US Pat. No. 9,259,994

AUTOMOTIVE GLAZING

PILKINGTON GROUP LIMITED,...

1. An automotive glazing for a vehicle, the glazing having two major faces, comprising an inner face which faces the interior
of the vehicle when the glazing is installed in the vehicle, and an outer face which faces outwardly, the glazing further
having at least one edge,
wherein an elongate glazing component is bonded to the inner face of the glazing adjacent the edge of the glazing so that
the elongate glazing component extends along at least part of the edge, and at least one reinforcing member, which is small
in relation to the elongate glazing component, is bonded to the inner face of the glazing adjacent the elongate glazing component,

and wherein each reinforcing member has a contact area, wherein the reinforcing member is bonded to the inner face of the
glazing, and a flange which extends over part of the elongate glazing component and is in contact with the elongate glazing
component, thereby holding the elongate glazing component in position relative to the glazing.

US Pat. No. 9,109,164

FIRE RESISTANT GLAZING

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A transparent fire resistant glazing comprising an intumescent interlayer sandwiched between two opposed glass panes, wherein
the intumescent interlayer comprises an alkali metal silicate mixed with a foam improvement additive, wherein the foam improvement
additive comprises a polymer and/or oligomer and/or salts thereof, wherein said polymer, oligomer and/or salts thereof each
contain at least one organic moiety having at least one hydrogen-bondable functional group covalently attached thereto, and
wherein the additive is polymerised in-situ.

US Pat. No. 9,553,351

GLAZING HAVING ANTENNAS AND A METHOD OF MANUFACTURING SAID GLAZING

PILKINGTON GROUP LIMITED,...

1. A glazing, comprising:
a ply of glazing material;
a surface contact bonded to the ply of glazing material, for connection to an external circuit;
at least first and second coupling electrodes positioned in direct current isolation from the surface contact and configured
so that alternating current coupling occurs between each coupling electrode and the surface contact;

at least first and second antennas, the first antenna having direct current connection to the first coupling electrode, and
the second antenna having direct current connection to the second coupling electrode,

wherein
the first and second coupling electrodes each comprise at least one portion where the first and second coupling electrodes
run adjacent to each other, so that alternating current coupling occurs therebetween.

US Pat. No. 9,333,906

VEHICLE GLAZING WITH LIGHT EMITTING DIODE DEVICE AND TRANSPARENT ENCAPSULANT

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A vehicle glazing comprising:
a pane of glazing material having an exposed surface, and
a light emitting diode device in the form of an auxiliary stop lamp,
said lamp comprising a substrate having a functional surface on which electrically conductive pathways are located and on
which a plurality of light emitting diodes is provided,

wherein the functional surface, including its outermost periphery, is provided with a layer of transparent encapsulant which
covers the light emitting diodes and which contacts the exposed surface to adhesively attach the light emitting diode device
to the exposed surface, and

wherein said plurality of light emitting diodes are disposed between said substrate and said pane of glazing material.
US Pat. No. 9,434,635

TINTED FLOAT GLASS

PILKINGTON GROUP LIMITED,...


wherein the tinted float glass has a dominant wavelength of 481 to 484 nm and a colour purity (III D65) of 6.0 to 10.0% at
a thickness of 6.0 mm.

US Pat. No. 9,457,425

GLAZING WITH FREQUENCY SELECTIVE COATING

PILKINGTON GROUP LIMITED,...

1. A method of manufacturing a glazing having a frequency selective surface comprising the steps of:
a) depositing a coating on a substrate, said coating being non-transmitting to radio frequency (RF) radiation;
b) providing a laser beam; and
c) removing a portion of the coating by laser ablation to form lines in the coating having a spacing selected to provide transparency
of the coating to RF radiation of a desired wavelength;

wherein
d) directing the laser beam and/or moving the substrate such that the relative motion of the intersection of the laser beam
and the coating, with respect to the substrate, comprises motion in a first dimension, wherein said motion is simultaneously
superimposed with a reciprocating motion in a second dimension;

e) translating said intersection in the second dimension; and
f) repeating at least step d) out of steps d) to e) to produce said lines in the coating, said lines in the coating being
undulating lines that touch or overlap.

US Pat. No. 9,404,179

CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION PROCESS FOR DEPOSITING A SILICA COATING ON A GLASS SUBSTRATE

PILKINGTON GROUP LIMITED,...

1. A chemical vapor deposition process for depositing a silica coating, comprising:
providing a float glass ribbon in a float glass manufacturing process;
forming a gaseous mixture comprising a silane compound, oxygen, a fluorine-containing compound, and a radical scavenger; and
directing the gaseous mixture toward and along the float glass ribbon, and reacting the mixture over the float glass ribbon
to form the silica coating thereon, wherein the silica coating is undoped.

US Pat. No. 9,193,135

LAMINATED GLAZING

PILKINGTON GROUP LIMITED,...

1. A laminated switchable glazing comprising a suspended particle device, the laminated glazing comprising,
an SPD ply comprising the suspended particle device having a low light transmission off-state and a high light transmission
on-state,

at least one interlayer ply comprising an interlayer material, and
at least one glazing ply,
wherein the interlayer material has a predetermined moisture content of 0.23 weight % or lower prior to lamination to increase
the time over which the suspended particle device is switchable between the low light transmission off-state and the high
light transmission on-state state when compared to the time over which the suspended particle device is switchable between
the low light transmission off-state and the high light transmission on-state when the suspended particle device is in an
equivalent laminated glazing where the interlayer material has not been dried to moisture content of 0.23 weight % or lower.

US Pat. No. 9,180,565

DECORATIVE TRIM ASSEMBLY FIXTURE AND METHOD OF USING SAME

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A fixture for assembling an encapsulated vehicle window assembly having an outer surface, an inner surface, and an elastomeric
member bonded to at least a portion of a peripheral region between the outer surface and the inner surface, the encapsulated
vehicle window assembly being capable of receiving a decorative trim piece, the fixture comprising:
a base member;
at least one positioning block affixed relative to the base member;
at least one resilient vertical support member affixed relative to the base member and connected to a source of negative gaseous
pressure, the encapsulated vehicle window assembly being positioned on the at least one positioning block and the at least
one resilient vertical support member; and

at least one trim piece setting device affixed relative to the base member and operably positioned proximate the peripheral
region of the encapsulated window assembly, the at least one trim piece setting device having a movable setting paddle pressingly
engageable with the decorative trim piece.

