US Pat. No. 9,357,585

DYNAMIC MULTI-ACCESS WIRELESS NETWORK VIRTUALIZATION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A wireless communication network, comprising:
a heterogeneous multi-radio access technology (multi-RAT) mesh network communicatively coupled to a computing cloud component,
the computing cloud component further comprising:

a general purpose processor; and
an accelerator,
wherein the computing cloud component further comprises:
a memory for storing a location of a heterogeneous multi-RAT node, which is a part of the heterogeneous multi-RAT mesh network,
the location being analyzed by the computing cloud component to determine if the heterogeneous multi-RAT node should connect
to a second computing cloud component in order to receive a better quality of service or a lower data path latency;

an S1 proxy for communicating with a plurality of heterogeneous multi-RAT nodes and with a mobility core network node, the S1 proxy configured to send S1 protocol messages from the mobility core network node to a particular multi-RAT node of the plurality of heterogeneous multi-RAT
nodes; and

an lu proxy for communicating with a plurality of heterogeneous multi-RAT nodes and with a 3G mobility core network node,
the lu proxy configured to act as a proxy server for lu protocol messages between the 3G mobility core network node and each
of the plurality of heterogeneous multi-RAT base stations.

US Pat. No. 10,021,706

METHODS OF INCORPORATING AN AD HOC CELLULAR NETWORK INTO A FIXED CELLULAR NETWORK

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method of establishing a cellular network having backhaul flexibility, comprising:establishing, at a first cellular base station, a first connection with a core cellular network;
establishing, at the first cellular base station, an inter-base station connection with a second cellular base station for relaying traffic from the first and the second cellular base stations to the core cellular network, the second cellular base station having a second connection with the core cellular network;
determining, at the first cellular base station, if the quality of the first connection falls below a threshold parameter;
terminating, at the first cellular base station, the first connection in favor of the second connection when the quality of the first connection falls below the threshold parameter; and
providing, at the first cellular base station, a local limited core network when a quality of a backhaul connection falls below the threshold parameter, wherein the first and the second connection with the core cellular network are backhaul connections.

US Pat. No. 10,004,019

RAN FOR MULTIMEDIA DELIVERY

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for delivering a packet data flow across a radio access network (RAN), comprising:receiving, at an upstream gateway node, an Internet Protocol (IP) data flow;
sending, from the upstream gateway node, the IP data flow to a RAN;
receiving, at the upstream gateway node, a congestion control message from the RAN based on a request for retransmission of the IP data flow at the RAN to a user equipment (UE);
maintaining, at the upstream gateway node, a transport control protocol (TCP) timer for performing IP flow control of the data flow, and maintaining, at the RAN, a hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) timer; and
performing, at the upstream gateway node, IP flow control of the IP data flow based on the congestion control message.

US Pat. No. 9,491,801

DYNAMIC MULTI-ACCESS WIRELESS NETWORK VIRTUALIZATION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A wireless communication network, comprising:
a heterogeneous multi-radio access technology (multi-RAT) mesh network communicatively coupled to a computing cloud component,
the computing cloud component further comprising:

a general purpose processor; and
an accelerator,
wherein the computing cloud component further comprises:
a memory for storing a location of a heterogeneous multi-RAT node, which is a part of the heterogeneous multi-RAT mesh network,
the location being analyzed by the computing cloud component to determine if the heterogeneous multi-RAT node should connect
to a second computing cloud component in order to receive a better quality of service or a lower data path latency;

an S1 proxy for communicating with a plurality of heterogeneous multi-RAT nodes and with a mobility core network node, the S1 proxy configured to send S1 protocol messages from the mobility core network node to a particular multi-RAT node of the plurality of heterogeneous multi-RAT
nodes; and

an lu proxy for communicating with a plurality of heterogeneous multi-RAT nodes and with a 3G mobility core network node,
the lu proxy configured to act as a proxy server for lu protocol messages between the 3G mobility core network node and each
of the plurality of heterogeneous multi-RAT base stations.

US Pat. No. 10,117,125

SSID TO QCI MAPPING

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A base station, comprising:a processor;
a Wi-Fi portion coupled to the processor; and
a Long Term Evolution (LTE) portion coupled to the processor, the processor configured to perform steps comprising:
broadcasting at least one Wi-Fi network identifier for a Wi-Fi network from the Wi-Fi portion;
mapping a Wi-Fi network identifier for a received data packet to a quality value in a datagram header;
assigning, subsequently and using the quality value in the datagram header, an appropriate data bearer for the datagram, the data bearer having a quality of service class identifier (QCI) for the type of traffic expected to be sent over a particular Wi-Fi network associated with the Wi-Fi network identifier;
establishing a first evolved packet system (EPS) bearer and a second EPS bearer, the first EPS bearer having a higher priority QCI than the second EPS bearer; and
forwarding higher-priority datagrams over the first EPS bearer and forwarding lower-priority datagrams over the second EPS bearer, over a tunnel to a Long Term Evolution (LTE) core network via the LTE portion, based on a corresponding Wi-Fi network identifier for each datagram as received,
thereby assigning a quality of service for the datagram in the LTE core network corresponding to the expected type of traffic in the Wi-Fi network.

US Pat. No. 10,021,703

METHODS OF INCORPORATING AN AD HOC CELLULAR NETWORK INTO A FIXED CELLULAR NETWORK

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method of joining an ad hoc cellular network at an ad hoc cellular base station comprising:causing an ad hoc cellular base station to move from a first cellular coverage area to a second coverage area;
joining an existing cellular network at the second coverage area as a user equipment (UE) at the ad hoc cellular base station by sending a UE attach message from the ad hoc cellular base station to an existing cellular base station operating in the existing cellular network;
receiving a message sent from the existing cellular base station operating in the existing cellular network, wherein the message is sent over a control or bearer channel;
analyzing, at the ad hoc cellular base station, a characteristic of the message;
analyzing, at the ad hoc cellular base station, an operational parameter of the existing cellular network;
determining if the ad hoc cellular base station should enable, disable, or modify an access signal or a backhaul signal based on the analysis of the characteristic of the message or the operational parameter; and
determining an access signal power level of the ad hoc cellular base station for providing enhanced coverage at the ad hoc cellular base station based on the analyzed characteristic and the analyzed operational parameter.

US Pat. No. 9,986,597

METHODS OF ENABLING BASE STATION FUNCTIONALITY IN A USER EQUIPMENT

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method of providing coverage at a cellular base station with an integrated user equipment comprising the steps of:measuring at the integrated user equipment a connection quality between the integrated user equipment and a preexisting base station providing a backhaul connection to the cellular base station;
determining at the cellular base station if the connection quality with the preexisting base station is less than a threshold value;
establishing a mesh network link between the cellular base station and a second cellular base station using Wi-Fi;
connecting, from the cellular base station, to a core cellular network using the mesh network link;
enabling a Long Term Evolution (LTE) eNodeB functionality within the cellular base station based on the determination of whether the connection quality with the preexisting base station is less than the threshold value; and
providing wireless connectivity to one or more users via the LTE eNodeB functionality within the cellular base station,
wherein the cellular base station has an integrated LTE eNodeB functionality.

US Pat. No. 9,924,489

RADIO OPERATION SWITCH BASED ON GPS MOBILITY DATA

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A mobile cellular base station, comprising:
a cellular base station being capable of at least one of 2G, 3G, or 4G communication with a mobile device and having a wireless
backhaul connection with a second cellular base station to provide data egress from the cellular base station;

a positioning module for determining a current location of the mobile base station;
a velocity module coupled to an output of the positioning module for determining a current velocity of the mobile base station;
and

a controller, the controller configured to perform steps comprising:
determining the current velocity of the mobile base station using the velocity module;
comparing the current velocity to a threshold velocity to determine whether the current velocity exceeds the threshold velocity;
and

switching, based on the comparison, from a first radio band to a second radio band and from a first power level to a second
power level and from a first backhaul mode to a second backhaul mode.

US Pat. No. 10,154,440

SEAMLESS MOBILE HANDOVER

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:establishing, at a Long Term Evolution (LTE) cellular base station providing LTE access, a relay connection with a second base station for backhaul;
receiving a handover request for a user equipment (UE) at the LTE cellular base station, the handover request including an IP address;
receiving, at the LTE cellular base station, a handover confirmation message from the UE following handover authorization for the UE;
sending, from the LTE cellular base station, a request to the UE to release an LTE radio bearer in use between the UE and the LTE cellular base station while maintaining an active session for the UE with an LTE core network;
establishing, using the IP address and a non-cellular radio of the LTE cellular base station, a data connection between the LTE cellular base station and the UE on the same IP address;
spoofing the LTE core network regarding maintaining the LTE radio bearer by responding, at the LTE cellular base station, to messages for the UE received via the active session;
receiving an LTE paging message at the LTE cellular base station from the LTE core network via the active session; and
delivering a data payload to the UE subsequent to the LTE paging message via the non-cellular radio,thereby performing a handover of the UE for providing continued IP connectivity for the UE at the LTE cellular base station while preserving the UE's IP address on the non-cellular radio data connection.

US Pat. No. 9,456,450

METHODS OF INCORPORATING AN AD HOC CELLULAR NETWORK INTO A FIXED CELLULAR NETWORK

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method of establishing an ad hoc cellular network having an ad hoc cellular base station comprising the steps of:
a. optimizing a data path wherein the optimizing further comprises:
i. receiving a first data packet from a user equipment at a first ad hoc cellular base station wherein the first ad hoc cellular
base station includes a local gateway providing local wireless access;

ii. removing a first protocol header from the first data packet;
iii. storing the first protocol header in a memory;
iv. receiving a second data packet wherein the second data packet was sent from a second ad hoc node having processor with
limited core network functionality stored thereon;

v. analyzing a plurality of data packet headers stored in the memory in order to determine which corresponds to the second
data packet; and

vi. appending a second data packet header to the second data packet.

US Pat. No. 9,232,547

METHODS OF INCORPORATING AN AD HOC CELLULAR NETWORK INTO A FIXED CELLULAR NETWORK

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method of establishing an ad hoc cellular network having an ad hoc cellular base station comprising:
establishing, at a first ad hoc cellular base station, a first connection with a core cellular network;
establishing, at a second ad hoc cellular base station, an inter-base station connection with the first ad hoc cellular base
station for relaying traffic from the first and the second ad hoc cellular base stations to the core cellular network, thereby
establishing an ad hoc cellular network;

establishing, at the second ad hoc cellular base station, a second connection with the core cellular network;
measuring, at the first ad hoc cellular base station, a quality of the first connection;
determining, at one of the first and the second ad hoc cellular base stations, if the quality of the first connection falls
below a threshold parameter; and

terminating, at the first ad hoc cellular base station, the first connection in favor of the second connection if the quality
of the first connection falls below the threshold parameter.

US Pat. No. 9,455,959

METHOD OF CONNECTING SECURITY GATEWAY TO MESH NETWORK

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method of incorporating a security gateway within a mesh network comprising:
receiving at a security gateway a request to initiate creation of an internet protocol (IP) security tunnel from the security
gateway to a gateway node, the gateway node being a mesh node of a mesh network;

creating the IP security tunnel from the security gateway to the gateway node;
creating a generic routing encapsulation (GRE) Layer 2 tunnel inside of the IP security tunnel;
requesting at the security gateway an IP-protocol mesh routing table from the gateway node; and
receiving at the security gateway the IP-protocol mesh routing table from the gateway node,
wherein the IP-protocol mesh routing table includes a route to a second non-gateway mesh node via the gateway node.

US Pat. No. 10,142,948

ADJUSTING TRANSMIT POWER ACROSS A NETWORK

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for adjusting transmit power in a wireless network, comprising:identifying a selected base station with a first coverage area for adjustment of transmit power;
identifying a plurality of neighboring base stations with coverage areas nearby the first coverage area;
retrieving a plurality of signal strength measurements from a plurality of mobile devices within the coverage areas of the plurality of neighboring base stations;
calculating a metric corresponding to a number of mobile devices within the coverage areas of the plurality of neighboring base stations that would be positively impacted by a decrease in power at the selected base station;
calculating a first metric corresponding to a number of mobile devices negatively impacted by an increase in power at the selected base station; and
sending an instruction, based on the metric, for adjustment of transmit power to the selected base station.

US Pat. No. 9,386,480

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR PROVIDING LTE-BASED BACKHAUL

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A base station comprising:
a first radio transceiver configured to receive attach requests from a plurality of mobile devices using an asymmetric wireless
protocol;

a second radio transceiver configured to attach to a second base station as an associated mobile device of the second base
station using the asymmetric wireless protocol to establish an existing link;

a subscriber identity card coupled to the second radio transceiver; and
a processor configured to route requests for data from the plurality of mobile devices through the second radio transceiver,
wherein the asymmetric wireless protocol provides greater speed for downlink communications from a base station to a mobile
device relative to uplink communications from a mobile device to a base station, and

wherein the processor is further configured, if a desired uplink speed exceeds an uplink speed of the existing link, to permit
the second base station to attach to the said base station via the first radio transceiver as an associated mobile device
of the said base station and to reconfigure the second radio transceiver to detach from the second base station, thereby increasing
the available uplink speed from the said base station to the second base station relative to the speed of the existing link.

US Pat. No. 9,113,352

HETEROGENEOUS SELF-ORGANIZING NETWORK FOR ACCESS AND BACKHAUL

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A wireless communication system having a self-organizing network orchestration architecture comprising:
a first radio base station configured to provide access to one or more terminal devices via at least one of a first and a
second radio access technology;

a second radio base station configured to provide access to the one or more terminal devices via at least the first radio
access technology; and

a self-organizing network (SON) module in a computing cloud configured to receive an environmental condition from one of the
first and the second radio base stations via a data path, and based on the received environmental condition, configured to
send configuration information to either the first or the second radio base station via the data path to cause adjustment
of operational parameters at either the first or the second radio base station,

wherein the SON module is also configured to receive a second environmental condition from a core network via the data path,
thereby enabling the SON module to receive real-time network information for network orchestration.

US Pat. No. 9,800,552

METHOD OF CONNECTING SECURITY GATEWAY TO MESH NETWORK

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A wireless mesh network, comprising:
a first wireless mesh network node with a backhaul connection to an operator core network;
a second wireless mesh network node in communication with the first wireless mesh network node; and
a security gateway located between the first wireless mesh network node and the operator core network, and in communication
with the first and the second wireless mesh network nodes and with the operator core network,

wherein the first wireless mesh network node is thereby a mesh network gateway node for the second wireless mesh network node,
and

wherein the security gateway further comprises a non-transitory storage medium that includes instructions that, when executed
at the security gateway, causes the security gateway to perform:

receiving at the security gateway a request to initiate creation of an internet protocol (IP) security tunnel from the security
gateway to the first wireless mesh network node; creating the IP security tunnel from the security gateway to the first wireless
mesh network node; creating a generic routing encapsulation (GRE) Layer 2 tunnel inside of the IP security tunnel; requesting
at the security gateway an IP-protocol mesh routing table from the first wireless mesh network node; and receiving at the
security gateway the IP-protocol mesh routing table from the first wireless mesh network node, wherein the IP-protocol mesh
routing table includes a route to the second wireless mesh network node via the first wireless mesh network node.

US Pat. No. 9,107,092

HETEROGENEOUS SELF-ORGANIZING NETWORK FOR ACCESS AND BACKHAUL

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A computer implemented method for adjusting an operational parameter within a heterogeneous mesh network, the method comprising:
receiving, at a cloud server, via a data path, an environmental condition for a heterogeneous mesh network from at least two
nodes in the mesh network;

storing the environmental condition in a memory;
evaluating the environmental condition;
determining if an operational parameter should be adjusted based on the environmental condition where adjustment of the operational
parameter produces an externally observable change to the network;

sending, to the at least two nodes, via the data path, the determined operational parameter adjustment, and
receiving, at the cloud server, via the data path, a second environmental condition for the heterogeneous mesh network from
a core network,

wherein the cloud server is not a multi-radio access technology (RAT) node.

US Pat. No. 10,055,554

SOFTWARE-ENABLED REMOTE LICENSING AND PROVISIONING

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for increasing network capacity in a wireless communications device, comprising:determining, at the wireless communications device, a need for activation of an unused functionality of an embedded hardware portion at the wireless communications device to increase network capacity;
receiving, at a provisioning server, an activation request message from the wireless communications device for activation of the unused functionality at the wireless communications device;
determining, at the provisioning server, a path to the wireless communications device based on messages from a plurality of wireless communication devices and based on performance factors;
sending a negotiating message from the provisioning server to another server to determine pricing for granting a license to enable the unused functionality;
granting, at the provisioning server, the license to the unused functionality within the wireless communications device, thereby allowing the unused functionality otherwise not available to be made available for use; and
sending, to the wireless communications device, an activation response message over the determined path to the wireless communications device, the activation response message for enabling the unused functionality of the wireless communications device at the wireless communications device;
wherein the performance factors comprise available network capacity,
thereby provisioning the unused functionality of the embedded hardware portion of the wireless communications device and addressing the need of the wireless communications device for increased network capacity.

