US Pat. No. 9,346,930

LOW COST PROCESS FOR MANUFACTURE OF FORM-STABLE PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL

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1. A phase change material (PCM) pellet consisting essentially of
a mixture of
paraffin,
a polymer, and
optionally a thermal conductivity improver, a nucleating agent, an anti-oxidant, or a combination of any two or more thereof;
wherein
the paraffin is at least about 60 wt % of the PCM pellet; and
the polymer is uncrosslinked high density polyethylene (HDPE) that has a melt flow index between about 0.1 g/10 min and about
50 g/10 min.

US Pat. No. 9,061,951

BIORENEWABLE NAPHTHA COMPOSITION

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1. A naphtha boiling range hydrocarbon composition comprising:
n-paraffins, iso-paraffins, aromatics, and naphthenes;
wherein the composition
is produced by hydrocracking a hydrotreated biorenewable feedstock;
comprises
C4, C5, C6, C7, C8, and C9 hydrocarbons;

greater than 80.0% by weight n- and iso-paraffins; and
is free of benzene.

US Pat. No. 9,315,710

PLASTIC PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL AND ARTICLES MADE THEREFROM

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1. A plastic phase change material (PCM) pellet comprising:
a pellet comprising a mixture of a paraffin and a polymer; and
two coating layers on the pellet comprising an inner coating and an outer coating,
where at least one of the two coating layers is a flame retardant;
wherein
the paraffin is from about 50 wt % to about 90 wt % of the combined weight of paraffin and polymer;
the polymer is uncrosslinked high density polyethylene with a melt flow index between about 0.1 g/10 min and about 20 g/10
min; and

the plastic PCM pellet has a latent heat falling in the range of about 60 J/g to about 160 J/g.

US Pat. No. 9,133,080

BIORENEWABLE NAPHTHA

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1. A method comprising:
(a) hydrotreating a biorenewable feedstock to produce a hydrocarbon product stream;
(b) hydrocracking hydrocarbons from the hydrocarbon product stream of step (a) to produce a distribution of cracked hydrocarbons;
(c) separating a heavy fraction and a biorenewable naphtha fraction from the distribution of cracked hydrocarbons; and
(d) separating from the heavy fraction a middle distillate fraction;
wherein the hydrocracking step comprises a pressure falling in the range of about 1,000 psig to about 3,000 psig.

US Pat. No. 9,328,303

REDUCING PRESSURE DROP BUILDUP IN BIO-OIL HYDROPROCESSING REACTORS

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1. A method comprising reducing a pressure drop across a hydroprocessing reactor having a reactor feed and producing a hydroprocessing
product, wherein:
the reactor feed comprises a bio-oil feed and a hydrocarbon diluent at a volumetric ratio of hydrocarbon diluent to bio-oil
feed from about 1:1 to about 3:1;

reducing the pressure drop is performed after a rate of pressure drop increase in the hydroprocessing reactor is about 0.1
psi/hr;

reducing the pressure drop comprises
supplying a volumetric ratio of hydrocarbon diluent to bio-oil feed of at least about 10:1 to the reactor to generate a mass
flux of at least about 1,000 lb/hr/ft2; and

re-establishing the volumetric ratio of hydrocarbon diluent to bio-oil feed from about 1:1 to about 3:1 once a rate of pressure
drop decrease is below about 0.1 psi/hr.

US Pat. No. 9,163,183

REMOVAL OF SOLUBILIZED METALS FROM FISCHER-TROPSCH PRODUCTS

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1. A method of removing solubilized metals from a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactor product, comprising:
contacting the FT reactor product with a chelating agent solution to form metal complex(es); and
subjecting the FT product containing the metal complex(es) to centrifugal separation to form a heavy phase and a light phase
containing less than 500 wppb solubilized metals;

wherein
the chelating agent solution comprises a chelating agent and a solvent; and
the solvent comprises a glycol, an alcohol, or combinations thereof.