US Pat. No. 9,381,722

MANUFACTURING PROCESS FOR GLAZING WITH INTEGRAL WIRING

PILKINGTON GROUP LIMITED,...

1. A method of manufacturing a laminated glazing sheet, comprising the steps of: arranging one or more wires and a busbar
on an interlayer formed from a first thermoplastic polymer; arranging the interlayer and the one or more wires and the busbar
between sheets of glazing material to provide a glazing assembly wherein the one or more wires extend over and contact the
busbar and continue past the busbar to an edge of the assembly; subjecting the assembly to an elevated temperature sufficient
to cause at least partial melting of the first thermoplastic polymer; and prior to arranging the interlayer and the one or
more wires and the bus bar between the sheets of glazing material and after arranging the one or more wires and the bus bar
on the interlayer, applying a solution of a second thermoplastic polymer in a solvent to the one or more wires in a region
of the interlayer adjacent said edge and allowing the solvent to evaporate, leaving a film of the second thermoplastic polymer
on the one or more wires including a segment of the one or more wires which extend over and contact the busbar, wherein the
second thermoplastic polymer may be the same or different from the first thermoplastic polymer, and wherein the elevated temperature
is sufficient to cause at least partial melting of the second thermoplastic polymer and fusion thereof with the first thermoplastic
polymer.
US Pat. No. 9,187,825

METHOD OF DEPOSITING AND ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE TITANIUM OXIDE COATING

PILKINGTON GROUP LIMITED,...

1. A method of depositing an electrically conductive titanium oxide coating by atmospheric chemical vapor deposition on a
glass substrate during a glass manufacturing process comprising:
providing a heated glass ribbon in a float bath;
in a reactor, forming a uniform precursor gas mixture comprising a halogenated, inorganic titanium compound, an organic oxygen-containing
compound, a reducing gas, and one or more inert carrier gases, wherein the reducing gas comprises no more than 10 mole % of
the precursor gas mixture; and

delivering the precursor gas mixture from the reactor at a temperature below the thermal decomposition temperature of the
precursor gas mixture to a location adjacent the heated glass ribbon to be coated, the float bath atmosphere surrounding the
heated glass ribbon being essentially at atmospheric pressure;

wherein the temperature of the heated glass ribbon is sufficient to cause reaction of the precursor gas mixture so as to deposit
a titanium oxide coating at a deposition rate greater than 10 Å/sec. on the glass ribbon to form a coated glass article exhibiting
an electrical conductivity of greater than 1×10?2 S/cm.

US Pat. No. 9,080,063

FIRE RESISTANT GLAZINGS

PILKINGTON GROUP LIMITED,...

1. A stable aqueous solution for the production of fire resistant glazings comprising:
at least one alkali metal silicate;
water; and
at least one additive comprising a quaternary ammonium compound having the general formula 1:
R1R2R3R4N+OH?  1

wherein R1, R2, R3 and R4 which may be the same or different represent alkyl groups, hydroxy-substituted alkyl groups, alkaryl groups, hydroxy-substituted
alkaryl groups comprising from 1 to 12 carbon atoms, or groups having the general formula —[CH2]n-N+R5R6R7 wherein n is an integer having a value of from 1 to 12, the group —[CH2]n- may be hydroxy-substituted, and R5, R6 and R7 which may be the same or different represent alkyl groups, hydroxy-substituted alkyl groups, alkaryl groups or hydroxy-substituted
alkaryl groups comprising from 1 to 12 carbon atoms;

with the proviso that at least one of the groups R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R7 represents a hydroxy-substituted alkyl group or a hydroxy-substituted alkaryl group comprising at least 2 carbon atoms wherein
the hydroxy substituent is not located on a carbon atom which is bonded to a nitrogen atom; and wherein

the additive comprises at least two hydroxy substituents; and
at least one of the groups R1-7 comprises at least two hydroxy substituents.

US Pat. No. 9,079,794

SODA LIME SILICA GLASS COMPOSITION

PILKINGTON GROUP LIMITED,...


wherein the tint is achieved without the use of Cr2O3, and the glass is free from B2O3, Cr2O3 and V2O5 except for trace levels, and

wherein the glass itself has a visible light transmission of 2 to 10% measured at a thickness of 4 mm and a direct solar heat
transmission of 2 to 10% measured at a thickness of 4 mm.

US Pat. No. 9,957,194

COATED TINTED GLASS ARTICLE AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A coated glass article comprising:a tinted glass substrate;
a fluorine doped tin oxide coating deposited over the tinted glass substrate; and
an overcoat consisting of silica deposited over and in contact with the fluorine doped tin oxide coating, the overcoat having a thickness between 30 nm and 50 nm;
the coated glass article exhibiting a visible light transmittance >70% as measured by Illuminant A (10 degree observer), a solar heat gain coefficient ?0.55 and a hemispherical emissivity <0.4.

US Pat. No. 9,406,822

POLISHING COATED SUBSTRATES

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A process of producing an optoelectronic device, the process comprising the steps of:
a) providing a glass substrate;
b) applying on at least one surface of the glass substrate a transparent conductive oxide, the transparent conductive oxide
forming a coating having an exposed surface with an initial roughness and at least one or more spikes inherent to the exposed
surface of the transparent conductive oxide coating;

c) polishing the exposed surface of the transparent conductive oxide coating using at least one brush to reduce the height
of the at least one or more spikes inherent to the exposed surface of the transparent conductive oxide coating to produce
a polished transparent conductive oxide coating with a final roughness;

d) following step c), applying a functional component to the polished surface of the transparent conductive oxide coating.
US Pat. No. 9,595,768

GLAZING WITH A SOLDERED CONNECTOR

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A vehicle glazing comprising at least one ply of glass having an electrically conductive component on at least one surface,
and an electrical connector electrically connected to the electrically conductive component through a soldered joint, the
solder of the joint having a composition comprising 40 to 75 wt% indium, 20 to 60 wt % Sn, 0.5 to 2 wt % Ag, 0.01 wt % or
more Ni and less than 0.1 wt % Pb, wherein the electrical connector comprises a contact with nickel plating in contact with
the solder.
US Pat. No. 9,346,962

FIRE RESISTANT GLAZINGS

Pilkington Group Limited,...