US Pat. No. 9,832,796

MULTI-EGRESS BACKHAUL

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for providing backhaul capacity in an ad-hoc mesh network, comprising:
attaching, at a first mobile base station that is a node of an ad-hoc mesh network, to a macro cell;
measuring, at the first mobile base station, at least one of a backhaul signal quality with the macro cell and a throughput
to the macro cell;

reporting, from the first mobile base station to a coordinating node, information comprising at least two of: a signal quality
parameter, a physical position of the first mobile base station, a cell identifier of the macro cell, and the measured throughput;

receiving, at the first mobile base station, an instruction to advertise a backhaul connection from the first mobile base
station to the macro cell to other nodes in the ad-hoc mesh network, thereby providing an increase in overall backhaul capacity
of the ad-hoc mesh network;

determining whether the macro cell is currently in use as a backhaul connection for the ad-hoc mesh network, and whether the
macro cell information exceeds a minimum quality threshold; and

sending, to the first mobile base station, an instruction to advertise the backhaul connection from the first mobile base
station to the macro cell to other nodes in the ad-hoc mesh network.

US Pat. No. 9,578,605

ADJUSTING TRANSMIT POWER ACROSS A NETWORK

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for adjusting transmit power in a wireless network, comprising:
identifying a selected base station with a first coverage area for adjustment of transmit power;
identifying a plurality of neighboring base stations with coverage areas nearby the first coverage area;
retrieving a plurality of signal strength measurements from a plurality of mobile devices within the coverage areas of the
plurality of neighboring base stations;

determining, based on the plurality of measurements, an effect of a change in power level at the selected base station on
the plurality of mobile devices within the coverage areas of the plurality of neighboring base stations; and

sending an instruction for adjustment of transmit power to the selected base station,
wherein determining the effect of the change in power level at the selected base station on the plurality of mobile devices
within the coverage areas of the plurality of neighboring base stations further comprises:

calculating a first metric corresponding to a number of mobile devices negatively impacted by an increase in power at the
selected base station; and

calculating a second metric corresponding to a number of devices positively impacted by the increase in power at the selected
base station.

US Pat. No. 9,585,029

START-UP SEQUENCE AND CONFIGURATION FOR A RADIO NODE

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A computer implemented method of performing a start-up sequence and a configuration for a wireless node comprising the
steps of:
determining if a wireless node has a wired connection to a network;
discovering a wireless backhaul connection;
discovering a dynamic host configuration protocol server;
requesting an IP address from the dynamic host configuration protocol server;
resolving a fully qualified domain name of a centralized server based on geographical location;
authenticating the wireless node;
creating, at the wireless node, a neighborhood list identifying each node in the neighborhood of the wireless node, and including
capability information for each neighbor node;

broadcasting, at the wireless node, the neighborhood list for nodes newly joining the network over a control channel; and
exchanging, at the wireless node, the neighborhood list with another node on the network.

US Pat. No. 9,807,574

MULTICAST AND BROADCAST SERVICES OVER A MESH NETWORK

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A system for providing multicast services to mobile devices, comprising:
a first network node providing a radio access network to a mobile device;
a second network node coupled to the first network node and providing backhaul routing for the first network node; and
a controller node, coupled to both the first and the second network nodes and to a multicast packet gateway,
wherein the controller node provides a virtualized interface of a single network node to the multicast packet gateway by hiding
identifiers for the first network node and the second network node, thereby virtualizing the first and second network nodes
to the multicast packet gateway such that the multicast packet gateway is enabled to send a multicast data stream to the first
and the second network nodes via the controller node,

wherein the controller node performs functions of a broadcast multicast service center (BM-SC) and a multicast coordination
entity (MCE), according to an evolved multimedia broadcast multicast services (eMBMS) standard, and

wherein the multicast packet gateway is an evolved multimedia broadcast multicast services (eMBMS) gateway.

US Pat. No. 10,015,681

HETEROGENEOUS SELF-ORGANIZING NETWORK FOR ACCESS AND BACKHAUL

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for determining if a user equipment (UE) should be handed over from a first base station to a second base station in a mesh network, comprising:receiving a signal from the UE at a first multi-radio access technology (multi-RAT) node, wherein the signal contains information sufficient to indicate that the UE is within range of the first multi-RAT node;
obtaining heuristic information from the UE, wherein said heuristic information includes a signal strength measurement for either the first multi-RAT node or a second multi-RAT node, the second multi-RAT node being coupled to the first multi-RAT node via the mesh network;
sending the heuristic information to a self-organizing network (SON) processing node as a gateway in a data path between the first multi-RAT node and an operator core network;
creating, at the SON processing node, a position profile for the UE based on the heuristic information;
transmitting a message reflecting the position profile to the first multi-RAT node via the mesh network; and
performing a handover of the UE from the first multi-RAT node to the second multi-RAT node.

US Pat. No. 10,177,806

ANTENNA-INTEGRATED RADIO WITH WIRELESS FRONTHAUL

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A system, comprising:a wireless fronthaul access point coupled to a radio mast and in communication with a remote baseband unit, the wireless fronthaul access point further comprising a first millimeter wave wireless interface; and
an antenna-integrated radio for providing access to user equipments (UEs), mounted within line of sight on the radio mast with the wireless fronthaul access point, the antenna-integrated radio further comprising:
a second millimeter wave wireless interface configured to receive digital I and Q signaling information from the remote baseband unit wirelessly via the wireless fronthaul access point,
a radio transceiver configured to receive the digital I and Q signaling information and output an access radio signal,
a power amplifier coupled to the radio transceiver and configured to amplify the access radio signal from the radio transceiver, the power amplifier contained within an enclosure of the antenna-integrated radio,
a radio frequency (RF) filter coupled to the power amplifier and configured to filter the access radio signal from the power amplifier, and
an antenna coupled to the RF filter for transmitting the access radio signal, thereby providing access to user equipments (UEs) via the transmitted access radio signal;
wherein the wireless fronthaul access point thereby wirelessly couples the remote baseband unit and the antenna-integrated radio.

US Pat. No. 10,093,251

POWER MANAGEMENT FOR VEHICLE-MOUNTED BASE STATION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A base station for providing dynamic power management, comprising:a processor within an enclosure mounted in a vehicle;
a power management unit coupled to the processor;
an automotive bus monitoring system coupled to the power management unit and to an automotive bus of the vehicle;
a voltage measurement module also coupled to the power management unit and to a battery of the vehicle;
a baseband processor coupled to the processor;
a first wireless access functionality coupled to the baseband processor and providing access for user devices via a gateway to another network; and
a second wireless access functionality coupled to the baseband processor,
wherein the power management unit is coupled to each of the first and the second wireless access functionality, is configured to monitor the automotive bus via the automotive bus monitoring system and the battery via the voltage measurement module, is configured to determine a power state based on the automotive bus and the battery, and is configured to enable the processor to coordinate access radio shutdown or graceful user detach for the first or the second wireless access functionality based on the power state being a low power state at the power management unit.

US Pat. No. 10,097,958

ENHANCED MOBILE BASE STATION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:at a processor configured to provide a cellular base station functionality, the processor being part of a mobile base station, the processor coupled to a first access radio for providing a cellular access network inside and outside a vehicle, the processor further coupled to a first cellular backhaul radio for providing a backhaul connection to a cellular network via a cell, the processor further coupled to a global positioning system (GPS) module for determining a location of the mobile base station:
permitting a mobile device to attach to the mobile base station;
attaching, at the mobile base station, to a macro cell for providing backhaul to the mobile device using the mobile base station for access;
receiving a first tracking area code from the macro cell;
transmitting a second tracking area code to the mobile device, the second tracking area code corresponding to a tracking area managed by a coordinating node;
detecting, at the mobile base station, a transition from a stationary state to a moving state of the mobile base station; and
sending a tracking area update message to a core network to transition to the tracking area managed by the coordinating node,
thereby avoiding unnecessary tracking area updates for the mobile device.

US Pat. No. 9,900,801

CONGESTION AND OVERLOAD REDUCTION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:
determining, at a gateway situated on a communications path between a core network and a radio access network, an elevated
load state for a core network management server or a base station in the radio access network, based on a count of messages
received during a first interval at the gateway;

retaining, at the gateway, state of a mobile device and of the core network management server or the base station in the radio
access network, for a stateful filtering process configured to identify spurious signaling messages from the radio access
network;

providing, at the gateway, a backhaul connection to an external network not through the core network for the mobile device
based on a priority or a mobile equipment identifier;

provisioning, at the gateway, resources for the stateful filtering process based on the total backhaul line rate for the base
station in the radio access network;

receiving, at the gateway, a request from a mobile device in the radio access network for a management server or the base
station in the radio access network;

throttling or dropping, at the gateway, the request based on a throttle mode based on the elevated load state and the retained
state; and

monitoring, at the gateway, the load state of the management server and the base station in the radio access network.

US Pat. No. 9,622,253

METHODS OF INCORPORATING AN AD HOC CELLULAR NETWORK INTO A FIXED CELLULAR NETWORK

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method of establishing an ad hoc cellular network, comprising:
receiving a data packet from a first ad hoc cellular base station at a second ad hoc cellular base station;
extracting, at the second ad hoc cellular base station, a tunnel overhead packet from the data packet so as to create a modified
data packet;

storing, at the second ad hoc cellular base station, the tunnel overhead packet in a memory;
forwarding the modified data packet to a local packet gateway (LGW) located at the second ad hoc cellular base station;
receiving, at the first ad hoc cellular base station, an acknowledgement from the second ad hoc cellular base station;
anchoring an IP session of the first ad hoc cellular base station at the second ad hoc cellular base station; and
routing IP traffic received from the first ad hoc cellular base station at the second ad hoc cellular base station to a local
IP packet data network.

US Pat. No. 10,021,623

SIM WHITELISTING AND MULTI-OPERATOR CORE NETWORKS

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

15. A system, comprising:a first eNodeB for receiving messages from a first user equipment (UE);
a second eNodeB for receiving messages from a second user equipment (UE); and
a gateway coupled to at least one eNodeB and acting as a virtualizing gateway for communications from at least one eNodeB to one or more core networks, the one or more core networks including a serving gateway (SGW) and a packet data network gateway (PGW),
wherein the virtualizing gateway further comprises:
a processor; and
a memory comprising instructions that, when executed by the processor, cause the processor to perform steps including:
receiving, at the virtualizing gateway, a first service request from a first user equipment (UE) via the first eNodeB;
creating, at the virtualizing gateway, an association from each of a plurality of UE identifiers to a desired core network;
applying, at the virtualizing gateway, a first filter using a first UE identifier of the first UE, based on the association;
forwarding, at the virtualizing gateway, the first service request from the first UE to a first core network based on the applied first filter;
receiving, at the virtualizing gateway, via the second eNodeB, a second service request from a second user equipment (UE);
applying, at the virtualizing gateway, a second filter using a second UE identifier of the second UE, based on the association; and
forwarding, at the virtualizing gateway, the second service request from the second UE to the second core network based on the applied second filter.

US Pat. No. 9,948,541

FULL DUPLEX SERVICES USING RTS/CTS

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for incorporating half duplex devices into a full duplex and half duplex mixed mode network, comprising:storing, in a table at a transmitting node, capability data, the capability data reflecting whether a particular node in the network has simultaneous transmission and reception capability;
waiting, at the transmitting node, to make a transmission to a receiving node, the transmitting node not having capability data of the receiving node;
sending, from the transmitting node, a first request-to-send message broadcast over the network to the receiving node while the receiving node is simultaneously transmitting;
updating, at the transmitting node, capability data of the receiving node based on a first clear-to-send message from the receiving node observed over the network;
calculating a collision probability using the capability data of the receiving node;
sending a second request to send message for data packets while the receiving node is simultaneously transmitting, based on the collision probability;
receiving a second clear-to-send message from the receiving node; and
sending the data packets to the receiving node.

US Pat. No. 9,479,934

VIRTUALIZATION OF THE EVOLVED PACKET CORE TO CREATE A LOCAL EPC

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for establishing an ad hoc local network, comprising:
monitoring, at a coordination server, an availability of a connection to a remote core network;
receiving a first request from a first mobile device to attach to a local network base station at the local network base station;
creating a session for the first mobile device at a local core network module via the coordination server;
sending a first authorization message to the first mobile device, thereby permitting the first mobile device to attach to
the local network base station without use of the remote core network;

receiving a second request from the first mobile device coupled to the local network base station to create a data session
to transfer data from the first mobile device to a second mobile device coupled to the local network base station;

sending a second authorization message to the first mobile device to permit the first mobile device to create the data session;
and

sending a message to the second mobile device to set up the data session from the first mobile device to the second mobile
device,

thereby permitting the first mobile device to create a bearer for communication with the second mobile device without use
of the remote core network.

US Pat. No. 10,178,595

RAN FOR MULTIMEDIA DELIVERY

Parallel Wireless, Inc, ...

1. A method for avoiding unnecessary keepalive data transfers, comprising:receiving, at an upstream TCP connection endpoint in a radio access network (RAN) from an operator core network, an Internet Protocol (IP) packet;
determining, at the upstream TCP connection endpoint, via shallow packet inspection on the IP packet, that the IP packet is not a message containing no content and is not a request for acknowledgement to keep a connection alive; and
forwarding the IP packet to the downstream TCP connection endpoint in the RAN based on the determination,
wherein the upstream TCP connection endpoint in the RAN is one of a nodeB, an eNodeB, a base transceiver station (BTS), a coordinating server, and a mobile edge computing (MEC) gateway, and
wherein the downstream TCP connection endpoint in the RAN is one of the nodeB, the eNodeB, or the base transceiver station (BTS).

US Pat. No. 9,973,963

VIRTUAL GUARD BANDS

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A system, comprising:a radio resource scheduler at a first base station configured to:
identify radio frequency resources in use by the first base station,
identify radio frequency resources to be reserved as virtual guard bands to reduce adjacent band interference, and
install virtual guard band rules for reducing interference with adjacent bands; and
a base station coordination node in communication with the base station configured to:
answer queries regarding radio frequencies in use by neighboring base stations;
receive virtual guard band information from the first base station; and
send virtual guard band information to a second base station.

US Pat. No. 9,935,364

SINGLE-RADOME MULTI-ANTENNA ASSEMBLY

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A mount for a plurality of radio antennas, comprising:a plurality of stacked radio antenna mounting assemblies, each further comprising:
a top mounting plate;
a mounting pole affixed to a bottom face of the top mounting plate; and
a bottom mounting plate affixed at a top face to the mounting pole, and rotatably affixed to a top mounting plate of an adjoining mounting assembly,
wherein the mounting pole is affixed to the top mounting plate and the bottom mounting plate at an edge of the top mounting plate and at an edge of the bottom mounting plate aligned with the edge of the top mounting plate so as to create a cylindrical volume, and
wherein each radio antenna mounting assembly is thereby configured to be independently rotatable in azimuth with respect to said adjoining mounting assembly; and
a radio-transparent radome with a height greater than a combined height of each of the plurality of radio antenna mounting assemblies, the radio-transparent radome configured to slide over the plurality of radio antenna mounting assemblies to cover each of the cylindrical volumes of the plurality of radio antenna mounting assemblies.

US Pat. No. 9,923,705

FULL-DUPLEX MESH NETWORKS

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A mesh network comprising:
a first base station acting as a backhaul node, further comprising:
a first transceiver for transmitting and receiving to and from a first access node using a single frequency band, and
a second transceiver for transmitting and receiving to and from a second access node using the single frequency band;
a second base station, in communication with the first base station, that is the first access node; and
a third base station, in communication with the first base station, that is the second access node,
the first base station, the second base station, and the third base station configured to perform self-interference cancellation
to send and receive full duplex data on the single frequency band, thereby enabling the creation of a mesh network having
both access and backhaul using only the single frequency band and providing backhaul connectivity to a plurality of mobile
devices connected to the second base station and the third base station through the first base station.

US Pat. No. 10,485,058

DYNAMIC MULTI-ACCESS WIRELESS NETWORK VIRTUALIZATION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for virtualization comprising:pooling a first radio resource of a first multi-RAT node with a second radio resource of a second multi-RAT node wherein the first and second multi-RAT nodes are communicatively coupled so as to form a mesh network;
maintaining a connection to an upstream network device via a computing cloud component;
managing the pooled resources so that the upstream network device interfaces with the pooled resources as a single base station;
sharing the pooled resources with a plurality of mobile operators, wherein at least one of the pooled resources is reserved for a particular one of the plurality of mobile operators; and
rejecting an attachment request or a connection request from a subscriber of the particular one of the plurality of mobile operators when the at least one of the pooled resources is fully utilized.

US Pat. No. 10,129,811

MULTI-RAT HETEROGENOUS CARRIER AGGREGATION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A network node for facilitating data transfer, comprising:a routing layer configured to receive network link capacity information;
a first radio interface operating on a first radio access technology and in communication with the routing layer; and
a second radio interface operating on a second radio access technology and in communication with the routing layer,
wherein the routing layer is between the first radio interface and a third virtual radio interface, and between the second radio interface and the third virtual radio interface, and
wherein the routing layer is configured to receive packets directed to the third virtual radio interface and route the packets to one or both of the first and the second radio interfaces to provide throughput at the third virtual radio interface that is greater than throughput available via either the first or the second radio interfaces independently.

