US Pat. No. 9,112,078

METHOD OF RECOGNIZING AND ASSESSING SHADOWING EVENTS

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method of recognizing shadowing events caused by shadow casting obstacles that are essentially opaque, and affecting
at least one individual photovoltaic module of a plurality of similar photovoltaic modules, the method comprising:
recording the electric power values produced by all individual photovoltaic modules of the plurality of similar photovoltaic
modules at multiple positions of the sun over a plurality of days;

normalizing the recorded electric power values to a common standard;
defining an expected power value of the normalized electric power value produced by each individual photovoltaic module of
the plurality of similar photovoltaic modules separately for each of the multiple positions of the sun as a maximum value
of the normalized electric power values that are at a present day produced by the individual photovoltaic modules of the plurality
of similar photovoltaic modules at the respective position of the sun, wherein the expected value of the electric power comprises
an influence of clouds affecting all individual photovoltaic modules of the plurality of similar photovoltaic modules;

defining an ideal power course of the electric power produced by each individual photovoltaic module over the present day
by fitting a curve to peak values of the electric power values recorded for at least one photovoltaic module of the plurality
of similar photovoltaic modules at the same positions of the sun during a plurality of previous days, the curve corresponding
to cloud-free sun without shadow casting obstacles;

comparing the electric power values produced by each of the individual photovoltaic modules at each of the multiple positions
of the sun on the present day with the respective ideal power course and the respective expected value;

for all positions of the sun at which the electric power value produced by any individual photovoltaic module falls short
of the ideal power course on the present day, defining a shadowing probability for the respective photovoltaic module of not
less than zero, a magnitude of the shadowing probability for the respective photovoltaic module increasing with increasing
difference between the normalized electric power value produced by the respective photovoltaic module and the expected power
value at the respective position of the sun; and

using the shadowing probability as a criterion for determining whether or not to remove a shadow casting obstacle and removing
the shadow casting obstacle if determined to do so.

US Pat. No. 9,225,230

DISCHARGING A CAPACITANCE PROVIDED AT THE OUTPUT OF AN INVERTER

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

7. An inverter configured to feed electrical power from a generation unit into a grid, comprising:
a grid connect switch having a generation unit side and a grid side;
AC grid terminals coupled to the grid connect switch on the grid side of the grid connect switch;
at least one capacitor connected to at least one of the AC grid terminals on the grid side of the grid connect switch;
a power supply unit configured to provide power to circuitry of the inverter, the power supply comprising a DC voltage link;
and

a rectifier configured to connect the at least one capacitor to the DC voltage link, and configured to rectify a voltage applied
across the at least one capacitor independent of a polarity thereof to provide a rectified voltage of a fixed polarity, and
configured to charge the DC voltage link with the rectified voltage;

wherein the at least one capacitor is configured to be discharged into the DC voltage link in response to a detachment of
the grid from the AC grid terminals of the inverter.

US Pat. No. 9,048,745

STARTING UP A DC/DC CONVERTER HAVING A HIGH-FREQUENCY TRANSFORMER

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

14. A DC/DC converter, comprising:
a high-frequency transformer comprising a primary winding supplied with current from an input-side DC link via an inverter
bridge comprising pulsed switches, and comprising a secondary winding configured to charge an output-side DC link via a rectifier
bridge; and

a controller configured to operate the switches of the inverter bridge during a startup of the DC/DC converter to load the
output-side DC link, in a manner that deviates from a normal operation of the switches after the startup, in order to limit
the currents that flow in the DC/DC converter during the startup of the DC/DC converter,
wherein the controller is configured to operate the switches of the inverter bridge during the startup of the DC/DC converter
at a pulse width that is fixed during each of a limited number of stages of the startup, and wherein a duty cycle of the switches
is not more than 5 percent during each of the stages of the startup.

US Pat. No. 9,106,152

METHOD FOR STABILIZING AN ELECTRIC GRID

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for grid support by means of an inverter, wherein the grid is supported by feeding in compensation currents, comprising:
measuring a prevailing grid state;
breaking down voltages measured for measuring the prevailing grid state into symmetrical components of the grid state including
positive sequence system components and negative sequence system components;

determining symmetrical components of a compensation current including positive sequence system components and negative sequence
system components of the compensation current as functions of deviations of the positive sequence system components and negative
sequence system components of the grid state from reference values; and

feeding-in a compensation current as a function of the determined symmetrical components of the compensation current.

US Pat. No. 9,369,062

SINGLE-PHASE EMERGENCY OPERATION OF A THREE-PHASE INVERTER AND CORRESPONDING INVERTER HAVING A POLYPHASE TO SINGLE PHASE CHANGEOVER OPERATION

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. A method for converting DC power from a source into AC power by means of an inverter (1) comprising three bridge branches, each having a phase output, wherein, during grid-connected operation, the bridge branches
are actuated in such a way that the AC power is fed, as three-phase grid-compliant power, into a grid, wherein
by operation of two of the three bridge branches, the AC power is provided, as a single-phase island grid, at two of the three
phase outputs when the inverter is disconnected from the grid.

US Pat. No. 9,046,588

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR DETECTING AN ARC FAULT IN A PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEM

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for detecting an arc fault in a photovoltaic power circuit comprising a photovoltaic generator, comprising:
operating the photovoltaic generator at a first working point;
determining a first signal related to a DC-current flowing in the power circuit and/or a DC-voltage present in the power circuit;
analyzing the first signal and determining whether the first signal indicates a presence of an electric arc in the power circuit;
in case the first signal indicates the presence of an electric arc in the power circuit, operating the photovoltaic generator
at a second working point;

determining a second signal related to the DC-current flowing in the power circuit and/or the DC-voltage present in the power
circuit;

comparing the first signal and the second signal; and
signaling the occurrence of an arc fault in the power circuit if a result of the comparison indicates the presence of an electric
arc.

US Pat. No. 9,420,732

SOLAR INVERTER

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. A solar inverter comprising a chassis, a cooling module, a DC module, an inverter module and an AC module, wherein:
the cooling module, the DC module, the inverter module and the AC module are provided side-by-side within the chassis;
the DC module comprises an input, a disconnection switch and an output, wherein the input of the DC module is configured to
be connected to a DC solar power source and wherein the disconnection switch of the DC module is provided on an exterior of
the chassis and is configured to electrically disconnect the input and the output of the DC module;

the inverter module comprises an input coupled to the output of the DC module and an output, wherein the inverter module is
configured to convert DC power at the input of the inverter module into AC power at the output of the inverter module;

the AC module comprises an input coupled to the output of the inverter module, an output and a disconnection switch, wherein
the disconnection switch of the AC module is provided on the exterior of the chassis and on a same side of the chassis as
the disconnection switch of the DC module, and wherein the disconnection switch for the AC module is configured to electrically
disconnect the output of the inverter module and the output of the AC module; and

the cooling module is configured to pump a fluid coolant around the solar inverter in order to cool one or more elements of
the DC module, the inverter module and/or the AC module.

US Pat. No. 9,755,513

BIDIRECTIONAL DC CONVERTER COMPRISING A CORE WITH PERMANENT MAGNETIZATION

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A DC/DC converter comprising:
at least one clocked switching member; and
at least one inductor for intermediate storage of energy transferred by the DC/DC converter, the at least one inductor arranged
between an input connection and an output connection of the DC/DC converter, the at least one inductor providing a core with
a permanent magnetization as a pre-magnetization having a polarity that is opposite of another polarity in which the core
is magnetized during an operation in a main direction, wherein the DC/DC converter is configured for bidirectional operation,
wherein, the at least one switching member is switched in a first operating mode in a first energy transfer direction, as
the main direction, and the at least one switching member switched in a second operating mode in a second energy transfer
direction which is opposite to the first energy transfer direction, wherein the second operating mode is different than the
first operating mode, and wherein the at least one switching member is switched in the first operating mode in the first energy
transfer direction with a lower switching frequency than in the second operating mode in the second energy transfer direction.

US Pat. No. 9,497,877

ELECTRONIC DEVICE COMPRISING A CAPACITOR IN A HOLDER FOR A CIRCUIT BOARD AND METHOD FOR PRODUCTION THEREOF

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. An electronic device, comprising:
a housing,
a circuit board,
a plurality of holders including mechanical connectors to the housing and to the circuit board and mechanically fixing the
circuit board within the housing, and

at least one capacitor including a first electrode, a second electrode and a dielectric arranged between the first and second
electrodes, the first electrode being electrically connected to a contact on the circuit board and the second electrode being
electrically connected to the housing,

wherein the at least one capacitor is part of one of the plurality of holders, its dielectric being part of a thermal insulation
between the mechanical connectors to the circuit board and to the housing.

US Pat. No. 9,484,734

PROTECTION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATOR AGAINST SURGE VOLTAGES RELATIVE TO GROUND

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. A method of protecting a photovoltaic generator comprising photovoltaic modules against a surge voltage relative to ground,
the photovoltaic generator having an open circuit voltage higher than an insulation design voltage of its photovoltaic modules
and being connected to an AC power grid via an inverter having an input-side intermediate link capacitance and an inverter
bridge including semiconductor switches, the surge voltage resulting from a ground fault and exceeding the insulation design
voltage, the method comprising:
surveying the photovoltaic generator for the occurrence of the ground fault or the resulting surge voltage, and
upon occurrence of the ground fault or the resulting surge voltage,
at first, separating the photovoltaic generator from the input-side intermediate link capacitance of the inverter and separating
the inverter from the AC power grid, and

then, discharging the input-side intermediate link capacitance of the inverter via a resistor,
prior to permanently closing the semiconductor switches of the inverter bridge of the inverter and prior to reconnecting the
photovoltaic generator to the input-side intermediate link capacitance of the inverter to short circuit the photovoltaic generator.

US Pat. No. 9,425,704

POWER INVERTER WITH MULTI-FED ON-BOARD POWER SUPPLY FOR SUPPLYING A CONTROLLER

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. A power inverter for feeding electric energy from at least one DC power source into an AC power grid, the inverter comprising:
a DC/AC converter configured and adapted to be connected to the AC power grid;
at least one DC/DC converter arranged upstream of the DC/AC converter and configured to provide a galvanic isolation between
its input and output;

a first DC voltage link arranged at the input of the at least one DC/DC converter, and configured and adapted to be connected
to the at least one DC power source;

at least one further DC voltage link arranged between the DC/DC converter and the DC/AC converter, and which is galvanically
isolated from the first DC voltage link by the DC/DC converter;

a controller configured to provide control signals to the DC/AC converter and the at least one DC/DC converter;
on-board voltage rails configured and adapted to supply the controller with electric energy; and
an on-board supply unit configured and adapted to feed the electric energy into the on-board voltage rails;
wherein the on-board supply unit is configured and adapted to feed the electric energy both out of the first DC voltage link
and out of the at least one further DC voltage link,

wherein a capacitance of the first DC voltage link is smaller than a capacitance of the at least one further DC voltage link,
and wherein the on-board supply unit comprises a transformer which comprises two primary windings electrically isolated with
regard to each other, wherein one of the primary windings is fed with current out of the first DC voltage link and the other
of the primary windings is fed with current out of the at least one further DC voltage link.

US Pat. No. 9,071,028

ELECTRICAL CONNECTION BETWEEN TWO BUSBARS MADE OF FLAT CONDUCTORS AND OF AN INSULATING LAYER DISPOSED BETWEEN THE CONDUCTORS

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. An electrical connection apparatus, comprising:
two busbars,
wherein each busbar comprises two flat conductors and an insulating layer disposed between the two flat conductors,
wherein each busbar has a longitudinal edge, and wherein the longitudinal edges of the two busbars are arranged opposite to
each other, and

wherein the two conductors of each busbar run parallel to each other at a distance along the longitudinal edge of the respective
busbar,

a shaped body comprising an insulating material bridging the distance between the two conductors of both the busbars;
two electrically conductive contact elements forced against each other but electrically insulated from each other,
wherein the shaped body and the conductors of both busbars on both sides of the shaped body are arranged between the two contact
elements,

wherein each contact element is configured to contact one conductor of each busbar via a structured contact surface and clamps
the respective conductor against the shaped body,

wherein the contact surfaces of the contact elements for each conductor of the two busbars comprise a clamping rib extending
parallel to the longitudinal edges, and

wherein the cross section of the clamping rib is trapezoid.

US Pat. No. 9,401,661

CONNECTING AN INVERTER IN A SOLAR POWER PLANT WITH SHIFTED POTENTIAL CENTER POINT

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. A method of connecting an AC output of a transformerless inverter of a solar power plant to an internal AC power grid at
an input side of a transformer, an external AC power grid being connected to an output side of the transformer, the method
comprising:
synchronizing the AC output with the internal AC power grid;
applying an offset voltage to a center point of the input side of the transformer;
matching a center DC component of the AC output to the center point's voltage by selectively coupling one of the current-carrying
lines of an inverter input to earth potential; and

subsequently connecting the synchronized and matched AC output to the internal AC power grid.

US Pat. No. 9,350,162

DETERMINATION OF THE FAULT CURRENT COMPONENT OF A DIFFERENTIAL CURRENT

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. A method of determining a fault current component of a differential current determined as a current sum over a plurality
of lines carrying a current of an AC current generator, the method comprising:
generating an electric signal
which depends on generator voltages present at the AC current generator with respect to earth potential, and
which is in phase with a leakage current component of the differential current;
scaling the electric signal by multiplying it by a scaling factor; and
subtracting the scaled electric signal from the differential current to obtain a remainder;
wherein the scaling factor is repeatedly updated such that an effective value of the remainder reaches a minimum at the present
value of the scaling factor.

US Pat. No. 9,351,342

INVERTER WITH MONITORING OF THE MOISTURE STATE AND METHOD FOR OPERATING AN INVERTER

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. An inverter, comprising:
a moisture sensor inside a housing of the inverter;
a control unit configured to control the inverter, the control unit being connected to the moisture sensor and configured
to receive a moisture value from the moisture sensor; and

a heating element connected to the control unit,
wherein the inverter is configured to convert electrical power from a DC voltage generator via a converter unit and feed the
electrical power into a power grid, and

wherein the control unit is configured to control the inverter based on the moisture value such that, in a case where a limit
value for the moisture is exceeded, a voltage at an input of the converter unit is controlled to be below an arc-avoiding
voltage value and electrical power is fed to the heating element.

US Pat. No. 9,071,339

CLOSED-CIRCUIT POWER LINE COMMUNICATION

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A system for closed-circuit power line communication, comprising:
at least a first power line and a second power line connected to at least one electrical device configured to receive a data
signal;

an auxiliary line connected to the at least one electrical device, and configured to provide a ground connection;
at least one transmitter configured to generate first data signals for transmission over the first power line and the second
power line, respectively, to the at least one electrical device; and

a low-pass common-mode filter connected to the first power line and the second power line, and configured to provide closed-circuit
data communication between the transmitter and the at least one electrical device, wherein the low-pass common-mode filter
comprises at least one coupling capacitor between the first power line and the second power line such that at least the polarities
with respect to ground of the first data signals transmitted over the first power line and the second power line, respectively,
are substantially similar,

wherein the first data signals carried by the first power line and the second power line, respectively, are asymmetrical with
respect to the auxiliary line.