10. A transparent intumescent material for the production of fire resistant glazings comprising:
at least one alkali metal silicate,
at least one glass, glass-ceramic and/or ceramic additive, and water,wherein the at least one glass, glass-ceramic and/or ceramic additive has at least one boron containing moiety directly or
indirectly attached to a surface thereof by covalent or ionic bonding, and wherein the concentration of the at least one additive
in the material is at least 0.000075% by weight but at most 0.15% by weight.

US Pat. No. 9,304,073

BOND STRENGTH TESTING APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR USING SAME

Pilkington Group Limited,...

9. An apparatus for testing the strength of a bond between two materials comprising:
a multi-part housing comprising a first housing part having substantially continuous side walls having inner and outer surfaces,
a first end wall having inner and outer surfaces and a bore penetrating both inner and outer surfaces, and a second end wall
having substantially continuous inner and outer surfaces, and a coupling member mechanically joining the first and second
housing parts, the housing defining a hollow chamber enclosed by the substantially continuous side walls of the first and
second housing parts and the first and second end walls;

a first transfer shaft having a first end extending through the bore in the first end wall of the first housing part with
a force application member connected thereto, and a second end extending into the hollow chamber;

a permanent magnet secured proximate the first end wall of the first housing part, the permanent magnet having a bore through
which the second end of the force transfer shaft also extends;

a ferromagnetic member connected to the second end of the force transfer shaft; and
one or more return mechanisms located in the hollow chamber and extending at least the length of the second housing part.

US Pat. No. 9,090,146

VEHICLE DESIGN FOR SOLDERED GLAZING CONNECTOR

PILKINGTON GROUP LIMITED,...

1. A motor vehicle having a body and a glazing,
the body being adapted to receive the glazing and have the glazing secured thereto;
and the glazing having at least one soldered electrical connector located thereon,
wherein the soldered electrical connector is arranged to be clamped between the glazing and a component of the vehicle upon
securing the glazing to the body,

wherein:
a resilient component is secured to the glazing, the resilient component being arranged to engage the vehicle body upon securing
the glazing to the body and thereby to be biased against the connector, clamping the connector against the glazing.

US Pat. No. 9,598,311

HEAT TREATABLE COATED GLASS PANE

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A heat treated coated glass pane comprising at least the following sequence of layers:
a glass substrate;
a base layer located directly on the glass substrate and based on an (oxi)nitride of silicon and/or an (oxi)nitride of aluminium;
a lower anti-reflection layer, the lower anti-reflection layer comprising in sequence from the base layer:
a layer based on an oxide of Zn and Sn said layer being located directly on the base layer based on an (oxi) nitride of silicon
and/or an (oxi)nitride of aluminium;

a separation layer based on Ti oxide or Si oxide; and
a top layer based on an oxide of Zn; and
a silver-based functional layer; and
further comprising a barrier layer located in sequence from the glass substrate over and in contact with the silver based
functional layer; and wherein the barrier layer does not comprise a substoichiometric NiCrOx sacrificial barrier layer; and

further comprising an upper anti-reflection layer in sequence over the barrier layer; and
wherein the upper anti-reflection layer comprises:
a layer based on a metal oxide, and
a layer based on an (oxi)nitride of aluminium and/or an (oxi)nitride of silicon; and
wherein the change in percentage light transmittance of the glass pane after heat treatment is less than or equal to 2.

US Pat. No. 9,802,390

LAMINTED GLASS ASSEMBLY

Nippon Sheet Glass Co., L...

1. A laminated glass assembly, comprising:
a pair of glass sheets;
an intermediate film interposed between the two glass sheets;
an electric heat wire extending along the intermediate film to emit heat when an electric current is supplied thereto; and
a bus bar layered and connected to the electric heat wire in a thickness-wise direction of the glass sheets between the two
glass sheets to supply electric power to the electric heat wire;

wherein the two glass sheets are each made of soda-lime glass, and at least one of the two glass sheets has a thickness of
1.0 mm to 1.6 mm;

the intermediate film has a thickness of 0.3 mm to 2.0 mm; and
at a connecting portion between the electric heat wire and the bus bar, a total thickness of the electric heat wire and the
bus bar is 0.16 mm to 0.40 mm.

US Pat. No. 10,101,503

ANTI-REFLECTIVE COATED GLASS ARTICLE

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A coated glass article comprising:a glass substrate; and
a pyrolytic coating deposited over the glass substrate, wherein the coating comprises:
i. a first inorganic metal oxide layer deposited directly on a major surface of the glass substrate, wherein the first inorganic metal oxide layer comprises titanium dioxide and has a refractive index of 2.2 or more,
ii. a second inorganic metal oxide layer deposited directly on the first inorganic metal oxide layer, wherein the second inorganic metal oxide layer comprises silicon dioxide, is deposited at a thickness of 100 nm or more, and has a refractive index of 1.6 or less,
wherein the coated glass article exhibits a total visible light reflectance of 6.5% or less.

US Pat. No. 9,967,922

GLAZING

PILKINGTON GROUP LIMITED,...

1. A glazing, comprising:a transparent substrate
a plurality of electrically conductive filaments, extending over the transparent substrate
wherein the filaments are shaped into a sequence of portions of the perimeters of ellipses
wherein in that:
ellipse axial ratios of the ellipses are in the range 1.1 to 4.0 and ellipse axial ratios of the ellipses are selected so that, from a pre-defined viewing position and in corresponding pre-defined viewing directions, the ellipses in the plane of the substrate are observed as circles.

US Pat. No. 9,919,496

LAMINATED GLAZING

PILKINGTON GROUP LIMITED,...

1. A laminated glazing comprising a first ply of glazing material and a second ply of glazing material joined by at least
one ply of adhesive interlayer material, the first ply of glazing material comprising a sheet of glass having a first composition
and the second ply of glazing material comprising a sheet of glass having a second composition different to the first composition,
wherein the laminated glazing has (i) a peripheral region extending around the periphery of the laminated glazing, the laminated
glazing having a surface compression stress in the peripheral region and (ii) an edge compression, wherein the magnitude of
edge compression is greater than the magnitude of the surface compression stress in the peripheral region, further wherein
the first ply of the laminated glazing has an edge region having a residual edge stress with a net tension and wherein the
residual edge stress of the first ply in the edge region has a net tension less than 15 MPa.