US Pat. No. 9,900,407

X2 PROTOCOL PROGRAMMABILITY

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A gateway server for X2 interface communication, comprising:
an X2 internal interface for communicating with, and coupled to, a first and a second radio access network (RAN);
an X2 language processing module for receiving messages from the first RAN according to a first X2 protocol and mapping the
received messages to a second X2 protocol for transmission to the second RAN;

a state machine for maintaining state of one of the first RAN or the second RAN;
an interpreter for executing executable code received as part of the received messages and altering the state based on the
executed executable code; and

an X2 external interface for communicating with, and coupled to, a second gateway server in a wireless telecommunications
core network,

wherein the X2 language processing module further comprises an interworking module for interworking the first X2 message from
the first X2 protocol to the second X2 protocol and for associating the first X2 protocol with the first RAN and the second
X2 protocol with the second RAN, based on a list of supported X2 protocol versions for the first RAN and the second RAN, the
interworking module configured to perform steps, including: receiving and decoding an initial X2 message from the first RAN;
identifying specific strings in the initial X2 message; matching the identified specific strings in a database of stored scripts;
and performing a transformation on the initial X2 message, the transformation being retrieved from the database of stored
scripts, the stored scripts being transformations.

US Pat. No. 9,775,017

ENABLING HIGH-POWER UE TRANSMISSION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:
receiving, at a base station, an emergency request from a mobile device;
coordinating a resource allocation with a self-organizing network (SON) module located at a coordinating node, the coordinating
node being an X2 aggregation point;

sending, from the base station to a neighboring base station via the coordinating node, a high power reservation message to
reserve one or more radio resource blocks at the neighboring base station for non-use; and

sending, from the base station to the mobile device, a resource allocation including the one or more radio resource blocks
and a power control message requesting high transmit power.

US Pat. No. 10,135,570

PHY ERROR INDICATION MESSAGING

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:performing physical layer control (PHY) of a wireless signal at a Layer 1 (L1) software module;
performing medium access control (MAC) of the wireless signal at a Layer 2 (L2) software module;
providing an application programming interface between the L1 software module and the L2 software module for receiving L1 configuration messages and providing error codes to the L2 software module;
receiving a L1 configuration message at the Layer 1 software module; and
providing a progressively generated enhanced error code from the L1 software module to the Layer 2 (L2) software module,
the enhanced error code based on progressive error checking of the received L1 configuration message at the L1 software module prior to installation as a configuration for the L1 software module.

US Pat. No. 9,923,764

HEALTHCHECK ACCESS POINT

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for enabling configuration at a base station, comprising:
reading configuration information for a configuration wireless network at a cellular base station with Wi-Fi capability, the
configuration information including a known Wi-Fi service set identifier (SSID);

synchronizing the configuration information with a coordination server;
periodically scanning for the known Wi-Fi SSID in a non-access point (AP) mode;
connecting to the known Wi-Fi SSID generated by another device acting as an access point (AP), the another device receiving
the known Wi-Fi SSID from the coordination server;

establishing a secure network protocol connection between the base station and the another device for performing operational
configuration of the base station;

requiring additional security credentials after the cellular base station connects to the configuration wireless network;
and

using a current version of the configuration information and permitting a cellular device to attach to the cellular base station
at a particular time when the cellular base station does not have a backhaul connection to a core network.

US Pat. No. 9,888,354

ENHANCED MOBILE BASE STATION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A mobile base station, comprising:
a processor configured to provide a cellular base station functionality;
a first access radio electrically coupled to the processor for providing a cellular access network inside and outside a vehicle;
a first cellular backhaul radio electrically coupled to the processor for providing a backhaul connection to a cellular network
via a cell; and

a global positioning system (GPS) module electrically coupled to the processor for determining a location of the mobile base
station,

wherein the processor is configured to transmit the location of the mobile base station to the cellular network, disable the
first access radio for providing the cellular access network outside the vehicle when the vehicle is in motion, and enable
the first access radio when the vehicle is stationary with a power level determined using a self-organizing network (SON)
algorithm.

US Pat. No. 10,321,496

INTER-PGW HANDOVER ARCHITECTURE

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for providing Internet Protocol (IP) access across packet data network gateways, comprising:receiving, from a user equipment (UE), at a coordinating node, an attach request;
sending a first request to create a first new session to a first packet data network gateway (PGW) in response to the attach request from the UE, and a second request to create a second new session to a second PGW, also in response to the attach request from the UE;
receiving, from the first PGW and at the coordinating node, a first request for policies for the UE;
receiving, from the second PGW and at the coordinating node, a second request for policies for the UE;
proxying the first and the second requests for policies to a policy server;
opening a first data tunnel between the coordinating node and the first PGW with a first IP address at the coordinating node, the first IP address provided by the first PGW;
opening a second data tunnel between the coordinating node and the second PGW with a second IP address while maintaining the first data tunnel at the coordinating node, the second IP address provided by the second PGW; and
opening a data tunnel between the UE and the coordinating node for providing IP access for the UE to both the first PGW and the second PGW.

US Pat. No. 10,123,232

SIGNALING STORM REDUCTION FROM RADIO NETWORKS

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:concentrating a plurality of signaling messages from at least two radio access network nodes to a core network node at a signaling concentrator located between the at least two radio access network nodes and the core network node;
processing the plurality of signaling messages with a mobile device identifier rule at the signaling concentrator, at approximately a line rate of at least one link from the at least two radio access network nodes to the signaling concentrator;
adding together backhaul line rates of each of the at least two radio access network nodes coupled to the signaling concentrator to compute the line rate; and
providing compute resources sufficient to handle signaling messages received at or approaching the line rate,
wherein the mobile device identifier rule further comprises an association of an identifier of a source mobile device for each of the plurality of signaling messages with a message processing rule, the message processing rule further comprising instructions for determining whether to drop each of the plurality of signaling messages,
thereby providing core network offload of the core network node by the signaling concentrator.

US Pat. No. 10,117,173

OUT-OF-BAND POWER DOWN NOTIFICATION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A mobile base station for reducing coverage interruptions for users connected thereto, comprising:a vehicle bus notification module coupled to a vehicle electrical power system and configured to determine a vehicle battery power level, the vehicle electrical power system powering the mobile base station;
a first radio access network interface for communicating with mobile devices using a first radio access technology;
a backhaul interface for communicating with an operator core network;
a processor, in communication with the vehicle bus notification module, the first radio access network interface, and the backhaul interface; and
a memory, further comprising instructions that when executed by the processor, perform steps comprising:
receiving a vehicle bus low power alert at the vehicle bus notification module;
requesting, in response to receiving the vehicle bus low power alert, from a network server, a mobile device detach procedure for the mobile devices;
sending, in response to receiving the vehicle bus low power alert, to the network server, a message to cause the network server to perform power control of a neighboring base station to increase or decrease transmission power; and
sending a message via the backhaul interface to the operator core network to request a notification to be sent to the mobile devices, the notification configured to include human-readable information regarding the vehicle battery power level of the mobile base station,
thereby enabling the mobile devices to be notified via the operator core network when the vehicle battery power level is low.

US Pat. No. 9,973,935

SON-CONTROLLED DFS

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for performing dynamic frequency selection (DFS), comprising:receiving, at a gateway, measurement reports from a radio access node regarding observed utilization of a 5 GHz radio frequency band shared with a plurality of radio access nodes;
determining, based on the received measurement reports, a frequency hop pattern at the gateway; and
sending the frequency hop pattern from the gateway to each of the plurality of radio access nodes,
thereby enabling compliance with DFS regulations using a centralized gateway.

US Pat. No. 10,512,015

RAN FOR MULTIMEDIA DELIVERY

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method comprising:receiving, at an upstream gateway node, a video data flow;
sending, from the upstream gateway node, the video data flow to a Radio Access Network (RAN);
receiving, at the upstream gateway node, a congestion control message from the RAN based on a request for retransmission of a portion of the video data flow at the RAN to a User Equipment (UE);
determining, at the upstream gateway node, via shallow packet inspection on the portion of the video data flow, that the portion of the video data flow is not a message containing no content and is not a request for acknowledgement to keep a connection alive; and
performing, at the upstream gateway node, flow control of the video data flow based on the congestion control message.

US Pat. No. 10,044,490

ADJACENT CHANNEL INTERFERENCE CANCELLATION IN MULTI-CHANNEL SYSTEMS

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for a base station to perform adjacent channel interference cancellation with multiple co-located transmit channels and multiple co-located receive channels, comprising:determining, at a cloud coordination server, that a first transmit channel transceiver of the base station is scheduled to transmit when a second transmit channel transceiver of the base station is scheduled to receive, and initiating sending an interference cancellation procedure message based on said determination;
collecting, at the base station, a first channel usage sample at a first transmit time and at the first transmit channel transceiver using a first transmit channel;
collecting, at the base station, a second channel usage sample at the first transmit time and at the second transmit channel transceiver colocated with the first transmit channel transceiver-and using a second transmit channel;
sending the first channel usage sample and the second usage sample to the cloud coordination server for analysis using a low-latency connection;
assigning, by the cloud coordination server, coefficient weights in an adjacent channel interference model for each of the first and the second transmit channel based on the first and the second channel usage samples;
determining, at the base station, whether a radio is available for measuring current adjacent channel usage;
dynamically adjusting, by the cloud coordination server, coefficient weights for the first transmit channel based on the current adjacent channel usage; and
adding, at the base station, a correction signal canceling noise in a second receive channel at a second time based on the coefficient weights for the first transmit channel,
wherein the second transmit channel is adjacent to the first transmit channel, such that the second transmit channel shares an upper or a lower frequency boundary with a frequency band of the first transmit channel.

US Pat. No. 10,237,908

BASE STATION GROUPING FOR TOPOLOGY HIDING

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:receiving, at a gateway, the gateway positioned between a core network and a radio access network, a configuration information request from a base station;
analyzing, at the gateway, a topology of the radio access network, the radio access network including the base station;
grouping, at the gateway, the base station into a first group based on the topology;
sending, from the gateway to the base station, a grouping message to indicate that the base station be placed in the first group; and
terminating connections from the core network to one or more base stations in the first group at the gateway as a back-to-back proxy,
thereby hiding the topology of the radio access network from the core network.

US Pat. No. 10,165,467

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR PROVIDING LTE-BASED BACKHAUL

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

4. A method comprising:receiving, at a first network node, an attach message from a mobile device;
selecting a nearby available network node as a second network node based on an operational characteristic;
evaluating at least one traffic parameter to determine a role of the first network node for relating to the second network node;
sending an attach message from the first network node to the second network node based on evaluation of the at least one traffic parameter;
setting up an uplink Internet Protocol (IP) session from the first network node to the second network node, with the role of the first network node being a user equipment (UE) role;
relaying IP packets from the mobile device to a core network via the second network node;
tearing down the uplink IP session and receiving an attach message from the second network node at the first network node for setting up a downlink IP session from the first network node to the second network node, with the role of the second network node being a UE role; and
enabling aggregation of a plurality of carrier bands for the downlink IP session.

US Pat. No. 10,129,158

MAXMESH: MESH BACKHAUL ROUTING

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:at a centralized routing node:
receiving link utilization statistics from a plurality of mesh network nodes;
iterating over a set of congested links based on the link utilization statistics for each mesh network node of the plurality of mesh network nodes, each congested link having at least one traffic flow that is active, each traffic flow having at least one traffic source and a path set comprising a set of nodes and links that is used by the traffic flow as packets travel from the at least one traffic source to one or more destinations;
identifying a set of non-congested links based on the link utilization statistics, each non-congested link sharing at least one traffic source with a traffic flow of a congested link in the set of congested links, to identify a potential donee node;
iterating over each fork of a path fork in a path set between a source and a destination of a particular traffic flow associated with a particular congested link in the set of congested links;
computing, for the iterated each fork, a new utilization level for the particular congested link that would result from moving the particular traffic flow from the particular congested link to a particular non-congested link in the set of non-congested links at the potential donee node; and
sending a new route to a mesh network node of the plurality of mesh network nodes to move the particular traffic flow from the particular congested link to the particular non-congested link,
thereby providing a higher speed overlay route without computation of the new route using a mesh routing protocol at the mesh network node.

US Pat. No. 9,930,544

HETEROGENEOUS SELF-ORGANIZING NETWORK FOR ACCESS AND BACKHAUL

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for determining if a user equipment (UE) should be handed over from a first base station to a second base station in a mesh network, comprising:receiving a signal from the UE at a first multi-radio access technology (multi-RAT) node, wherein the signal contains information sufficient to indicate that the UE is within range of the first multi-RAT node;
obtaining heuristic information from the UE, wherein said heuristic information includes a signal strength measurement for either the first multi-RAT node or a second multi-RAT node, the second multi-RAT node being coupled to the first multi-RAT node via the mesh network;
sending the heuristic information to a self-organizing network (SON) processing node as a gateway in a data path between the first multi-RAT node and an operator core network;
creating, at the SON processing node, a position profile for the UE based on the heuristic information;
transmitting a message reflecting the position profile to the first multi-RAT node via the mesh network; and
performing a handover of the UE from the first multi-RAT node to the second multi-RAT node.

US Pat. No. 9,913,095

ENHANCED MOBILE BASE STATION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A mobile base station, comprising:
a processor configured to provide a cellular base station functionality;
a first access radio electrically coupled to the processor for providing a cellular access network inside and outside a vehicle;
a first cellular backhaul radio electrically coupled to the processor for providing a backhaul connection to a cellular network
via a cell; and

a global positioning system (GPS) module electrically coupled to the processor for determining a location of the mobile base
station,

wherein the processor is configured to transmit the location of the mobile base station to the cellular network, disable the
first access radio for providing the cellular access network outside the vehicle when the vehicle is in motion, and enable
the first access radio when the vehicle is stationary with a power level determined using a self-organizing network (SON)
algorithm.

US Pat. No. 10,212,535

MULTI-RAT NODE USED FOR SEARCH AND RESCUE

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A system for facilitating search and rescue operations, comprising:a first multi-radio access technology (RAT) base station for connecting with and providing network access to a mobile device, the first multi-RAT base station further comprising a timing source producing a timing signal;
a first directional antenna coupled to the first multi-RAT base station;
a processor configured to compute a location of the mobile device based on a response received from the mobile device at the first directional antenna and based on a direction and a beamwidth of the first directional antenna at a time the response is received, and to perform a triangulation operation to compute the location of the mobile device based on the timing signal;
a mini-evolved packet core (EPC) for collecting a user identifier of the mobile device and for authenticating the mobile device with the user identifier at the first multi-RAT base station; and
a second multi-RAT base station connected to the operator network for providing a backhaul connection to the first multi-RAT base station via a mesh network connection with the first multi-RAT base station,
wherein the first multi-RAT base station is configured to use the first directional antenna to scan a designated area for mobile devices and to thereby identify locations of a plurality of mobile devices within the designated area, and
wherein the second multi-RAT base station is configured to obtain the timing signal from the first multi-RAT base station.

US Pat. No. 10,110,497

MAXMESH: MESH BACKHAUL ROUTING

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:at a centralized routing node:
receiving link utilization statistics from a plurality of mesh network nodes;
iterating over a set of congested links based on the link utilization statistics for each mesh network node of the plurality of mesh network nodes, each congested link having at least one traffic flow that is active, each traffic flow having at least one traffic source and a path set comprising a set of nodes and links that is used by the traffic flow as packets travel from the at least one traffic source to one or more destinations;
identifying a set of non-congested links based on the link utilization statistics, each non-congested link sharing at least one traffic source with a traffic flow of a congested link in the set of congested links, to identify a potential donee node;
iterating over each fork of a path fork in a path set between a source and a destination of a particular traffic flow associated with a particular congested link in the set of congested links;
computing, for the iterated each fork, a new utilization level for the particular congested link that would result from moving the particular traffic flow from the particular congested link to a particular non-congested link in the set of non-congested links at the potential donee node; and
sending a new route to a mesh network node of the plurality of mesh network nodes to move the particular traffic flow from the particular congested link to the particular non-congested link,
thereby providing a higher speed overlay route without computation of the new route using a mesh routing protocol at the mesh network node.

US Pat. No. 10,448,436

MULTI-EGRESS BACKHAUL

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for providing backhaul capacity in an ad-hoc mesh network, comprising:attaching, at a first multi-radio access technology (multi-RAT) base station that is a node of an ad-hoc mesh network, to a macro cell;
measuring, at the first multi-RAT base station, at least one of a backhaul signal quality with the macro cell and a throughput to the macro cell;
reporting, from the first multi-RAT base station to a coordinating node, information comprising at least two of: a signal quality parameter, a physical position of the first multi-RAT base station, a cell identifier of the macro cell, and the measured throughput;
receiving, at the first multi-RAT base station, an instruction to advertise a backhaul connection from the first-RAT base station to the macro cell to other nodes in the ad-hoc mesh network, thereby providing an increase in overall backhaul capacity of the ad-hoc mesh network;
and
subsequently adjusting backhaul capacity by adding or removing additional backhaul connections to or from the ad-hoc mesh network.