US Pat. No. 9,293,247

MAGNETICALLY BIASED AC INDUCTOR WITH COMMUTATOR

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. An AC inductor, comprising:
a core;
at least one permanent magnet configured to magnetically bias the core;
an inductor winding on the core, wherein the inductor winding comprises two contacts; and
a circuitry configured to guide an alternating current flowing through the inductor winding such that the current flowing
through the inductor winding generates a magnetization of the core which is opposite to the magnetization by the permanent
magnet,

wherein the circuitry includes a commutator configured to guide the alternating current flowing between two contacts of the
AC inductor through a same part of the inductor winding with a same current flow direction during each half-wave of the alternating
current,

wherein the commutator is configured to alternatingly connect the two contacts of the AC inductor with the two contacts of
the inductor winding in an electrically conductive way, and

wherein the commutator comprises four branches between the two contacts of the AC inductor and the two contacts of the inductor
winding and an unidirectional switch connected in series with a current rectifier pointing in a blocking direction of the
opened unidirectional switch in each of the four branches.

US Pat. No. 9,065,345

TRANSFORMERLESS INVERTER COMPRISING A DC/DC CONVERTER

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A transformerless inverter configured to feed electric energy from a DC current source into an AC power grid, the inverter
comprising
an inverter bridge configured to receive an intermediate link DC voltage and generate an output AC voltage at an output thereof,
and

a DC/DC converter connected upstream of the inverter bridge, wherein the DC/DC converter is configured to receive an input
DC voltage present between two input lines of the inverter and convert the input DC voltage into the intermediate link DC
voltage, and present the intermediate link DC voltage between two input lines of the inverter bridge; and

at least one capacitance connected between the two input lines of the inverter bridge, thus providing an intermediate voltage
link;

the DC/DC converter comprising at least one resonant circuit that comprises a resonance inductance and a resonance capacitance,
wherein the resonant circuit at its input is selectively connected from among one of the two input lines of the inverter and
an intermediate potential line at which a potential between the input lines of the inverter is present, based on a position
or a state of at least two pulsed switches, and

wherein the input lines of the inverter and the input lines of the inverter bridge are galvanically separated from one another
in a capacitive way, wherein the resonant circuit is undivided, and wherein the resonant circuit, at its output, is connected
to the two input lines of the inverter bridge.

US Pat. No. 9,209,742

METHOD FOR DETERMINING A SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT OF PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE GROUPS IN A PHOTOVOLTAIC INSTALLATION

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for determining a spatial arrangement of photovoltaic module groups in a photovoltaic installation, comprising:
measuring a sequence of values of an illumination-dependent electrical characteristic variable of different photovoltaic module
groups while the photovoltaic installation is subject to light incidence with an incidence intensity that varies over time
and spatially; and

determining a relative spatial arrangement of the different photovoltaic module groups with respect to one another by comparing
sequences of measured values associated with different photovoltaic module groups,

wherein comparing the sequences of measured values further comprises determining time shifts between the sequences of measured
values of the different photovoltaic module groups.

US Pat. No. 9,450,512

METHOD FOR THE OPERATIONAL CONTROL OF AN INVERTER

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. A method for the operational control of a transformerless three-phase inverter designed for DC/AC voltage conversion that
has at least one direct-voltage input configured to couple to an energy generation component and a link and that can be connected
to a power supply grid via at least one alternating-voltage output, wherein the direct-voltage input of the inverter does
not have a galvanic connection to or with a neutral connection N and/or earth ground potential of the power supply grid when
coupled thereto, the inverter being involved in a power flow interaction with the grid, comprising:
operating the inverter by driving a power component assembly of the inverter that has power semiconductors according to a
pulse width modulation scheme using a control device;

controlling a leakage current IA during inverter operation by changing a target value setting for a link voltage UZwK TGT of a link of the inverter, wherein the link voltage is increased upon the leakage current approaching a particular value and
the link voltage is a DC voltage.

US Pat. No. 9,066,454

INVERTER WITH ENCLOSURE

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. An inverter, comprising:
an enclosure configured to house inverter components of the inverter, and
a removable hand plug configured to be inserted into the enclosure and shares an electrical connection with one or more of
the inverter components within the enclosure,

wherein the removable hand plug comprises a fan configured to cool at least a portion of the enclosure, wherein the hand plug
is configured as a switch-disconnector configured to selectively de-energize at least a direct current side of the inverter.

US Pat. No. 9,235,226

METHOD FOR DETERMINING A MAXIMUM POWER POINT OF PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for determining a maximum power point (MPP) of a photovoltaic generator (PV) by variation of at least one parameter
of two parameters comprising a search voltage and a search current by means of a device connected downstream of the photovoltaic
generator, within a maximally searchable search area on a power/voltage curve, comprising:
a) initializing by defining a start point with a start power comprising a start voltage and a start current;
b) searching for the maximum power point (MPP) in at least one search direction by a repeated variation of the search voltage
or the search current in the search area taking account of at least two limiting conditions for limiting the search area,
wherein at least one of the limiting conditions for limiting the search area is determined with evaluation of parameters provided
in an operating state already attained during the search; and

c) ending the search if one of the at least two limiting conditions for limiting the search area in step b) is met.

US Pat. No. 9,614,427

MULTI-STRING INVERTER HAVING INPUT-SIDE EMC FILTER

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. An inverter, comprising:
a DC/AC converter,
a DC intermediate circuit coupled to a direct current input side of the DC/AC converter,
multiple DC/DC converters connected in parallel to one another on an output side thereof, wherein the output side of the multiple
DC/DC converters is coupled to the DC intermediate circuit,

multiple inputs that are each coupled to an input of one of the DC/DC converters, respectively,
an EMC filter connected between the multiple inputs and the inputs of the DC/DC converters,
wherein the EMC filter comprises:
chokes in all current-carrying lines between the multiple inputs and the inputs of the DC/DC converters, and
filter capacitors that lead from all the current-carrying lines to ground between the multiple inputs and the inputs of the
DC/DC converters,

wherein one of the current-carrying lines comprises a common current-carrying line that leads from an input to the multiple
DC/DC converters, and

wherein the chokes in all the current-carrying lines comprise choke windings on a common core of a current-compensated choke;
and

a controller configured to control switches of the DC/DC converters in a synchronous manner when the multiple inputs of the
inverter are connected in parallel by means of hard-wiring their current-carrying lines.

US Pat. No. 9,401,662

INVERTER WITH AN AC INTERFACE FOR THE CONNECTION OF AC MODULES

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. An inverter for feeding a grid-compatible AC voltage into a grid, comprising:
an inverter bridge configured to convert a DC voltage to a first AC voltage;
a grid interface between the inverter bridge and an inverter output configured to couple to the grid, wherein the grid interface
is configured to convert the first AC voltage to the grid-compatible AC voltage for feeding into the grid; and

an AC interface arranged between the inverter bridge and the grid interface, and configured to be coupled to one or more AC
modules for feeding into the grid,

wherein the inverter bridge, the grid interface and the AC interface are all arranged within the inverter, and
wherein a maximum power to be fed thereto via the AC interface is less than a maximum power to be fed thereto via the inverter
bridge.

US Pat. No. 9,368,267

DYNAMICALLY BIASED INDUCTOR

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. An inductor apparatus, comprising:
an inductor winding;
a core defining a magnetic circuit for a magnetic flux generated by a current flowing through the inductor winding;
at least one permanent magnet magnetically biasing the core by its permanent magnetization;
a magnetization device configured to adjust a desired magnetization of the permanent magnet, the magnetization device including:
a magnetization winding comprising at least a portion of the inductor winding; and
a circuitry configured to subject the magnetization winding to magnetization current pulses, wherein the magnetization current
pulses generate, at a location of the permanent magnet, a magnetic field which changes the permanent magnetization of the
permanent magnet,

wherein the at least one permanent magnet is arranged within the magnetic circuit of the magnetic flux generated by the current
flowing through the inductor winding, and wherein at least one part of the inductor winding that is not part of the magnetization
winding is short-circuited by the circuitry upon subjecting the magnetization winding to the magnetization current pulses.

US Pat. No. 10,247,537

GRID DIAGRAM CREATION AND OPERATION CONTROL

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method of determining a topology of a grid section of an AC power grid, the grid section comprising a grid connection point, at least one branch branching off from the grid connection point and including a plurality of energy generation units, and at least one measurement point in the at least one branch, the method comprising:measuring a grid voltage at the at least one measurement point with a voltage measuring device;
feeding at least one of an active power and a reactive power of at least two individual energy generation units of the plurality of energy generation units to the grid connection point via a branch of the at least one branch;
determining, using a controller, dependencies of variations of the grid voltage at the at least one measurement point based on variations of connection power values of the at least two individual energy generation units of the plurality of energy generation units, the connection power values comprising measured connection power values of at least one of the at least two individual energy generation units, wherein the connection power values are measured at the at least two individual energy generation units of the plurality of energy generation units with a power value measuring device;
forcing, using the controller, the variations of the connection power values of at least one of the at least some two individual energy generation units with a characteristic time course;
assigning variations of the grid voltage to the individual energy generation units based on the characteristic time courses of their connection power values; and
determining, using the controller, electric relative positions of the at least two individual energy generation units with regard to the at least one measurement point and the grid connection point from the determined dependencies.

US Pat. No. 9,478,675

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR LOCALIZING AND QUENCHING AN ARC

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. A method for localizing and quenching an arc in a photovoltaic (PV) generator of a PV system, wherein the PV generator
comprises at least two PV subgenerators, and wherein an arc quenching circuit is associated with each PV subgenerator, said
method comprising:
detecting an arc in the PV generator;
determining a probability value for each of the PV subgenerators which is correlated with a probability that the arc is located
in the corresponding PV subgenerator;

determining a sequence for activating the arc quenching circuits associated with the PV subgenerators based on the determined
probability values; and

successively activating the arc quenching circuits in the order of the determined sequence.

US Pat. No. 9,136,688

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR DETECTING AN ARC FAULT IN A POWER CIRCUIT

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method of detecting an arc fault in a power circuit, comprising:
determining a first signal related to current flowing in the power circuit;
analyzing the first signal and determining whether the first signal indicates the presence of an electric arc in the power
circuit;

in case the first signal indicates the presence of an electric arc in the power circuit, activating means for suppressing
an electric arc;

determining and analyzing a second signal related to current flowing in the power circuit upon the first signal indicating
the presence of an electric arc; and

signaling the occurrence of an arc fault in the power circuit if the second signal does not indicate the presence of an electric
arc,

wherein in the case that the second signal still indicates the presence of an electric arc, further comprising performing
an optimization analysis on another signal, wherein if the another signal satisfies a predetermined criteria then the first
signal is no longer regarded as an indication for the presence of an electric arc.

US Pat. No. 9,509,134

CENTRALIZED DC CURTAILMENT FOR OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. A disconnect unit in a photovoltaic system comprising:
a plurality of input power lines configured to receive power from a photovoltaic (PV) generator, and deliver the received
power to an inverter;

a combiner unit configured to receive the plurality of input power lines and output a reduced number of input power lines
to be interfaced with the inverter;

a voltage sensor configured to determine the voltage associated with the input power lines;
an electronically controlled switch on m of n input power lines upstream of the combiner unit, wherein m and n are integers,
and n represents a total number of the plurality of input power lines input to the combiner unit, and wherein m<=n, wherein
disconnecting and reconnecting an input power line is achieved through an opening and closing of the electronically controlled
switch associated with the respective input power line; and

a controller unit configured to:
receive a voltage associated with the input power lines; and
if the voltage is greater than an upper voltage threshold, then the controller unit is configured to activate one or more
of the electronically controlled switches, dictated by previous switching history, to thereby disconnect the respective one
or more input power lines associated therein.

US Pat. No. 9,331,564

CONNECTING A PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY AT A HIGH OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. A method of connecting a photovoltaic (PV) array to an AC power grid via an inverter including a DC link at its input side,
the method comprising:
pre-charging the input DC link of the inverter from the AC power grid;
adjusting a link voltage of the DC link to a pre-set value by means of the inverter connected to the AC power grid, the pre-set
value being lower than an open circuit voltage of the PV array; and

connecting the PV array to the DC link, while executing the step of adjusting,
wherein, in the step of connecting, the PV array at its open circuit voltage is directly connected to the DC link.

US Pat. No. 9,444,365

TRACKING METHOD AND TRACKING DEVICE FOR A VOLTAGE CONVERTER FOR A PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. A tracking method for a voltage converter, in particular an inverter, of a photovoltaic system, for tracking a working
point of a PV generator, comprising:
changing an intermediate circuit voltage by voltage increments of a predetermined level in a direction towards a lower or
a higher voltage; and

limiting a mean rate of change of the intermediate circuit voltage in a subperiod between two voltage increments by a maximum
mean rate of change, wherein the maximum mean rate of change is determined depending on a level of a voltage difference between
the intermediate circuit voltage and a minimum required intermediate circuit voltage.

US Pat. No. 9,060,384

WIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORK BETWEEN PARTICIPANTS OF AN ASSIMILATION STEP

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

16. A radio interface for communication of a device in a wireless communication network which includes several inverters for
feeding electric energy into an AC power grid and which is built-up according to a method of building a wireless communication
network between a plurality of spatially distributed inverters for feeding electric energy into an AC power grid, wherein
each pre-defined device has a spatially limited range in wireless communication, the method comprising:
assimilating each of the pre-defined devices during a limited period of time;
in the step of assimilating, generating at least one network ID and storing the at least one network ID in each pre-defined
device participating in the step of assimilating; and

after the step of assimilating, connecting each pre-defined device exclusively to such other pre-defined devices in which
the at least one network ID originating from the same step of assimilating is stored,

wherein the radio interface has a limited spatial range,
wherein the radio interface includes a storage component for at least one network ID that is defined in the step of assimilating
in which the radio interface is participating, wherein the radio interface, after the step of assimilating, is configured
to exclusively connect to such other radio interfaces in which network IDs originating from the same step of assimilating
are stored.

US Pat. No. 9,667,170

OPERATING METHOD FOR AN INVERTER AND GRID FAULT TOLERANT INVERTER

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for operating an inverter having a bootstrap circuit comprising at least one bootstrap capacitor and at least
one bridge arrangement that is actuated in a modulated manner for feeding electrical power into a power supply grid, comprising:
operating the inverter by unipolar actuation of the at least one bridge arrangement;
monitoring the power supply grid for the presence of a grid fault; and
at least temporarily operating the inverter by bipolar actuation of the at least one bridge arrangement in a continuous switching
manner for sufficiently long times for charging the at least one bootstrap capacitor such that recharging of the bootstrap
capacitor is ensured if a grid fault is detected.

