATG communication layer and the high altitude service layer, respectively,
wherein a serving ATG base station from among the plurality of ATG base stations is in communication with the in-flight aircraft while being geographically located outside a coverage area of each of the terrestrial base stations in a portion of the ground communication layer above which the in-flight aircraft is located, and
wherein the high altitude service craft supports wireless communication with at least one asset outside the high altitude service layer.

US Pat. No. 9,924,431

SEAMLESS RELOCATION OF A MOBILE TERMINAL IN A WIRELESS NETWORK

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, C...

1. A method for performing a seamless relocation of a terminal in a wireless environment comprises:
selecting a first serving gateway (SGW) among a plurality of SGWs and a first packet data network gateway (PGW) among a plurality
of PGWs, wherein the first SGW connects to the first PGW to setup a first session;

establishing a first communication channel between the terminal and the first PGW and assigning an internet protocol (IP)
address to the terminal;

when the terminal is about to move out of an area being served by the first SGW, selecting a second SGW among the plurality
of SGWs;

when a second PGW among the plurality of PGWs is closer to the second SGW than the first PGW, connecting the second SGW to
the second PGW to setup a new session and when no PGW is closer to the second SGW than the first PGW, connecting the second
SGW to the first PGW to modify the first session;

establishing a second communication channel between the terminal and the second PGW and maintaining the IP address assigned
to the terminal previously;

reconfiguring routing for the IP address assigned to the terminal previously through the second PGW; and
terminating the first communication channel between the terminal and the first PGW.

US Pat. No. 9,985,717

TERRESTRIAL BASED HIGH SPEED DATA COMMUNICATIONS MESH NETWORK

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, C...

1. An airborne communication node configured to receive high speed wirelessly transmitted data communications on an in-flight aircraft, comprising:a receiver station disposed on the in-flight aircraft, the receiver station configured to communicate with at least one of a plurality of ground transmission stations, the ground transmission stations being located such that at least some of the ground transmission stations are within overlapping communications range of respective other ones of the ground transmission stations, the ground transmission stations being configured to communicate with the receiver station to provide a high speed data communications link continuous and uninterrupted in time with the receiver station employing a wireless radio access network protocol,
wherein the high speed data communications link is maintained continuous and uninterrupted in time while the in-flight aircraft is within a coverage area provided by one of the plurality of ground transmission stations and as the in-flight aircraft moves from the coverage area provided by the one of the plurality of ground transmission stations to a coverage area provided by another of the plurality of ground transmission stations via a transition of a first communication link established with a first narrow beam provided by the one of the plurality of ground transmission stations to a second communication link established with a second narrow beam provided by the other of the plurality of ground transmission stations, the first and second narrow beams each being formed to have less than a four degree beamwidth.

US Pat. No. 9,924,378

CONCENTRIC CELLS IN A WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, C...

1. A base station for providing air-to-ground (ATG) wireless communication over various altitudes of an ATG cell, the base
station comprising:
a first antenna array comprising one or more antennas configured to form a first cell coverage area defining a lower altitude
cylinder of coverage centered on the base station; and

a second antenna array configured at an uptilt elevation angle to form a second cell coverage area defining a higher altitude
cylinder of coverage concentric with the first cell coverage area.

US Pat. No. 9,913,149

WEDGE SHAPED CELLS IN A WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, C...

1. A network for providing air-to-ground (ATG) wireless communication in various cells, the network comprising:
a first base station array, each base station of which includes a respective first antenna array defining a first directional
radiation pattern, wherein each base station of the first base station array is disposed spaced apart from another base station
of the first base station array; and

a second base station array, each base station of which includes a respective second antenna array defining a second directional
radiation pattern,

wherein each base station of the second base station array is disposed spaced apart from another base station of the second
base station array,

wherein at least one base station of the first base station array overlaps cell coverage areas with at least one base station
of the second base station array,

wherein the first directional radiation pattern or the second directional radiation pattern defines a substantially wedge
shaped radiation pattern,

wherein each base station of the first base station array is of a first type, and each base station of the second base station
array is of a second type, the first and second types being different from each other,

wherein the at least one base station of the first base station array overlaps cell coverage areas with the at least one base
station of the second base station array to extend coverage for communication with an aircraft up to a predetermined altitude;
and

wherein the at least one base station of the first base station array is enabled to handover communication with the aircraft
to the at least one base station of the second base station array responsive to movement of the aircraft.