US Pat. No. 10,237,914

S2 PROXY FOR MULTI-ARCHITECTURE VIRTUALIZATION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A system for multi-radio access technology (multi-RAT) telecommunications networking, comprising:a multi-RAT gateway, the multi-RAT gateway further comprising:
an inbound Iuh interface for handling inbound signaling, call, and user data flows on either or both of a 2G RAT or a 3G RAT;
an inbound IuCS interface for handling inbound call data flows on either or both of the 2G RAT or the 3G RAT, the inbound IuCS interface being coupled to the inbound Iuh interface;
an inbound IuPS interface for handling inbound user data flows on either or both of the 2G RAT or the 3G RAT, the inbound IuPS interface being coupled to the inbound Iuh interface;
an inbound S1-AP interface for handling 4G inbound signaling data flows;
an inbound S1-U interface for handling 4G inbound user data flows;
a Voice over LTE (VoLTE) interworking proxy for performing interworking from inbound call data flows, the VoLTE interworking proxy being coupled to the inbound IuCS interface; and
an outbound data flow router for routing inbound user data flows on either, some, or all of 2G, 3G, or 4G user data flows to either an outbound S1 interface or an outbound local breakout IP interface,
wherein the VoLTE interworking proxy is further coupled to the outbound data flow router such that outbound VoLTE traffic flows destined for an Internet Protocol Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) core network are routed to either the outbound S1 interface or the outbound local breakout IP interface, and
wherein the inbound S1-AP interface and the inbound S1-U interface are further coupled to the outbound data flow router.

US Pat. No. 10,264,621

IUGW ARCHITECTURE

Parallel Wireless, Inc, ...

1. A system, comprising:a base station management gateway situated between a multi-radio access technology (multi-RAT) radio access network (RAN), the multi-RAT RAN including both of a 3G RAN and a non-3G RAN, and a packet core network and a circuit core network, the base station management gateway providing resource management for a nodeB in the 3G RAN and the base station management gateway providing routing and node management for a base station or access point in the non-3G RAN,
wherein the base station management gateway is configured to provide radio resource control, power control, ciphering, and multiplexing of multiple users onto a transmission path for a first 3G mobile device attached to the nodeB;
wherein the base station management gateway is configured to relay traffic for a second mobile device attached to the base station or access point; and
wherein the base station management gateway is configured to relay traffic to the circuit core network from both the nodeB and the non-3G RAN via an IuCS interface, and configured to relay traffic to the packet core network from both the nodeB and the non-3G RAN.

US Pat. No. 10,206,157

RAN FOR MULTIMEDIA DELIVERY

Parallel Wireless, Inc, ...

1. A method for avoiding unnecessary keepalive data transfers, comprising:receiving, at an upstream TCP connection endpoint in a radio access network (RAN) from an operator core network, an Internet Protocol (IP) packet;
determining, at the upstream TCP connection endpoint, via shallow packet inspection on the IP packet, that the IP packet is not a message containing no content and is not a request for acknowledgement to keep a connection alive; and
forwarding the IP packet to the downstream TCP connection endpoint in the RAN based on the determination,
wherein the upstream TCP connection endpoint in the RAN is one of a nodeB, an eNodeB, a base transceiver station (BTS), a coordinating server, and a mobile edge computing (MEC) gateway, and
wherein the downstream TCP connection endpoint in the RAN is one of the nodeB, the eNodeB, or the base transceiver station (BTS).

US Pat. No. 10,420,153

MULTI-EGRESS BACKHAUL

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for providing backhaul capacity in an ad-hoc mesh network, comprising:attaching, at a first multi-radio access technology (multi-RAT) base station that is a node of an ad-hoc mesh network, to a macro cell;
measuring, at the first multi-RAT base station, at least one of a backhaul signal quality with the macro cell and a throughput to the macro cell;
reporting, from the first multi-RAT base station to a coordinating node, information comprising at least two of: a signal quality parameter, a physical position of the first multi-RAT base station, a cell identifier of the macro cell, and the measured throughput;
receiving, at the first multi-RAT base station, an instruction to advertise a backhaul connection from the first-RAT base station to the macro cell to other nodes in the ad-hoc mesh network, thereby providing an increase in overall backhaul capacity of the ad-hoc mesh network;
and
subsequently adjusting backhaul capacity by adding or removing additional backhaul connections to or from the ad-hoc mesh network.

US Pat. No. 10,206,138

SSID TO QCI MAPPING

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A base station, comprising:a processor;
a Wi-Fi portion coupled to the processor; and
a Long Term Evolution (LTE) portion coupled to the processor, the processor configured to perform steps comprising:
broadcasting at least one Wi-Fi network identifier for a Wi-Fi network from the Wi-Fi portion;
mapping a Wi-Fi network identifier for a received data packet to a quality value in a datagram header;
assigning, subsequently and using the quality value in the datagram header, an appropriate data bearer for the datagram, the data bearer having a quality of service class identifier (QCI) for the type of traffic expected to be sent over a particular Wi-Fi network associated with the Wi-Fi network identifier;
establishing a first evolved packet system (EPS) bearer and a second EPS bearer, the first EPS bearer having a higher priority QCI than the second EPS bearer; and
forwarding higher-priority datagrams over the first EPS bearer and forwarding lower-priority datagrams over the second EPS bearer, over a tunnel to a Long Term Evolution (LTE) core network via the LTE portion, based on a corresponding Wi-Fi network identifier for each datagram as received,
thereby assigning a quality of service for the datagram in the LTE core network corresponding to the expected type of traffic in the Wi-Fi network.

US Pat. No. 10,257,008

UPLINK MEASUREMENTS FOR WIRELESS SYSTEMS

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for measuring channel quality in a Long Term Evolution (LTE) transceiver, comprising:receiving, at a Long Term Evolution (LTE) wireless transceiver, an analog signal from a user equipment (UE);
converting the analog signal to a plurality of digital samples at an analog to digital converter (ADC);
performing a fast Fourier transform (FFT) on the plurality of digital samples to generate frequency domain samples;
identifying an uplink demodulation reference signal (DMRS) symbol;
performing channel estimation on the DMRS symbol to identify an estimate of channels;
creating a noise covariance matrix from the estimate of channels; and
deriving an interference measure from the noise covariance matrix,
wherein the interference measure comprises noise plus interference per resource block, derived as an average of summation of diagonal matrix elements over a plurality of slots and a plurality of antennas, and
wherein the diagonal matrix elements are noise plus interference components.

US Pat. No. 10,212,693

TRACKING AREA PLANNING

Parallel Wireless, Inc, ...

1. A method, comprising:assigning a single tracking area code to a plurality of base stations at a messaging concentrator gateway, the messaging concentrator gateway situated in a network between the plurality of base stations and a core network;
storing, at the messaging concentrator gateway, at least one indicator of a last known location of a user equipment (UE) other than the single tracking area code;
receiving a paging message from the core network at the messaging concentrator gateway for a UE; and
performing a paging sequence using the at least one indicator to identify a set of base stations to be caused to page the UE,
wherein a base station of the plurality of base stations is a heterogeneous multi-radio access technology (multi-RAT) base station, the heterogeneous multi-RAT base station supporting at least two access technologies, and
wherein the messaging concentrator gateway is virtualizing the plurality of base stations as a single base station towards the core network and at least one base station of the plurality of base stations is not a Home eNodeB (HeNB),
thereby allowing a tracking area list to be used at the core network identifying the virtualized plurality of base stations as a single base station without increasing signaling traffic between the radio access network and the core network.

US Pat. No. 10,285,097

SINTER AND INTRASEARCH BEACON

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising: sending an instruction from a radio network to a user equipment (UE) in an idle mode to adjust an existing cell reselection parameter at a UE to a high value; subsequently instructing the UE to return the cell reselection parameter to its previous value, after a first predetermined interval; and subsequently sending a second instruction to the UE in an idle mode to adjust the cell reselection parameter at the UE to the high value, after a second predetermined periodic interval, causing the UE to reselect to a cell with superior signal even when the UE is under good coverage attached to an existing macro cell, further comprising repeatedly raising the cell reselection parameter to a high value, in order to cause the UE to perform a neighboring cell search from idle mode and identify another cell to which to attach, thereby offloading the macro cell.

US Pat. No. 10,327,201

MESH NETWORK SELECTION AND ANTENNA ALIGNMENT

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A system for providing coverage and connectivity to a plurality of mobile devices, comprising:a multi radio access technology (multi-RAT) node, configured to:
detect an identifier of a mesh network from a plurality of mesh networks, and receive a message identifying a selected mesh network together with the location of a mesh network node of the selected mesh network node and a network configuration for the mesh network node of the selected mesh network;
a remote server, configured to:
select the selected mesh network from the plurality of mesh networks to join based on the detected identifier and at least one network performance criterion; and
an installation assistance device with a connection to the Internet, configured to:
receive sensor input from at least one sensor physically located on the multi-RAT node;
receive coverage configuration and connectivity configuration from the remote server corresponding to a desired coverage and connectivity pattern; determine orientation and position of multi-RAT node corresponding to the desired coverage and connectivity pattern; and
provide visual or auditory feedback to an operator to enable the operator to physically position the multi-RAT node according to the determined orientation and position.

US Pat. No. 10,349,218

ENHANCED MOBILE BASE STATION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:at a processor configured to provide a cellular base station functionality, the processor being part of a mobile base station, the processor coupled to a first access radio for providing a cellular access network inside and outside a vehicle, the processor further coupled to a first cellular backhaul radio for providing a backhaul connection to a cellular network via a cell, the processor further coupled to a global positioning system (GPS) module for determining a location of the mobile base station:
broadcasting, using the first access radio, the cellular access network at a first power;
transmitting the location of the mobile base station to the cellular network;
detecting, at the processor, a transition of the mobile base station from a stationary state to a moving state;
reducing, at the first access radio, a transmit power of the cellular access network while in the moving state for disabling the cellular access network outside the vehicle; and
increasing, at the first access radio, the transmit power of the mobile base station when exiting the moving state.

US Pat. No. 10,327,185

IUGW ARCHITECTURE WITH RTP LOCALIZATION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:at a coordinating server situated as a gateway between a first base station and a core network,
receiving an originating leg setup message for an originating leg bearer from the first base station for a first user equipment (UE) attached to the first base station, the first UE registered with the coordinating server, sent when the first UE initiates a voice call to a second UE, the second UE also registered with the coordinating server;
creating a first call correlation identifier based on a called party MSISDN and storing the first call correlation identifier in association with the first UE;
creating, at the coordinating server, an association between an International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) of the second UE and a Mobile Station International Subscriber Directory Number (MSISDN) of the second UE;
extracting a second call correlation identifier from a terminating leg setup message containing the IMSI of the second UE for a terminating leg bearer received from the core network by retrieving the MSISDN of the second UE based on the association of the IMSI of the second UE and the MSISDN of the second UE at the coordinating server;
determining a real time protocol (RTP) localization status for the originating leg bearer and the terminating leg bearer based on performing a comparison between the second call correlation identifier of the terminating leg and the stored first call correlation identifier of the originating leg; and
sending transport layer assignment messages to the first base station to redirect RTP packets from the first UE to the second UE via the terminating leg bearer without the RTP packets transiting the core network, thereby localizing the RTP packets.

US Pat. No. 10,341,837

ENABLING HIGH-POWER UE TRANSMISSION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:receiving, at a base station, an emergency request from a mobile device;
coordinating a resource allocation with a self-organizing network (SON) module located at a coordinating node, the coordinating node being an X2 aggregation point;
sending, from the base station to a neighboring base station, a scheduling hint to reserve one or more radio resource blocks at a scheduler located at the neighboring base station for non-use; and
sending, from the base station to the mobile device, a resource allocation including the one or more radio resource blocks and a power control message requesting high transmit power.

US Pat. No. 10,270,651

HEALTHCHECK ACCESS POINT

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for enabling configuration at a base station, comprising:reading configuration information for a configuration wireless network at a cellular base station with Wi-Fi capability, the configuration information including a known Wi-Fi service set identifier (SSID);
synchronizing the configuration information with a coordination server;
periodically scanning for the known Wi-Fi SSID in a non-access point (AP) mode;
authenticating, at the coordination server, another device acting as an access point (AP) using Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) authentication;
connecting to the known Wi-Fi SSID generated by the another device, the another device receiving the known Wi-Fi SSID from the coordination server;
establishing a secure network protocol connection between the base station and the another device for performing operational configuration of the base station;
requiring additional security credentials after the cellular base station connects to the configuration wireless network; and
using a current version of the configuration information and permitting a cellular device to attach to the cellular base station at a particular time when the cellular base station does not have a backhaul connection to a core network.

US Pat. No. 10,341,898

END-TO-END PRIORITIZATION FOR MOBILE BASE STATION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:establishing a first backhaul bearer at a base station with a first core network, the first backhaul bearer established by a backhaul user equipment (UE) at the base station, the first backhaul bearer having a single priority parameter, the first backhaul bearer terminating at a first packet data network gateway in the first core network, the first backhaul bearer for carrying data from a plurality of UEs attached at the base station to the first core network;
establishing an encrypted internet protocol (IP) tunnel between the base station and a coordinating gateway in communication with the first core network and a second core network;
facilitating, for at least one UE attached at the base station, establishment of a plurality of UE data bearers encapsulated in the secure IP tunnel, the plurality of UE data bearers terminating at a second packet data network gateway in the second core network and having a plurality of individual priority parameters for prioritized traffic control at the second core network;
transmitting prioritized data of the plurality of UE data bearers via the first backhaul bearer and the coordinating gateway to the second core network; and
establishing a second backhaul bearer at the base station having a second priority parameter, where the first backhaul bearer is a dedicated bearer to be used for prioritized traffic, and the second backhaul bearer is a default bearer to be used for non-prioritized traffic.

US Pat. No. 10,237,836

FREQUENCY AND PHASE SYNCHRONIZATION USING FULL DUPLEX RADIOS OVER WIRELESS MESH NETWORKS

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:sending a timing beacon over a single full duplex radio channel from a timing master to a timing slave, the timing beacon being a first message;
receiving the timing beacon over the single full duplex radio channel at the timing slave;
sending a retransmitted beacon over the single full duplex radio channel from the timing slave to the timing master, the retransmitted beacon being a second message;
receiving the retransmitted beacon over the single full duplex radio channel at the timing master;
calculating a time synchronization delta at the timing master, the delta being specific to the timing master and the timing slave, based on a difference of a reception time of the retransmitted timing beacon and a transmission time of the previously-sent timing beacon, as observed at the timing master; and
sending the time synchronization delta of the timing beacon and the retransmitted beacon from the timing master to the timing slave, asynchronously as a third message specific to the timing slave, to synchronize to the timing master upon receipt of the third message,
wherein the timing master and the timing slave are each multi-radio access technology (multi-RAT) base stations for providing a user with access to a telecommunications core network via at least one gateway node in the mesh network and utilizing the single full duplex radio channel, and
wherein the timing master and the timing slave are selected from nodes in a mesh network by a coordinator,
thereby achieving time, frequency, and phase synchronization among the nodes in the mesh network.

US Pat. No. 10,231,151

OPTIMIZED TRAIN SOLUTION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A system for providing wireless access within a vehicle, comprising:an in-vehicle base station for providing access to mobile devices, the in-vehicle base station connected to an operator core network via a first and a second wireless backhaul connection, wherein the first wireless backhaul connection is a lower-bandwidth mobile wireless backhaul connection and the second wireless backhaul connection is a higher-bandwidth wireless backhaul connection; and
a coordinating node coupled to the in-vehicle base station via the first and the second wireless backhaul connection;
wherein mobile device data packets are double encapsulated into a first data tunnel and a second data tunnel to be sent over the first wireless backhaul connection, and
wherein a source network address of the first data tunnel is translated at the in-vehicle base station to an address assigned to the in-vehicle base station by a first mobility anchor node in a core network of the first wireless backhaul connection,
thereby enabling mobile device handover between the first wireless backhaul connection and the second wireless backhaul connection.

US Pat. No. 10,420,170

PARAMETER OPTIMIZATION AND EVENT PREDICTION BASED ON CELL HEURISTICS

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method comprising:receiving, at a cloud coordination server, a mobile device handover request for a mobile device from a first coverage area to a second coverage area at a first location;
generating a prediction, based on previous handover data stored at the cloud coordination server, of whether a future handover will occur for the mobile device from the second coverage area to the first coverage area;
dividing the first coverage area into a plurality of observation grids, wherein a size of an observation grid is adjusted based on collected statistics;
determining, at the cloud coordination server, based on the prediction and the first coverage area, whether to perform a size adjustment of the first coverage area by increasing a transmit power level of a first base station covering the first coverage area;
sending, subsequent to the determining, a message from the cloud coordination server to the first base station to perform the size adjustment by increasing the transmit power level,
thereby reducing future handovers from the first coverage area to the second coverage area and back to the first coverage area;
generating a cumulative distribution function U based on measurements from a first user equipment (UE) and generating a cumulative distribution function V based on measurements from a second UE, wherein U and V are cumulative distribution functions that indicate whether, for a given first base station and a given second base station and a given time interval, a handoff was attempted between the given first base station and the given second base station;
recording successful handoffs, and calculating a probability function Z based on the successful handoffs that indicates whether, for the given first base station and the given second base station, a handoff will occur between the given first base station and the given second base station for a given UE; and
wherein generating the prediction is performed using U, V, and Z.

US Pat. No. 10,313,922

MITIGATION OF NEGATIVE DELAY VIA HALF CP SHIFT

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A Long Term Evolution (LTE) receiver, comprising:an analog to digital conversion (ADC) module;
a cyclic prefix (CP) removal module coupled to the ADC module configured to retain a portion of cyclic prefix samples;
a fast Fourier transform (FFT) module configured to receive samples from the cyclic prefix removal module, and to perform a FFT procedure on the received samples using a shifted FFT window, the FFT window being shifted ahead based on the retained portion of cyclic prefix samples, to output an orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) symbol; and
a rotation compensation module coupled to the FFT module, the rotation compensation module configured to perform phase de-rotation of the OFDM symbol, wherein de-rotating the symbol is done by multiplying the symbol by a complex conjugate of a phase ramp e?j2ft.