US Pat. No. 9,281,755

INVERTER WITH COUPLED INDUCTANCES

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. An inverter for converting a direct current flowing between first and second input lines into an alternating current flowing
between first and second output lines, comprising:
a first series circuit comprising a first switch configured to switch at a high frequency, a first inductance and a second
switch configured to switch at a high frequency, and connected between the first and second input lines;

a first rectifier diode leading from a first side of the first inductance to a first intermediate point, and a second rectifier
diode leading from a second intermediate point to a second side of the first inductance;

an unfolding circuit connected to the first and second intermediate points and to the first and second output lines, and comprising
switches configured to switch at the frequency of the alternating current; and

a second series circuit comprising a third switch configured to switch at a high frequency, a second inductance and a fourth
switch configured to switch at a high frequency is connected between the first and second input lines,

wherein the first inductance and the second inductance are magnetically coupled, and
wherein a third rectifier diode leads from a first side of the second inductance to the first intermediate point, and a fourth
rectifier diode leads from the second intermediate point to a second side of the second inductance.

US Pat. No. 9,214,817

CIRCUITRY ARRANGEMENT FOR A SOLAR POWER PLANT COMPRISING A DC VOLTAGE SOURCE FOR AN OFFSET VOLTAGE

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A circuitry arrangement for a solar power plant comprising:
at least one generator terminal configured to connect to a photovoltaic generator;
a grid terminal configured to connect to an AC power grid;
at least one transformerless inverter configured to feed electric power from a photovoltaic power generator when connected
to the at least one generator terminal into an AC power grid when connected to the grid terminal;

first electric lines extending between the at least one generator terminal and the at least one inverter, and second electric
lines extending between the at least one inverter and the grid terminal;

a galvanic isolation provided in all second electric lines carrying a current between the at least one inverter and the grid
terminal; and

an offset path leading from one of the first and second electric lines on a side of the galvanic isolation opposing the grid
terminal to a reference potential, the offset path comprising:

a direct current branch and an alternating current branch connected in parallel,
at least one capacitor arranged in the alternating current branch,
a DC voltage source arranged in the direct current branch, the DC voltage source configured to provide an offset voltage to
adjust an electric potential of the photovoltaic power generator when connected to the at least one generator terminal with
regard to earth potential,

a current sensor connected in series with the direct voltage source in the direct current branch, and
a direct current contactor arranged in the offset path and configured to switch off at least a direct current component of
a fault current flowing through the offset path.

US Pat. No. 9,130,410

COMMUNICATION WITH DISTRIBUTED DEVICES HANDLING ELECTRIC ENERGY VIA THE INTERNET

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method of communication of distributed devices handling electric energy with communication partners via the internet,
the method comprising:
providing a server;
programming rules in the server, the rules determining between which at least one device and which at least one communication
partner a communication connection is to be mediated based on generic properties of the devices, generic properties of the
communication partners and an initializing time-variable datum, the communication connection being selected from a group of
connections consisting of point to point, point to multi point and multi point to multi point connections via the internet;

transmitting data from each device to the server via the internet, the data including both a communication address and attributes
indicative of the generic properties of the device;

transmitting further data from each communication partner to the server via the internet, the further data including both
a communication address and attributes indicative of the generic properties of the communication partner; and

mediating the communication connection between the at least one device and the at least one communication partner determined
by the rules in response to a value of the initializing time-variable datum also defined by the rules; and

transmitting at least one data transfer request from the at least one communication partner to the at least one device and
at least one requested datum from the at least one device to the at least one communication partner via the communication
connection, or transmitting at least one command from the at least one communication partner to the at least one device and
at least one command confirmation from the at least one device to the at least one communication partner via the communication
connection;

wherein the devices handling electric energy are inverters being part of at least one photovoltaic power plant or controllers
of such inverters,

wherein the communication partners are selected from a group of partners including at least one of the devices, surveying
computers for the devices, monitoring computers for the devices, service computers for the devices, mobile terminals and data
loggers,

wherein the generic properties of the devices and the generic properties of the communication partners are selected from a
group of properties comprising their type, their firmware, a state of their firmware, their design, their construction, their
operation state, their dimensions, their owner, their operator, a name of a superordinated system, their grid connection area
and their spatial position area.

US Pat. No. 9,300,209

BIDIRECTIONAL CONVERTER WITH PREFERENTIAL DIRECTION AND REACTIVE POWER-CAPABLE INVERTER HAVING SAID CONVERTER

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. A bidirectional converter, comprising:
a first connection, a second connection, a third connection and a fourth connection,
wherein the first and the second connections form a pair of high voltage-side connections between which a first voltage is
present during operation of the converter, and

wherein the third and the fourth connections form a pair of low voltage-side connections between which a second voltage is
present during operation of the converter, wherein the first voltage is at least as high as the second voltage,

a first inductor and a second inductor,
a half-bridge comprising two switching elements and two freewheeling diodes,
wherein the half-bridge is divided into a first conduction path and a second conduction path, which are connected together
in parallel between the first connection and the second connection,

wherein, in each of the first and second conduction paths, one of the switching elements and one of the freewheeling diodes
are connected in series, and center points of the first and second conduction paths are connected to one another via the second
inductor,

wherein the switching element in the first conduction path is connected to another connection of the pair of high voltage-side
connections than the switching element in the second conduction path, and the freewheeling diode in the first conduction path
is connected to another connection of the pair of high voltage-side connections than the freewheeling diode in the second
conduction path,

wherein the half-bridge has a first operating mode, in which the switching element in the first conduction path is clocked
at a high frequency in order to cause a flow of energy in a first direction between the pair of high voltage-side connections
and the pair of low voltage-side connections,

wherein the half-bridge has a second operating mode, in which it drives the switching element in the second conduction path
at a high frequency in order to cause a flow of energy in a second direction which is opposite to the first direction between
the pair of high voltage-side connections and the pair of low voltage-side connections, and

wherein the switching element in the second conduction path has a body diode, and
wherein the first inductor is connected between the center point of the second conduction path and the third connection,
wherein the second inductor and the first inductor are connected in series between the center point of the first conduction
path and the third connection, while only the first inductor is connected between the center point of the second conduction
path and the third connection, and

wherein the two switching elements are of different types, wherein the switching element in the first conduction path does
not have a body diode and causes higher switching losses than the switching element in the second conduction path.

US Pat. No. 9,287,712

PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER PLANT

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A PV power plant comprising a PV generator, the PV generator comprising a PV string and an inverter with a DC input and
an AC output, the PV string comprising at least one PV module and being electrically connected to the DC input, wherein the
PV power plant further comprises an offset voltage source, which controls DC potential at the AC outputs, the offset voltage
source being connected to an AC side of the inverter between ground and a neutral terminal of the AC output.

US Pat. No. 9,435,845

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DETECTING AN ARC IN A DC CIRCUIT

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

14. An apparatus configured to detect an arc in a circuit, comprising:
a modulation unit configured to vary a current flowing in the circuit;
an evaluation unit configured to analyze a measured AC component of the current and determine at least one parameter of the
AC component;

a correlation unit configured to determine a degree of correlation between the level of a DC component of the current flowing
in the circuit and the at least one parameter of the AC component, and

a signaling output at which a presence of an arc is selectively signaled based on the degree of the determined correlation.

US Pat. No. 9,124,176

VOLTAGE CONVERTER COMPRISING A STORAGE INDUCTOR WITH ONE WINDING AND A STORAGE INDUCTOR WITH TWO WINDINGS

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A circuitry for a voltage converter, the circuitry comprising:
a first switching element, a second switching element, and a third switching element;
a first storage inductor, and a second storage inductor, the second storage inductor comprising a first winding and a second
winding that are magnetically coupled to each other;

a first set of two electrical terminals consisting of a first terminal and a second terminal, and a second set of two electrical
terminals consisting of a first terminal and a second terminal; and

a first intermediate potential point and a second intermediate potential point;
wherein the first intermediate potential point has:
a first connection to the first terminal of the first set of two electrical terminals via the first storage inductor,
a second connection to the second terminal of the first set of two electrical terminals via the third switching element, and
a third connection to the second intermediate potential point, either directly or via a capacitor;
wherein the second intermediate potential point has:
a first connection to the first terminal of the second set of two electrical terminals via a series connection of the first
switching element and the first winding of the second storage inductor, and

a second connection to the second terminal of the second set of two electrical terminals via a series connection of the second
switching element and the second winding of the second storage inductor; and

wherein at least one of a connection between the first terminal of the first set of two electrical terminals and the first
terminal of the second set of two electrical terminals and a connection between the second terminal of the first set of two
electrical terminals and the second terminal of the second set of two electrical terminals exists and is implemented either
directly or via a capacitor;

wherein at maximum one of either:
the connection between the first terminal of the first set of two electrical terminals and the first terminal of the second
set of two electrical terminals, or

the connection between the second terminal of the first set of two electrical terminals and the second terminal of the second
set of two electrical terminals, or

the third connection of the first intermediate potential point to the second intermediate potential point,
is a direct connection.

US Pat. No. 9,124,183

POWER INVERTER FOR FEEDING ELECTRIC ENERGY FROM A DC POWER GENERATOR INTO AN AC GRID WITH TWO POWER LINES

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A power inverter for feeding electric energy from a DC power generator into an AC grid with two power lines, comprising:
two input terminals configured to connect to the DC power generator;
two output terminals configured to connect the two power lines of the AC grid;
a resonant converter comprising:
a high frequency transformer comprising a primary winding and a secondary winding,
at least one high frequency switched semiconductor power switch that connects one end of the primary winding of the high frequency
transformer to one of the input terminals and provides a current path through the primary winding to the other one of the
input terminals,

a resonant series circuit comprising an inductance and a capacitance, and
a high frequency rectifier configured to rectify a current through the secondary winding of the high frequency transformer
and having two output lines; and

an output converter connected between the output lines of the high frequency rectifier and the two output terminals,
wherein the resonant converter further comprises a controller that is connected to the output terminals and configured to
receive a voltage signal and provide high frequency control signals for controlling the at least one semiconductor power switch
of the resonant converter to sine-modulate an AC current fed into the AC grid in phase with the voltage signal.

US Pat. No. 9,525,287

INVERTER SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR OPERATION OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC INSTALLATION FOR FEEDING ELECTRICAL POWER INTO A MEDIUM-VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY GRID

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. A method for operating a photovoltaic installation for feeding electrical power into a medium-voltage power supply grid,
with the photovoltaic installation having a plurality of photovoltaic modules, an inverter and a medium-voltage transformer,
wherein a primary side of the medium-voltage transformer is connected directly to an AC low-voltage output of the inverter,
and wherein at least one DC switching member is arranged between the photovoltaic modules and a DC input of the inverter,
comprising:
determining whether or not electrical power produced by the photovoltaic modules in the photovoltaic installation is sufficient
for feeding electrical power into the supply grid; and

when the electrical power produced by the photovoltaic modules is not sufficient for feeding electrical power into the supply
grid, disconnecting the photovoltaic modules from the inverter on the DC voltage side via the at least one DC switching member
while the inverter remains connected to the medium-voltage power supply grid on the AC voltage side via the medium-voltage
transformer.

US Pat. No. 9,203,324

METHOD FOR OPERATING AN INVERTER, AND CONTROL DEVICE

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for limiting an output power of an inverter comprising an output bridge and an upstream boost converter, the method
comprising:
determining a first measurement variable representative of a bridge temperature and a second measurement variable representative
of an output power of the inverter;

determining a third measurement variable representative of a generator voltage at generator connections of the inverter or
a fourth measurement variable representative of an output voltage at a power output of the inverter; and

reducing the output power supplied to a power supply grid to a reduced power value, wherein reducing the output power comprises
reducing the output power while concurrently maintaining an output frequency of the inverter supplied to the power supply
grid generally constant,

wherein the reduced power value is determined based on the first measurement variable, the second measurement variable and
at least one of the third and fourth measurement variables.

US Pat. No. 9,380,721

CABLE CLIP FOR MODULE ELECTRONICS

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. An apparatus, comprising:
a multi-part housing configured to be assembled around two lines, the two lines provided with insulations and configured to
conduct a power current generated by a solar module,

an electric circuitry arranged within the multi-part housing,
connection devices configured to connect the electric circuitry to the two lines such that at least one component of the electric
circuitry is connected in parallel to the solar module, wherein the connection devices include insulation displacement terminals
which are configured to displace the insulations and electrically contact the two lines with the electric circuitry upon assembly
of the multi-part housing, and

at least one cutting blade made of an electrically insulating material configured to cut through at least one of the two lines
upon assembly of the multi-part housing, wherein the insulation displacement terminals provided for electrically contacting
the at least one of the two lines are arranged on opposite sides of the cutting blade.

US Pat. No. 9,270,117

LEVELLING PARTIAL POWERS FLOWING VIA THE INDIVIDUAL PHASES OF A MULTI-PHASE AC GRID

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method of levelling partial powers at a grid connection point between a multi-phase AC power grid comprising a plurality
of phase conductors and a unit including a multi-phase inverter which feeds electric energy into the AC power grid plus consumer
loads connected to the AC power grid through the grid connection point, the partial powers flowing via the individual phase
conductors, comprising:
determining differences between the partial powers flowing through the individual phase conductors at the grid connection
point; and

using the inverter via a control device to reduce the determined differences by feeding different partial powers into the
individual phase conductors,

wherein determining differences between the partial powers comprises determining directions of the partial powers flowing
through the individual phase conductors and comparing the determined directions with each other to determine the differences
between the partial powers to be reduced.

US Pat. No. 9,594,126

DISTRIBUTED DETECTION OF LEAKAGE CURRENT AND FAULT CURRENT, AND DETECTION OF STRING FAULTS

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. A method of monitoring an inverter that comprises separate input-side connectors for respective multiple direct-current
generators when coupled thereto with regard to the occurrence of a critical fault current, comprising:
transmitting within the inverter all currents that are fed in at the individual input-side connectors via at least two pairs
of input lines that are separately conducting the currents that are fed in at different input-side connectors;

measuring within the inverter differential currents between the input lines separately for each of the at least two pairs
of input lines using one or more measuring devices;

comparing the differential currents with a limit value separately for each of the at least two pairs of input lines, wherein
a case of the limit value being exceeded is recognized as a fault using a monitoring device;

additionally determining a sum of the differential currents simultaneously occurring in all of the at least two pairs of input
lines using the monitoring device; and

comparing the sum with a further limit value, wherein a case of the further limit value being exceeded is likewise recognized
as a fault using the monitoring device.

US Pat. No. 9,559,614

GRID-CONNECTED INVERTER, INVERTER ARRANGEMENT AND METHOD FOR OPERATING AN INVERTER ARRANGEMENT

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. A grid-connected inverter for feeding current via a transformer into an electric power grid, comprising:
an output bridge arrangement that is actuated via a pulse width modulator, wherein a periodic auxiliary signal is used to
determine switching times of the output bridge arrangement; and

a synchronization unit for phase synchronization of the auxiliary signal with the electric power grid,
wherein the synchronization unit is configured to set a predetermined phase offset (??0) of the periodic auxiliary signal with respect to a phase of the electric power grid, and

wherein the synchronization unit is integral to the grid-connected inverter and dedicated for operation with the grid-connected
inverter.

US Pat. No. 9,599,658

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR SIGNALING PARTIAL SHADOWING OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATOR

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. A method for signaling partial shadowing within a PV generator comprising at least two partial PV generators connected
in parallel, comprising:
performing a reference impedance measurement on each of the at least two partial PV generators in a state of substantially
uniform irradiation of the PV generator;

determining at least one reference resonant property of each of the at least two partial PV generators from the reference
impedance measurement;

performing impedance measurements on each of the at least two partial PV generators at a first operating point of the PV generator
during operation of the PV generator;

determining at least one resonant property of each of the partial PV generators from the impedance measurements, and
detecting and signaling partial shadowing within the PV generator if a difference between the resonant properties of the partial
PV generators at the first operating point differs from a difference between the reference resonant properties of the partial
PV generators.

