US Pat. No. 9,459,589

ONE-PIECE DOUBLE BALANCE SPRING AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURING THE SAME

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A one-piece double balance spring, made from a three layer silicon based material by a method comprising the steps of:
(i) providing a silicon material having first and second layers;
(ii) etching a central collet portion in the second layer;
(iii) securing a third layer on the second layer;
(iv) etching a first balance spring having a first collet portion in the first layer of silicon-based material so that the
first collet portion is coaxially mounted on the central collet portion; and

(v) etching a second balance spring having a second collet portion in the third layer of silicon-based material so that the
second collet portion is coaxial with the central collet portion, thereby forming the one-piece double balance spring, wherein
the first collet portion, the second collet portion and the central collet portion form a single collet

wherein the central collet portion is a spacing means defining a space between the first balance spring and the second balance
spring.

US Pat. No. 9,359,652

THERMAL TREATMENT METHOD FOR MICROMECHANICAL HOROLOGICAL PARTS

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A thermal treatment method for a micromechanical horological component derived from the LIGA method and exhibiting very
low thermal inertia, said method including:
locally heating an area of the micromechanical horological component to increase the hardness of the component by local phase
modification, wherein the local heating is performed for a time sufficient to only affect the locally heated area and the
phase of the untreated portions of the component remain unchanged,

wherein the micromechanical horological part derived from the LIGA method is made of nickel, a nickel and phosphorus alloy,
a nickel and tungsten alloy, or a nickel and iron alloy, and

wherein the hardness of the component that is locally heated increases by a factor of about 2.

US Pat. No. 9,075,394

FLEXIBLE ESCAPEMENT MECHANISM WITH MOVABLE FRAME

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. An escapement mechanism for a timepiece movement or timepiece including at least one balance and at least one escape wheel,
wherein transmission of impulses between the at least one balance and the at least one escape wheel is performed by a single-piece,
flexible mechanism, comprised in the escapement mechanism and including at least one feeler-spindle cooperating with the at
least one escape wheel or respectively the at least one balance; and

wherein the single-piece, flexible mechanism is connected by at least one flexible blade comprised therein to a fixed structure
of the timepiece or respectively to the at least one escape wheel;

wherein the single-piece, flexible mechanism is a locking lever that includes at least one movable frame carrying locking
beaks configured to cooperate with teeth comprised in the escape wheel, a plurality of the flexible blades which are flexible,
prestressed buckled blades, and a fork carrying horns for cooperating with an impulse pin of the balance, and wherein the
movable frame completely surrounds the escape wheel;

wherein the flexible blades are extended by springs that are integral with weights which are either rigidly fixed to the fixed
structure, or which have a small degree of freedom with respect to the structure limited by oblong portions cooperating with
pins comprised in the rigid structure, in an orthogonal direction to a direction of translation, as an abscissa direction,
of the movable frame.

US Pat. No. 9,658,599

FLEXIBLE COLLET

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A timepiece collet comprising:
a point of attachment with a balance spring; and
a passage to receive a balance staff and to surround an entire circumference of the balance staff, wherein
the passage is substantially cylindrical and is configured to deform elastically in a plane perpendicular to an axis of the
passage and to elastically clamp the balance staff by at least two lines of contact extending over a height of an inner wall
of the passage when the balance staff is inserted in the passage,

the passage forms recessed parts that each provide a spacing between the balance staff and the inner wall of the passage when
the balance staff is inserted in the passage, and the recessed parts include three crescent shaped recessed parts, and

a thickness of the timepiece collet, from an outer contour line of each of the three crescent shaped recessed parts to an
outer surface of the timepiece collet, is substantially uniform around the entire circumference of the balance staff.