US Pat. No. 10,230,431

LOW-LATENCY INTER-ENODEB COORDINATED MULTI-POINT TRANSMISSION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A system for downlink multi-point transmission, comprising:a first base station in radio frequency proximity to a user device and with an established control connection with the user device;
a second base station also in radio frequency proximity to the user device connected to a core network via the first base station in a mesh network; and
a coordinating server coupled to the first and the second base station for coordinating transmissions to the first and the second base station to the user device, the coordinating server configured to:
select the second base station based on selection criteria, the selection criteria including latency of each base station and perceived signal strength of each base station at the user device, the selection criteria including backhaul capacity of each base station and forwarding data path latency at each base station; and
send scheduling instructions to each of the first and the second base stations to transmit data to the user device,
wherein the coordinating server is situated between, and is configured to act as a gateway between, a plurality of radio access nodes and an operator core network, the plurality of radio access nodes including the first and the second base station.

US Pat. No. 10,334,556

RADIO OPERATION SWITCH BASED ON GPS MOBILITY DATA

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A mobile base station, the mobile base station being capable of at least one of 2G, 3G, or 4G communication with a mobile device and having a wireless backhaul connection to provide data egress from the mobile base station, the mobile base station located in a vehicle, the mobile base station comprising:a positioning module for determining a current location of the mobile base station;
a velocity module coupled to an output of the positioning module for determining a current velocity of the mobile base station; and
a self-organizing network (SON) controller, the SON controller configured to perform steps comprising:
determining the current velocity of the mobile base station using the velocity module;
comparing the current velocity to a threshold velocity to determine whether the current velocity exceeds the threshold velocity;
switching a first radio, based on the comparison showing that the current velocity exceeds the threshold velocity, from a higher power level to a lower power level;
switching the wireless backhaul connection from a first backhaul mode to a second backhaul mode, the first backhaul mode being configured to provide backhaul at a low speed, the second backhaul mode being configured to provide backhaul at a higher speed, and
maintaining the wireless backhaul connection in the second backhaul mode for providing coverage to the mobile device within a reduced cell coverage area of the mobile base station when the mobile base station is moving at a higher speed,
wherein the reduced cell coverage area is configured to be coextensive with an interior of the vehicle carrying the mobile base station.

US Pat. No. 10,959,275

X2 BROKERING WITH AGGREGATION OPTIMIZATION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:associating a first base station with a first base station identifier at a signaling protocol gateway, the signaling protocol gateway providing gateway services for a control plane signaling protocol between base stations, and with a first Internet Protocol (IP) address of the signaling protocol gateway, the first station being an aggregated base station;
associating a second base station with a second base station identifier at the signaling protocol gateway, and with a second IP address of the signaling protocol gateway, wherein the second IP address of the signaling protocol gateway is a different IP address than the first IP address of the signaling protocol gateway, the second base station being an aggregated base station;
establishing a first signaling protocol connection between a third base station and the first base station via the signaling protocol gateway with the first base station using the first IP address of the signaling protocol gateway; and
establishing a signaling protocol connection between the third base station and the second base station with the second base station using the second IP address of the signaling protocol gateway,
wherein the signaling protocol gateway provides stateful proxying of the signaling protocol connection and a dynamic mapping between the first base station identifier and the first IP address of the signaling protocol gateway, thereby enabling the third base station to establish a connection to the first and the second base station via the signaling protocol gateway without an IP address of the first base station and an IP address of the second base station;
the signaling protocol gateway performing brokering of X2 connections between the first and the second base station via an IP address of the signaling protocol gateway, the brokering of X2 connections including aggregating and abstracting small cells; and
wherein a cell on one side of the gateway accesses the gateway as a proxy and the gateway virtualizes all cells on the other side of the gateway as a single eNodeB and will perform network address translation, proxying, silencing and suppression to enable desired semantics.

US Pat. No. 10,873,875

CONGESTION AND OVERLOAD REDUCTION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:determining, at a base station in a radio access network providing access to a core network for a plurality of user equipments (UEs), an elevated load state for a core network node based on a count of messages received during a first interval at the base station;
retaining, at the base station, state of at least one UE of the plurality of UEs and of the core network management server for a stateful filtering process configured to identify spurious signaling messages from the at least one UE during the elevated load state of the core network node;
caching, at the base station, prioritization policies pertaining to the at least one UE;
receiving, at the base station, a request from the at least one UE for services at the core network node;
throttling or dropping, at the base station, the request based on a throttle mode based on the elevated load state and the retained state; and
monitoring, at the base station, the load state of the core network node to determine when the core network node exits the throttle mode.

US Pat. No. 10,455,522

SON ACCOUNTING FOR MAX SUPPORTED GEOGRAPHICAL DISTANCE

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for determining an appropriate transmit power of a cell based on a desired coverage distance, comprising:initializing, at the cell, a cell reference signal transmit power at a high power level;
broadcasting a cell signal power measure to require a high signal power level for user devices attempting to connect to the cell;
progressively lowering the cell signal power measure at the cell;
broadcasting lowered cell signal power measure;
deriving a plurality of user equipment (UE) attach request distances based on a plurality of propagation delay statistics derived from UE attach requests received at the cell;
comparing the plurality of the UE attach request distances against a maximum distance to obtain a number of the UE attach requests received from UEs physically located beyond the maximum distance; and
setting the cell reference signal transmit power based on the number of the UE attach requests received from beyond the maximum distance,
thereby iteratively determining an appropriate cell reference signal transmit power based on the maximum distance and on the UE attach requests received at the cell.

US Pat. No. 10,511,697

X2 PROTOCOL PROGRAMMABILITY

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for X2 interface communication, comprising:at an X2 gateway for communicating with, and coupled to, a first and a second radio access network (RAN), receiving messages from the first RAN according to a first X2 protocol and mapping the received messages to a second X2 protocol for transmission to the second RAN;
maintaining operational state of at least one of the first RAN or the second RAN at the X2 gateway;
executing, at an interpreter at the X2 gateway, an executable payload received as part of the received messages;
updating the maintained operational state of the first RAN or the second RAN at the X2 gateway based on an effect of the executable payload; and
interworking, at the X2 gateway, the first X2 message from the first X2 protocol to the second X2 protocol and associating the first X2 protocol with the first RAN and the second X2 protocol with the second RAN, based on a list of supported X2 protocol versions for the first RAN and the second RAN, wherein at least one of the supported X2 protocol versions is a list of supported individual information elements (IEs) and protocol commands, or an X2 protocol version number.

US Pat. No. 10,506,385

MULTI-RAT NODE USED FOR SEARCH AND RESCUE

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for facilitating search and rescue operations, comprising:producing, at a timing source at a first multi-radio access technology (RAT) base station, a timing signal;
computing, at a processor at the first multi-RAT base station, a location of the mobile device based on a response received from the mobile device at a first directional antenna coupled to the first multi-RAT base station and based on a direction and a beamwidth of the first directional antenna at a time the response is received;
performing, at the processor at the first multi-RAT base station, a triangulation operation to compute the location of the mobile device based on the timing signal;
collecting, at a mini-evolved packet core (EPC), a user identifier of the mobile device;
authenticating, at the first multi-RAT base station using the mini-EPC, the mobile device with the user identifier at the first multi-RAT base station;
providing, using a second multi-RAT base station, a backhaul connection to the first multi-RAT base station via a mesh network connection with the first multi-RAT base station;
scanning, at the first multi-RAT base station, a designated area for mobile devices using the first directional antenna to identify locations of a plurality of mobile devices within the designated area; and
obtaining the timing signal from the first multi-RAT base station, and using the obtained timing signal to synchronize base stations.

US Pat. No. 10,637,727

HEALTHCHECK ACCESS POINT

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for enabling configuration at a cellular base station, comprising:reading configuration information for a configuration wireless network at a cellular base station with Wi-Fi capability, the configuration information including a known Wi-Fi service set identifier (SSID);
periodically scanning for the known Wi-Fi SSID in a non-access point (AP) mode;
connecting to the known Wi-Fi SSID generated by another device acting as an access point (AP), the another device receiving the known Wi-Fi SSID from a coordination server, wherein the coordination server is a gateway between the cellular base station and a core network, thereby enabling a connection to the another device without presenting a Wi-Fi SSID from the cellular base station and thereby reducing a security attack risk of the cellular base station;
establishing a secure network protocol connection between the base station and the another device for performing operational configuration of the base station;
requiring additional security credentials after the cellular base station connects to the configuration wireless network; and
using a current version of the configuration information and permitting a cellular device to attach to the cellular base station
wherein the another device is equipped with a program to configure the cellular base station.

US Pat. No. 10,382,998

VIRTUAL GUARD BANDS

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A system, comprising:a first base station of a plurality of base stations;
a second base station of the plurality of base stations; and
a radio resource scheduler at a coordinating node configured to:
identify radio frequency bands in use by the first base station,
identify a radio access technology in use at the first base station,
determine that a desired band is adjacent to the identified radio frequency bands in use,
identify virtual guard bands based on the radio access technology and the determination made that the desired band is adjacent to the identified radio frequency bands in use, and
share the virtual guard bands with the second base station,
wherein the first base station and the second base station are each in communication with a core network over a first radio access technology (RAT) and are also each allowing a user equipment (UE) to have connectivity with the core network over a second RAT, thereby providing a lower noise floor for adjacent in-use frequency bands for the plurality of base stations.

US Pat. No. 10,681,672

PAGING OPTIMIZATION FOR VENB

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:creating, at a coordinating server, a user page cache table, the user page cache table associates a user equipment (UE) identifier with a last known location of the UE and a virtual base station instance;
creating, at the coordinating server, a neighbor relation table, the neighbor relation table associates each cell to neighbor cells;
receiving, at the coordinating server from a core network, a paging message for a user equipment (UE), the paging message comprising a tracking area identity (TAI), the UE identifier, and the virtual base station instance, the paging message comprising a request for a first radio access technology, and based on a query of a combined user device location database for a last known location of the user device across both the first and second radio access technology, preferentially sending a paging request to a multi-radio access technology base station supporting a second radio access technology;
querying, at the coordinating server, in the user page cache table based on the UE identifier received in the paging message to identify the virtual base station instance and the last known location; and
forwarding, from the coordinating server to the last known location of the UE, the paging message based on the queried last known location for the UE identifier received in the paging message,
thereby making efficient use of radio resources and computing resources to page the UE;
wherein the virtual base station virtualizes a plurality of different base stations to a core network using a single identifier.

US Pat. No. 10,531,356

VOIP AND NATIVE CARRIER CALL INTEGRATION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:receiving, at a switch in a mobile operator network, an incoming call for a mobile device;
querying a convergence gateway from soft switch via an application programming interface (API) at the convergence gateway to determine a current call state of the mobile device;
delivering the incoming call via the soft switch over IP as a VoIP call to a VoIP calling software application on the mobile device if the mobile device is not currently engaged on a VoIP call; and
delivering the incoming call as a second VoIP call via the VoIP calling software application, if the mobile device is currently engaged on a VoIP call.

US Pat. No. 10,506,475

SEAMLESS MOBILE HANDOVER

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:establishing, at a cellular base station providing access, a relay connection with a second base station for backhaul;
receiving a handover request for a user equipment (UE) at the cellular base station, the handover request including an IP address;
receiving, at the cellular base station, a handover confirmation message from the UE following handover authorization for the UE;
sending, from the cellular base station, a request to the UE to release a radio bearer in use between the UE and the cellular base station while maintaining an active session for the UE with a core network;
establishing, using the IP address and a non-cellular radio of the cellular base station, a data connection between the cellular base station and the UE on the same IP address;
spoofing the core network regarding maintaining the radio bearer by responding, at the cellular base station, to messages for the UE received via the active session;
receiving a paging message at the cellular base station from the core network via the active session; and
delivering a data payload to the UE subsequent to the paging message via the non-cellular radio,
thereby performing a handover of the UE for providing continued IP connectivity for the UE at the cellular base station while preserving the UE's IP address on the non-cellular radio data connection.

US Pat. No. 10,484,837

MULTICAST AND BROADCAST SERVICES OVER A MESH NETWORK

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for providing multicast services to mobile devices, comprising:providing, at a controller node, an interface representing a single network node to a multicast server node;
receiving, at the controller node, link status messages from a first and a second network node, wherein the first and second network nodes are mesh network nodes coupled in a mesh network with each other via a mesh link;
constructing, at the controller node, a multicast route at the controller node based on the received link status messages;
receiving, at the controller node, a multicast data stream from the multicast server node;
sending the multicast data stream to at least two mobile devices via the constructed multicast route; and
placing, at the controller node, the second network node on a reserve list based on a degraded quality of the mesh link; and reconstructing the multicast route.

US Pat. No. 10,548,054

FEDERATED X2 GATEWAY

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A gateway for X2 interface communication, comprising:a single X2 endpoint for a plurality of radio access networks, further comprising:
an X2 internal interface for communicating with, and coupled to, a first radio access network (RAN) node in a private RAN, and
an X2 external interface for communicating with, and coupled to, a destination X2 node coupled to the first RAN node via the gateway,
the X2 external interface providing a single X2 endpoint for enabling the destination X2 node to interact with the first RAN node via the gateway; and
a state modeling module for modeling operational state of the first RAN node and the destination X2 node, the state modeling module configured to:
use the operational state to provide X2 interworking between the first RAN node and the destination X2 node, and
interrupt X2 connections by masking signals not required to be transmitted outside the private RAN while allowing X2-to-X2 signals inside the private RAN,
the first RAN node permitting a first user equipment (UE) to connect to a first cellular core network using a first radio access technology (RAT), and permitting a second UE to connect to a second cellular core network using a second RAT.

US Pat. No. 10,440,626

CONTENT-AWARE INTER-RAT RAB STEERING

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:detecting congestion at an eNodeB and entering a congestion control mode;
receiving, at the eNodeB, a new user equipment (UE) connection request that contains a radio resource control (RRC) establishment cause;
determining, at the eNodeB, a priority of the new UE connection request based on the RRC establishment cause, wherein the priority of the new UE connection request is based on a RRC establishment cause in the new UE connection request; and
identifying, at the eNodeB, the congestion management strategy based on the priority of the new UE connection request, the congestion management strategy comprising both of-initiating a handover for an existing LTE bearer and redirecting the new UE connection request to a 3G nodeB.

US Pat. No. 10,412,590

HETEROGENEOUS MESH NETWORK AND A MULTI-RAT NODE USED THEREIN

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A multi-radio access technology (multi-RAT) mesh network node comprising:a baseband processor;
a first RAT interface, coupled to the baseband processor;
a second RAT interface, coupled to the baseband processor; and
a general-purpose processor coupled to the baseband processor, wherein the general-purpose processor is configured to communicate with at least one remote mesh network node to establish a mesh network,
wherein the multi-RAT mesh network node is configured to designate either the first RAT interface or the second RAT interface as a backhaul interface for communicating with the remote mesh network node,
wherein the multi-RAT mesh network node is configured to designate either the first or the second RAT interface as an access interface for providing radio coverage as a base station to, and for communicating to a wireless network operator core network on behalf of, at least one mobile device,
wherein the multi-RAT mesh network node provides connectivity to a cloud coordination server to the remote mesh network node, and
wherein the multi-RAT mesh network node is enabled to dynamically change the designation of the first RAT interface or the second RAT interface from the backhaul interface to the access interface, or from the access interface to the backhaul interface, based on receiving an instruction to change the designation based on a determination at the cloud coordination server.

US Pat. No. 10,750,567

BASE STATION GROUPING FOR TOPOLOGY HIDING

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:receiving, at a gateway, the gateway positioned between a core network and a radio access network including at least two different Radio Access Technologies (RATs), a configuration information request from a base station;
analyzing, at the gateway, a topology of the radio access network, the radio access network including the base station;
grouping, at the gateway, the base station into a first group based on the topology;
sending, from the gateway to the base station, a grouping message to indicate that the base station be placed in the first group; and
terminating connections from the core network to one or more base stations in the first group at the gateway as a back-to-back proxy, thereby hiding the topology of the radio access network from the core network.

US Pat. No. 10,616,100

TRAFFIC SHAPING AND END-TO-END PRIORITIZATION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:receiving a first and a second Internet Protocol (IP) packet at a mesh network node;
tagging the first and the second IP packet at the mesh network node based on a type of traffic by adding an IP options header to each of the first and the second IP packet;
encrypting a payload of the first and the second IP packet at the mesh network node;
forwarding the first and the second IP packet toward a mesh gateway node;
filtering the first and the second IP packet at the mesh gateway node based on the added IP options header by assigning each of the first and the second IP packet to one of a plurality of message queues, each of the plurality of message queues having a limited forwarding throughput; and
forwarding the first and the second IP packet from the mesh gateway node toward a mobile operator core network to be subsequently decrypted,
thereby providing packet flow filtering based on IP header and traffic type, and using the added IP options header to provide traffic shaping independent from a priority assigned by a source node where the packet originated and independent of the encryption status of the packet.