US Pat. No. 9,590,527

INVERTER AND OPERATING METHOD FOR AN INVERTER

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

12. An inverter for feeding in electrical energy into an energy supply grid via a transformer, wherein the inverter is configured
to:
measure output currents and output voltages of the inverter; and
actuate power switches of the inverter using actuation signals that are generated as a function of the measured output currents
and the measured output voltages at a fundamental frequency of the energy supply grid, and

wherein the actuation signals are further generated as a function of a harmonic component of the measured output voltages
of the inverter at a multiple of the fundamental frequency using a control loop with positive feedback.

US Pat. No. 9,870,889

CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENT FOR ACTUATING A BISTABLE RELAY

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A circuit arrangement for actuating a bistable relay, comprising:
a relay coil of the bistable relay arranged in a series circuit with a capacitor, wherein the series circuit is connected
to a supply voltage via a first semiconductor switch for switching on the bistable relay and is short-circuited through a
second semiconductor switch for switching off the bistable relay;

at least one voltage regulator, configured to regulate a voltage present at the relay coil of the bistable relay such that
a preset voltage at the relay coil is not exceeded, comprising a first voltage regulator with a first input terminal, a first
output terminal and a first control terminal, wherein the voltage is present at the first output terminal relative to the
first control terminal with an absolute value below the preset voltage, wherein the first input terminal is connected to the
first semiconductor switch, and wherein the first output terminal is connected to a first output terminal of the relay coil
and wherein the first control terminal is connected to a second output terminal of the relay coil.

US Pat. No. 9,602,024

DC/AC CONVERTER, POWER GENERATION PLANT AND OPERATING METHOD FOR A DC/AC CONVERTER

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. A DC/AC converter for converting DC power of a number of inductively connected generators into power grid conformal AC
power for feeding into a connected power grid with a number of phases, each phase being assigned to an associated generator,
comprising:
an intermediate circuit comprising an intermediate circuit capacitor, a positive intermediate circuit connection and a negative
intermediate circuit connection, and

a bridge for each phase of the power grid, the bridge comprising:
a first switch configured to form a switchable first connecting path between the positive intermediate circuit connection
and a corresponding phase terminal of the bridge,

a second switch configured to form a switchable second connecting path and being connected to a positive generator terminal
of the respective generator and the phase terminal, wherein the second connecting path circumvents the intermediate circuit,

a third switch configured to form a switchable third connecting path between a negative generator terminal of the generator
and the phase terminal,

a fourth switch configured to form a switchable fourth connecting path between the negative intermediate circuit connection
and the phase terminal,

a first diode connected between the positive intermediate circuit connection and the positive generator terminal of the respective
generator, and

a last diode connected between the negative intermediate circuit connection and the negative generator terminal of the respective
generator.

US Pat. No. 9,654,016

STEP-UP OR STEP-DOWN CONVERTER COMPRISING A BYPASS CAPACITOR

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A converter, comprising:
a converter inductor;
a converter diode;
a converter switch, wherein the converter inductor, the converter diode and the converter switch operate together to receive
an input voltage and generate a converted output voltage;

a bypass circuit that is connected in parallel with the converter switch, the bypass circuit comprising a bypass capacitor
connected in series with another diode, wherein a forward direction of the another diode is same as a regular direction of
current flow through the converter switch; and

a discharge circuit configured to discharge the bypass capacitor, the discharge circuit comprising another inductor,
wherein the another inductor of the discharge circuit is magnetically coupled to the converter inductor,
wherein the converter comprises a plurality of partial converters, each partial converter having a respective converter switch,
a respective converter inductor, a respective converter diode, a respective bypass capacitor for the respective converter
switch and a respective discharge circuit having a respective another inductor, and wherein the another inductors and the
converter inductors of the different partial converters are each magnetically coupled separately from one another.

US Pat. No. 9,820,397

HOUSING FOR RECEIVING ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A housing for receiving electronic components, comprising:
a housing body; and
a housing cover,
wherein the housing body and the housing cover are connected to one another at multiple fastening points, and
wherein at least one of the fastening points is surrounded by recesses at least in part on the housing body or on the housing
cover so that in the event of an internal pressure pin in the housing exceeding a predetermined threshold value pmax the housing body or the housing cover deforms in the region of the at least one fastening point and a gap is formed between
the housing body and the housing cover.

US Pat. No. 9,570,998

CAPACITOR ARRANGEMENT FOR AN INTERMEDIATE CIRCUIT OF A VOLTAGE CONVERTER

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A capacitor arrangement for an input circuit or intermediate circuit of a single voltage converter, comprising: the single
voltage converter comprising an inverter circuit configured to receive a DC voltage at an input thereof and convert the DC
voltage to an AC voltage at an output thereof; at least two capacitors and two connection nodes at the input of the inverter
circuit, and switching members configured to selectively alter an arrangement of the at least two capacitors with the two
connection nodes, wherein the at least two capacitors are connected to the connection nodes in parallel with each other in
a first operating state of the switching members and connected to the connection nodes in series with each other in a second
operating state of the switching members, wherein the switching members are arranged such that an inflow of charge into the
at least two capacitors is prevented in a third operating state in which the at least two capacitors are decoupled from the
inverter circuit.

US Pat. No. 9,535,104

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR DETECTING AN ARC FAULT IN A POWER CIRCUIT USING FREQUENCY RESPONSE

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method of detecting an arc fault in a power circuit, the method comprising:
a) injecting an AC-signal into the power circuit;
b) measuring a response signal related to the injected AC-signal within the power circuit;
c) determining a frequency response of the power circuit from the response signal;
d) analyzing the frequency response and identifying a preferred frequency range; wherein the preferred frequency range is
chosen to be located around a minimum of the impedance curve;

e) measuring a signal related to AC-current flowing in the power circuit within the preferred frequency range; and
f) signaling an occurrence of an arc fault in the power circuit depending on the measured signal.

US Pat. No. 9,797,853

INSULATION RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT FOR INVERTERS

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method of measuring an insulation resistance for an inverter having at least one half-bridge comprising two series-connected
active switching elements for driving an output current, and a DC link voltage circuit, the method comprising:
connecting a center point of the half-bridge of the inverter positioned between the two series-connected active switching
elements to a grounding point by closing a grounding switch, and connecting the center point connected to the grounding point,
one after the other, to a first ungrounded terminal by means of a first active switching element of the two series-connected
active switching elements and a second ungrounded terminal of the DC link voltage circuit of the inverter by means of a second
active switching element of the two series-connected active switching elements of the half-bridge to establish first and second
connections between the first and second ungrounded terminals of the DC link voltage circuit, respectively, and the grounding
point; and

measuring a current flowing via the first and second connections to the grounding point using a measuring device.

US Pat. No. 9,543,088

CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENT FOR SUPPRESSING AN ARC OCCURRING OVER A CONTACT GAP OF A SWITCHING MEMBER

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. A circuit arrangement for suppressing an arc occurring during a switching process, comprising:
a current bypass path comprising a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) resistor and a fuse connected together in series;
a switch connected in parallel with the current bypass path; and
a circuit unit configured to limit a voltage drop across the fuse when the fuse has tripped, wherein the circuit unit is arranged
in parallel with the fuse.

US Pat. No. 9,709,623

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR MONITORING A PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. An apparatus for monitoring a photovoltaic system, comprising:
an incoupling circuit to couple an AC voltage test signal into the photovoltaic system when coupled thereto,
an outcoupling circuit to outcouple a response signal, which is associated with the test signal, from the photovoltaic system,
and

an evaluation device, which is connected to the outcoupling circuit, to identify events which adversely affect correct operation
of the photovoltaic system, wherein the outcoupling circuit comprises a first transformer and a second transformer, each having
a respective primary winding, and each having a respective secondary winding which is connected to the evaluation device,

wherein the primary windings of the first and second transformers are arranged in different electrical lines, and are between
a generator and an inverter of the photovoltaic system.

US Pat. No. 9,581,656

INVERTER AND METHOD FOR DETECTING A PHASE FAILURE IN AN ENERGY SUPPLY GRID

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

12. An inverter adapted for feeding electrical energy into an energy supply grid via a YNd transformer, the inverter including
a control system, the control system comprising:
a control unit configured to receive output measurement values from an output of the inverter, and selectively generate a
phase failure detection signal based thereon; and

a safety circuit configured to isolate the inverter from a low voltage side of a transformer at an output thereof when the
phase failure detection signal indicates occurrence of a phase failure associated with a grid at a high voltage side of the
transformer,

wherein the control unit comprises:
a transformation circuit that receives three-phase output current values and generates a symmetrical positive-sequence current
value and a symmetrical negative-sequence current value based thereon;

a divider configured to generate a ratio based on the symmetrical positive-sequence current value and the symmetrical negative-sequence
current value; and

a threshold value switch configured to selectively output the phase failure detection signal if the ratio output from the
divider exceeds a preset threshold for a time period that exceeds a present time threshold.

US Pat. No. 9,819,180

METHOD FOR SEQUENTIALLY DISCONNECTING/CONNECTING ELECTRICAL CURRENT SOURCES FROM/TO A COMMON LOAD

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for localizing an identified arc in a PV-system comprising a plurality of PV-subgenerators as electrical current
sources that are connected in parallel to a DC-input circuit of an inverter as a common load, and a device for arc detection
looped into a common DC line by sequentially disconnecting at least two of the plurality of PV-subgenerators as electrical
current sources from the DC-input circuit of the inverter as the common load,
wherein the PV-subgenerators are each connected to the DC-input circuit of the inverter via a switching unit,
wherein each switching unit comprises a parallel circuit comprising an electromechanically actuated switch and an associated
semiconductor switch, the method comprising the following acts:

during a first act: closing semiconductor switches which are associated with respective closed electromechanical switches,
if the semiconductor switches are not already closed, and opening the respective closed electromechanical switches, and

during a second act: sequentially opening at least two of the semiconductor switches which were closed during the first act
or which were already closed.

US Pat. No. 9,632,116

DC REVERSE POLARITY DETECTION

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. An inspection apparatus for inspecting polarities of poles of a plurality of DC voltage sources with regard to a reference
potential, each pole being individually connected to one input terminal of a plurality of input terminals of a combiner circuit,
the input terminals not being connected to each other, the inspection apparatus comprising:
at least two electric contacts each configured to be individually connected to one input terminal of the plurality of input
terminals of the combiner circuit such that each one of the at least two electric contacts is connected to one pole of one
of at least two DC voltage sources of the plurality of DC voltage sources, respectively,

a signaling element configured to emit a matching signal when subjected to an electrical signal, and
one switching element per each of the at least two electric contacts, the switching elements being configured to forward the
electric signal towards the signaling element if a polarity of a voltage present at the respective electric contact matches
a polarity pre-set for the respective electric contact with regard to the reference potential, and further configured to block
the electric signal if the polarity of the voltage present at the respective electric contact does not match the pre-set polarity,

wherein the switching elements are electrically connected in series.

US Pat. No. 9,716,407

STANDBY POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM AND METHODS FOR ISOLATING A LOCAL POWER DISTRIBUTION NETWORK FROM A SUPERORDINATE POWER SUPPLY NETWORK

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for disconnecting a local power distribution grid from a superordinate power supply grid, wherein
the local power distribution grid and the superordinate power supply grid are connected by a grid disconnection device comprising
at least two series-connected switching elements, each of the at least two series-connected switching elements having assigned
switching contacts, wherein a switching contact of a first of the at least two series-connected switching elements is connected
to the superordinate power supply grid, and

at least one local power supply device is provided in the local power distribution grid, the at least one local power supply
device comprising an island detector configured to detect an island situation of the local power distribution grid, an internal
switching element for disconnecting the at least one local power supply device from the local power distribution grid, a control
contact of a second of the at least two series-connected switching elements is connected to the superordinate power supply
grid, comprising:

monitoring the local power distribution grid for a presence of an island situation using the island detector;
opening the second switching element by signaling the control contact thereof, and
disconnecting the local power supply device from the local power distribution grid using the internal switching element to
open the first switching element.

US Pat. No. 9,625,516

DEVICE AND METHOD FOR MONITORING A PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A device for monitoring a photovoltaic system to detect an occurrence of events impairing normal operation of the photovoltaic
system, wherein the photovoltaic system comprises a photovoltaic generator comprising a first group of photovoltaic modules
and a second group of photovoltaic modules being different from the first group, the device comprising:
a first and a second pair of coupling means, both pairs comprising signal coupling-in means for coupling a test signal into
the photovoltaic generator, and a signal coupling-out means for coupling out a response signal from the photovoltaic generator,
the first pair of coupling means configured to selectively detect the occurrence of the events in the first group of photovoltaic
modules, and the second pair of coupling means configured to selectively detect the occurrence of the events in the second
group of photovoltaic modules,

wherein a DC current of the first group of photovoltaic modules flows through the signal coupling-in means of the first pair
of coupling means, and a DC current of the second group of photovoltaic modules flows through the signal coupling-in means
of the second pair of coupling means.

US Pat. No. 9,722,425

DETERMINING A STRING CONFIGURATION IN A MULTISTRING-INVERTER

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method of operating an inverter comprising a plurality of input connectors, wherein a plurality of strings of photovoltaic
cells are configured to connect respectively to the plurality of input connectors, wherein each of the plurality of input
connectors is connected to a common DC voltage link via a respective DC/DC converter, and wherein the input connectors are
bridgeable, the method comprising:
determining partial powers flowing through the individual DC/DC converters; and
at least for some time either operating at least two of the DC/DC converters with the aim of balancing partial currents flowing
through these at least two DC/DC converters, or connecting through the at least two of the DC/DC converters between the respective
input connectors and the DC voltage link,

wherein, while operating the at least two DC/DC converters with the aim of balancing the partial currents flowing through
them or connecting through the at least two DC/DC converters, the partial powers flowing through the at least two DC/DC converters
are compared to each other, and

wherein, if a difference between the partial powers of a first and a second of the at least two DC/DC converters exceeds a
threshold value, the first and the second of the at least two DC/DC converters are subsequently operated in a way that is
adjusted due to a conclusion that different strings are connected to the DC voltage link via the first and the second of the
at least two DC/DC converters.

US Pat. No. 9,806,516

METHOD AND DEVICE FOR PROTECTING SEVERAL STRINGS OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATOR FROM REVERSE CURRENTS

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for reverse current protection of a number of strings of a photovoltaic generator being connected to a common
DC link in parallel in small groups respectively via a corresponding DC/DC converter, comprising:
detecting a current flowing via each of the DC/DC converters; and
inhibiting a reverse current flowing through one of the DC/DC converters by a control of the DC/DC converter in response to
the detection,

wherein the reverse current flowing through one of the DC/DC converters is inhibited by a control of the remaining DC/DC converters
not having a reverse current, thereby interrupting the flow of current from the strings connected thereby to the common DC
link.