US Pat. No. 9,250,533

METHOD OF FABRICATING MULTI-LEVEL METALLIC PARTS BY THE LIGA-UV TECHNIQUE

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A method of fabricating a multi-level, metallic microstructure by a UV photolithographic and galvanic deposition technique,
wherein it includes the steps of:
a) providing a top planar substrate that has a conductive surface;
b) covering the top planar conductive surface with a first layer of photosensitive resin;
c) irradiating the first layer of photosensitive resin through a mask that matches a desired pattern cavity;
d) developing the first layer so as to hollow out apertures therein and thus obtain a first level of a resin mould, the apertures
in the first resin layer revealing the conductive surface of the top planar substrate;

e) depositing a second layer of photosensitive resin over the first developed layer of photosensitive resin and the revealed
top planar conductive surface of the substrate, so as to cover the first developed layer of photosensitive resin and the revealed
top planar conductive surface and, to fill the apertures of the first developed layer of photosensitive resin;

f) irradiating the second photosensitive resin layer through a mask that matches a desired pattern cavity;
g) developing the second photosensitive resin layer so as to hollow out apertures therein and to obtain a multi-level resin
mould, the apertures in the multi-level mould formed by the developed first and second resin layers, revealing the top planar
conductive surface of the substrate;

h) galvanically depositing a metal or alloy in the apertures of the multi-level resin mould formed by the developed first
and second resin layers;

i) separating the substrate, then removing the first and second resin layers so as to reveal the multi-level metallic structure
formed by the metal or alloy deposited in the apertures.

US Pat. No. 9,465,362

OSCILLATOR WITH A DETENT ESCAPEMENT

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. An oscillator comprising a resonator of the inertia-elasticity type cooperating with a detent escapement comprising a detent
cooperating with an escape wheel, wherein the resonator is in one-piece and comprises an inertia member and a first flexible
structure providing the elasticity and forming a virtual pivot axis of the resonator, wherein the detent is in one-piece and
comprises a body forming a locking-stone cooperating with the escape wheel, a second flexible structure forming a virtual
pivot axis of the detent and an unlocking spring cooperating with a stop member formed at one end of the body of the detent
and wherein the inertia member forms an impulse-pallet cooperating with the escape wheel and a discharging-pallet cooperating
with the unlocking spring.

US Pat. No. 9,304,493

FLEXIBLE ESCAPEMENT MECHANISM HAVING A BALANCE WITH NO ROLLER

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A timepiece escapement mechanism comprising:
a fixed structure;
a balance and an escape wheel;
a flexible, single-piece mechanism configured to transmit impulses between the balance and the escape wheel, the single-piece
mechanism including at least one flexible strip which connects the flexible, single-piece mechanism, to the fixed structure
or the escape wheel;

a balance spring configured to maintain oscillation and which ends in a balance spring stud arranged to move during operation,
and the balance spring stud is guided by a flexible guide member including flexible strips, the balance spring stud receiving
a pin configured to cooperate with a cam path of the escape wheel, and

wherein the balance spring stud is subjected to a force exerted by the balance spring, the force tending, during the oscillation,
to move the balance spring stud relative to a locking position thereof, and imparting a motion to the pin to maintain and
regulate the oscillation without use of a balance roller.

US Pat. No. 9,201,398

OSCILLATING MECHANISM WITH AN ELASTIC PIVOT AND MOBILE ELEMENT FOR TRANSMITTING ENERGY

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. An oscillating mechanism for a timepiece movement, comprising:
a first rigid element and a second rigid element, each one configured to be fixed on a different element of said movement
and at least one of which is mobile relative to the other and pivots about a theoretical pivot axis;

said oscillating mechanism being flexible with a variable geometry whilst being produced in a monobloc manner;
a first elastic restoring means which produces a direct or indirect elastic connection between said first rigid element and
an intermediate rigid element;

at least a second elastic restoring means which produces a direct or indirect elastic connection between said intermediate
rigid element and said second rigid element,

wherein said first rigid element, said first elastic restoring means, said intermediate rigid element, said second elastic
restoring means, and said second rigid element are coplanar according to one plane and are configured to be deformed according
to said plane,

wherein the oscillating mechanism assumes a configuration of butterfly type, comprising said intermediate rigid element, formed
by at least one rigid arm which extends between said first rigid element disposed in a vicinity of said pivot axis and said
second rigid element forming a peripheral part, to which said first rigid element is connected respectively by said first
elastic restoring means formed by at least one first elastic blade, and by said second elastic restoring means formed by at
least one second elastic blade, said at least one rigid arm forming an intermediate mass which is mobile by pivoting about
said pivot axis,

said first elastic restoring means comprises a plurality of first elastic blades which respectively form dihedrons with a
V extending radially relative to said pivot axis, the point of said V being directed towards said pivot axis, and

said second elastic restoring means comprises a plurality of second elastic blades which respectively form dihedrons with
a V extending radially relative to said pivot axis, the point of said V being directed towards said pivot axis.