US Pat. No. 9,998,202

POSITION INFORMATION ASSISTED BEAMFORMING

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, C...

1. A wireless communication device on an aircraft, the device comprising an antenna array and a beamforming control module configured to interface with the antenna array to generate a steerable beam, the beamforming control module comprising processing circuitry configured to:receive fixed position information indicative of a fixed geographic location of a first base station and a second base station;
receive dynamic position information indicative of a three dimensional position of a mobile communication station on the aircraft;
determine an expected relative position of the mobile communication station relative to the second base station based on the fixed position information and the dynamic position information, the second base station being a candidate for a handover of the mobile communication station while the mobile communication station has an established communication link with the first base station; and
provide instructions to direct predictive formation of the steerable beam from the antenna array on the aircraft to the second base station based on the expected relative position, wherein determining the expected relative position comprises determining a future mobile communication station position and corresponding estimated future time at which the mobile communication station will be at the future mobile communication station position to direct the steerable beam based on the future mobile communication station position to prepare for a future need for the steerable beam with the second base station.

US Pat. No. 10,187,896

POSITION INFORMATION ASSISTED NETWORK CONTROL

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, C...

1. A network controller comprising processing circuitry configured to:determine predicted future positions of a mobile communication node based on dynamic position information indicative of a three dimensional position of the mobile communication node moving between cells of an air to ground network;
determine, for predetermined periods of time corresponding to the predicted future positions, selected ones of the cells that are expected to be within communication range of the mobile communication node;
determine respective expected loading on the selected ones of the cells at respective ones of the predetermined periods of time; and
provide network control instructions to some of the selected ones of the cells to pick up the mobile communication node during the respective ones of the predetermined periods of time to balance loading on the selected ones of the cells based on the respective expected loading.

US Pat. No. 10,257,717

WEDGE SHAPED CELLS IN A WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, M...

1. A network for providing air-to-ground (ATG) wireless communication in various cells, comprising:a first base station including a first antenna array defining a first directional radiation pattern that is oriented toward a horizon; and
a second base station including second antenna array defining a second directional radiation pattern that at least partially overlaps with the first base station,
wherein the first base station employs unlicensed spectrum,
wherein the second base station employs licensed spectrum,
wherein the first and second base stations are each configured to wirelessly communicate with a radio disposed on an aircraft flying through respective cell coverage areas of the first and second base stations, and
wherein the first and second base stations are each configured to handover communication with the radio as the aircraft moves between the respective cell coverage areas of the first and second base stations.

US Pat. No. 10,211,522

DENSITY AND POWER CONTROLLED PLASMA ANTENNA

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, C...

1. A plasma antenna assembly comprising:a plasma antenna element;
a plasma density sensor operably coupled to the plasma antenna element to measure plasma density during ionization of the plasma antenna element;
a driver circuit operably coupled to the plasma antenna element to selectively provide pulsed current to the plasma antenna element for ionization of plasma in the plasma antenna element; and
a controller operably coupled to the driver circuit and the plasma density sensor to provide control of the plasma density of the plasma antenna element.

US Pat. No. 10,244,402

ARCHITECTURE FOR SIMULTANEOUS SPECTRUM USAGE BY AIR-TO-GROUND AND TERRESTRIAL NETWORKS

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, M...

1. A wireless communication system comprising:an air-to-ground (ATG) communication layer defined by a plurality of ATG base stations, the ATG base stations being configured to support wireless communication in various cells defined by respective ones of the ATG base stations, the ATG base stations being configured to define at least partially overlapping coverage areas to communicate with an antenna assembly of an in-flight aircraft in the ATG communication layer, the ATG communication layer being defined between a first altitude and a second altitude;
a terrestrial communication layer defined below the first altitude, the terrestrial communication layer being defined by terrestrial base stations and user equipment located below the first altitude; and
a high altitude service layer disposed above the second altitude,
wherein the ATG base stations, the terrestrial base stations and devices in the high altitude service layer are each configured to communicate simultaneously using the same radio frequency (RF) spectrum without inter-layer interference.

US Pat. No. 10,240,926

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR CONTINUOUS REPLANNING OF VEHICLE TRAJECTORIES

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, M...