US Pat. No. 9,540,277

APPARATUS FOR DEPOSITING THIN FILM COATINGS AND METHOD OF DEPOSITION UTILIZING SUCH APPARATUS

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. An apparatus for depositing a thin film on a moving heated substrate comprising:
a main coater body having a predetermined length, width and height designated as x, y, and z, respectively, and an upper surface
z1 and a lower surface z2;

a plurality of inlet openings formed in the upper surface z1, wherein each of the inlet openings allows a flow of a gaseous reactant or an inert gas there through and is in fluid communication
with a source of the gaseous reactant or the inert gas;

a plurality of outlet openings formed in or recessed from the lower surface z2 to allow the flows to exit there through in multiple predetermined flow streams, wherein each of the outlet openings of the
plurality of outlet openings is arranged to be in a parallel, spaced apart relationship with the other outlet openings along
the width y of the main coater body;

a plurality of flow pathways defined within the main coater body, wherein a first flow pathway of the plurality of flow pathways
is at least partially defined by a first sidewall of the main coater body and a first gas flow separator and a second flow
pathway of the plurality of flow pathways is at least partially defined by a second sidewall of the main coater body and the
first gas flow separator or another gas flow separator, the first flow pathway being defined between a first inlet opening
of the plurality of inlet openings and a first outlet opening of the plurality of outlet openings and the second flow pathway
being defined between a second inlet opening of the plurality of inlet openings and a second outlet opening of the plurality
of outlet openings, the first flow pathway and the second flow pathway being arranged to be in a spaced apart relationship
with each other along the width y of the main coater body;

a first flow conditioner disposed in the first flow pathway, positioned between the first sidewall and the first gas flow
separator, and disposed nearer the outlet opening of the first flow pathway than the inlet opening, and a second flow conditioner
disposed in the second flow pathway, positioned between the second sidewall and the first gas flow separator or the another
gas flow separator, and disposed nearer the outlet opening of the second flow pathway than the inlet opening; and

a plurality of baffle blocks and cover blocks within the main coater body, wherein a first baffle block of the plurality of
baffle blocks and a first cover block of the plurality of cover blocks disposed in the first flow pathway and positioned between
the first sidewall and the first gas flow separator, wherein the first cover block is disposed at an end of the first flow
pathway and the first baffle block is disposed between the first cover block and the first flow conditioner, and a second
baffle block of the plurality of baffle blocks and a second cover block of the plurality of cover blocks disposed in the second
flow pathway and positioned between the first gas flow separator or the another gas flow separator, wherein the second cover
block is disposed at an end of the second flow pathway and the second baffle block is disposed between the second cover block
and the second flow conditioner;

wherein each of the plurality of flow pathways has an identical straight flow pathway portion formed by each of the gas flow
separators, the cover blocks and the baffle blocks, and a narrowing flow pathway portion formed by each of the gas flow separators,
the baffle blocks and flow conditioners.

US Pat. No. 10,042,089

ANTI-REFLECTIVE COATED GLASS ARTICLE

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A coated glass article comprising:a glass substrate; and
a pyrolytic coating deposited over the glass substrate, wherein the coating comprises:
i. a first inorganic metal oxide layer deposited over a major surface of the glass substrate, wherein the first inorganic metal oxide layer is a titanium dioxide layer, has a refractive index of 2.2 or more, and is deposited at a thickness of 40 nm or less,
ii. a second inorganic metal oxide layer deposited directly on the first inorganic metal oxide layer, wherein the second inorganic metal oxide layer comprises silicon dioxide, has a refractive index of 1.6 or less, and is deposited at a thickness of 100 nm or more,
iii. a third inorganic metal oxide layer deposited directly on the major surface of the glass substrate, wherein the first inorganic metal oxide layer is deposited directly on the third inorganic metal oxide layer such that there are no intervening layers between the first inorganic metal oxide layer and the third inorganic metal oxide layer, wherein the third inorganic metal oxide layer is a silicon dioxide layer,
wherein the coated glass article exhibits a total visible light reflectance of 6.5% or less.

US Pat. No. 9,634,374

GLAZING COMPRISING ANTENNAS AND A METHOD OF MANUFACTURING SAID GLAZING

PILKINGTON GROUP LIMITED,...

1. A substantially planar glazing, comprising:
a ply of glazing material;
a ply of plastic material bonded to the ply of glazing material;
at least first and second antennas, embedded in the ply of plastic material;
at least first and second conductors, connected to the first and second antennas;
wherein the first and second conductors are in direct current isolation from each other, configured so that the first conductor
runs adjacent to, and substantially parallel to, the second conductor, so that alternating current coupling occurs therebetween;

wherein
the first and second conductors are embedded at different depths in the thickness of the ply of plastic material such that
when viewed along a line perpendicular to the plane of the glazing one conductor is at least partially obscured by the other.

US Pat. No. 9,895,864

LAMINATED GLAZING

PILKINGTON GROUP LIMITED,...

1. A laminated glazing comprising a first pane of glazing material having a first major surface and an opposing second major
surface, there being an obscuration band on the second major surface extending around a portion of the periphery of the first
pane such that the second major surface is not smooth, a first adhesive layer having a thickness of between 6 ?m and 100 ?m,
and a carrier ply carrying an infra red reflecting coating, wherein the first adhesive layer is between the first pane of
glazing material and the carrier ply and the first adhesive layer contacts a portion of the second major surface and a portion
of the obscuration band, the laminated glazing further comprising a second pane of glazing material and a second adhesive
layer, wherein the second adhesive layer is in contact with the second pane of glazing material and the infra red reflecting
coating is between the first adhesive layer and the second adhesive layer, the laminated glazing further comprising a film
comprising an electrically actuated layer, wherein the carrier ply is between the first adhesive layer and the film, and further
wherein the film is between the second adhesive layer and the carrier ply, further wherein the film is located in a cut out
region in an adhesive layer that is between the second adhesive layer and the carrier ply.