US Pat. No. 9,244,434

INSEPARABLE SINGLE-PIECE TIMEPIECE COMPONENT

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. An inseparable single-piece timepiece component comprising:
a position adjustable mechanism including a rigid structure carrying, by at least one resilient strip, a position adjustable
component including an indexing structure arranged to cooperate with a complementary indexing structure comprised in an adjustment
mechanism, said adjustment mechanism being incorporated in said inseparable single-piece component, wherein

said complementary indexing structure is mounted so as to be uncouplable from the indexing structure and clampable in a position
of cooperation with said indexing structure by a clamping mechanism moveable between at least one coupled position and at
least one uncoupled position, distinct from said indexing structure and said complementary indexing structure and resiliently
secured to said rigid structure.

US Pat. No. 9,194,052

METHOD OF FABRICATING A PLURALITY OF METALLIC MICROSTRUCTURES

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A method of fabricating a plurality of metallic microstructures, comprising the following steps:
a) taking a conductive substrate or an insulating substrate coated with a conductive seed layer;
b) applying a layer of photosensitive resin over the conductive substrate or the conductive seed layer;
c) flattening the surface of the photosensitive resin layer to a desired thickness and/or surface state;
d) irradiating the photosensitive resin layer through a mask defining a contour of the metallic microstructures;
e) dissolving the contour of the metallic microstructures of the photosensitive resin layer to reveal, in places, the conductive
substrate or the conductive seed layer;

f) galvanically depositing at least one layer of a metal from the conductive substrate or the conductive seed layer to form
a plurality of electroformed units substantially reaching the upper surface of the photosensitive resin;

g) flattening the photosensitive resin layer and the electroformed units to bring the photosensitive resin layer and the electroformed
units to the same level and give a desired thickness and/or surface state, thereby form metallic microstructures; and

h) releasing the metallic microstructures thereby formed from the substrate and the photosensitive resin layer, wherein the
flattening step c) is performed using a cutting tool, and wherein the cutting tool is a tool including a cutting edge portion
made of hard metal, ceramic, metal carbide, metallic nitride or diamond.

US Pat. No. 9,176,478

DEVICE FOR ASSEMBLING AND LOCKING A JOINT

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A system of assembling a member, made of a first material, in an aperture of a part made of a second material having no
usable plastic domain, using an intermediate portion made of a third material, mounted between said member and said part,
wherein the intermediate portion is arranged to be accommodated against a shoulder of the part and to be laterally locked
in a resilient manner by at least one resilient locking device in order to secure together a unit comprising the member-intermediate
portion-part and wherein each resilient locking device includes a cantilever arm of a base integral with the shoulder of the
part.

US Pat. No. 9,238,263

THERMOCOMPENSATED SPRING AND METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING THE SAME

NIVAROX-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A method of manufacturing a spring for a sprung balance, wherein the method includes the following steps:
(a) forming a body having a first metallic material and a second metallic material secured to each other, with the first metallic
material and the second metallic material having thermoelastic coefficients that vary in opposite directions;

(b) decreasing a section of the body; and
(c) winding the body to form said spring.

US Pat. No. 9,195,218

TIMEPIECE MECHANISM CASSETTE

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A timepiece mechanism cassette including at least one bearing surface to position the cassette in a movement and at least
one bottom plate and one top bar, at least said plate or said bar being rigid, between or on which there are arranged functional
components at least two of which are movable relative to each other, and between said plate and said bar there is pivoted
or moved at least one pivotally or shiftably movable functional component of said functional components, wherein said bottom
plate and/or said top bar forms an inseparable single-piece component with at least one of said functional components, and
wherein at least one of said pivotally movable functional component is pivoted between said plate and said bar, on either
side of said pivotally movable functional component, wherein said at least one said pivotally movable functional component
pivoted between said plate and said bar forms the inseparable single-piece component with said bottom plate and/or said top
bar, and wherein said inseparable single piece component is made of silicon, and an integrated elastic return mechanism, comprised
in said inseparable single piece component, is pre-stressed in a silicon oxide state.