US Pat. No. 9,404,064

METHOD OF REMOVING A CONTAMINANT FROM A CONTAMINANT-CONTAINING BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION USEFUL AS A BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK

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1. A method of removing a contaminant from a contaminant-containing biological composition comprising animal fats and plant
oils, the method comprising:
(a) mixing the contaminant-containing biological composition with a first mixture of a first aqueous solution having a pH
less than about 7 and an acidic solution to produce an acid-rich biological composition;

(b) centrifuging the acid-rich biological composition to produce a contaminant-deficient, acid-rich biological composition,
an aqueous waste product containing a portion of the contaminant removed from the contaminant-containing biological composition,
and a first rag component, and subsequently combining about 90% or more (by volume) of the first rag component with the contaminant-deficient,
acid-rich biological composition and combining the remaining balance (by volume) of the first rag component with the aqueous
waste product;

(c) mixing the contaminant-deficient, acid-rich biological composition comprising about 90% or more (by volume) of the first
rag component with a second aqueous solution to produce a second mixture, wherein the second aqueous solution has a pH less
than about 7 but greater than the pH of the first aqueous solution;

(d) centrifuging the second mixture to produce a contaminant-deficient biological composition and the first aqueous solution;
(e) mixing the contaminant-deficient biological composition with a pH-neutral aqueous solution to produce a third mixture;
and

(f) centrifuging the third mixture to produce the second aqueous solution and a contaminant-depleted biological composition
comprising the animal fats and plant oils.

US Pat. No. 9,266,082

PROCESS FOR INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF HEAT REMOVAL FROM A FISCHER-TROPSCH SLURRY REACTOR

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1. A cooling system for removing heat from a Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) slurry reactor, comprising:
at least one downcomer having an upper portion and a lower portion; the at least one downcomer disposed within the F-T reactor
to deliver a coolant downward through the F-T reactor, the at least one downcomer extending a length within the F-T reactor
wherein the coolant is introduced into the upper portion of the at least one downcomer in a substantially liquid phase;

a plenum connected to the lower portion of the at least one downcomer; the plenum being in fluid communication with the at
least one downcomer wherein the coolant remains in the substantially liquid phase in the lower portioin of the at least one
downcomer;

at least one riser having a length and extending upward from the plenum; the at least one riser in fluid communication with
the plenum wherein a portion of the coolant vaporizes as the coolant travels along the length of the at least one riser, and
wherein the at least one downcomer, the plenum, and the at least one riser defining a flow path by which the coolant travels
through the F-T reactor; and

a restrictor having a first side, a second side, and an opening with a beta ratio in a range from 0.25 to 0.5, the restrictor
positioned within the F-T reactor in a predetermined portion of the flow path to generate backpressure of the coolant on the
first side of the restrictor to maintain the coolant on the first side of the restrictor in the substantially liquid phase
and vaporize a portion of the coolant on the second side of the restrictor to provide a boiling heat transfer surface in the
at least one riser.

US Pat. No. 9,783,763

METHOD OF REMOVING A CONTAMINANT FROM A CONTAMINANT-CONTAINING BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION USEFUL AS A BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK

REG SYNTHETIC FUELS, LLC,...

1. A method of removing a contaminant from a contaminant-containing biological composition comprising animal fats and plant
oils, the method comprising:
(a) mixing the contaminant-containing biological composition with a first mixture of a first aqueous solution having a pH
less than 7 and an acidic solution to produce an acid-rich biological composition;

(b) centrifuging the acid-rich biological composition to produce a contaminant-deficient, acid-rich biological composition,
an aqueous waste product containing a portion of the contaminant removed from the contaminant-containing biological composition,
and a first rag component, and subsequently combining 90% or more (by volume) of the first rag component with the contaminant-deficient,
acid-rich biological composition and combining the remaining balance (by volume) of the first rag component with the aqueous
waste product;

(c) mixing the contaminant-deficient, acid-rich biological composition comprising 90% or more (by volume) of the first rag
component with a second aqueous solution to produce a second mixture, wherein the second aqueous solution has a pH less than
7 but greater than the pH of the first aqueous solution;

(d) centrifuging the second mixture to produce a contaminant-deficient biological composition, the first aqueous solution,
and a second rag component, and subsequently combining 10% (by volume) or less of which with the contaminant-deficient, biological
composition and combining the remaining balance (by volume) of the second rag component with the first aqueous solution;

(e) mixing the contaminant-deficient biological composition comprising 10% (by volume) or less of the second rag component
with a pH-neutral aqueous solution to produce a third mixture; and

(f) centrifuging the third mixture to produce the second aqueous solution, a contaminant-depleted biological composition comprising
the animal fats and plant oils, and a third rag component, and subsequently combining 10% (by volume) or less of which with-the
contaminant-depleted biological composition and combining the remaining balance (by volume) with the second aqueous solution.