1. A method for planning a path of a vehicle through an area comprising:A) modeling, within a computer memory, a selected area as a plurality of sub-areas, selected of the sub-areas having a flight object associated therewith;
B) associating with each of the plurality of sub-areas one or more parameters, at least one of the parameters representing a summation value, the summation value including an attraction component, a repulsion component and a distance component determined based on information obtained by the computer associated with the flight object;
C) modifying the summation value associated with selected of the plurality of sub-areas in relation to a proximity of a sub-area another of the plurality of subareas having a flight object associated therewith;
D) determining one or more sub-areas having a summation value satisfying a predetermined rule; and
E) identifying adjacent of the sub-areas satisfying the predetermined rule to define a plan for the path of the vehicle through the area.

US Pat. No. 10,230,452

TERRESTRIAL BASED AIR-TO-GROUND COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM AND RELATED METHODS

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, C...

1. An air-to-ground communications system comprising:a plurality of base stations, each comprising a ground-based transceiver and associated ground-based controller; and
a plurality of aircraft, each comprising an aircraft-based transceiver and associated aircraft-based controller;
a given aircraft-based controller of a given aircraft configured to
determine a position and speed of the given aircraft,
determine a position of a given base station,
determine an autonomous timing advance based upon the position and speed of the given aircraft and the position of the given base station, and
transmit an access signal with the autonomous timing advance to a given ground-based controller of the given base station for initial acquisition,
wherein the given aircraft-based controller is configured to:
determine an estimated propagation delay between the given aircraft and the given base station based upon the position and speed of the given aircraft and the position of the given base station; and
determine the autonomous timing advance based upon the estimated propagation delay.

US Pat. No. 10,231,137

CONCENTRIC CELLS IN A WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, C...

1. An air-to-ground (ATG) wireless communication network comprising:a plurality of base stations deployed to define three dimensional coverage up to a predetermined altitude with complete horizontal plane coverage of a geographic area,
wherein at least one of the base stations comprises:
a first antenna array comprising one or more antennas configured to form a first cell coverage area defining a coverage area from the horizon to a first elevation angle; and
a second antenna array configured at an uptilt elevation angle to form a second cell coverage area that extends above the first elevation angle and is concentric with the first cell coverage area.

US Pat. No. 10,276,930

PLASMA AVIATION ANTENNA

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, M...

1. An aircraft window comprising:an enclosure configured to be provided in a window opening of an aircraft;
a receiving space defined in the enclosure; and
a plasma antenna element provided within the receiving space, the plasma antenna element being operably coupled to a controller to provide control of operation of the plasma antenna element over a selectable range of frequencies, the plasma antenna element including one or more RF-conductive plasma discharge tubes that are selectively ionizable to a plasma state under control of the controller,
wherein the controller is operably coupled to one or more switching devices, the one or more switching devices modulating application of power to the plasma antenna element during ionization of the plasma antenna element.

US Pat. No. 10,306,527

INTERFERENCE MITIGATION IN AN AIR-TO-GROUND WIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORK

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, M...

1. A network for providing air-to-ground (ATG) wireless communication in various cells, comprising:a receiver station disposed on an aircraft in flight;
a plurality of ATG base stations, each of which defines a corresponding radiation pattern, wherein the ATG base stations are spaced apart from each other to define at least partially overlapping coverage areas in which, for a given geographic location, multiple altitude bands in which ATG wireless communication is provided by respective ATG cells associated with the ATG base stations are defined, each of the multiple altitude bands corresponding to respective different operating frequencies; and
a control module in communication with at least one of the ATG base stations, the control module being configured to receive information indicative of an altitude of the aircraft and, based on the altitude of the aircraft, select an operating frequency corresponding to a respective one of the multiple altitude bands of the respective ATG cells for communication between the at least one of the base stations and the aircraft based on the altitude,
wherein the at least one of the ATG base stations defines a coverage area that is conical in shape having legs of the conical shape that are about 120 degrees apart.

US Pat. No. 10,371,514

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR LOCATING GROUND AND AIR RADIO ANTENNAE FOR GROUND-TO-AIR AND AIR-TO-AIR COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, M...