US Pat. No. 9,714,509

STRUCTURAL GLASS ASSEMBLIES

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A glazing fitting for attaching a glazing panel to a building,
the glazing fitting being securable to the glazing panel,
the glazing fitting having a groove therein,
the glazing fitting being connectable with a mounting comprising a mounting member,
the mounting being securable to the building,
the groove having a shape which defines a hook portion,
the glazing panel being securable to the building by connecting the mounting member to the hook portion of the glazing fitting,
wherein

there is a shock absorber fixed in the groove by an adhesive, and
the glazing fitting is configured to be securable to the glazing panel via a bore in the glazing panel.

US Pat. No. 9,630,875

HEAT TREATABLE COATED GLASS PANE

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A coated glass pane comprising at least the following sequence of layers:
a glass substrate;
a lower anti-reflection layer, the lower anti-reflection layer comprising in sequence from the glass substrate:
a base layer, located directly on the glass substrate, based on an (oxi)nitride of silicon and/or an (oxi)nitride of aluminium
and/or alloys thereof, and/or an oxide of titanium, and/or an oxide of zirconium; and

a layer based on an oxide of zinc and tin and/or and oxide of tin; and
a top layer based on an oxide of zinc;
a silver-based functional layer located on the lower anti-reflection layer;
a barrier layer located directly on the silver-based functional layer, the barrier layer comprising in direct sequence from
the silver-based functional layer the following three partial barrier layers;

a lower partial barrier layer having a thickness of at most 5 nm;
a central partial barrier layer having a thickness of at most 5 nm; and
an upper partial barrier layer; and wherein
the three partial barrier layers are selected from the group consisting of the following combinations of layers in the order
lower partial barrier layer/central partial barrier layer/upper partial barrier layer: ZnO:Al/ZnSnOx/ZnO:Al, TiOx/ZnSnOx/ZnO:Al, TiOx/ZnSnOx/TiOx and ZnO:Al/ZnSnOx/TiOx; and

wherein
an upper anti-reflection layer located directly on the upper partial barrier layer; and
wherein the coated glass pane has a high visible light transmittance.

US Pat. No. 9,979,098

ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR

PILKINGTON GROUP LIMITED,...

1. An electrical connector comprising:a foot, substantially planar and of a material suitable for soldering;
an angled portion, permanently connected to the foot and substantially at right angles to the plane of the foot;
a washer, connected to the angled portion and suitable for holding a cable, the washer being a flat disc; and
the foot being substantially circular or oval in shape.

US Pat. No. 9,716,243

INTERFACE LAYER FOR ELECTRONIC DEVICES

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A transparent conducting electrode incorporated in an electrochromic device or an organic light emitting diode comprising:
an electrically conducting coating stack located on a transparent substrate, the stack comprising in sequence from the transparent
substrate:

at least two underlayers, wherein one of the at least two underlayers comprises a layer of SnO2 and another of the at least two underlayers comprises a layer of SiO2; and

a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer located directly on the at least two underlayers and comprising fluorine doped
tin oxide with a thickness of 2300 Ångstrom to 3400 Ångstrom, and wherein

the electrode comprises a smoothing interface layer located directly on the TCO layer, the interface layer comprising one
or more materials selected from TiO2, SiO2, SnO2 and ZnO; and wherein

the transparent conducting electrode comprises a sheet resistance in the range of 13.6 to 20.0 ohm/sq.

US Pat. No. 9,894,717

HEATED VEHICLE SLIDING WINDOW ASSEMBLY

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A heated vehicle sliding window assembly, comprising:
a fixed glass panel having an opening defined therein;
a slidably movable glass panel configured to be capable of closing the opening defined in the fixed glass panel;
a first plurality of electrically conductive grid lines comprising two grid resistors electrically connected together as a
series circuit, the two grid resistors disposed on the fixed glass panel;

a first set of at least two electrically conductive bus bars disposed on the fixed glass panel having the series circuit of
the two grid resistors electrically connected therebetween;

a second plurality of electrically conductive grid lines comprising a third grid resistor disposed on the slidably movable
glass panel; and

a second set of at least two electrically conductive bus bars disposed on the slidably movable glass panel having the third
grid resistor electrically connected therebetween;

wherein the first and second sets of electrically conductive bus bars are electrically connected together as a parallel circuit
independent of a position of the movable glass panel relative to the fixed glass panel opening.

US Pat. No. 10,000,412

HEAT TREATABLE COATED GLASS PANE

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A method of manufacturing a heat treatable coated glass pane comprising the following steps in sequence:a) providing a glass substrate;
b) depositing by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) one or more layers on a surface of the glass substrate to form a CVD coating, said one or more layers forming the CVD coating comprising at least one layer comprising doped or undoped titanium oxide; and wherein the at least one layer comprising titanium oxide is deposited using titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as a precursor; and
c) depositing by physical vapour deposition (PVD) at least one PVD layer on said at least one CVD coating to form a PVD coating; and
d) heat-treating the coated glass pane to a temperature at or above the softening point of the glass substrate, followed by cooling to toughen the coated glass pane; and wherein the at least one layer comprising titanium oxide and deposited using titanium tetraisopropoxide as precursor is in direct contact with the at least one PVD layer.

US Pat. No. 9,776,914

CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION PROCESS FOR DEPOSITING ZINC OXIDE COATINGS, METHOD FOR FORMING A CONDUCTIVE GLASS ARTICLE AND THE COATED GLASS ARTICLES PRODUCED THEREBY

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A chemical vapor deposition process for depositing a zinc oxide coating, comprising:
providing a moving glass substrate;
forming a gaseous mixture comprised of an alkyl zinc compound and an inert gas as a first stream;
providing a first gaseous inorganic oxygen-containing compound in a second stream;
providing a second gaseous inorganic oxygen-containing compound in the second stream, in a third stream, or in both the second
and third streams;

providing acetyl acetone in the first stream, second stream, third stream or another stream; and
mixing the gaseous streams at or near a surface of the moving glass substrate to form a zinc oxide coating thereon.