US Pat. No. 9,523,041

REDUCING PRESSURE DROP BUILDUP IN BIO-OIL HYDROPROCESSING REACTORS

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1. A method comprising reducing a pressure drop across a hydroprocessing reactor having a reactor feed and producing a hydroprocessing
product, wherein:
the reactor feed comprises
a bio-oil feed comprising a lipid, a carboxylic acid, a plant oil, animal fat, algal oil, a distillate from the fermentation
of sugars, or a liquid fraction derived from the fast pyrolysis of biomass, or a combination of any two or more thereof; and

a hydrocarbon diluent comprising the hydroprocessing product;
wherein a volumetric ratio of hydrocarbon diluent to bio-oil feed is from about 1:1 to about 3:1;
reducing the pressure drop is performed after a rate of pressure drop increase in the hydroprocessing reactor is about 0.1
psi/hr;

reducing the pressure drop comprises
stopping the reactor feed to the hydroprocessing reactor and supplying the hydrocarbon diluent at a temperature of about 400°
F. to about 800° F. to the hydroprocessing reactor to generate a mass flux of about 2,000 lb/hr/ft2 to about 10,000 lb/hr/ft2; and

re-establishing the supply of reactor feed once a decrease in pressure drop is in the range from about 10% to about 99%;
wherein the hydrocarbon diluent comprises the hydroprocessing product of the hydroprocessing reactor.

US Pat. No. 9,102,080

LOW COST PROCESS FOR MANUFACTURE OF FORM-STABLE PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL

REG SYNTHETIC FUELS, LLC,...

1. A method for manufacturing phase change material (PCM) pellets comprising the steps of:
providing a melt composition consisting essentially of
a paraffin,
a polymer, and
optionally a thermal conductivity improver, a nucleating agent, an anti-oxidant, or a combination of any two or more thereof;
and

forming the melt into PCM pellets in a pelletizer;
wherein
the paraffin is at least 60 wt % of the melt composition;
the polymer is uncrosslinked high density polyethylene (HDPE); and
the uncrosslinked HDPE has a melt flow index between about 0.1 g/10 min and about 20 g/10 min.
US Pat. No. 10,246,658

BIORENEWABLE KEROSENE, JET FUEL, JET FUEL BLENDSTOCK, AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURING

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1. A composition comprisingat least 98 wt % C7-C12 n-paraffins, wherein at least 10 wt % of composition comprises n-decane, at least 20 wt % of the composition comprises n-dodecane, and at least 75 wt % of composition comprises even carbon number paraffins, and a weight ratio of C12 paraffins to C11 paraffins from 3.0:1 to 1.2:1;
less than 0.1 wt % oxygenates; and
less than 0.1 wt % aromatics.

US Pat. No. 10,047,263

PLASTIC PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL AND ARTICLES MADE THEREFROM

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1. A plastic phase change material (PCM) pellet comprising:a pellet comprising a mixture of a paraffin and a crystalline polymer; and
two coating layers on the pellet comprising an inner coating and a calcium silicate powder outer coating;
wherein
the paraffin is from 50 wt % to 90 wt % of the combined weight of paraffin and crystalline polymer;
the plastic PCM pellet has a latent heat falling in the range of 60 J/g to 160 J/g.

US Pat. No. 10,011,783

BIO-BASED SYNTHETIC FLUIDS

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1. A method comprising altering the viscosity of bio-derived paraffins to produce a paraffinic fluid, whereinthe altering step comprises oligomerizing the bio-derived paraffins to produce an oligomerized product, wherein the oligomerized product has a kinematic viscosity of at least about 10 cSt at 40° C.;
the paraffinic fluid comprises the oligomerized product;
the bio-derived paraffins comprise a hydrodeoxygenated product produced by hydrodeoxygenating a bio-based feed where the bio-based feed comprises bio-derived fatty acids, fatty acid esters, or a combination thereof; and
the bio-derived paraffins comprise n-paraffins where the n-paraffins
have a kinematic viscosity of less than about 10 cSt at 40° C.; and
have a biodegradability of at least about 40% after about 23 days of exposure to microorganisms.

US Pat. No. 9,963,401

EVEN CARBON NUMBER PARAFFIN COMPOSITION AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURING SAME

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1. A method for preparing a phase change material comprising:feeding naturally occurring fatty acids and esters to a reactor containing a liquid phase, a gas phase, and a catalyst comprising nickel, molybdenum, cobalt, tungsten, or a combination of any two or more thereof;
at least partially hydrogenating/hydrogenolyzing the naturally occurring fatty acids and esters in the reactor;
controlling an intracatalyst temperature gradient within the reactor to reduce thermal decarboxylation relative to oxygen hydrogenolysis; and
withdrawing a liquid product stream from the reactor;
wherein the liquid product stream comprises at least 75 wt % even carbon number paraffins selected from the C12-C24 range.