US Pat. No. 10,542,576

METHODS OF ENABLING BASE STATION FUNCTIONALITY IN A USER EQUIPMENT

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A computer implemented method of providing ad hoc cellular base station coverage using a user equipment comprising:measuring at a first user equipment in communication with a base station, a first connection quality between the first user equipment and the base station;
measuring at a second user equipment in communication with the base station, a second connection quality between the second user equipment and the base station;
determining if the first connection quality or the second connection quality is less than a threshold value;
establishing a mesh communication link between the first user equipment and the second user equipment;
enabling an ad hoc cellular base station Long Term Evolution (LTE) eNodeB functionality within the first user equipment or the second user equipment based on the determination whether the first connection quality or the second connection quality is less than the threshold value; and
connecting as an eNodeB to a core cellular network via a mesh backhaul link from the ad hoc cellular base station at the first user equipment or the second user equipment to a second base station,
thereby providing wireless connectivity to one or more users via the LTE eNodeB functionality at the ad hoc cellular base station.

US Pat. No. 10,701,668

TRACKING AREA PLANNING

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A system, comprising:a plurality of eNodeBs;
a core mobility node situated in a core network providing mobility services to the plurality of eNodeBs; and
a signaling concentrator node situated between the plurality of eNodeBs and the core mobility node, the signaling concentrator node
maintaining a listing of each of the plurality of eNodeBs and a tracking area corresponding to each of the plurality of eNodeBs,
identifying a last known location of a mobile device, and to send a paging message to the last known location of the mobile device, and
including a single eNodeB interface with a single tracking area to the core mobility node; and
a signaling suppressor suppressing handover signaling generated by a mobile device handing over from a source eNodeB to a target eNodeB, the source and target eNodeB both managed by the signaling concentrator node.

US Pat. No. 10,623,226

UPLINK MEASUREMENTS FOR WIRELESS SYSTEMS

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for measuring channel quality in a wireless transceiver, comprising:receiving, at a wireless transceiver, an analog signal from a user equipment (UE);
converting the analog signal to a plurality of digital samples at an analog to digital converter (ADC);
performing a fast Fourier transform (FFT) on the plurality of digital samples to generate frequency domain samples;
identifying an uplink demodulation reference signal (DMRS) symbol;
performing channel estimation on the DMRS symbol to identify an estimate of channels;
creating a noise covariance matrix from the estimate of channels;
deriving an interference measure from the noise covariance matrix;
wherein the interference measure comprises noise plus interference per resource block, derived as an average of summation of diagonal matrix elements over a plurality of slots and a plurality of antennas, and
wherein the diagonal matrix elements are noise plus interference components.

US Pat. No. 10,602,459

BASE STATION POWER MANAGEMENT USING SOLAR PANEL AND BATTERY FORECASTING

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

12. A method for managing base station power, comprising:collecting data impacting power management profile for an antenna site;
generating a power management profile based on the collected data;
collecting current data to apply to the power management profile;
applying data to the power management profile and suggesting an action; and
determining whether an update to the power management profile is needed, wherein determining whether an update to the power management profile is needed further comprises updating when collected data indicates that the power management profile needs to be updated based on changes in the data that are outside of previously observed pattern, and data that is inapplicable to generate correct predictions and instructions.

US Pat. No. 10,638,325

SON-CONTROLLED DFS

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for performing dynamic frequency selection (DFS), comprising:sending, to a gateway, measurement reports from a radio access node regarding observed utilization of a radio frequency band shared with a plurality of radio access nodes, the gateway determining, based on measurement reports sent by the radio access node, a frequency hop pattern at the gateway;
receiving the frequency hop pattern from the gateway at each of the plurality of radio access nodes, thereby enabling compliance with DFS regulations using a centralized gateway; and
selecting a backhaul radio frequency based on the frequency hop pattern and using a global table to avoid multiple radios being switched to the same frequency.

US Pat. No. 10,986,691

BASE STATION GROUPING FOR TOPOLOGY HIDING

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:receiving, at a gateway, the gateway positioned between a core network and a radio access network, a configuration information request from a base station, wherein the base station is a multi-radio access technology (multi-RAT) base station having, wherein the base station is a multi-radio access technology (multi-RAT) base station having 5G radio capability;
analyzing, at the gateway, a topology of the radio access network, the radio access network including the base station;
grouping, at the gateway, the base station into a first group based on the topology;
sending, from the gateway to the base station, a grouping message to indicate that the base station be placed in the first group; and
terminating connections from the core network to one or more base stations in the first group at the gateway as a back-to-back proxy,
thereby hiding the topology of the radio access network from the core network.

US Pat. No. 10,715,198

ANTENNA INTEGRATED RADIO WITH WIRELESS FRONTHAUL

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A system, comprising: an antenna radio head comprising:a processor;
a processor memory in communication with the processor;
a first Wireless Gigabit (WiGig) radio in communication with the processor and having a connection for a fronthaul Access Point (AP), wherein the connection for the fronthaul AP accommodates compression of a raw digital signal;
a second WiGig radio in communication with the processor; a backhaul connection in communication with the processor;
a baseband processor in communication with the processor;
a baseband memory in communication with the baseband processor; and
a cellular Transceiver (TRX) chain communication with the baseband processor wherein the system receives digital In-phase (I) and Quadrature (Q) signaling information and outputs an access radio signal, amplifies the access radio signal at a power amplifier coupled to the radio transceiver internally within the antenna radio head, filters the access radio signal and transmits the access radio signal thereby providing access to user equipments (UEs) via the transmitted radio access signal.

US Pat. No. 10,666,414

FULL-DUPLEX MESH NETWORKS

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A wireless network comprising:a first base station acting as a backhaul node, further comprising:
a first transceiver for transmitting and receiving to and from a second base station using a single frequency band, and
a second transceiver for transmitting and receiving to and from a third base station using the single frequency band;
wherein the first base station, the second base station, and the third base station are configured to perform self-interference cancellation to send and receive full duplex data on the single frequency band via an X2 protocol message exchange,
thereby enabling the creation of a wireless network via the first base station, the wireless network having both access and backhaul using only the single frequency band and providing backhaul connectivity to a plurality of mobile devices connected to the second base station and the third base station through the first base station.

US Pat. No. 10,638,394

MULTI-STAGE HANDOVER

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for enabling a handover decision, comprising:configuring a UE with a first offset for a first cell and a second offset for the first cell, the second offset greater than the first offset;
instructing the UE to enter a handover decision state upon receiving a first measurement report from a UE indicating that a neighbor cell has a better received signal strength than the serving cell by the first offset;
instructing the UE to send periodic measurement reports with signal strength of the serving cell and the neighbor cell;
delaying handover decision by remaining in the handover decision state until receiving a second measurement report from the UE;
instructing the UE to hand over to the neighbor cell when the neighbor cell has a better received signal strength than the serving cell by the second offset; and
configuring the UE to accelerate handover from a macro cell to a small cell by using a small offset enabling traffic offload, and to reduce handover from a small cell to a macro cell by using a large offset thereby providing improvements in handover performance based in part on cell type.

US Pat. No. 10,595,242

FEDERATED X2 GATEWAY

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A gateway for X2 interface communication, comprising:a single X2 endpoint for a plurality of radio access networks, further comprising:
an X2 internal interface for communicating with, and coupled to, a first radio access network (RAN) node in a private RAN, and
an X2 external interface for communicating with, and coupled to, a destination X2 node coupled to the first RAN node via the gateway,
the X2 external interface providing a single X2 endpoint for enabling the destination X2 node to interact with the first RAN node via the gateway; and
a state modeling module for modeling operational state of the first RAN node and the destination X2 node, the state modeling module configured to:
use the operational state to provide X2 interworking between the first RAN node and the destination X2 node, and
interrupt X2 connections by masking signals not required to be transmitted outside the private RAN while allowing X2-to-X2 signals inside the private RAN,
the first RAN node permitting a first user equipment (UE) to connect to a first cellular core network using a first radio access technology (RAT), and permitting a second UE to connect to a second cellular core network using a second RAT.

US Pat. No. 10,575,173

VIRTUALIZATION OF THE EVOLVED PACKET CORE TO CREATE A LOCAL EPC

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for establishing an ad hoc local network, comprising: monitoring an availability of a connection to a remote core network;creating a first data connection between a first mobile device and a local core network module located at a virtualization server or a base station, thereby permitting a first mobile device to attach to a local network base station or virtualization server without connectivity to the remote core network;
identifying, at a local core network module, reconnection to the remote core network;
sending, from the local core network module to the remote core network, a service request message based on a prior message received from the first mobile device at the local core network module;
creating a second data connection between the local network base station and the remote core network;
forwarding downlink data, received from the remote core network via at the second data connection, to the first mobile device via the first data connection;
receiving, by the local core network, an initial context setup from the remote core network;
receiving, by the local core network, an attach acceptance from the remote core network;
activating a default bearer by the local core network;
accepting the default bearer; and
caching an authentication policy at the local core network from a policy function in the remote core network and authenticating a first mobile device based on the cached authentication policy at the local core network.

US Pat. No. 10,673,493

LOW-LATENCY INTER-ENODEB COORDINATED MULTI-POINT TRANSMISSION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A system for downlink multi-point transmission, comprising:a first base station in radio frequency proximity to a user device and with an established control connection with the user device;
a second base station also in radio frequency proximity to the user device connected to a core network via the first base station in a mesh network; and
a coordinating server coupled to the first and the second base station for coordinating transmissions to the first and the second base station to the user device, the coordinating server configured to:
select the second base station based on selection criteria, the selection criteria including latency of each base station and perceived signal strength of each base station at the user device, the selection criteria including backhaul capacity of each base station and forwarding data path latency at each base station; and
send scheduling instructions to each of the first and the second base stations to transmit data to the user device.

US Pat. No. 10,674,422

MULTI-RAT HETEROGENEOUS CARRIER AGGREGATION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for increasing backhaul network capacity in a mobile access network, comprising:receiving an access request from a mobile device;
receiving a request for data from the mobile device;
classifying the request for data according to a demanded throughput;
identifying a plurality of network interfaces for serving the request for data based on the classification and based on channel characteristics of the plurality of network interfaces; and
sending a request for the requested data over a virtual network interface that uses each of the plurality of identified network interfaces.

US Pat. No. 10,735,996

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR A SCALABLE HETEROGENEOUS NETWORK ORCHESTRATOR

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for orchestrating a radio access network, comprising:performing system management functions and sending system management traffic;
performing radio access coordination functions and user mobile device coordination functions, and sending control plane signaling to radio access network nodes and user mobile devices;
receiving user mobile device data and forwarding the user mobile device data to the user mobile device or to a mobile operator core network, and decrypting, demultiplexing and forwarding system management traffic, and decrypting,
demultiplexing and forwarding control plane traffic;
receiving, by at least one load balancer, user mobile device control traffic and user mobile device data traffic, redirecting the user mobile device control traffic, and redirecting the user mobile device data traffic;
and supporting addition, subtraction, and failover of load balancers.

US Pat. No. 10,743,283

RADIO OPERATION SWITCH BASED ON PS MOBILITY DATA

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A mobile cellular base station, comprising:a cellular base station being capable of at least one of 2G, 3G, or 4G communication with a mobile device and having a wireless backhaul IP connection to provide data egress from the cellular base station;
a positioning module for determining a current location of the mobile cellular base station;
a velocity module coupled to an output of the positioning module for determining a current velocity of the mobile cellular base station; and
a self-organizing network (SON) network module configured to perform steps comprising:
determining the current velocity of the mobile cellular base station;
comparing the current velocity to a threshold velocity to determine whether the current velocity exceeds the threshold velocity;
decreasing transmit power of the mobile cellular base station to reduce cell coverage area of the mobile cellular base station when the current velocity exceeds the threshold velocity;
switching, based on the comparison, from a first radio band to a second radio band,
switching the wireless backhaul IP connection from a first backhaul mode to a second backhaul moe, the first backhaul mode being configured to provide a backhaul at a low speed, the second backhaul mode being configured to provide backhaul at a higher speed, and
maintaining the wireless backhaul IP connection to provide coverage to the mobile device in the reduced cell coverage area via switching from a first backhaul mode to a second backhaul mode,
wherein the reduced cell coverage area being a vehicle housing the mobile cellular base station.

US Pat. No. 10,687,192

DYNAMIC PUBLIC WARNING SYSTEM FOR IN-VEHICLE ENODEB

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:sending position information reflecting a current position of a base station to a coordinating server;
receiving a warning request message from an operator core network containing an emergency area;
calculating a geographic area corresponding to an emergency tracking area by translating the emergency area from a set of base stations to the geographic area;
determining whether the base station is outside of a threshold distance from the geographic boundary of the emergency tracking area; and
sending the warning request message when the base station is within the threshold distance from the geographic boundary of the emergency tracking area; andwherein the base station is associated with the coordinating server as a virtual base station of the coordinating server, such that the operator core network addresses the base station through the virtual base station at the coordinating server, wherein the base station is further configured to provide at least one of 3G, 4G and 5G access from a vehicle, the base station being mounted in the vehicle wherein the coordinating server virtualizes cells connected on an access side and presents itself as a large base station towards a mobile operator's core network.

US Pat. No. 11,044,699

MULTI-RADIO ACCESS TECHNOLOGY PAGING

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...


1. A method, comprising:providing a combined user device location database in a heterogeneous radio access network at a coordinating gateway between a plurality of radio access network nodes and a plurality of core network nodes, wherein the core network nodes belong to a heterogenous mix of core networks;
at the coordinating gateway, storing a first location of a user device in the combined user device location database in association with a user device identifier and based on receiving a first user device registration request at a first radio access network using a first radio access technology;
at the coordinating gateway, storing a second location of the user device in the combined user device location database in association with the user device identifier and based on receiving a second user device registration request at a second radio access network using a second radio access technology, the second radio access technology being a different radio access technology than the first radio access technology;
querying the combined user device location database for a last known location of the user device across both the first and the second radio access network,
thereby maintaining a combined user device location database across multiple radio access technologies in a heterogeneous radio access network; and
receiving, by the coordinating gateway, an incoming paging request for a first radio access technology, and based on the queried last known location, preferentially sending a paging request to a multi-radio access technology base station.

US Pat. No. 11,039,419

PAGING OPTIMIZATION FOR VENB

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:creating, at a coordinating server, a user page cache table, the user page cache table associates a user equipment (UE) identifier with a last known location of the UE and a virtual base station instance; wherein the virtual base station instance manages a plurality of base stations of the radio access technology presented by the virtual base station instance;
creating, at the coordinating server, a neighbor relation table, the neighbor relation table associates each cell to neighbor cells;
receiving, at the coordinating server from a core network, a paging message for a user equipment (UE), the paging message comprising a tracking area identity (TAI), the UE identifier, and the virtual base station instance;
querying, at the coordinating server, in the user page cache table based on the UE identifier received in the paging message to identify the virtual base station instance and the last known location; and
forwarding, from the coordinating server to the last known location of the UE, the paging message based on the queried last known location for the UE identifier received in the paging message,
thereby making efficient use of radio resources and computing resources to page the UE; wherein the virtual base station virtualizes a plurality of different base stations to a core network using a single identifier.

US Pat. No. 11,026,276

INTER-PGW HANDOVER ARCHITECTURE

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for providing Internet Protocol (IP) access across 5G core network gateways, comprising:receiving, from a user equipment (UE), at a coordinating node, an attach request;
sending a first request to create a first new session to a first 5G core network gateway (GW) in response to the attach request from the UE, and a second request to create a second new session to a second GW, also in response to the attach request from the UE;
receiving, from the first GW and at the coordinating node, a first request for policies for the UE;
receiving, from the second GW and at the coordinating node, a second request for policies for the UE;
proxying the first and the second requests for policies to a policy server;
opening a first data tunnel between the coordinating node and the first GW with a first IP address at the coordinating node, the first IP address provided by the first GW;
opening a second data tunnel between the coordinating node and the second GW with a second IP address while maintaining the first data tunnel at the coordinating node, the second IP address provided by the second GW; and
opening a data tunnel between the UE and the coordinating node for providing IP access for the UE to both the first GW and the second GW.

US Pat. No. 10,841,969

IUGW ARCHITECTURE

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A system, comprising:a base station management gateway situated between a multi-radio access technology (multi-RAT) radio access network (RAN), the multi-RAT RAN including both of a 2G RAN and a non-2G RAN, and a packet core network and a circuit core network, the base station management gateway providing resource management for a base transceiver station (BTS) in the 2G RAN and the base station management gateway providing routing and node management for a base station or access point in the non-2G RAN,
wherein the base station management gateway is configured to provide radio resource control, power control, ciphering, and multiplexing of multiple users onto a transmission path for a first 2G mobile device attached to the BTS;
wherein the base station management gateway is configured to relay traffic for a second mobile device attached to the base station or access point; and
wherein the base station management gateway is configured to relay traffic to the circuit core network from both the BTS and the non-2G RAN, and configured to relay traffic to the packet core network from both the BTS and the non-2G RAN.