US Pat. No. 9,793,812

METHOD FOR OPERATING AN INVERTER WITH REACTIVE POWER CAPABILITY HAVING A POLARITY REVERSER, AND INVERTER WITH REACTIVE POWER CAPABILITY HAVING A POLARITY REVERSER

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for operating an inverter with reactive power capability that comprises a voltage link circuit and an unfolding
bridge, wherein poles of the voltage link circuit are configured to be selectively connected to terminals of an AC output
in different configurations by means of the unfolding bridge, in order to change a polarity of the AC output relative to the
voltage link circuit, the method comprising:
in the case of a phase shift between an AC current (I) and an AC voltage (U) at the AC output, reversing the direction of
a current flowing via the voltage link circuit, wherein reversing the direction of the current flowing via the voltage link
circuit comprises:

disconnecting the AC output from the voltage link circuit,
providing a freewheeling path between the terminals of the AC output, while the AC output is disconnected from the voltage
link circuit, and

reconnecting the AC output to the voltage link circuit with the polarity of the AC output relative to the voltage link circuit
being changed by the unfolding bridge.

US Pat. No. 9,720,025

ISOLATION MONITORING USING A TEST SIGNAL OF VARIABLE FREQUENCY

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method of monitoring an isolation of an ungrounded power grid, comprising:
connecting an AC voltage source via at least one test resistor to the power grid,
applying a test signal comprising a periodic continuous voltage course with regard to ground and a frequency to the power
grid by means of the AC voltage source, where the test signal is a sine signal,

measuring a leakage current flowing due to the test signal, and
determining an ohmic isolation resistance from the measured leakage current,
wherein the frequency of the test signal is varied such that an active current part of the leakage current keeps a predetermined
recommended value at varying leakage capacitances of the power grid.

US Pat. No. 9,865,411

SAFETY DEVICE FOR A PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A safety device for a photovoltaic system for feeding into a power supply system, the safety device comprising:
at least one input for connection to a PV generator;
at least one output for connection to an inverter;
a switching element for de-energizing the at least one output; and
an evaluating unit configured to switch the switching element based on a low-frequency signal present at the at least one
output, wherein the low-frequency signal comprises a frequency which corresponds at least to one and at most to 10-times a
system frequency in the power supply system, and wherein the low frequency signal is provided inherently by a measurement
circuit of the inverter when the inverter is connected to the safety device without the low-frequency signal being generated
by a dedicated signal generator, wherein the measurement circuit is used to determine parameters of a system voltage that
are of relevance to a synchronization of the inverter to a grid.

US Pat. No. 9,780,550

PROTECTIVE DEVICE FOR A PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A protective device for a photovoltaic system, comprising:
at least one input configured to connect to a photovoltaic generator;
at least one output configured to deliver electric power supplied by the photovoltaic generator;
a detection device configured to receive a signal applied at the at least one output, wherein the protective device is configured
to provide a low level-limited voltage at the at least one output when the applied signal does not meet a predetermined criteria,
and wherein the protective device is further configured to connect the at least one output to the at least one input via a
switching device when the applied signal meets the predetermined criteria;

a DC-DC converter, a series regulator, a shunt regulator, or a further input configured to receive a partial voltage from
the photovoltaic generator to generate the low level-limited voltage; and

a timer configured to delay control of the switching device such that a switching of the switching device takes place only
if the applied signal meets the predetermined criteria for more than a predetermined period of time.

US Pat. No. 9,760,956

OPTIMIZED LOAD MANAGEMENT

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method of optimizing a chronological development of consumption of electric power by a group of different consumers located
within a local power grid with regard to a supply of electric power including electric power from at least one solar power
generator located within the local power grid, comprising:
measuring a consumption of electric power by each individual consumer of the group of different consumers at a sample rate
of at least 0.1 Hz;

determining characteristic time curves of the consumption of electric power by the individual consumers based on the measured
consumptions;

making a prognosis of a chronological development of the supply of electric power from the at least one solar power generator
for a future period of time;

making a plan for apportioning electric power to the individual consumers within the future period of time based on the determined
characteristic time curves of the consumption of electric power by the individual consumers and adapted to the prognosis and
further based on at least one user goal setting comprising maximizing a local consumption by the consumers within the local
power grid of electric power generated by the at least one solar power generator; and

apportioning, via a central controller, electric power to the individual consumers according to the plan within the future
period of time, wherein the electric power is apportioned to the individual consumers according to the plan within the future
period of time at a clock rate of at least 0.1 Hz, wherein the electric power is apportioned to two or more selected individual
consumers, wherein the apportionment of electric power to a first of the selected individual consumers takes place in gaps
of the consumption by a second of the selected individual consumers such that the consumption of the first and second individual
consumer is mutually exclusive, and wherein at least one of the selected individual consumers comprises an oscillating consumption
of electric power.

US Pat. No. 9,831,678

METHOD FOR BLACK STARTING A POWER STATION COMPRISING A PLURALITY OF INVERTERS CONNECTABLE TO AN AC ELECTRICAL GRID

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for black-starting a power station comprising a plurality of inverters connectable to a local AC grid, comprising:
building up a first AC voltage in the local AC grid by a first inverter of the plurality of inverters, and
connecting a second inverter of the plurality of inverters, after synchronization with the first AC voltage, to the local
AC grid,

wherein the first AC voltage built up by the first inverter is reduced by at least a quarter with respect to a rated voltage
of the local AC grid, and

wherein once the second inverter has been connected, a second AC voltage, which is increased with respect to the first AC
voltage, is built up in the local AC grid.

US Pat. No. 9,768,610

METHOD AND CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENT WITH MEANS FOR A LEAKAGE CURRENT COMPENSATION IN A PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM WITH MULTIPLE DIFFERENTIAL CURRENT SENSORS

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for leakage current compensation in a photovoltaic system, comprising:
determining a reference current flowing from at least one current-carrying line under voltage via a capacitor to earth;
generating a compensation current, having a phase and a frequency of the reference current, and having an amplitude adjusted
by a negative scaling factor based on the reference current;

determining a current sum using a differential current sensor for at least a portion thereof, wherein addends of the current
sum are currents through a complete set of current-carrying lines and the compensation current;

minimizing the determined current sum by adjusting the negative scaling factor;
routing the compensation current through at least one other differential current sensor, such that the compensation current
compensates a leakage current component of a differential current monitored by the at least one other differential current
sensor.

US Pat. No. 10,010,011

INVERTER HAVING TWO-PART HOUSING

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. An inverter, comprising:a housing, comprising:
a first housing module,
a second housing module, which is connected detachably to the first housing module, and
an enclosed cooling air channel, which opens out into a surrounding environment of the inverter, wherein the enclosed cooling air channel is delimited in a circumferential direction partially by the first housing module and partially by the second housing module being structurally coupled together, and
first and second power electronics component parts in the first housing module and the second housing module, respectively,
wherein the first housing module has a first surface that is configured to fit on an external structure and defines a fitting plane, and the second housing module is configured to exclusively fit on the first housing module,
wherein the enclosed cooling air channel is separated and spaced away from the fitting plane of the inverter by a spacing distance, wherein the fitting plane is defined by the first surface of the first housing module with respect to the external structure, and
wherein the first and second power electronics component parts are separated from the enclosed cooling air channel by walls of the first and second housing modules thus defining first and second portions of the first and second housing modules, respectively, such that the first and second power electronics component parts are arranged in first portions of the first and second housing modules that are not arranged in the enclosed cooling air channel that resides in second portions of the first and second housing modules, respectively, but instead are protected from an environment passing through the enclosed cooling air channel.

US Pat. No. 10,178,814

INVERTER AND METHOD FOR COOLING AN INVERTER

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. An inverter, in particular for a photovoltaic system, comprising: a housing with at least one chamber and a cooling air channel formed within the chamber for guiding ambient air as cooling air for electrical and/or electronic components of the inverter disposed along the cooling air channel, wherein the cooling air channel extends through the housing from an air inlet to an air outlet, thereby defining an air flow path, and a further air outlet provided within the cooling air channel between two of the components of the inverter to be cooled along the airflow path, and arranged above the air inlet and the air outlet.

US Pat. No. 10,103,543

METHOD FOR CONTROLLING A LOAD

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for controlling a load, comprising:providing a total energy consumption of the load and a time window for the total energy consumption of the load from one or more energy sources,
determining energy blocks, wherein the energy blocks are based on a power interval during a time interval, and wherein the time intervals are within the time window, and
wherein the energy blocks are allocated energy-source-dependent costs,
sorting the energy blocks in ascending order according to a level of the cost per energy block, wherein the costs of the energy blocks are determined by taking into account the consequential environmental costs of the energy producers producing them,
summating quantities of energy that the energy blocks contain in ascending order of sorting until the total energy consumption of the load is reached,
determining on and off times of the load using the time intervals that belong to the summed energy blocks, wherein the power intervals belonging to the respective energy blocks determine a power consumption of the load at the respective instant, and
actuating the load in accordance with the determined on and off times.

US Pat. No. 9,906,019

INTEGRATED SOLAR AND BATTERY INVERTER

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A circuitry arrangement for connecting a battery and a further voltage source to a common DC voltage link, comprising:
a DC voltage link having a plus pole and a minus pole,
a two-pole connector for the battery, the connector for the battery having a plus pole and a minus pole, and
a two-pole connector for the further voltage source, the connector for the further voltage source having a plus pole and a
minus pole,

wherein the plus pole of one of the two connectors is directly connected to the plus pole of the DC voltage link, and the
minus pole of the other of the two connectors is directly connected to the minus pole of the DC voltage link,

wherein the plus pole of the one of the two connectors is connected to the minus pole of the one of the two connectors via
a first parallel circuit consisting of a first switch and a first anti-parallel diode oriented in blocking direction and via
a first choke connected in series with the first parallel circuit,

wherein the minus pole of the other of the two connectors is connected to the plus pole of the other of the two connectors
via a second parallel circuit consisting of a second switch and a second anti-parallel diode oriented in blocking direction
and via a second choke connected in series with the second parallel circuit,

wherein a connection that is electrically conductive at least for alternating currents is provided between a choke end of
the first parallel circuit and a choke end of the second parallel circuit, and

wherein the first choke and the second choke are magnetically coupled, wherein winding senses of windings of the first choke
and the second choke on a common magnetic core are equal as viewed from the connection of the choke ends of the first parallel
circuit and the second parallel circuit.

US Pat. No. 9,917,532

GRID-TIED INVERTER, INVERTER ARRANGEMENT, AND METHOD FOR OPERATING AN INVERTER ARRANGEMENT

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A grid-tied inverter for supplying current to a power supply system, comprising:
an output bridge arrangement that is actuated via a pulse width modulator, wherein switching times of the output bridge arrangement
are determined by using a periodic auxiliary signal, wherein a frequency of the periodic auxiliary signal varies according
to a prescribed periodic wobble signal,

a synchronization unit configured to provide phase synchronization of the periodic auxiliary signal to the power supply system,
wherein the synchronization unit is configured to adjust a prescribed phase offset of the periodic auxiliary signal in relation
to a phase of the power supply system, and

a further synchronization unit configured to provide phase synchronization of the periodic wobble signal to the power supply
system,

wherein the synchronization unit and the further synchronization unit each comprise a phase locked loop (PLL) circuit, and
wherein the periodic wobble signal is routed to a controller system of the PLL circuit of the synchronization unit via a correction
signal generator circuit and an adder circuit for the purpose of suppressing oscillations.

US Pat. No. 10,121,577

INTEGRAL INDUCTOR ARRANGEMENT

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. An integral inductor arrangement with at least three magnetic loops arranged side by side to each other in a row and at least one winding associated with each of the magnetic loops, the magnetic loops being formed by individual core elements, each of which being part of one of the magnetic loops, and shared core elements, each of which being part of two adjacent of the magnetic loops, wherein the shared core elements are separated from the individual core elements by magnetic gaps which are arranged each between a respective end surface of an individual core element and a respective side surface of an end section of a shared core element, and each of the at least one winding is arranged around one of the individual core elements and not arranged around the magnetic gaps, wherein each of the at least one winding defines a respective one of the magnetic loops, and further wherein the magnetic gaps comprise dielectrics, air gaps or magnetic materials having a lower permeability than the individual or shared core elements.

US Pat. No. 10,056,758

METHOD AND INVERTER FOR DISTRIBUTING POWER AMONG A PLURALITY OF DC SOURCES CONNECTED JOINTLY TO A DC VOLTAGE INPUT OF A DC-TO-AC CONVERTER

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for distributing power among a plurality of DC sources, which are connected in parallel to an input-side DC link of a DC-to-AC converter, of which DC sources at least one is connected, via a DC-to-DC converter, to the DC link, wherein the DC-to-DC converter is actuable in order to cause a change in the power fed into the DC link by the DC source, comprising:derating powers of the DC sources differently during a derated operation of the DC-to-AC converter that includes a reduction of power at the DC-to-AC converter from an initial power to a derated power in which the power of the DC-to-AC converter is derated with respect to the sum of the maximum powers available from all DC sources;
dynamically compensating a variation in the power of at least one other DC source during the derated operation of the DC-to-AC converter by actuating at least the at least one DC-to-DC converter via which the at least one DC source is connected to the DC link to maintain a sum of powers of the DC sources constant at the derated power during the derated operation,
wherein the power of the at least one other DC source is varied actively by virtue of a DC-to-DC converter via which the at least one other DC source is connected to the DC link being actuated.

US Pat. No. 9,917,443

PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR OPERATING A PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM FOR FEEDING ELECTRICAL POWER INTO A MEDIUM-VOLTAGE NETWORK

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for operating a photovoltaic system for feeding a medium-voltage grid, wherein the photovoltaic system has a photovoltaic
generator comprising a plurality of photovoltaic modules connected in series, at least one inverter and at least one medium-voltage
transformer, and wherein the medium-voltage transformer is connected on the primary side directly to a low-voltage AC output
of the inverter, the inverter is connected to the photovoltaic generator via a DC input, and the inverter permits reverse
currents from the low-voltage AC output to the DC input, comprising:
determining whether there is insufficient generation of electric power by the photovoltaic modules for feeding to the medium-voltage
grid;

maintaining a connection between an AC side of the inverter and the medium-voltage grid via the medium-voltage transformer
when insufficient electric power generation is determined; and

maintaining a connection between a DC side of the inverter and the photovoltaic generator when insufficient electric power
generation is determined,

wherein a number of the plurality of photovoltaic modules connected in series within the photovoltaic generator is sufficiently
large so that a forward voltage of the plurality of series-connected photovoltaic modules is greater than a voltage set at
the DC input owing to the reverse currents.

US Pat. No. 10,033,190

INVERTER WITH AT LEAST TWO DC INPUTS, PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM COMPRISING SUCH AN INVERTER AND METHOD FOR CONTROLLING AN INVERTER

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. An inverter comprising at least two DC inputs, which are coupled to a common DC link, which is connected to an inverter bridge, wherein at least one of the DC inputs is coupled to an additional DC link.