US Pat. No. 9,793,420

GROWTH LAYER FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A substrate bearing a stack of layers as the back contact in a molybdenum photovoltaic device, said back contact comprising
in order from the substrate:
a barrier layer comprising at least one of: SixNy, SiO2, SnO2, SiCO and TiO2;

a primer layer;
a layer of ZnO; and
a layer of molybdenum, wherein the molybdenum is deposited directly on the layer of ZnO;
the ZnO layer having a thickness, t, of 0 nm wherein the ZnO layer is deposited directly on the primer layer; and
the primer layer is deposited directly on the barrier layer and comprises TiO2 or ZnSnOx.

US Pat. No. 9,981,873

HEAT TREATABLE COATED GLASS PANE

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A coated glass pane comprising at least the following layers in sequence:a glass substrate;
a lower anti-reflection layer;
wherein the lower anti-reflection layer comprises one or more of the following layers:
a dielectric base layer based on an (oxi)nitride of Si and/or an (oxi)nitride of Al and/or alloys thereof, and/or an oxide of and/or an oxide of Ti, and/or an oxide of Zr;
a dielectric layer based on a metal oxide; and
a dielectric top layer based on an oxide of Zn; and
a silver-based functional layer; and
at least one further anti-reflection layer; wherein the further anti-reflection layer comprises at least the following layers in sequence:
at least one underlying barrier layer based on NiCr, Nb, Ti, Zr, Zn, Sn, In, and/or Cr and/or their oxides and/or nitrides;
at least one absorbing layer based on tungsten nitride located in direct contact with the underlying barrier layer; and
at least one overlying dielectric layer located in direct contact with the absorbing layer, said overlying dielectric layer comprising a dielectric layer based on an (oxi)nitride of Si and/or an (oxi)nitride of Al and/or alloys thereof; and/or a dielectric layer based on a metal oxide;
wherein when the overlying dielectric layer is based on an (oxi)nitride of Si and/or an (oxi)nitride of Al and/or alloys thereof, the underlying barrier layer that is in direct contact with the at least one absorbing layer, is not based on an (oxi)nitride of Si and/or an (oxi)nitride of Al and/or alloys thereof and wherein the change in reflection color of the coated glass pane after a heat treatment is less than or equal to 3.

US Pat. No. 9,938,619

CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION PROCESS FOR DEPOSITING A TITANIUM OXIDE COATING

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A chemical vapor deposition process for depositing a titanium oxide coating, comprising:providing a glass substrate having a deposition surface;
forming a gaseous mixture comprising an inorganic titanium-containing compound, a first oxygen-containing compound, and a fluorine-containing compound, wherein the gaseous mixture is formed prior to being fed through a coating apparatus; and
directing the gaseous mixture toward and along the glass substrate, and reacting the mixture over the glass substrate to form the titanium oxide coating directly on the deposition surface such that there are no other coatings that separate the titanium oxide coating from the deposition surface.

US Pat. No. 9,764,533

GLAZING

PILKINGTON GROUP LIMITED,...

1. A glazing comprising:
a ply of glazing material having a surface;
a sensor for sensing a voltage modulated by damage to the ply of glazing material, said sensor at least partially circumscribing
the ply of glazing material; and

a surface contact bonded to the surface configured with a portion of the sensor to form a capacitive coupling for transferring
AC signals, said surface contact being tuned to receive the AC signals in a frequency range for sensing electrical discontinuity
in electrical devices on the glazing.

US Pat. No. 10,087,309

PRINTED ARTICLE AND A FEEDSTOCK

NGF Europe Limited, St. ...

1. A printed article, comprising:a matrix forming material, and
a filler material, dispersed within the matrix forming material,
wherein the filler material comprises glass flakes, having an aspect ratio of average diameter divided by average thickness greater than or equal to three, and
a proportion of the glass flakes is angled relative to a printed layer.

US Pat. No. 10,194,490

WIRED GLAZING AND A PROCESS FOR MANUFACTURE THEREOF

PILKINGTON GROUP LIMITED,...

1. A glazing, comprising:a ply of interlayer material;
a first busbar laid over the ply of interlayer material;
an adhesive layer between the first busbar and the ply of interlayer material, the adhesive layer bonding together the first busbar and the ply of interlayer material;
at least one heating wire laid over the first busbar;
an auxiliary busbar at least partly laid over the heating wire and at least partly laid over the first busbar;
and an auxiliary adhesive layer arranged where an edge of the auxiliary busbar extends beyond an edge of the first busbar;
wherein a solder layer suitable for melting in an autoclave covers at least part of a surface of the first busbar or the auxiliary busbar and is arranged to contact the heating wire;
wherein the auxiliary adhesive layer bonds the auxiliary busbar to the ply of interlayer material; and
wherein the solder layer covers both a surface of the first busbar in contact with the heating wire and an opposite surface of the first busbar, or wherein the solder layer covers both a surface of the auxiliary busbar in contact with the heating wire and anopposite surface of the auxiliary busbar.
US Pat. No. 10,131,572

HEAT TREATABLE COATED GLASS PANE

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A heat treated coated glass pane comprising at least the following layers:a glass substrate; and
a lower anti-reflection layer; wherein the lower anti-reflection layer comprises in sequence from the glass substrate;
a base layer based on an (oxi)nitride of Silicon and/or an (oxi)nitride of Aluminium and/or alloys thereof; and/or an oxide of Titanium; and/or an oxide of Zirconium located directly on the glass substrate;
a layer based on an oxide of Zinc and Tin and/or an oxide of Tin; and
a top layer based on an oxide of Zinc;
a silver-based functional layer; located directly on the top layer based on an oxide of Zinc; and
a further anti-reflection layer located above the silver-based functional layer and comprising:
a barrier layer located directly on the silver-based functional layer; and
at least one absorbing layer based on one or more of Fe2Si3, FeSin, where n is any integer or fraction greater than or equal to 1 but less than 2 or greater than 2 but up to 9, and/or FemSi, where m is any integer or fraction from 1 to 9, and/or nitrides thereof; and
at least one layer based on an (oxi)nitride of Si and/or an (oxi)nitride of Al and/or alloys thereof, and wherein
the at least one absorbing layer contacts directly the at least one layer based on an (oxi)nitride of Si and/or an (oxi)nitride of Al and/or alloys thereof; and wherein
the thickness of the absorbing layer ranges from 0.5 to 12 nm; and
wherein after heat treatment the coated glass pane comprises neutral color characteristics according to CIE LAB a*, b* coordinates such that ?15?(a*or b*)?15; and
wherein the percentage light transmission for the coated glass pane after heat treatment is less than 63%.