US Pat. No. 10,798,631

ENHANCED X2 PROTOCOL

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A system providing an enhanced X2 interface in a mobile operator core network, comprising:a Long Term Evolution (LTE) core network packet data network gateway (PGW), the LTE PGW being part of the mobile operator core network;
an evolved NodeB (eNodeB) connected to the LTE PGW;
a Wi-Fi access point (AP) connected to the LTE PGW via a wireless local area network (WLAN) controller; and
a coordination node coupled to the Wi-Fi AP via an enhanced X2 interface and providing gateway functionality between the LTE PGW and the eNodeB, and providing gateway functionality between the LTE PGW and the Wi-Fi AP, the coordination node further comprising:
a radio access network (RAN) virtualization module providing network address translation (NAT);
a protocol module communicating to the eNodeB and the Wi-Fi AP to request inter-radio technology (inter-RAT) handovers of a user equipment (UE) and to forward packets intended for the UE to the UE; and
an access technology virtualization proxy hiding an underlying radio access technology (RAT) of an access network from the mobile operator core network and presenting interfaces corresponding to the underlying radio access technology to the core network, wherein the coordination node provides a virtualized RAN that reduces interoperability concerns, enables heterogeneity at the RAN layer, and enables inter-RAT handovers without interworking towards the core network.

US Pat. No. 10,743,217

X2 BROKERING BETWEEN INTER-3GPP RELEASE ENODEB'S

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. An interworking gateway for X2 interface communication, comprising:at least one processor;
an X2 internal interface for communicating with, and coupled to, a plurality of radio access networks (RANs) using a X2AP protocol;
a database for associating each of the plurality of RANs with support status for an X2AP protocol version;
an X2AP interworking broker for determining, based on communications with each of the plurality of RANS with the X2 internal interface, the support status for an X2AP protocol version for each of the plurality of the RANs, the communications further comprising an observed response to a first X2AP message of a first X2AP protocol version, wherein when the observed response is a timeout or an error message indicating the first X2AP protocol version of the first X2AP message is not supported, then internetworking the first X2AP message to a second X2AP message having a second X2AP protocol version lower than the first X2AP protocol version of the first X2AP message, wherein the X2AP message of the first X2AP protocol version is a X2AP Message Transfer message for allowing indirect transport of an X2AP message between the two base stations;
wherein when a message header of a X2AP message received identifies the second X2AP protocol version and the X2AP message target is known to support the first X2AP protocol version, then passing the X2AP message along without interworking the X2AP message; and
an X2 external interface for communicating with, and coupled to, a destination outside of a plurality of RANs.

US Pat. No. 10,887,239

RAN FOR MULTIMEDIA DELIVERY

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for tearing down a TCP connection between a transmission control protocol (TCP) client in a radio access network (RAN) and a TCP server, the TCP client being a mobile user equipment (UE) connected to the TCP server via a RAN bearer to a TCP gateway, comprising:receiving, at the TCP gateway for the TCP client, an indication from the TCP server to close a TCP connection;
performing inspection at the TCP gateway of envelope information at the TCP connection to determine whether the TCP connection is idle;
sending, from the TCP gateway to the TCP server, a TCP message with a finish (FIN) bit set to indicate termination of the TCP connection;
sending, from the TCP gateway to a RAN base station, an instruction to release a radio bearer for the UE;
causing the TCP connection to be closed at the TCP client without waiting for double the maximum segment lifetime period;
reducing radio bearer resource utilization when the TCP connection is idle;
sending, from the TCP gateway to the TCP client, a simulated FIN message from an upstream TCP connection endpoint; and
reducing a TCP connection close timer at the TCP gateway in the operator core network to reduce a likelihood of radio access bearer (RAB) reestablishment due to reception of additional data over a half-closed TCP connection.

US Pat. No. 10,764,863

MULTI-RADIO ACCESS TECHNOLOGY PAGING

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:providing a combined user device location database in a heterogeneous radio access network at a coordinating gateway between a plurality of radio access network nodes and a plurality of core network nodes;
at the coordinating gateway, storing a first location of a user device in the combined user device location database in association with a user device identifier and based on receiving a first user device registration request at a first radio access network using a first radio access technology;
at the coordinating gateway, storing a second location of the user device in the combined user device location database in association with the user device identifier and based on receiving a second user device registration request at a second radio access network using a second radio access technology, the second radio access technology being a different radio access technology than the first radio access technology;
querying the combined user device location database for a last known location of the user device across both the first and the second radio access network,
thereby maintaining a combined user device location database across multiple radio access technologies in a heterogeneous radio access network; and
receiving, by the coordinating gateway, an incoming paging request for a first radio access technology, and based on the queried last known location, preferentially sending a paging request to a multi-radio access technology base station.

US Pat. No. 10,757,660

SELF-CALIBRATING AND SELF-ADJUSTING NETWORK

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:obtaining, at a base station situated between a mobile device and a coordinating server, a measurement report for a device;
obtaining, at the base station, a position of the mobile device;
associating, at the base station, the position and the measurement report and a time of the measurement report as a record in a database;
aggregating, at the coordinating server situated in a data path between the base station and a core network, additional records from the database that match an identifier of the mobile device, and that are within a period of time that includes a time of the record, and that are within a geographic location that includes position of the record;
compiling, at the base station, a record of call drops per aggregated location at the database;
performing, at the base station, prediction of future call drops based on the compiled record of call drops per aggregated location and a position parameter;
storing, at the base station, at least one statistical measure of a signal strength parameter of the aggregated additional records;
updating, at the base station, a minimum and a maximum threshold value for an operational network parameter based on the stored at least one statistical measure;
associating, at the base station, a position and an aggregate signal strength parameter calculated from signal strength parameters from multiple mobile devices,
wherein the signal strength parameter is calculated by selecting a value reflecting a relative minimum signal strength; and
adjusting, at the base station, the operational network parameter based on the minimum and the maximum threshold value,
thereby providing an improvement to a radio access network over a geographic area.

US Pat. No. 11,102,791

TV WHITESPACE RELAY FOR PUBLIC SAFETY

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...


1. A system for establishing a Television Whitespace (TVWS) relay for public safety, comprising:a multi Radio Access Technology (multi-RAT) base station; and
a TVWS relay in communication with the multi-RAT base station configured to provide a backhaul channel to an IP network in a public safety environment;

wherein the TVWS relay uses IEEE 802.11af and operates in a non-line of sight (NLOS) manner;wherein a TVWS backhaul radio is used in a public safety in-vehicle base station;
wherein the TVWS backhaul radio is a TVWS geolocation database dependent (GDD)-dependent STA; and
wherien the multi-RAT base station brings the TVWS backhaul link up or down dynamically based on at least one of saturation of existing backhaul links and the unavailability of other backhaul links.

US Pat. No. 11,026,136

HANDOVERS WITH SIMPLIFIED NETWORK TOPOLOGY

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:at a coordinating gateway during a handover of a mobile device from a first base station to a second base station,
receiving a first handover request from the first base station, wherein the first handover request is an X2 handover request;
discarding a first shared security key received in the first handover request;
sending a tunnel switching request to a core network node;
obtaining precursors for a second shared security key from the core network node in a response to the switching request;
sending a second handover request to the second base station with the precursors to calculate the second shared security key for securing a data connection for the mobile device following the handover, wherein the second handover request is an S1 request remapped from the X2 handover request using at least one of decoding, encoding, interworking, translating and proxying S1 to and from X2;
deriving the second shared security key from the obtained precursors at the first base station;
deriving the second shared security key from the obtained precursors at the coordinating gateway; and
proxying the core network node to the second base station by providing Mobility Management Entity (MME) functionality including authentication and authorization and proxying the second base station to the core network node for all communications between the core network node and the second base station.

US Pat. No. 11,012,853

SECURE SOFTWARE UPDATE IN A WIRELESS MESH RADIO NETWORK USING PEER-TO-PEER FILE SHARING

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method of performing a secure software update in a mesh network, the method comprising:receiving, at each node of a network, a notification from a coordinating server wherein each node of the network is listening for an image available notification;
receiving, at a first node of the network, the image available notification;
downloading and installing a software update image by the first node of the network;
broadcasting, at the first node of the network, the image available notification to other peer nodes of the first node of the network;
downloading and installing the software update image from the first node of the network by at least one other peer node of the network; and
performing a periodic audit comparing a number of ACKs received from the initial control packet and a number of node armed messages received.

US Pat. No. 10,869,201

HETEROGENEOUS MESH NETWORK AND A MULTI-RAT NODE USED THEREIN

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A mesh network comprising at least two dynamic mesh nodes, wherein the two dynamic mesh nodes each comprise a multiple radio access technology architecture, the multiple radio access technology architecture comprising:at least two different radio access technologies (RATs) for providing access to a core network and backhaul, and
an abstraction layer communicatively coupled to the at least two radio access technologies for receiving and converting data into protocol agnostic data,
wherein the first and second dynamic mesh nodes are configured to function dynamically switching between client and server or simultaneously acting a both client and server;
wherein the first and second dynamic mesh nodes are further configured to:
in response to a query regarding environmental conditions from a computing cloud component, send an environmental condition to the computing cloud component,
receive an instruction from the computing cloud in response to the computing cloud component having processed the environmental condition, and
change an operational parameter in response to the received instruction,
and wherein a dynamic multi-RAT mesh node uses a first RAT for access and a second RAT for backhaul and dynamically switches internally to using the second RAT for access and the first RAT for backhaul; and
wherein the mesh network is a heterogeneous mesh network and wherein a single routing table is used for heterogeneous nodes within the heterogeneous mesh network.

US Pat. No. 10,868,803

MULTI-STAGE SECURE NETWORK ELEMENT CERTIFICATE PROVISIONING IN A DISTRIBUTED MOBILE ACCESS NETWORK

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:configuring, based on hardware characteristics of a radio access device, a first security certificate;
setting up a first encrypted tunnel with a first security server using the first security certificate, the first security server configured to grant permission via the first security certificate for obtaining a second security certificate providing access to an operator core network;
tearing down the first encrypted tunnel; and
setting up a second encrypted tunnel to a second security server within the operator core network using the second security certificate, the second encrypted tunnel configured to allow the radio access device to securely communicate with the operator core network for providing connectivity for user devices to the operator core network,
wherein the first encrypted tunnel and the second encrypted tunnel to use a single transport port, thereby enabling the radio access device to obtain the second security certificate via the first encrypted tunnel, wherein the first security certificate is a factory-installed certificate, and wherein the second security certificate is an operational certificate containing security information specific to the operator core network, the security information not present on the radio access device prior to issuance of the second security certificate.

US Pat. No. 10,841,831

CONGESTION AND OVERLOAD REDUCTION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:determining, at a base station in a radio access network providing access to a core network for a plurality of user equipments (UEs), an elevated load state for a core network node based on a count of messages received during a first interval at the base station;
retaining, at the base station, state of at least one UE of the plurality of UEs and of the core network management server for a stateful filtering process configured to identify spurious signaling messages from the at least one UE during the elevated load state of the core network node;
caching, at the base station, prioritization policies pertaining to the at least one UE;
receiving, at the base station, a request from the at least one UE for services at the core network node;
throttling or dropping, at the base station, the request based on a throttle mode based on the elevated load state and the retained state; and
monitoring, at the base station, the load state of the core network node to determine when the core network node exits the throttle mode.

US Pat. No. 10,763,996

PHY ERROR INDICATION MESSAGING

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:Performing, in a 5G network, physical layer control (PHY) of a wireless signal at a Layer 1 (L1) software module;
performing medium access control (MAC) of the wireless signal at a Layer 2 (L2) software module;
providing an application programming interface between the L1 software module and the L2 software module for receiving L1 configuration messages and providing error codes to the L2 software module;
receiving a L1 configuration message at a Layer 1 software module; and
providing a progressively generated enhanced error code from a L1 software module to the Layer 2 (L2) software module,
the enhanced error code based on progressive error checking of the received L1 configuration message at the L1 software module prior to installation as a configuration for the L1 software module.

US Pat. No. 10,743,276

SIGNAL QUALITY DATABASE

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:receiving a mobile device measurement report from a mobile device at a gateway situated between a radio access network (RAN) and a core network via one or more base stations in the RAN, the gateway communicating with one of the one or more base stations using an X2 protocol connection;
determining, at the gateway, a location of the mobile device at a measurement time from the mobile device measurement report;
associating, at the gateway, the location with the mobile device measurement report into a measurement record;
storing, at the gateway, a plurality of measurement records obtained over a time period from multiple mobile devices in a database;
providing, at the gateway, query access to the plurality of measurement records by retrieving results corresponding to a plurality of search parameters transmitted to the gateway; and
adjusting a first parameter at one of the one or more base stations for a first radio access technology, and adjusting a second parameter for a second radio access technology, at least one of the adjustments of the first or second parameters being based on the plurality of measurement records obtained over a time period from multiple mobile devices.

US Pat. No. 11,115,953

RADIO OPERATION SWITCH BASED ON GPS MOBILITY DATA

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...


1. A mobile cellular base station, comprising:a cellular base station being capable of 5G communication with a mobile device and having a wireless backhaul IP connection to provide data egress from the cellular base station;
a positioning module for determining a current location of the mobile cellular base station;
a velocity module coupled to an output of the positioning module for determining a current velocity of the mobile cellular base station; and
a self-organizing network (SON) network module configured to perform steps comprising:determining the current velocity of the mobile cellular base station;
comparing the current velocity to a threshold velocity to determine whether the current velocity exceeds the threshold velocity;
decreasing transmit power of the mobile cellular base station to reduce cell coverage area of the mobile cellular base station when the current velocity exceeds the threshold velocity;
switching, when the current velocity exceeds the threshold velocity, from a first radio band to a second radio band,
switching, when the current velocity exceeds the threshold velocity, the wireless backhaul IP connection from a first backhaul mode to a second backhaul mode, the first backhaul mode being configured to provide backhaul at a low speed, the second backhaul mode being configured to provide backhaul at a higher speed, and
maintaining the wireless backhaul IP connection to provide coverage to the mobile device in the reduced cell coverage area via switching from the first backhaul mode to the second backhaul mode,
wherein the reduced cell coverage area covers a vehicle housing the cellular base station.


US Pat. No. 11,012,348

TRAFFIC SHAPING AND END-TO-END PRIORITIZATION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:receiving a first and a second Internet Protocol (IP) packet at a network node;
tagging the first and the second IP packet at the network node based on a type of traffic by adding an IP options header to each of the first and the second IP packet;
encrypting a payload of the first and the second IP packet at the network node;
forwarding the first and the second IP packet toward a gateway node;
filtering the first and the second IP packet at the gateway node based on the added IP options header by assigning each of the first and the second IP packet to one of a plurality of message queues, each of the plurality of message queues having a limited forwarding throughput; and
forwarding the first and the second IP packet from the gateway node toward a mobile operator core network to be subsequently decrypted,
thereby providing packet flow filtering based on IP header and traffic type, and using the added IP options header to provide traffic shaping independent from a priority assigned by a source node where the packet originated and independent of the encryption status of the packet.

US Pat. No. 10,986,550

IUGW ARCHITECTURE WITH RTP LOCALIZATION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:at a coordinating server situated as a gateway between a first base station and a core network,
receiving an originating leg setup message for an originating leg bearer from the first base station for a first user equipment (UE) attached to the first base station, the first UE registered with the coordinating server, sent when the first UE initiates a voice call to a second UE, the second UE also registered with the coordinating server;
creating, at the coordinating server, an association between an International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) of the second UE and a Mobile Station International Subscriber Directory Number (MSISDN) of the second UE;
extracting a second call correlation identifier from a terminating leg setup message containing the IMSI of the second UE for a terminating leg bearer received from the core network by retrieving the MSISDN of the second UE based on the association of the IMSI of the second UE and the MSISDN of the second UE at the coordinating server;
determining a real time protocol (RTP) localization status for the originating leg bearer and the terminating leg bearer based on performing a comparison between the second call correlation identifier of the terminating leg and the stored first call correlation identifier of the originating leg; and
sending transport layer assignment messages to the first base station to redirect RTP packets from the first UE to the second UE via the terminating leg bearer without the RTP packets transiting the core network, thereby localizing the RTP packets.

US Pat. No. 10,979,948

HAND-IN WITH TOPOLOGY HIDING

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for performing handover coordination between base stations, comprising:receiving, at a base station, a first serving cell signal measurement of a first serving cell and a first neighbor cell signal measurement of a first neighbor cell from a particular user equipment (UE);
sending an adjustment message, from the base station to the particular UE, containing a cell-specific offset of the first serving cell and a cell-specific offset of the first neighbor cell in a reporting threshold based on at least one handover adjustment factor received from a coordinating node;
receiving, at the base station and subsequent to adjusting the cell-specific offsets at the base station, a second serving cell signal measurement of the first serving cell and a second neighbor cell signal measurement of the first neighbor cell from the particular UE;
deciding, by the base station, whether to trigger a handover event based on the first and the second serving cell signal measurement and the first and the second neighbor cell signal measurement and the cell-specific offsets;
adjusting, at the base station, the cell-specific offset of the serving cell and the cell-specific offset of the neighbor cell on a per-UE basis based on a velocity of the particular UE.