1. A method for determining locations of telecommunication ground stations, the method comprising:A) creating a heat map data set representing air traffic volume at grid units of a geographic region responsive to receiving air traffic data representing origin and destination locations for multiple flights and simulating each real or planned flight path associated with the geographic region and accumulating a total number of flight paths that pass through each of the grid units on the each real or planned flight path;
B) determining a ground station location at one of the grid units having associated therewith air traffic volume greater than that of others of the grid units;
C) assigning a communication range to the ground station based on a ground station antenna of the ground station;
D) modifying the heat map data set by excluding data representing all grid units that are determined to be within the communication range of the ground station location;
E) repeating B), C and D) until a predetermined quantity of ground station locations is determined; and
F) generating, as an output to a graphical display, a list of locations of determined ground station locations responsive to completion of E), the list including the predetermined quantity of ground station locations.

US Pat. No. 10,484,079

TERRESTRIAL BASED HIGH SPEED DATA COMMUNICATIONS MESH NETWORK

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, M...

1. An airborne communication node configured to receive high speed wirelessly transmitted data communications on an in-flight aircraft, comprising:a receiver station disposed on the in-flight aircraft, the receiver station configured to communicate with at least one of a plurality of ground transmission stations, the ground transmission stations being located such that at least some of the ground transmission stations are within overlapping communications range of respective other ones of the ground transmission stations, the ground transmission stations being configured to communicate with the receiver station to provide a high speed data communications link continuous and uninterrupted in time with the receiver station employing a wireless radio access network protocol,
wherein the high speed data communications link is maintained continuous and uninterrupted in time while the in-flight aircraft is within a coverage area provided by one of the plurality of ground transmission stations and as the in-flight aircraft moves from the coverage area provided by the one of the plurality of ground transmission stations to a coverage area provided by another of the plurality of ground transmission stations, and
wherein the high speed data communications link is maintained continuous and uninterrupted in time while the in-flight aircraft is experiencing Doppler shift due to speeds greater than 100 miles per hour.

US Pat. No. 10,461,843

TERRESTRIAL BASED AIR-TO-GROUND COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM AND RELATED METHODS

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, M...

1. A base station of an air-to-ground (ATG) communications system, the base station being configured to communicate with an in-flight aircraft of the ATG communications system, the base station comprising:a ground-based transceiver;
a ground-based controller operably coupled to the ground-based transceiver; and
a beamforming network operably coupled to the ground-based controller,
wherein the beamforming network is configured to generate a wide antenna beam and a plurality of fixed narrow antenna beams that overlap the wide antenna beam,
wherein the wide antenna beam is associated with communication of control information and the narrow antenna beams are each associated with communication of data traffic, and
wherein the beamforming network is configured to:
responsive to establishment of access to the aircraft via the wide antenna beam, receive position information via a return link from the aircraft, the position information being indicative of aircraft position,
determine one of the narrow antenna beams to activate based on the position information, and
activate the determined one of the narrow antenna beams to communicate the data traffic with the aircraft.

US Pat. No. 10,455,432

CONCENTRIC CELLS IN A WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, M...

1. An air-to-ground (ATG) wireless communication network comprising:a plurality of base stations deployed to define three dimensional coverage up to a predetermined altitude over a geographic area,
wherein a plurality of the base stations each comprise:
a first antenna array comprising one or more antennas configured to form a first cell coverage area defining a coverage area 360 degrees around the first antenna array between a first elevation angle and a second elevation angle; and
a second antenna array configured at an uptilt elevation angle relative to the second elevation angle to form a second cell coverage area that extends from a third elevation angle above the second elevation angle to a position directly above a corresponding one of the base stations.

US Pat. No. 10,447,321

SPECTRUM SCRUBBER

SMARTSKY NETWORKS LLC, M...

1. An apparatus comprising processing circuitry configured to:receive information indicative of a local interferer, the local interferer being identified based on dynamic position information indicative of a position of an aircraft;
perform noise cancellation relative to a received signal by removing an interference signal associated with the local interferer to generate a scrubbed signal; and
provide the scrubbed signal for additional signal processing,
wherein receiving information indicative of the local interferer comprises receiving the information indicative of the local interferer in advance of the aircraft being in a cell in which the local interferer is located, and
wherein performing noise cancellation relative to the received signal comprises employing a noise cancellation technique selected from among a plurality of different noise cancelation technique options in advance of the aircraft being in the cell in which the local interferer is located.