US Pat. No. 9,658,597

TIMEPIECE MECHANISM HAVING A CONTACT PAIR WITH NO LUBRICATION

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A timepiece mechanism comprising at least one pair of components including a first component including a material selected
from a first group consisting of silicon dioxide, natural diamond, micro- or nano-crystalline CVD diamond, solid monocrystalline
diamond, and amorphous carbon known as diamond-like carbon or “DLC”, and having a first friction surface arranged to cooperate
with a second friction surface comprised in a second opposing component, wherein said second opposing component includes,
at least in said second friction surface thereof, a material with a high concentration of boron, greater than 10 atomic percent,
and wherein said second component includes at least one ceramic containing boron.

US Pat. No. 9,310,770

GEAR SYSTEM FOR A TIMEPIECE

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A gear system including:
(a) a pinion and a toothed wheel, coaxially mounted relative to a pivoting arbour, wherein the toothed wheel includes a hub
pierced with an arbour hole so as to be mounted on the pivoting arbour; and

(b) a securing device permitting the pinion to be secured to the wheel so as to prevent any relative movement of one with
respect to the other, wherein the securing device is integral with the hub of the toothed wheel and includes a blind pattern
cavity surrounding the arbour hole, wherein the inner periphery of the hub and the outer periphery of the pinion correspond
so as to define a blind pattern cavity shape which matches a section of the pinion so as to secure the pinion and wheel in
rotation, wherein the pinion is fixedly mounted to the pivoting arbour.

US Pat. No. 9,310,771

PALLET LEVER MECHANISM FOR TIMEPIECE ESCAPEMENT

NIVAROX-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A pallet lever mechanism for an escape mechanism, comprising:
at least one fixed structure carrying a balance and an escape wheel cooperating with each other, the pallet lever mechanism
configured to limit or to transmit angular travel of the balance and/or of the escape wheel, the pallet lever mechanism including
pallet stones cooperating with the escape wheel, and at least one flexible, multistable element,

wherein cooperation of the pallet lever with the balance is achieved by horns of a first portion of the pallet lever mechanism,
the first portion being connected by the at least one flexible element to a second portion of the pallet lever mechanism carrying
the pallet stones, the at least one flexible element including at least one prestressed beam buckled in a mode wherein the
beam adopts an S or Z shape, and the pallet lever mechanism including a pivot forcing the beam to have a node at the middle
thereof, and

wherein interaction between the horns and the balance, and/or the pallet stones and the escape wheel, is achieved with no
contact or with attenuated contact, and wherein first surfaces of the horns and/or of the pallet stones are magnetized or
electrized to cooperate in repulsion with opposing second surfaces of the balance and/or respectively of the escape wheel,
which are made of suitable material and/or are magnetized or respectively electrized in a complementary manner.

US Pat. No. 9,223,291

ONE-PIECE COMPOSITE IMPULSE PIN-SAFETY ROLLER COMPONENT

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A one-piece composite micromechanical timepiece component including a first functional level including an impulse pin made
of a first material arranged to cooperate with a member, the first functional level also including an electroformed portion
made of a second metallic material partially overlapping the impulse pin and a second functional level including only the
electroformed portion forming a roller also arranged to cooperate with the member, the first material being different from
the second metallic material.

US Pat. No. 9,207,640

FLEXIBLE ESCAPE MECHANISM WITH NO PALLET LEVER

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. An escape mechanism comprising:
a plate;
a balance; and
an escape wheel including flexible levers for transmission of impulses between an impulse pin of the balance, and teeth of
the escape wheel;

wherein the escape mechanism is an escape mechanism with no pallet lever, and each tooth includes a flexible lever of the
flexible levers, the flexible lever including a lifting piece to actuate a lever pin guided by first flexible strips,

a low level of the wheel carrying the lever pins on a same level as a first stop member and a second stop member, comprised
in said plate and said lever pins being arranged for cooperating with said first stop members and said second stop members,
and a high level of the wheel carrying the lifting pieces, and

the impulse pin being arranged to pivot the flexible lever that faces the impulse pin, in a first pivoting direction of the
balance to cause the lever pin to cooperate in abutment with the second stop member by stopping the escape wheel, or in a
second pivoting direction of the balance opposite to the first pivoting direction to move the lifting piece of the flexible
lever opposite the first stop member and to cause the lever pin to bypass the second stop member allowing the wheel to rotate
to a next tooth.