US Pat. No. 9,941,794

METHOD FOR REDUCING SPURIOUS EMISSIONS FROM A VOLTAGE CONVERTER WITH CLOCKED POWER SWITCHES

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for reducing spurious emissions of a current or voltage converter having at least one power switch which is actuated with an actuating signal, wherein the actuating signal comprises switch-on pulses spaced apart from one another and has a fixed clock frequency,modulating pulse widths of the switch-on pulses in order to regulate a current or a voltage in the current or voltage converter according to a setpoint,
wherein the pulse widths are varied for achieving the regulation of the current or the voltage in the current or voltage converter according to the setpoint, and
wherein the pulse widths are additionally varied in order to change a spectrum of spurious emissions, wherein the additionally varying comprises successive groups of changes to the pulse widths which are applied to successive groups of switch-on pulses extending over a predefined number of successive switch-on pulses, and wherein sums of the changes comprised in each of successive group of changes are zero and absolute values of the changes comprised in the successive groups of changes differ by a scaling factor.

US Pat. No. 9,923,483

METHOD FOR OPERATING AN INVERTER AND INVERTER COMPRISING A SWITCH BETWEEN A CENTER POINT OF A DC LINK AND A CONNECTION FOR A NEUTRAL CONDUCTOR OF AN AC GRID

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method of operating a transformerless inverter connected on the input side to a generator and on the output side to a
multiphase AC grid and comprising a multi-phase inverter bridge with a switch between a midpoint of a DC intermediate circuit
on the input side and a terminal for a neutral conductor of the multiphase AC grid, comprising:
feeding electric power from the DC intermediate circuit into the AC grid by the inverter bridge with the switch closed when
first operating conditions are present;

opening the switch when there is a transition from the first operating conditions to second operating conditions different
from the first operating conditions;

feeding electric power from the DC intermediate circuit into the AC grid by the inverter bridge with the switch open when
the second operating conditions are present; and

closing the switch when there is a transition from the second operating conditions to the first operating conditions.

US Pat. No. 9,866,023

SECURITY CONCEPT FOR INTEGRATING A BATTERY INTO AN INVERTER

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. An inverter apparatus comprising:
a DC voltage link,
an input stage coupled to the DC voltage link and configured to receive DC electric power from a DC power generator for loading
the DC voltage link,

a DC/AC converter coupled to the DC voltage link and configured to feed AC electric power into a power grid,
a bidirectional connection configured to couple a battery to the DC voltage link (6), to load the battery out of the DC voltage link in a first direction, and to load the DC voltage link out of the battery
in a second, opposite direction, and

a controller configured to operate the DC/AC converter and, dependent on present values of relevant parameters of the battery,
to selectively operate the bidirectional connection in the first direction or the second direction,

wherein the controller is coupled to an interface configured to receive the present values of the relevant parameters of the
battery from a battery monitoring unit associated with the battery,

wherein the relevant parameters of the battery issued by the battery monitoring unit and received by the interface include
working data related to at least a state of charge of the battery and safety data indicating a safety state of the battery,

wherein the controller is configured to consider the working data in operating the bidirectional connection,
wherein the controller is configured to be commanded by the safety data (20) in operating the bidirectional connection,

wherein the interface comprises separate interface units configured to receive the working data and the safety data, respectively,
and

wherein the controller is configured to receive the safety data as a safety signal that indicates a safety of the battery
only when a signal level of the safety signal is within a predetermined safety level range and/or when a signal repetition
frequency of the safety signal is within a predetermined safety frequency range.

US Pat. No. 9,912,218

POTENTIAL DEFINITION OF INPUT LINES OF AN INVERTER

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method of defining an electric potential of input lines of an inverter with respect to ground, comprising:
in all current-carrying output lines of the inverter, arranging and charging capacitors to a DC voltage via a charging line
that is connected to a neutral conductor and leads from a first point of the neutral conductor downstream of a capacitor of
the capacitors that is connected in series to a current-carrying output line of the current-carrying output lines leading
to the neutral conductor, and connected to a second point that is upstream of the capacitor to an input line of the input
lines or to an intermediate point of a voltage divider between the input lines; and

shifting the electric potential of the input lines with respect to a reference potential at one of the current-carrying output
lines of the inverter by the DC voltage.

US Pat. No. 9,859,713

PARALLEL INVERTERS CONNECTED TO ONE INDUCTOR

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

9. An apparatus for feeding electric current from at least one DC source into an AC grid, the apparatus comprising:
a plurality of inverters electrically connected in parallel; and
one phase connection for each phase of the AC grid;
wherein each of the inverters comprises an output for each phase of the AC grid, each inverter output being electrically connected
respectively to the phase connection for the same phase via an inductor including an inductor winding;

wherein all of the inductor windings of those inductors via which the outputs of the inverters for the same phase are electrically
connected to the phase connection for a particular phase are inductor windings of one inductor device,

the inductor device further comprising a common magnetic core,
the inductor windings and a common connection at one end of the inductor windings, the common connection being connected to
the phase connection for the particular phase, being implemented by a one-part coil form arranged on a portion of the common
magnetic core, and

the inductor windings being wound around the common connection and the portion of the common magnetic core.

US Pat. No. 10,097,107

METHOD FOR OPERATING AND INVERTER, INVERTER, AND PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for operating an inverter, the DC voltage input of which is connected to a positive pole (PV+) and to a negative pole (PV?) of a PV generator and the AC voltage output of which is connected to an AC grid via a transformer, the method comprising:determining a potential of the positive pole and/or the negative pole (UPV+, UPV?) of the PV generator with respect to a ground potential by a monitoring circuit,
selecting a modulation method for controlling power switches of the inverter from a number of modulation methods stored in a storage device of the inverter based on the determined potential (UPV+, UPV?) such that a voltage stress on components of the PV system arranged on the AC side, with respect to ground, is reduced, and
using the selected modulation method to control the power switches for the purpose of converting a DC input voltage into an AC output voltage.

US Pat. No. 10,044,191

METHOD FOR OPERATING A BATTERY CONVERTER AND BIDIRECTIONAL BATTERY CONVERTER

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for operating a bidirectional battery converter connected to an AC grid, taking into account an availability of locally generated electrical power, comprising:defining a plurality of operating modes of the battery converter with regard to feeding electrical power into a battery connected on an input side thereof and outputting electrical power from the battery depending on a state of charge of the battery and on electrical power available on an output side thereof;
defining a plurality of threshold values for the state of charge of the battery; and
in a case of a first lower threshold value of the state of charge of the battery being undershot, changing from a first operating mode, in which electrical power is output from the battery if a lower power demand is not covered by a locally generated electrical power and/or if there is a global undersupply of electrical power in the AC grid, and in which electrical power is fed into the battery if the locally generated electrical power exceeds the local power demand and/or if there is a global oversupply of electrical power in the AC grid, to a second operating mode, wherein in the second operating mode no electrical power is output from the battery or electrical power is output from the battery only if the local power demand is not covered at all, and electrical power is fed into the battery if locally generated electrical power is available and/or if there is a global oversupply of electrical power in the AC grid, and
wherein in a case of the state of charge of the battery being below a second lower threshold value, which is below the first lower threshold value, if electrical power is available on the output side, the battery is charged by electrical power being fed in until a first upper threshold value is reached, which is less than or equal to the first lower threshold value, wherein a first difference between the first upper threshold value and the second lower threshold value is chosen so as to cover a standby consumption of the battery converter for a predefined first time period.

US Pat. No. 10,027,123

CONTROL OF A PLURALITY OF INVERTERS CONNECTED TO A COMMON GRID CONNECTION POINT

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method of controlling a plurality of inverters, which are connected to a current source each on their input side and to a common grid connection point on their output side, comprising:measuring electrical variables at the individual inverters and using the measured electrical variable to control the individual inverters, wherein currents are output by the individual inverters depending on the electrical variables measured at the individual inverters;
determining effects of connection equipment between the individual inverters and the common grid connection point on currents output by the individual inverters, wherein the determining comprises operating the inverters in accordance with a preset measurement program; and
measuring electrical variables at the grid connection point and setting the electrical variables at the grid connection point in relation to the electrical variables measured at the same time at the individual inverters,
wherein the determined effects of the connection equipment between the individual inverters and the common grid connection point are taken into consideration in controlling the individual inverters,
wherein operating the inverters in accordance with the preset measurement program comprises varying the control of the individual inverters depending on the electrical variables measured at the individual inverters.

US Pat. No. 10,084,303

COMBINER BOX HAVING MOTORIZED OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A combiner box, comprising:multiple pairs of input connectors configured to be coupled to multiple pairs of string lines from multiple respective strings of photovoltaic modules,
output connectors configured to be coupled to a pair of output lines for connection to an inverter,
a switching device configured to connect the string lines of the strings via the multiple input connectors and respective connecting lines to the output lines of the inverter via the output connectors, the switching device comprising output-side switching contacts and at least one separate input-side switching contact for each of the respective strings or at least for each pair of strings permanently connected in parallel in the combiner box, and
an overcurrent protection device configured to interrupt overcurrents in the connecting lines occurring from or to each of the strings or at least from or to each of the pairs of strings permanently connected in parallel in the combiner box,
wherein the switching device comprises a switching contact drive that is selectively actuated in order to disconnect the strings from the inverter when connected to the multiple input connectors and output connectors, respectively, and
wherein the overcurrent protection device comprises current sensors measuring the current flowing in the respective connecting lines from or to each of the strings or at least from or to each of the pairs of strings permanently connected in parallel in the combiner box and configured to actuate the switching contact drive in order to disconnect the at least one separate input-side switching contact from the output-side switching contacts, thereby disconnecting from the inverter at least the string or the pair of strings from or to which the current exceeding the overcurrent limit flows in the event of a measured current exceeding an overcurrent limit,
wherein the switching contact drive comprises a common movement drive for multiple switching contacts of the at least one separate input-side switching contact and the output-side switching contacts that are associated with multiple strings or multiple pairs of strings permanently connected in parallel in the combiner box.

US Pat. No. 10,069,460

DETERMINING THE POWER DENSITY DISTRIBUTION OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATOR FROM TEMPORAL PROFILES OF ITS ELECTRICAL POWER

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for determining a power density distribution of a photovoltaic generator at a single location, comprising:measuring a power value of electrical power generated by the photovoltaic generator at the single location over a plurality of different time instances;
determining temporal profiles of the measured power values associated with shadow edges of clouds moving across the photovoltaic generator at the single location using the measured power values over the plurality of different time instances;
evaluating the determined temporal profiles of the measured power values with regard to an edge direction and an edge transverse speed of the respective shadow edges;
determining the power density distribution from multiple evaluations of temporal profiles of the measured power values for different edge directions at different time intervals;
comparing the determined power density distributions from different time intervals with one another; and
outputting an indication about defective plots of the photovoltaic generator at specific locations of the photovoltaic generator in the event of a local dip in the power density distribution based on the comparison, wherein the local dip in the power density distribution indicates a local shading by a displaced, installed or grown object, or an impurity or defect in the photovoltaic generator, and the indication output communicates a fixed, targeted cleaning or repair request for a service technician.

US Pat. No. 10,024,928

INVERTER AND DETECTION METHOD FOR AN INVERTER FOR DETECTING A NETWORK FAULT

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A detection method for an inverter for detecting a grid fault in a power supply grid, comprising:determining a grid impedance (Z) and/or a rate of change thereof with respect to time (dZ/dt) and/or a rate of change of an absolute value of a grid impedance (Z) with respect to time (d|Z|/dt);
comparing the absolute value and/or a real part and/or an imaginary part of the grid impedance (Z) and/or the rate of change thereof with respect to time (dZ/dt) and/or the rate of change of the absolute value of the grid impedance (Z) with respect to time (d|Z|/dt) with respective predetermined limit values;
detecting a grid fault state based on a result of the comparison, wherein a distinction is drawn between an islanding situation (AID) and a fault ride through (FRT) situation; and
signaling an existing islanding situation (AID) or an existing FRT situation as a grid fault state.

US Pat. No. 10,097,004

PHOTOVOLTAIC-BASED POWER SYSTEM

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A photovoltaic power installation configured to deliver power to a power distribution grid at a point of common coupling, the photovoltaic power installation comprising:a determination unit configured to determine an amount of self-consumed power of the photovoltaic power installation, and
a first power inverter configured to generate power in accordance with the determined amount of self-consumed power, and configured to deliver a power level at the point of common coupling in accordance with an externally provided power reference,
wherein the power reference comprises a fixed or dynamic amount of power to be delivered at the point of common coupling or a percentage of a nominal capacity of the photovoltaic power installation, wherein the dynamic amount of power comprises a dynamic value based on a time of the day, or a time of the year, or a value manually provided by a user.

US Pat. No. 10,284,083

DC/DC CONVERTER WITH A FLYING CAPACITOR

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

8. An inverter, comprising:a DC/AC converter, and
a DC/DC converter, comprising:
a first low-voltage terminal point, a second low-voltage terminal point and a third low-voltage terminal point, and
a first high-voltage terminal point and a second high-voltage terminal point,
wherein the first low-voltage terminal point and the first high-voltage terminal point are directly connected to one another,
wherein an actively drivable switching element, a capacitor and a further switching element are connected in series between the first high-voltage terminal point and the second high-voltage terminal point, and
wherein the capacitor is connected between the second low-voltage terminal point and the third low-voltage terminal point,
a further capacitance directly connected between the second low-voltage terminal point and the third low-voltage terminal point,
wherein the further capacitance is decoupled from the capacitor at two terminals by two inductors, respectively
wherein the DC/AC converter is connected to the first and second high-voltage terminal points of the DC/DC converter and feeds into an AC voltage grid.

US Pat. No. 10,186,950

POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM USING AN INDUCTOR ASSEMBLY

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A power supply system configured to operate as a DC/AC-converter comprising:a DC-link,
a number n of phase terminals at an output, wherein each one of the n phase terminals is connected to a corresponding first half-bridge and a corresponding second half-bridge of the DC/AC-converter,
a control unit configured to control the corresponding second half-bridge for each phase terminal in an interleaved manner relative to the corresponding first half-bridge, and
an output filter comprising an inductor assembly, the inductor assembly comprising:
a magnetic core with a center leg and a number n of phase legs, wherein n is an integer and n>1,
wherein each phase leg is magnetically connected to the center leg by an upper bridge and a lower bridge to form a magnetic main loop, and a midpoint of the phase leg being magnetically connected to a center point of the center leg by a shunt element comprising a gap,
wherein each phase leg further comprises an upper inductor coil disposed on an upper phase leg section located between the midpoint and the upper bridge and a lower inductor coil disposed on a lower phase leg section located between the midpoint and the lower bridge, or each phase leg further comprises an upper inductor coil disposed on the upper bridge and a lower inductor coil disposed on the lower bridge,
wherein the upper inductor coil comprises a first terminal and a second terminal and wherein the lower inductor coil comprises a third terminal and a fourth terminal,
wherein the second terminal of the upper inductor coil and the third terminal of the lower inductor coil are connected to each other in order to form a series connection of the upper inductor coil and the lower inductor coil, and
wherein a winding direction of the upper inductor coil relative to a winding direction of the lower inductor coil is such that a current flowing from the first terminal of the upper inductor coil to the fourth terminal of the lower inductor coil generates a magnetic flux for each one of the upper inductor coil and the lower inductor coil that are superposing constructively within the respective phase leg,
wherein each phase terminal is connected to an output of the corresponding first half-bridge via an upper inductor coil of a corresponding phase leg, and connected to an output of the corresponding second half-bridge via a lower inductor coil of the corresponding phase leg,
wherein for each phase terminal the corresponding first half-bridge and the corresponding second half-bridge are connected to the DC-link in parallel,
wherein for each phase leg of the inductor assembly the upper inductor coil is connected with its first terminal to the output of the corresponding first half-bridge and the lower inductor coil is connected with its fourth terminal to the output of the corresponding second half-bridge, and
wherein for each phase leg of the inductor assembly the second terminal of the upper inductor coil and the third terminal of the lower inductor coil are both connected to the respective phase terminal.