US Pat. No. 10,151,861

COATED GLASS ARTICLE AND DISPLAY ASSEMBLY MADE THEREWITH

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A coated glass article comprising a glass substrate and a coating formed over the glass substrate, wherein the coating comprises:optionally, a base layer of an oxide of silicon deposited over a major surface of the glass substrate;
a first coating layer of an oxide of titanium, niobium or chromium deposited over the optional base layer;
a second coating layer of an oxide of silicon deposited over the first coating layer; and
a third coating layer of an oxide of tin deposited over the second coating layer;
wherein the coated glass article exhibits a Tvis of 40%-55% and an Rf of 40%-60%.
US Pat. No. 10,150,697

HEAT TREATABLE COATED GLASS PANE

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A heat treated coated glass pane comprising at least the following layers in sequence:a) a glass substrate;
b) a lower anti-reflection layer, comprising in sequence from the glass substrate
i) a base layer based on an (oxi)nitride of silicon and/or an (oxi)nitride of aluminium;
ii) a layer based on an oxide of Zn and Sn and/or an oxide of Sn located directly on the base layer based on an (oxi)nitride of silicon and/or an (oxi)nitride of aluminum;
iii) a separation layer based on a metal oxide and/or an (oxi)nitride of silicon and/or an (oxi)nitride of aluminium, and
iv) a top layer based on an oxide of Zn;
c) a silver-based functional layer;
d) a barrier layer located directly over the silver based functional layer which comprises one or more layer based on a metal oxide wherein the one or more layer of the barrier layer comprises zinc and/or titanium and wherein the barrier layer does not comprise a substoichiometric NiCrOx layer; and
e) an upper anti-reflection layer wherein the upper anti-reflection layer comprises a metal oxide layer and/or a layer based on an (oxi)nitride of aluminium and/or an (oxi)nitride of silicon;
and wherein the change in film side reflection color after heat treatment Rf?E* of the coated glass pane is less than or equal to three.
US Pat. No. 10,167,224

METHOD OF COATING GLASS

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A process of producing a heat treated coated glass comprising three or more silver metal reflective layers, said heat treated coated glass comprising at least, in order:a glass layer; a first dielectric layer; a first silver layer; a second dielectric layer; a second silver layer; a third dielectric layer; a third silver layer; a fourth dielectric layer, the process comprising the steps of:
a) providing a float glass substrate by a float glass deposition process,
b) depositing by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) during the float glass deposition process a coating on at least one surface of the glass substrate to produce a CVD coating, said CVD coating providing the first dielectric layer and wherein, said first dielectric layer consists solely of CVD coating, said first dielectric layer comprising:
i) a CVD deposited layer of silicon oxide of thickness 10 to 50 nm overcoated directly with
ii) a second consecutive CVD deposited layer of titanium oxide of thickness 10 to 50 nm, wherein both the silicon oxide and titanium oxide are deposited on the glass substrate during the float glass deposition process; and
c) sputter depositing a further coating onto the surface of the CVD coated float glass, said further sputter deposited coating comprising the three or more reflective silver metal layers each separated by the second, third and fourth dielectric layers respectively, wherein
each of the second, third and fourth dielectric layers comprise a layer of zinc stannate (ZnSnOx), and
each layer of zinc stannate comprises between 27% and 85% of the total thickness of the second, third and fourth dielectric layers; and
d) heat treating the float glass substrate with combined CVD and sputtered coating to toughen the coated glass and to achieve a coated toughened glass, and wherein the light transmission of the heat treated coated glass is increased by 10% compared to the light transmission of the coated glass before heat treatment; and
wherein the sheet resistance of the heat treated coated glass is decreased by at least 34% compared with the sheet resistance of the coated glass before heat treatment.

US Pat. No. 10,327,286

GLAZING

PILKINGTON GROUP LIMITED,...

1. A heatable glazing comprising:an electrically conductive coating
a data transmission window in the electrically conductive coatingwherein the data transmission window comprises:a plurality of ablations in the electrically conductive coating, arranged to provide a plurality of grids, the grids comprising segments in rows and columns;
at least a break line, each break line an ablation arranged between adjacent grids; and
at least one of a width “a” of the grids and a distance “b” between adjacent grids is selected to maximise transmission of a predetermined frequency of electromagnetic radiation for horizontally polarized waves wherein the one or more break lines are aligned vertically.

US Pat. No. 10,290,952

SOLDERING ON THIN GLASS SHEETS

PILKINGTON GROUP LIMITED,...

1. A laminated glazing comprising:a first glass sheet having a thickness of less than 2.1 mm and a center part;
a first electrical conductor formed as a layer of conductive metallic ink printed on said first glass sheet;
a second electrical conductor connected to said first electrical conductor by a soldered connection at a soldering region of the first glass sheet, said soldering region of the first glass sheet being closer than the center part of the first glass sheet to an edge of the first glass sheet, said soldering region having a surface stress that is locally increased, prior to soldering of the soldered connection, to be higher than a surface stress in the center part;
a second glass sheet; and
a polymer interlayer disposed between the first and second glass sheets, the first glass sheet and the second glass sheet being bonded together by said interlayer;
wherein an opaque coating applied around a periphery of said first glass sheet, said coating applied around the periphery of said first glass sheet including a gap between portions of the opaque coating where the surface of the first glass sheet is not applied with the opaque coating and where said first electrical conductor is printed, the opaque coating being out of contact with the first electrical conductor;
wherein a second opaque coating placed between the polymer interlayer and the second glass sheet overlapping the first electrical conductor placed within the gap.

US Pat. No. 10,290,953

ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR

PILKINGTON GROUP LIMITED,...

1. An electrical connector for a glazing, the electrical connector comprising,a connector portion for connection to an electrical supply, and
a button for soldering to a surface of the glazing, the button comprising a base portion adjacent, in use, to the surface of the glazing and an upper portion remote, in use, from the surface of the glazing,
wherein the button comprises at least one solder-contacting surface, at least a portion of the solder-contacting surface curving from the base portion to the upper portion and defining a tapering solder cavity.