US Pat. No. 9,164,484

SPRUNG BALANCE FOR A TIMEPIECE

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A timepiece assembly comprising:
at least one balance spring stud including an attachment to a plate or to a bridge;
at least one timepiece balance spring including at least one strip wound into coils between an inner end and an outer end,
said inner end fixed to a collet being pivotally movable about a pivot axis, and said outer end being fixed to said balance
spring stud;

wherein at least one of said balance spring stud and said collet includes a braking structure arranged to cooperate with at
least a first coil of said coils during accelerations due to contraction or extension of said balance spring which are higher
than set values, to modify a resulting rigidity of said balance spring when a number of active coils thereof is modified by
locally coupling at least said first coil to said braking structure;

wherein said collet includes at least a first inner lip and at least a second outer lip each including said braking structure.

US Pat. No. 9,045,333

COMPOSITE MICROMECHANICAL COMPONENT AND METHOD OF FABRICATING THE SAME

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A method of fabricating a composite micromechanical component including the following steps:
a) providing a substrate that includes a horizontal top layer and a horizontal bottom layer made of electrically conductive,
micromachinable material, and secured to each other by an electrically insulating, horizontal, intermediate layer;

b) etching at least one pattern in the top layer through to the intermediate layer, so as to form at least one cavity in the
substrate that will form at least one part, made of micromachinable material, of the composite component;

c) coating the top part of said substrate with an electrically insulating coating;
d) directionally etching said coating and said intermediate layer so as to limit the presence thereof exclusively at each
vertical wall formed in the top layer;

e) performing an electrodeposition by connecting the electrode to the conductive bottom layer of the substrate to form at
least one metal part of the composite component;

f) releasing the composite component from the substrate.

US Pat. No. 9,235,192

METHOD OF ADJUSTING THE OSCILLATION FREQUENCY OF A TIMEPIECE SUB-ASSEMBLY

NIVAROX-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A method of adjusting oscillation frequency of a timepiece regulating assembly with no index assembly, formed solely of
a balance and a balance spring assembly including at least one balance spring with at least one twist, to a predetermined
oscillation frequency, only movable members of the regulating assembly being formed by the balance and by the balance spring
assembly, the method comprising:
taking a particular balance spring assembly from a production of toleranced products;
measuring return torque of the particular balance spring assembly;
taking a particular balance from a production of toleranced products;
calculating a theoretical inertia of the particular balance at which said regulating assembly oscillates at said predetermined
oscillation frequency, according to the measured return torque of the taken particular balance spring assembly;

measuring an actual inertia of the particular balance;
correcting inertia of the particular balance alone in isolation from the particular balance spring assembly, by direct action
on a felloe or at least one arm of the particular balance, to the calculated theoretical inertia to obtain the predetermined
oscillation frequency for the regulating assembly formed by the particular balance and by the particular balance spring assembly,
wherein the inertia of the particular balance is locally corrected upwards or downwards by displacement of material of the
particular balance, by local melting and displacing of a liquid phase of the material resulting from the melting;

determining parameters for correcting inertia of the particular balance alone in isolation from the particular balance spring
assembly, by determining an unbalance axis and an unbalance value of the particular balance and a position of an unbalance
on the unbalance axis to define, on either side of a pivot axis of the particular balance:

a first domain on a side of the unbalance; and
a second domain on an opposite side to the unbalance;
wherein the correcting the inertia of the particular balance symmetrically relative to the pivot axis of the particular balance
includes creating at least one zone, each zone located in the first domain being a first zone and corresponding to a first
algebraic variation of mass, each zone located in the second domain being a second zone and corresponding to a second algebraic
variation of mass,

so that:
a difference between (a) an integrated sum of moments of inertia with respect to the unbalance axis of the second algebraic
variation of mass and (b) an integrated sum of moments of inertia with respect to the unbalance axis of the first algebraic
variation of mass, is equal to the unbalance value,

and so that:
a difference between (c) an integrated sum of moments of inertia with respect to an axis perpendicular to the unbalance axis
and passing through the pivot axis of the second algebraic variation of mass and (d) an integrated sum of moments of inertia
with respect to an axis perpendicular to the unbalance axis and passing through the pivot axis of the first algebraic variation
of mass, is equal to zero;

and so that:
a sum between (e) the integrated sum of moments of inertia with respect to the unbalance axis of the second algebraic variation
of mass and (f) the integrated sum of moments of inertia with respect to the unbalance axis of the first algebraic variation
of mass, is equal to a difference between the actual inertia and the theoretical inertia.