US Pat. No. 10,972,934

END-TO-END PRIORITIZATION FOR MOBILE BASE STATION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:establishing, in a multi Radio Access Technology (RAT) network, a first backhaul bearer at a base station with a first core network, the first backhaul bearer established by a backhaul user equipment (UE) at the base station, the first backhaul bearer having a single priority parameter, the first backhaul bearer terminating at a first packet data network gateway in the first core network, the first backhaul bearer for carrying data from a plurality of UEs attached at the base station to the first core network;
establishing an encrypted internet protocol (IP) tunnel between the base station and a coordinating gateway in communication with the first core network and a second core network;
facilitating, for at least one UE attached at the base station, establishment of a plurality of UE data bearers encapsulated in the secure IP tunnel, the plurality of UE data bearers terminating at a second packet data network gateway in the second core network and having a plurality of individual priority parameters for prioritized traffic control at the second core network;
transmitting prioritized data of the plurality of UE data bearers via the first backhaul bearer and the coordinating gateway to the second core network; and
establishing a second backhaul bearer at the base station having a second priority parameter, where the first backhaul bearer is a dedicated bearer to be used for prioritized traffic, and the second backhaul bearer is a default bearer to be used for non-prioritized traffic.

US Pat. No. 10,932,164

CDMA/EVDO VIRTUALIZATION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A system, comprising:a base station management gateway situated between a code division multiple access (CDMA) base transceiver station (BTS) and an Evolved Packet Core (EPC) core network, the base station management gateway also situated between an additional base station and the EPC core network, the base station management gateway further comprising:
a stateful interworking proxy gateway configured to perform interworking of CDMA signaling to Evolved Universal Mobile Telecommunications System Terrestrial Radio Access (EUTRAN) signaling by using an S2a/S2b interface toward the EPC and an A10/A11 interface towards the CDMA BTS; and
a packet routing virtual function further comprising a packet data serving node (PDSN) interface to the CDMA BTS, and further comprising a routing function for mobile devices attached to the additional base station to obtain IP connectivity via the EPC core network, the packet routing virtual function in communication with the stateful interworking proxy,
wherein the stateful interworking proxy and the packet routing virtual function are configured to interwork CDMA protocols to Long Term Evolution (LTE) protocols for communicating with and requesting resources from the EPC core network;
wherein the base station management gateway further comprises a Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) proxy for connecting SIP protocol voice connections;
and
wherein the SIP proxy acts as a SIP user agent (UA) on behalf of mobile users, performs SIP signaling towards an IP Mobility Subsystem (IMS) core network within the EPC core network, and performs interworking between CDMA and SIP signaling protocols.

US Pat. No. 10,772,051

INTER-CELL INTERFERENCE MITIGATION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for reducing downlink interference at a first base station, the first base station being a micro cell, comprising:obtaining, at a cloud coordination server from the first base station, neighboring radio power information for a second base station via a measurement report message from a mobile device attached to the first base station, the second base station being a macro cell;
sending a message from the cloud coordination server to assign, at the first base station, a transmit power for the mobile device based on the neighboring radio power information;
obtaining, at the cloud coordination server from the first base station, a format indicator of a neighboring control channel used by the second base station;
sending a second message from the cloud coordination to assign the first base station, at least one control channel parameter, the control channel parameter comprising a control channel symbol location, a control channel modulation code scheme, or a control channel aggregation level, for a user channel at the mobile device and based on the neighboring control channel format indicator;
sending the assigned transmit power and assigning the at least one control channel parameter to the mobile device;
assigning the control channel symbol location for the downlink channel to avoid symbol locations indicated as being in use in the neighboring control channel; and
sniffing a Control Format Indicator (CFI) of the macro cell to avoid interfering with a Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH).

US Pat. No. 10,762,175

SOFTWARE-ENABLED REMOTE LICENSING AND PROVISIONING

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for providing additional features for a wireless subscriber, the method comprising:determining, at the wireless communications device, a need for activation of an unused functionality of wireless communications device of the wireless subscriber;
receiving, at a server, an activation request message from the wireless communications device for activation of additional functionality at the wireless communications device;
determining, at the server, if an additional per-month fee is required for activation of additional functionality;
sending, to the wireless communications device, an activation message to the wireless communications device, the activation message enabling the unused functionality of the wireless communications device at the wireless communications device; and
upon agreement to the per-month fee, the wireless subscriber is authorized to activate a radio to access a wireless operator's licensed wireless network spectrum.

US Pat. No. 11,129,240

5G INTEROPERABILITY ARCHITECTURE

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...


1. A gateway comprising:a Radio Access Network (RAN) interface for communicating with the at least one RAN;
a core network interface for communicating with the at least one core network; and
a processor in communication with the RAN interface and the core network interface, the processor configured to:process 5G signaling received from the at least one RAN on the RAN interface and provide core signaling to at least one core network; and
process signaling received from the at least one core on the core network interface and provide 5G RAN signaling to at least one RAN, wherein when the RAN is a 5G RAN, the core network is a non-5G core network and wherein when the core network is a 5G core, the at least one RAN is a non-5G RAN.


US Pat. No. 11,095,645

VIRTUALIZATION OF THE EVOLVED PACKET CORE TO CREATE A LOCAL EPC

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...


1. A method for establishing an ad hoc local network, comprising:monitoring, at a coordination server, an availability of a connection to a remote core network;
receiving a first request from a first mobile device to attach to a local network base station at the local network base station;
creating a session for the first mobile device at a local core network module via the coordination server, wherein the local core network is configured to provide access to mobile edge computing (MEC) functionality;
sending a first authorization message to the first mobile device, thereby permitting the first mobile device to attach to the local network base station without use of the remote core network;
receiving a second request from the first mobile device coupled to the local network base station to create a data session to transfer data from the first mobile device to a second mobile device coupled to the local network base station;
sending a second authorization message to the first mobile device to permit the first mobile device to create the data session; and
sending a message to the second mobile device to set up the data session from the first mobile device to the second mobile device,
thereby permitting the first mobile device to create a bearer for communication with the second mobile device without use of the remote core network.

US Pat. No. 10,979,946

HAND-IN WITH TOPOLOGY HIDING

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for performing handover coordination between base stations, comprising:receiving, at a base station, a first serving cell signal measurement and a first neighbor cell signal measurement from a particular user equipment (UE);
sending an adjustment message, from the base station to the UE, containing a cell-specific offset of the serving cell and a cell-specific offset of the neighbor cell in a reporting threshold based on at least one handover adjustment factor received from a coordinating node;
receiving, at the base station and subsequent to adjusting the cell-specific offsets, a second serving cell signal measurement and a second neighbor cell signal measurement;
deciding whether to trigger a handover event based on the first and the second serving cell signal measurement and the first and the second neighbor cell signal measurement and the cell-specific offsets;
enabling, at a coordinating node, receipt of measurement reports from the UE;
resolving, at the coordinating node, an E-UTRAN cell global identifier (ECGI) of the neighbor cell based on information received from the UE; and
updating, at the coordinating node, an automatic neighbor relations (ANR) table based on the information received from the UE,thereby enabling handout of the UE from the base station managed by the coordinating node to the neighbor cell not managed by the coordinating node.

US Pat. No. 10,917,811

UPDATING MULTIPLE PACKET FILTERS IN A SINGLE BEARER CONTEXT IE

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:in a general packet radio services (GPRS) tunneling protocol (GTP) message to update a GTP tunnel with a traffic flow template (TFT), sending a first opcode in a header of a TFT message, the first opcode comprising a TFT operation code at TFT IE level;
sending a second opcode in a packet filter field of the TFT message, the second opcode comprising a Packet Filter Operation Code at Packet Filter level;
interpreting the first opcode to initiate at least two of creation, deletion, and updating of traffic flow templates (TFTs);
interpreting the second opcode to identify an existing packet filter for adding, replacing, or deleting a packet filter; and
consolidating two GTP messages into a single GTP message including the first opcode and the second opcode.

US Pat. No. 10,911,266

MACHINE LEARNING FOR CHANNEL ESTIMATION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method of machine learning for channel estimation, comprising:performing training using superimposed pilot subcarriers to determine training data; the performing training comprising:
starting with a training duration (T) equal to a number of antennas (M),
running a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model using training samples to determine if a testing variance meets a predefined threshold,
when the testing variance meets a predefined threshold, then reducing T by one half and repeating the running Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model using training samples and reducing the T by one half until the testing variance fails to meet the predefined threshold, and
when the testing variance fails to meet the predefined threshold, then multiplying T by two and using the new value of T as the new training duration to be used;
generating a run-time model based on the training data;
updating the run-time model with new feedback data received from a User Equipment (UP;
producing a downlink channel estimation from the run-time model; and
producing a precoding matrix from the downlink channel estimation.

US Pat. No. 10,893,436

CONGESTION AND OVERLOAD REDUCTION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method, comprising:determining, at a base station in a radio access network providing access to a core network for a plurality of user equipments (UEs), an elevated load state for a core network node based on a count of messages received during a first interval at the base station;
retaining, at the base station, state of at least one UE of the plurality of UEs and of the core network management server for a stateful filtering process configured to identify spurious signaling messages from the at least one UE during the elevated load state of the core network node;
caching, at the base station, prioritization policies pertaining to the at least one UE;
receiving, at the base station, a request from the at least one UE for services at the core network node;
throttling or dropping, at the base station, the request based on a throttle mode based on the elevated load state and the retained state; and
monitoring, at the base station, the load state of the core network node to determine when the core network node exits the throttle mode.

US Pat. No. 10,887,848

BASE STATION POWER MANAGEMENT USING SOLAR PANEL AND BATTERY FORECASTING

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A base station power management system, comprising:an antenna-integrated radio for providing access to user equipments (UEs), the antenna-integrated radio further comprising: an interface configured to receive digital I and Q signaling information from a remote baseband unit, and, a self-organizing network (SON) module;
a power source electrically coupled to the antenna-integrated radio, wherein the power source includes a solar panel array and a battery, and wherein the power source provides information to the SON module; and
a coordinating server in a mobile operator core network that is in communication with the SON module and configured to receive data for creating a power management profile at the coordinating server and configured to send instructions to the antenna-integrated radio based on the power management profile.

US Pat. No. 10,873,884

CELL ID DISAMBIGUATION

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for forking a handover request, comprising:receiving, by a coordinating node performing eNodeB or MME aggregation, a handover request from a source base station;
processing the handover request;
determining that a target handover cell in the handover request is in use by a plurality of base stations;
generating copies of the handover request;
sending one copy of the request to a next processing node in a core network, wherein the next processing node is a target MME or the coordinating node,
sending, by the next processing node in the core network, one copy of the request to each of the plurality of base stations identifying the target handover cell in the handover request;
determining, by each base station receiving a copy of the request, whether a User Equipment (UE) identified in the request is in a vicinity of the next processing node; and
when the UE is in the vicinity of the next processing node, executing the handover request.

US Pat. No. 11,129,046

SIGNALING STORM REDUCTION FROM RADIO NETWORKS

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...


1. A method of performing service request throttling in a Radio Access Network (RAN), comprising:determining a core network-configured threshold for a rate of service requests from a wireless device;
measuring the rate of service requests from the wireless device; and
taking an action regarding new service requests from the wireless device when the threshold for a rate of service requests is exceeded, wherein the wireless device comprises a User Equipment (UE) or an Internet of Things (loT) device;
wherein taking an action regarding new service requests from the wireless device when the threshold for a rate of service requests is exceeded comprises:permitting a wireless device to attach;

permitting the wireless device to establish a data connection with the core network which is capped or has throttled bandwidth;
flagging certain activities by the wireless device as being anomalous, wherein an anomalous activity includes a number attach requests, detach requests or sequence of requests above a threshold and within a certain time,
determining the wireless device performing the certain activities is a rogue device; and
disallowing a related attachment request from the rogue device.

US Pat. No. 11,122,559

ELASTIC LOCAL AND GLOBAL SCHEDULING FOR CELLULAR INFRASTRUCTURE

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...


1. A method, comprising:receiving, from a local scheduler at a first radio access network (RAN), access network information at a global scheduler the access network information including at least one of channel usage information, signal strength information, interference information, and neighbor status information;
accessing information regarding a second RAN, the information regarding a second RAN including information regarding a plurality of radio access networks coupled to one or more core networks, the second RAN being a neighbor of the first RAN or a neighbor of a neighbor of the first RAN;
allocating, at the global scheduler, based on the information regarding the second RAN, a set of resources for local allocation by the local scheduler;
applying, by the local scheduler, a hash function on the allocated set of resources for local allocation to map the set of resources for local allocation to a set of hash values that enable identification of the set of resources for local allocation by the local scheduler at the first RAN and by a second local scheduler at the second RAN; and
sending, from the global scheduler, the set of hash values to the first RAN and scheduling use of resource blocks by the local scheduler wherein the set of hash values comprise scheduling hints, access lists for allowing traffic based on a set of rules, exclusion lists for blocking traffic based on a set of rules, or handover predictions for the local scheduler.

US Pat. No. 11,102,044

HIGH RESOLUTION TIMING ADVANCE ESTIMATION BASED ON PRACH AND SPARSE IFFT ALGORITHM FOR LTE PRACH

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...


1. A method for enhancing UE position accuracy using Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH), the method comprising:receiving a preamble signal r(n) having a predetermined sampling frequency and a predetermined length;
performing signal conditioning on r(n) to provide a r_centered(n) signal;
down sampling the r_centered(n) signal by a factor of 24 and performing antialiasing filtering to provide a y(n) signal;
correlating the down sampled version of the received preamble y(n) with a reference preamble sequence c(n) using a Fast Fourier transform (FFT) method to provide correlation output Ryc;
using a peak value P of the correlation output Ryc to detect a preamble ID and a timing advance at a resolution of 16Ts, wherein a Ts is 1/30720000 seconds;
constructing a sequence s(n) by segmenting r_centered(n) for length L around an index P*24, wherein L is a number of Lags;
performing time domain interpolation of c(n) around index P to obtain a sequence c_interpolated(n);
performing time domain interpolation between sequences s(n) and c_interpolated(n);
detecting a peak position Q of the correlation; and
deriving TA as P*24 L/2+q in terms of Ts, wherein TA is a Timing Advance and q is an offset value.

US Pat. No. 11,096,032

DYNAMIC PUBLIC WARNING SYSTEM FOR IN-VEHICLE ENODEB

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...


1. A method, comprising:sending position information reflecting a current position of a base station to a coordinating server;
receiving a warning request message from an operator core network containing an emergency area;
calculating a geographic area corresponding to an emergency tracking area by translating the emergency area from a set of base stations to the geographic area;
determining whether the base station is outside of a threshold distance from the geographic boundary of the emergency tracking area; and
sending the warning request message to the base station before the base station is within the threshold distance from the geographic boundary of the emergency tracking area; and
wherein the base station is associated with the coordinating server as a virtual base station of the coordinating server, such that the operator core network addresses the base station through the virtual base station at the coordinating server, wherein the base station is further configured to provide at least one of 3G, 4G and 5G access from a vehicle, the base station being mounted in the vehicle wherein the coordinating server virtualizes cells connected on an access side and presents itself as a large base station towards a mobile operator's core network.

US Pat. No. 10,993,135

SSID TO QCI MAPPING

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A multi-radio access technology (multi-RAT) base station, comprising:a processor;
a Wi-Fi portion coupled to the processor; and
a network portion coupled to the processor, the processor configured to perform steps comprising:
broadcasting at least one Wi-Fi network identifier for a Wi-Fi network from the Wi-Fi portion;
mapping a Wi-Fi network identifier for a received data packet to a quality value in a datagram header;
assigning, subsequently and using the quality value in the datagram header, an appropriate data bearer for the datagram, the data bearer having a quality of service class identifier (QCI) for the type of traffic expected to be sent over a particular Wi-Fi network associated with the Wi-Fi network identifier;
establishing a first evolved packet system (EPS) bearer and a second EPS bearer, the first EPS bearer having a higher priority QCI than the second EPS bearer; and
forwarding higher-priority datagrams over the first EPS bearer and forwarding lower-priority datagrams over the second EPS bearer, over a tunnel to a core network via the network-portion, based on a corresponding Wi-Fi network identifier for each datagram as received,
thereby assigning a quality of service for the datagram in the core network corresponding to the expected type of traffic in the Wi-Fi network and
wherein the base station is part of a multi-RAT network.

US Pat. No. 10,931,496

UPLINK MEASUREMENTS FOR WIRELESS SYSTEMS

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method for measuring channel quality in a wireless transceiver, comprising:receiving, at a wireless transceiver, an analog signal from a user equipment (UE);
converting the analog signal to a plurality of digital samples at an analog to digital converter (ADC);
performing a fast Fourier transform (FFT) on the plurality of digital samples to generate frequency domain samples;
identifying an uplink demodulation reference signal (DMRS) symbol;
performing channel estimation on the DMRS symbol to identify an estimate of channels;
creating a noise covariance matrix from the estimate of channels;
deriving an interference measure from the noise covariance matrix; and
using the noise covariance matrix to provide error messaging at one or both of a Physical (PHY) and a Media Access Control (MAC) layer.

US Pat. No. 10,917,856

STATISTICAL PROJECTION FOR CONTROLLING BLER

Parallel Wireless, Inc., ...

1. A method of determining a block error rate (BLER) and determining if the BLER is above, below or on BLER target comprising;determining a pair of thresholds including an upper threshold and a lower threshold for a predetermined confidence level;
determining a threshold in total number of blocks received; determining a Required Compensation BLER from a number of bad blocks, a total number of blocks received and a maximum total number of blocks to receive for a purpose of statistical significance;
comparing the Required Compensation BLER against the upper and lower threshold to determine if the BLER is above the BLER target, below the BLER target or inconclusive;
wherein, if the threshold in total number of blocks received is reached, then the inconclusive result is reinterpreted as the BLER being on target.