US Pat. No. 9,831,916

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR TRANSMITTING DATA VIA DIRECT CURRENT LINES

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for transmitting data via direct current lines for energy transmission from a first communication unit to a second
communication unit, comprising:
generating a high-frequency test signal having a predefined voltage amplitude by the second communication unit and coupling
the generated high-frequency test signal onto the direct current lines using the second communication unit;

determining a level of a current caused by the high-frequency test signal on the direct current lines by the first communication
unit;

determining a voltage amplitude for a high-frequency data signal based on the determined current level caused by the high-frequency
test signal using the first communication unit; and

coupling a high-frequency data signal having the determined voltage amplitude onto the direct current lines by the first communication
unit for the purpose of transmitting data to the second communication unit.

US Pat. No. 10,186,870

METHOD AND FEED CONTROL FOR THE FEEDING OF ELECTRICAL CURRENT INTO A LINE BRANCH

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for the feeding of electrical current into a line branch of an electrical installation that is protected by a line protection fuse and is designed for a current up to a maximum permissible value, comprising:feeding into the line branch an electrical current from an external energy supply network and electrical current from an energy generating system;
limiting the feeding in of the electrical current into the line branch from the external energy supply network by the line protection fuse, which prescribes a limit value for the electrical current fed into the line branch; and
controlling the feeding in of the electrical current generated by the energy generating system so that no more than a specific, but variable maximum current is fed into the line branch,
wherein the variable maximum current is raised, under the control of a feed control, to allow more electrical current from the energy generating system to be fed into the line branch after the limit value of the line protection fuse has been lowered, under the control of the feed control, in such a way that the maximum permissible value of the current in the line branch is not exceeded even after the raising of the maximum current.

US Pat. No. 10,199,831

CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENT FOR INLINE VOLTAGE SUPPLY, USE OF SUCH A CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENT AND DEVICE HAVING SUCH A CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENT

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A circuit arrangement, comprising:a diode disposed in a direct current (DC) supply line of a generator, wherein the diode forms a first terminal and a second terminal of the circuit arrangement;
a supply subcircuit connected in parallel to the diode, wherein the supply subcircuit is configured to receive an input voltage that is generated across the diode when direct current flows in the supply line and to generate a supply voltage from the input voltage; and
a further diode connected in parallel with the diode, wherein forward-bias directions of the diode and of the further diode are oriented anti-parallel to each other,
wherein when a direct current is flowing from the first terminal to the second terminal the input voltage received by the supply subcircuit is limited to the forward voltage of the diode and when a direct current is flowing from the second terminal to the first terminal the input voltage received by the supply subcircuit is limited to the forward voltage of the further diode.

US Pat. No. 10,193,284

DEVICE FOR ESTABLISHING A MULTI-PHASE ELECTRIC CONNECTION AND AN ARRANGEMENT COMPRISING CORRESPONDING DEVICES

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. An apparatus for establishing a multi-phase electrical connection, comprising:at least one connecting element per phase,
wherein each connecting element comprises two busbars and a number (N) of substantially identical, flexible conductors arranged in parallel with one another in a plane, said conductors electrically conductively connecting the two busbars,
wherein a spacing (a) of geometric center points of cross sections of adjacent conductors from one another is at least twice as large as an equivalent diameter (d, dequiv) of one of the conductors,
wherein each busbar respectively comprises a connection region for electrical and mechanical connection of the connecting element to an electrical device and wherein the connecting elements are arranged in parallel with one another and the geometric center points of the cross sections of adjacent conductors of adjacent connecting elements, which are assigned to different phases, have a spacing (b) from one another that is in each case at most half the product of the number (N) of electrical conductors minus 1 multiplied by the spacing (a) of the conductors of a phase from one another.

US Pat. No. 10,186,867

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR THE OPERATION OF A POWER STATION OF FLUCTUATING PERFORMANCE CONNECTED, BESIDES A SYSTEM FORMER AND AT LEAST ONE LOAD, TO A LIMITED AC SYSTEM

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for operating a power station of fluctuating electrical capacity that, besides a voltage-setting system former outputting active power and reactive power and at least one load, is connected to a limited AC grid, comprising:defining a desired self-contained operating range of the system former on the PQ level, in which operating range the system former is able to efficiently correct fluctuations arising in a mains voltage of the AC grid,
ascertaining a present operating point of the system former on the PQ level, and
controlling an output of active power and reactive power by the power station such that the operating point of the system former is kept in the desired operating range.

US Pat. No. 10,186,872

METHOD FOR CONNECTING AN ENERGY GENERATION INSTALLATION TO A MEDIUM VOLTAGE NETWORK AND ENERGY GENERATION INSTALLATION

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

4. A photovoltaic installation, comprising:a photovoltaic (PV) inverter connected on an input side thereof to a photovoltaic generator and its output connected without a switch in-between to a low-voltage side of a medium-voltage transformer,
a capacitive voltage divider arranged on a medium-voltage side of the medium-voltage transformer configured to detect first voltage values,
a voltage detection circuit arranged on the low-voltage side of the medium-voltage transformer for detecting second voltage values,
a circuit breaker arranged on the medium-voltage side of the medium-voltage transformer and configured to connect the output of the PV inverter to a medium-voltage grid,
a calibration unit configured to adjust the first voltage values to the second voltage values during an idle state of the medium-voltage transformer,
a controller configured to actuate the circuit breaker when voltage values detected at the capacitive voltage divider and adjusted by the calibration unit exceed a first threshold value.

US Pat. No. 10,186,966

PHOTOVOLTAIC INVERTER COMPRISING AN UPSTREAM DC/DC CONVERTER AND TEMPERATURE REGULATION OF THE POWER SEMICONDUCTORS

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for operating an inverter comprising:setting an input voltage (UPV) of the inverter by an input-side DC-DC converter and/or an output-side inverter bridge, wherein the input voltage (UPV) corresponds to an MPP voltage (UMPP) at which a generator connectable on the input side outputs a maximum electrical power;
determining a first temperature value (TDCDC) in the DC-DC converter and a second temperature value (TDCAC) in the inverter bridge;
changing the input voltage (UPV) of the inverter with respect to the MPP voltage (UMPP) if at least one of the determined temperature values (TDCDC, TDCAC) exceeds a limit value (Tmax,DCDC, Tmax,DCAC) assigned to the respective temperature values (TDCDC, TDCAC), wherein changing the input voltage UPV comprises:
increasing the input voltage (UPV) with respect to the MPP voltage (UMPP) if an exceedance of the limit value (Tmax,DCDC) for the first temperature value (TDCDC) in the DC-DC converter is determined and/or the MPP voltage (UMPP) lies below a predefined limit voltage (Ulimit); and
otherwise reducing the input voltage (UPV) with respect to the MPP voltage (UMPP).

US Pat. No. 10,151,776

METHOD AND DEVICE FOR MONITORING AND MEASURING A CURRENT ON A MAGNETICALLY BIASED CHOKE

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for measuring an actual choke current through a choke with a magnetic bias comprising:measuring a first flux density of a magnetic field which is emitted by the choke at a location which is fixed in relation to the choke, wherein the first flux density is measured at a first time instant when a known choke current is conducting through the choke, wherein the first flux density and the known choke current are used to ascertain the magnetic bias of the choke;
measuring a second flux density of the magnetic field which is emitted by the choke at the location a plurality of times defined by a sampling rate; and
determining the actual choke current using the second flux density and the ascertained magnetic bias.

US Pat. No. 10,110,141

INVERTER WITH A MULTI-PART HOUSING AND AN INTERNAL COOLING-AIR DUCT

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. An inverter for converting an input-end direct current into an output-end alternating current to be fed into an AC voltage supply system, comprising:a first housing part with direct current connections for receiving direct current lines of a direct current generator,
a second housing part with alternating current connections for receiving alternating current lines of an AC voltage supply system,
a third housing part for accommodating power-electronics components of a DC voltage converter,
a fourth housing part for accommodating power-electronics components of an inverter bridge circuit,
wherein the housing parts each have an essentially planar rear wall and are arranged in such a way that they enclose a cooling-air duct with an essentially rectangular cross section, wherein the first housing part is arranged opposite the second housing part and the third housing part is arranged opposite the fourth housing part,
a heat sink, which has two essentially planar cooling faces opposite one another arranged in the cooling-air duct, wherein the cooling faces are assigned to the essentially planar rear walls of the third housing part and the fourth housing part and are in thermal contact with power-electronics components arranged in these housing parts.

US Pat. No. 10,148,225

METHOD AND INVERTER FOR DETERMINING CAPACITANCE VALUES OF CAPACITANCES OF AN ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEM

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for determining capacitance values of capacitances of a photovoltaic system comprising a multiphase inverter which comprises an output current filter on an alternating current side thereof and is connected to a multiphase energy supply network via a switching element and is associated with at least one intermediate circuit capacitance on a direct current side thereof, comprising:disconnecting the photovoltaic system from the energy supply network by opening the switching element;
operating the inverter to set up an island network after the disconnecting, wherein an in-phase AC voltage is applied to at least two outputs of an inverter bridge of the multiphase inverter and a flow of current is produced between the at least one intermediate circuit capacitance and at least one filter capacitance of the output current filter;
measuring currents (Ia, Ib, Ic) flowing at the outputs of the inverter bridge and at least one voltage present at one of the capacitances, and
determining a capacitance value of at least one of the capacitances using the determined voltage and the measured currents (Ia, Ib, Ic).

US Pat. No. 10,197,608

APPARATUS FOR DETERMINING INSULATION RESISTANCE AT A PV GENERATOR, AND PHOTOVOLTAIC INSTALLATION

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. An apparatus for determining insulation resistance at a photovoltaic (PV) generator, comprising: a first unit configured to shift a generator potential at an output terminal of the PV generator, a second unit configured to determine the insulation resistance by: connecting a measurement voltage to the output terminal of the PV generator, measuring a first current value and a first voltage value at the output terminal of the PV generator before the measurement voltage is connected, measuring a second current value and a second voltage value at the output terminal of the PV generator after the measurement voltage is connected, and determining the insulation resistance of the PV generator based on the measured first and second current values and the measured first and second voltage values, wherein the first and second units are connected in series.

US Pat. No. 10,218,290

INVERTER HAVING AT LEAST ONE INVERTER BRIDGE BETWEEN TWO BUSBARS

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. An inverter comprising a single phase inverter bridge, which is connected on an input side thereof between two DC busbars and on an output side thereof to an AC output,wherein the two DC busbars extend, overlapping one another, in mutually parallel planes,
wherein the single phase inverter bridge comprises a subcircuit between the AC output and each DC busbar, thereby defining two subcircuits,
wherein semiconductor modules, which form the two subcircuits, are arranged next to one another,
wherein the semiconductor modules are connected to the two DC busbars and the AC output via connections, and
wherein a connection element, which leads to the AC output, connects the semiconductor modules of the two subcircuits to one another in a region overlapped by the DC busbars,
wherein each subcircuit provided between the AC output and one of the DC busbars comprises a plurality of semiconductor switches, and
wherein the connection element, which leads to the AC output, begins in the region overlapped by the DC busbars on a side of the DC busbars that faces the semiconductor modules, connects the semiconductor modules of the two subcircuits to one another there, and emerges beneath the DC busbars.

US Pat. No. 10,211,641

METHOD FOR OPERATING A PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM COMPRISING AN ENERGY STORE AND A BIDIRECTIONAL CONVERTER FOR CONNECTION OF AN ENERGY STORE

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for operating a photovoltaic system including an inverter, a photovoltaic generator connected to an input of the inverter, an energy store, and a bidirectional converter connecting the energy store to the input, in parallel with the photovoltaic generator, wherein the inverter predefines an operating voltage (UPV) of the photovoltaic generator at the input and is configured to track an operating voltage (UMPP) of maximum power output (PPV) from the photovoltaic generator, the method comprising:recording a temporal profile of the power (PPV) output by the photovoltaic generator using the bidirectional converter,
operating the bidirectional converter in a tracking mode to enable inverter tracking of the operating voltage (UMPP) of maximum power,
operating the bidirectional converter in a compensation mode to compensate for fluctuations in the power (PPV) output from the photovoltaic generator in comparison with a target power (Psoll) flowing into the inverter via the input by adapting a power (PDC) output by the bidirectional converter at the input or branched therefrom, to equalize a sum of the power (PDC) from the bidirectional converter and the power (PPV) output from the photovoltaic generator to the target power (Psoll), and
repeatedly switching the bidirectional converter between the compensation mode and the tracking mode while the power (PPV) output from the photovoltaic generator is available.

US Pat. No. 10,333,426

INVERTER WITH IDENTIFICATION OF NEUTRAL CONNECTION

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for determining a connection configuration of an inverter to an AC voltage grid, the inverter having a terminal with four conductor connectors for connection of the inverter to three outer conductors and to a neutral conductor of the AC voltage grid, comprising:actuating switching elements of a bridge circuit of the inverter to generate a zero-phase sequence system having a zero-phase sequence system current;
measuring and evaluating output currents of the inverter with respect to the zero-phase sequence system current;
identifying a presence of a connection of the neutral conductor to a conductor connector provided for connection to the neutral conductor when the zero-phase sequence system current exceeds a prescribed threshold value and identifying that the neutral conductor is not connected to the conductor connector provided for connection to the neutral conductor otherwise; and
using a control structure to actuate the switching elements of the bridge circuit of the inverter, in which the control structure compares a setpoint value for the zero-phase sequence system current with an actual value of the zero-phase sequence system current.

US Pat. No. 10,326,353

INDUCTOR ASSEMBLY AND POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM USING THE SAME

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. An inductor assembly, comprising:a magnetic core with a center leg and a number n of phase legs, wherein n is an integer and n>1,
wherein each phase leg is magnetically connected to the center leg by an upper bridge and a lower bridge to form a magnetic main loop, and a midpoint of the phase leg being magnetically connected to a center point of the center leg by a shunt element comprising a gap,
wherein each phase leg further comprises an upper inductor coil disposed on an upper phase leg section located between the midpoint and the upper bridge and a lower inductor coil disposed on a lower phase leg section located between the midpoint and the lower bridge, or each phase leg further comprises an upper inductor coil disposed on the upper bridge and a lower inductor coil disposed on the lower bridge,
wherein the upper inductor coil comprises a first terminal and a second terminal and wherein the lower inductor coil comprises a third terminal and a fourth terminal,
wherein the second terminal of the upper inductor coil and the third terminal of the lower inductor coil are connected to each other in order to form a series connection of the upper inductor coil and the lower inductor coil, and
wherein a winding direction of the upper inductor coil relative to a winding direction of the lower inductor coil is such that a current flowing from the first terminal of the upper inductor coil to the fourth terminal of the lower inductor coil generates a magnetic flux for each one of the upper inductor coil and the lower inductor coil that are superposing constructively within the respective phase leg.