US Pat. No. 10,265,931

LAMINATED GLAZING

PILKINGTON GROUP LIMITED,...

1. A laminated glazing comprising:first and second plies of glazing material;
a carrier film arranged between the first and second plies of glazing material, carrying an electrically conductive coating, the carrier film having a thickness of 30 to 70 ?m and being made of polyethylene terephthalate;
a busbar arranged in electrical contact with the electrically conductive coating;
wherein an edge of the carrier film is spaced inwardly from an edge of the first ply of glazing material and a distance between the edge of the carrier film and the edge of the first ply of glazing material is in the range 5 mm to 20 mm; and
the busbar and the carrier film are arranged to define an anchor portion suitable for anchoring the carrier film to prevent the carrier film from sliding during a lamination process, said anchor portion comprising a region of the carrier film extending outwardly from an edge of the busbar, wherein a distance between the edge of the busbar and the edge of the carrier film is in the range 1 mm to 30 mm and the anchor portion has a substantially triangular shape.

US Pat. No. 10,265,832

APPARATUS AND A PROCESS FOR GRINDING AN EDGE AND A GLAZING HAVING A GROUND EDGE

PILKINGTON GROUP LIMITED,...

1. An apparatus for edge grinding of a glazing, comprising:a wheel suitable for grinding an edge of the glazing rotatable about an axis,
a groove in a circumference of the wheel such that a plane of the groove is perpendicular to the axis of rotation,
first and second orifices arranged on first and second sides of the plane of the groove, suitable for projecting coolant,
the first and second orifices being arranged to form first and second jets of coolant directed substantially into the groove on first and second trajectories not in the plane of the groove,
the groove and the glazing being arranged to define a contact region and the first and second lets of coolant are directed substantially into the contact region.

US Pat. No. 10,335,879

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FORMING A VEHICLE WINDOW ASSEMBLY USING INDUCTION SOLDERING

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A method of forming a vehicle window assembly by induction heating, comprising:providing a vehicle window having a major inner surface with a conductive ceramic frit disposed on at least a predetermined area thereof, a major outer surface and a peripheral edge portion therearound;
placing the vehicle window on an assembly fixture having one or more induction coil assemblies and one or more movable assembly aids mounted on the assembly fixture, wherein the major outer surface of the vehicle window faces the assembly aid;
disposing one or more items of hardware having a predetermined amount of solder thereon, in the one or more movable assembly aids, the assembly aids comprising:
at least one bearing mount;
a rotatable shaft extending through the at least one bearing mount;
the rotatable shaft also extending through a second end of at least one support arm; and
at least one hardware holding member attached to a first end of the at least one support arm;
energizing the one or more induction coil assemblies proximate the major outer surface of the vehicle window to selectively direct one or more electromagnetic fields through the vehicle window causing heating of the one or more areas of the major inner surface of the vehicle window upon which the ceramic frit is disposed to a temperature sufficient to liquefy the solder on the one or more items of hardware; and
moving the one or more assembly aids into a position proximate the one or more heated areas of the major inner surface of the vehicle window and causing one or more items of hardware in the one or more assembly aids to move into bonding contact with the one or more heated areas of the major inner surface of the vehicle window.

US Pat. No. 10,345,229

FURNACE ATMOSPHERE MEASUREMENT

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A method of determining the concentration of a species in a portion of a furnace atmosphere comprising the steps:(i) measuring a first intensity I1 of electromagnetic radiation in the furnace at a first wavelength ?1;
(ii) measuring a second intensity I2 of electromagnetic radiation in the furnace at a second wavelength ?2;
(iii) measuring a third intensity I3 of electromagnetic radiation in the furnace at a third wavelength ?3, the third wavelength being selected to be representative of the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by the species;
(iv) calculating a fourth intensity I4 at the third wavelength using the first and second intensities, the fourth intensity being an estimate of the intensity of electromagnetic radiation in the furnace at the third wavelength absent any absorbing species in the furnace atmosphere; and
(v) using the third intensity and the fourth intensity to determine a parameter that is proportional to the concentration of absorbing species in the portion of the furnace atmosphere.

US Pat. No. 10,377,664

COATED GLASS ARTICLE, DISPLAY ASSEMBLY MADE THEREWITH AND METHOD OF MAKING A DISPLAY ASSEMBLY

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A coated glass article comprising:a glass substrate; and
a coating deposited over the glass substrate, wherein the coating comprises:
i. a first inorganic metal oxide layer deposited over a major surface of the glass substrate, wherein the first inorganic metal oxide layer has a refractive index of less than 2.1,
ii. a second inorganic metal oxide layer deposited over the first inorganic metal oxide layer, wherein the second inorganic metal oxide layer has a refractive index which is less than the refractive index of the first inorganic metal oxide layer,
iii. a third inorganic metal oxide layer deposited directly on the second inorganic metal oxide layer at a thickness of 40 nm or less, wherein the third inorganic metal oxide layer comprises tin oxide,
iv. a fourth inorganic metal oxide layer deposited over the third inorganic metal oxide layer, wherein the fourth inorganic metal oxide layer has a refractive index which is greater than a refractive index of the third inorganic metal oxide layer,wherein the coated glass article exhibits a total visible light transmittance (Illuminant C) of 40% or more and a film side visible light reflectance (Illuminant C) of 30% or more.

US Pat. No. 10,414,378

WINDOW ASSEMBLY

Pilkington Group Limited,...

1. A window assembly, comprising:a polymeric interlayer provided between an inner pane of glass and an outer pane of glass, the inner pane and outer pane each have a first major surface and a second major surface, wherein the second major surface of the outer pane and the first major surface of the inner pane face each other;
a connector assembly having a wire assembly, the wire assembly comprising a wire and a terminal connector, the wire has an unsheathed portion and the terminal connector is attached to the unsheathed portion, the terminal connector comprising a pair of sidewalls which are separated from each other by the unsheathed portion of the wire, wherein the terminal connector has a width and a height, the width being greater than the height, and the terminal connector is also attached to a busbar provided on the second major surface of either the inner pane or the outer pane; and
a potting layer provided over the terminal connector.