US Pat. No. 10,298,017

CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENT FOR A PHOTOVOLTAIC INVERTER FOR BREAK RELIEF USING SHORT-CIRCUIT SWITCHES, AND USES OF THE CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENT

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

19. A use of a circuit arrangement for a photovoltaic inverter, comprising:two bus lines;
input terminals for connecting at least one photovoltaic generator to the bus lines, respectively;
at least one DC/AC converter connected to the bus lines via connection lines;
a disconnector in at least one connection line of the respective connection lines between each DC/AC converter and the bus lines, respectively;
at least one short-circuit path for short-circuiting a voltage between the bus lines, wherein a short-circuit switch is arranged in the short-circuit path, wherein the at least one short-circuit path extends between the bus lines upstream of all disconnectors between the input terminals and the disconnectors, and wherein the short-circuit switch in the at least one short-circuit path between the bus lines is connected in series with a fuse; and
at least one further short-circuit path for short-circuiting the voltage between the bus lines or between the connection lines, wherein the at least one further short-circuit path extends between the bus lines or extends between the connection lines, wherein when a respective disconnector is closed the at least one short-circuit path and the at least one further short-circuit path associated with the respective disconnector are in parallel, wherein a further short-circuit switch is arranged in the at least one further short-circuit path,
wherein the use comprises opening the disconnector of the at least one DC/AC converter, if a DC current flows from the bus lines to the at least one DC/AC converter that exceeds a limiting break capacity of the disconnector, in the case of conducting short-circuit switches.

US Pat. No. 10,561,046

EMC-SHIELDING SEAL AND ELECTRICAL OR ELECTRONIC DEVICE COMPRISING A SEAL

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A seal for an International Protection (IP)-sealing and electromagnetic capability (EMC)-shielding connection between a first housing component and a second housing component of an electrical or electronic device, comprising:an elastomer-containing sealing body; and
a metallic support that is embedded to some extent in the sealing body,
wherein the sealing body and the metallic support are connected to one another in an adhesive and/or form-fitting manner and thus form a material bond,
wherein the metallic support has a plurality of contact segments, which project out of the sealing body and are configured such that the contact segments make electrical contact in resilient fashion with a first boundary surface that is assigned to the first housing component, and a second boundary surface that is assigned to the second housing component, the seal being pressed in between said boundary surfaces in an installed state.

US Pat. No. 10,436,821

APPARATUS FOR DETECTING AC COMPONENTS IN A DC CIRCUIT AND USE OF THE APPARATUS

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A device for detecting alternating-current components iAC of an electric current iACDC flowing in a direct-current circuit, comprising:an inductor arranged in the direct-current circuit;
an AC path arranged electrically in parallel with the inductor, wherein the AC path comprises a series circuit made up of a capacitor and a primary winding of a transformer; and
a voltage measuring device,
wherein a secondary winding of the transformer is connected to the voltage measuring device via a low-pass filter circuit, and
wherein the low-pass filter circuit is configured to exhibit a transfer function in a predefined frequency range that has a profile which is complementary to a profile of a transfer function of a high-pass filter comprising the inductor and the capacitor in the predefined frequency range, so that the profile of an overall transfer function of the device in the predefined frequency range has a variation which is reduced at least by a factor of 5 with respect to the transfer function of the high-pass filter.

US Pat. No. 10,488,880

CONTROL METHOD FOR IMPROVING CONVERSION EFFICIENCY OF A MULTI-CHANNEL MPPT INVERTER

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A control method for improving conversion efficiency of a multi-channel Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) inverter, comprising:collecting an input voltage (vPVm) of a photovoltaic panel in each channel, an input current (iPVm) of the photovoltaic panel in each channel and a direct-current bus voltage (vbus), obtaining an input power (PPVm) of the photovoltaic panel in each channel, and using input voltages of at least two channels to obtain a voltage difference (?vPV), wherein m=1, 2, . . . , M, and M is a number of input channels of the photovoltaic inverter MPPT;
comparing the voltage difference (?vPV) with a preset on-off control judging threshold to obtain a start state and a stop state of a boost circuit in each channel, a voltage reference signal (v*PVm) in each channel and a direct-current bus voltage reference signal (v*bus) wherein the boost start state and the stop state is determined by:
when |?vPV|?VTHb, turning off a boost circuit in a channel corresponding to a maximum input voltage (vPV_max), activating the boost circuits in remaining channels, wherein VTHb is a first boost on-off control judging threshold, and maximizing the input power (PPVm) by an MPPT module in each channel to obtain the voltage reference signal (v*PVm) in each channel, the direct-current bus voltage reference signal (v*bus) using a maximum voltage reference signal (v*PV_max);
when VTHb?|?vPV|?VTHs, activating all boost circuits, wherein VTHs is a second boost on-off control judging threshold, wherein VTHs when VTHs?|?vPV|?0, obtaining a voltage (VVLMPP) at a virtual local maximum power point (VLMPP), turning off all the boost circuits, maximizing a total input power (PPV_sum) of the inverter by an MPPT module based on the direct-current bus voltage (vbus) to obtain the direct-current bus voltage reference signal (v*bus), monitoring a voltage difference between the direct-current bus voltage (vbus) and the voltage at the virtual local maximum power point (VVLMPP), and activating all the boost circuits when the voltage difference between the direct-current bus voltage (vbus) and the voltage at the virtual local maximum power point (VVLMPP) exceeds the boost on-off control judging threshold (VTHb).

US Pat. No. 10,447,175

INVERTER AND CONTROL METHOD FOR AN INVERTER

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. An inverter for supplying a power provided as a DC voltage at a DC input to an AC mains connectable to an AC output, comprising:a switching network comprising a plurality of semiconductor switches comprising a first set of one or more semiconductor switches to be operated digitally and a second set of one or more semiconductor switches to be operated linearly;
a digital control unit configured to produce a digital switching pattern for the first set of one or more semiconductor switches of the switching network that produce a first output voltage, wherein the first output voltage comprises a ripple voltage having an interference current associated therewith; and
a linear control unit configured to produce signals for actuating the second set of one or more semiconductor switches of the switching network in a linear mode, wherein the linear control unit is configured to produce a voltage drop across at least one of the one or more linearly operated semiconductor switches so that a combination of the first output voltage and the voltage drop has a sinusoidal shape or a half-cycle-sinusoidal shape, and
wherein the linear control circuit is configured to control one or more of the second set of switches to at least partially remove the interference current by generating a voltage drop across the second set of switches to at least partially counteract the ripple voltage, wherein the voltage drop has a power loss associated therewith.

US Pat. No. 10,491,103

STEP-UP CONVERTER, CORRESPONDING INVERTER AND METHOD OF OPERATION

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A step-up converter, comprising:a first inductance electrically connecting a first DC voltage input of the step-up converter to a first junction point;
a step-up converter switch connecting the first junction point to a second DC voltage input and a second DC voltage output of the step-up converter;
a first diode connecting the first junction point to a first DC voltage output of the step-up converter; and
a snubber circuit comprising a charging path and a discharging path,
wherein the discharging path runs as a series connection of a capacitor and a second diode from the first junction point to the first DC voltage output,
wherein the charging path is connected at its one end to a junction point between the capacitor and the second diode and is arranged such that the capacitor immediately begins charging when the step-up converter switch is switched on, and
wherein the charging path is connected at its other end to the first DC voltage input.

US Pat. No. 10,502,778

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR ELECTRIC ARC DETECTION

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for detecting high-frequency AC currents in a DC circuit comprising a common mode choke with two partial windings, comprising:tapping voltages dropping across the two partial windings due to the AC current;
superposing the tapped voltages and obtaining a superposed AC voltage using a superposition circuit, wherein differential mode portions of the tapped voltages are summed constructively and common mode portions of the tapped voltages are summed destructively; and
measuring the superposed AC voltage using a voltage sensing device.

US Pat. No. 10,541,646

DISCONNECTION APPARATUS FOR A PHOTOVOLTAIC STRING, SOLAR INSTALLATION AND OPERATING METHOD FOR A SOLAR INSTALLATION WITH A PHOTOVOLTAIC STRING

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. An apparatus for disconnecting an electrical connection between solar modules of a photovoltaic string, comprising:a first terminal and a second terminal for a respectively assigned solar module of the photovoltaic string,
a circuit breaker, a band-stop filter and a supply circuit arranged in a series circuit with respect to one another between the first and second terminals, wherein the supply circuit is configured to supply energy to the apparatus,
a bandpass filter that bridges the circuit breaker and the band-stop filter in parallel, wherein the bandpass filter is configured to couple out a high-frequency control signal from the electrical connection, and
a control unit configured to receive the high-frequency control signal and to operate the apparatus based on the high-frequency control signal,
wherein a reverse current diode that is oppositely polarized relative to an operating current flow direction is connected in parallel with the circuit breaker or a partial series circuit comprising the circuit breaker and the band-stop filter.

US Pat. No. 10,530,273

UNFOLDING BRIDGE, INVERTER HAVING REACTIVE-POWER CAPABILITY, AND POLARITY REVERSING METHOD

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. An unfolding bridge having reactive power capability, comprising:a half-bridge with a first input terminal, a second input terminal, and an output terminal, the half-bridge comprising a first bridge switch connected between the first input terminal and the output terminal and a second bridge switch connected between the second input terminal and the output terminal;
a further half-bridge comprising a first further bridge switch connected between the first input terminal and a further output terminal and a second further bridge switch connected between the second input terminal and the further output terminal;
a switch controller configured to control operation of the bridge switches, wherein the switch controller is configured to reverse a connection of the output terminals with the input terminals via the bridge switches at a zero crossing of an alternating current flowing at the output terminals; and
at least one reverse voltage compensator arranged in one or more of a current path between the input terminals via the first bridge switch, the output terminals, and the second further bridge switch, and in a current path between the input terminals, via the first further bridge switch, the output terminals, and the second bridge switch, wherein the at least one reverse voltage compensator is configured to shift the electrical potential of the respective input terminal with respect to the respective output terminal between which the reverse voltage compensator is arranged by a compensation voltage that is dropped across the reverse voltage compensator, and thereby compensates for a reverse voltage being opposite to the flow of current in the current path in which the reverse voltage compensator is arranged.

US Pat. No. 10,355,491

INVERTER, IN PARTICULAR AS PART OF A POWER GENERATION NETWORK, AND METHOD

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

7. A power generation network, comprising:a first inverter and a second inverter, wherein the first inverter and the second inverter each comprise:
an inverter bridge circuit; and
a scanning circuit configured to trace at least one part of a characteristic curve of the generator to determine an MPP power value (PMPP),
wherein the scanning circuit is configured, in the case of a derating to a derated power (Pred), to trigger a tracing of the characteristic curve with provision of a first power profile deviating from the derated power (Pred) if an enable signal is present at the inverter, and to indicate a start and an end of the tracing by outputting a start signal and an end signal, respectively, and
wherein the scanning circuit is configured to provide a second power profile as AC power upon receiving a start signal, and
wherein the first power profile has a deviation from the derated power (Pred) with a sign that is opposite to a sign of a deviation of the second power profile from the derated power (Pred), and
wherein the first inverter and the second inverter are connected to one another and are configured to exchange the enable signal, the start signal and the end signal with one another.

US Pat. No. 10,581,377

METHOD FOR DETECTING ARCS, AND DETECTION APPARATUS FOR ARCS, IN A PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for detecting arcs in a photovoltaic system with an inverter and with a plurality of current collector circuits connected in parallel with the inverter via collector lines, wherein a plurality of strings of photovoltaic modules are connected in parallel with each current collector circuit via string lines, comprising:acquiring measured values of electrical variables using one or more electrical sensors,
at at least one of the string lines of each string, and/or
at at least one upstream collector line of each pair of upstream collector lines to which a plurality of strings are connected in parallel, and/or
at at least one of the collector lines of each current collector circuit of the plurality of current collector circuits,
analyzing the measured values of the electrical variables for the presence of signs of an arc in the photovoltaic system using an analysis circuit,
acquiring measured values of acoustic variables using one or more acoustic sensors,
at at least one collector line of each current collector circuit, and/or
at at least one current busbar assigned to the inverter, to which current busbar a collector line of each current collector circuit is connected, and
analyzing the measured values of the acoustic variables for the presence of signs of an arc in the photovoltaic system using the analysis circuit, and
generating an arc signal which indicates the presence of an arc in the photovoltaic system if the analyzed measured values of the electrical variables and/or the acoustic variables meet predefined criteria.

US Pat. No. 10,530,274

HYBRID CLOCKING METHOD FOR SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMER-FREE NETWORK INVERTERS

SMA Solar Technology AG, ...

1. A method for operating a transformerless inverter comprising a first half-bridge and a second half-bridge arranged in parallel with one another and with a link circuit between first and second DC terminals of the inverter, wherein each of the first half-bridge and the second half-bridge have an output of which is connected by means of a respective filter inductor to first and second AC outputs of the inverter, respectively, such that each AC output is assigned to the corresponding half-bridge, wherein the first and second AC outputs are connected to a grid, and wherein a network of filter capacitors coupled in a low-impedance manner to the link circuit is arranged between the first and second AC outputs, comprising:operating the first and second half-bridges of the inverter using a unipolar clocking method as a first clocking method,
determining a value of a grid-frequency stray current at the DC terminals of the inverter during the unipolar clocking method, and
when a limit value is exceeded by the stray current value, operating the first and second half-bridges of the inverter using a stray-current-reducing clocking method as a second clocking method in which the first half-bridge provides an AC voltage at the first AC output, wherein an amplitude of the AC voltage is less than 50% of the amplitude of a voltage amplitude of the grid, and the second half-bridge provides a difference voltage between the grid voltage and the voltage provided by the first half-bridge at the first AC output.

US Pat. No. 9,525,287

INVERTER SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR OPERATION OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC INSTALLATION FOR FEEDING ELECTRICAL POWER INTO A MEDIUM-VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY GRID

SMA SOLAR TECHNOLOGY AG, ...

1. A method for operating a photovoltaic installation for feeding electrical power into a medium-voltage power supply grid,
with the photovoltaic installation having a plurality of photovoltaic modules, an inverter and a medium-voltage transformer,
wherein a primary side of the medium-voltage transformer is connected directly to an AC low-voltage output of the inverter,
and wherein at least one DC switching member is arranged between the photovoltaic modules and a DC input of the inverter,
comprising:
determining whether or not electrical power produced by the photovoltaic modules in the photovoltaic installation is sufficient
for feeding electrical power into the supply grid; and

when the electrical power produced by the photovoltaic modules is not sufficient for feeding electrical power into the supply
grid, disconnecting the photovoltaic modules from the inverter on the DC voltage side via the at least one DC switching member
while the inverter remains connected to the medium-voltage power supply grid on the AC voltage side via the medium-voltage
transformer.