US Pat. No. 9,217,992

TIMEPIECE BALANCE SPRING ADJUSTMENT MECHANISM

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A mechanism for adjusting an active length of a timepiece balance spring whose outer end is fixed to a balance spring stud
secured to a bar, said mechanism including two pins for clamping or touching an outer coil of the balance spring during operation
of said balance spring, wherein said two pins are in a single piece with said bar, and wherein at least said bar includes
a position adjustable mechanism including a rigid carrier structure, using at least one elastic strip, of a position adjustable
component carrying at least one of said pins and including an indexing means arranged to cooperate with a complementary indexing
means comprised in an adjustment mechanism, said complementary indexing means being detachably mounted to the indexing means
and being lockable in a cooperating position by a clamping mechanism elastically fixed to said structure, said clamping mechanism
being in turn subjected to the action of a locking mechanism which allows said clamping mechanism to occupy either an uncoupled
position wherein said adjustment mechanism is free, or a coupled position wherein said clamping mechanism hinders said adjustment
mechanism, said locking mechanism being also elastically fixed to said structure.

US Pat. No. 9,139,925

MOULD FOR GALVANOPLASTY AND METHOD OF FABRICATING THE SAME

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A mould for fabricating a micromechanical part by galvanoplasty, the mould comprising:
(a) a substrate that includes
(i) a top layer;
(ii) a bottom layer, wherein the top layer and the bottom layer are made of doped crystalline silicon, electrically conductive;
and

(iii) an electrically insulating intermediate layer, wherein the top layer and the bottom layer are secured to each other
by the electrically insulating intermediate layer,

wherein the top layer includes at least one cavity that reveals part of the bottom layer of the substrate, and wherein the
at least one cavity includes a plurality of vertical walls,

wherein an electrically insulating layer of silicon dioxide is disposed on the plurality of vertical walls, but not on horizontal
walls of the cavity, enabling an electrolytic deposition to be grown in the at least one cavity of the top layer.

US Pat. No. 9,651,920

MAGNETIC AND/OR ELECTROSTATIC RESONATOR

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A timepiece resonator comprising:
a mobile component ring-shaped about an axis and capable of oscillation; and
a drive member subjected to a torque inside a timepiece movement;
wherein the resonator is a substantially annular magnetic or electrostatic resonator;
wherein the mobile component is periodically excited under action induced by movement of the drive member, the drive member
is arranged to exert a contactless effort on the mobile component, the mobile component being flexible and deformable in a
plane perpendicular to the axis and in which the mobile component oscillates;

the mobile component comprising a first area magnetically or electrically charged at a first pitch angle, and the drive member
comprising a second area magnetically or electrically charged at a second pitch angle different from the first pitch angle,
arranged to cooperate in attraction or in repulsion with the first area, such that the mobile component and the drive member
together form a speed reducing or increasing mechanism; and

wherein speed of the drive member defines a speed of propagation of a wave of deformation in a material of the mobile component
all round the mobile component, or defines a standing wave of oscillation of the mobile component between repetitive shapes
corresponding to standing modes.

US Pat. No. 9,329,571

MAINSPRING FOR A TIMEPIECE

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A mainspring comprising:
a metallic strip wound on itself and including an outer coil, the outer coil including an excess thickness in one-piece with
the strip between a start of the outer coil and before a free end of the outer coil which forms a base extending radially
with a substantially uniform thickness towards an exterior of the mainspring; and

at least one second strip forming a bridle in one-piece with the strip and that extends from the base and at least partially
runs in a substantially parallel manner along an exterior of a non-thickened portion of the outer coil of the mainspring.

US Pat. No. 9,197,183

METHOD OF FABRICATING A SINGLE-PIECE MICROMECHANICAL COMPONENT INCLUDING AT LEAST TWO DISTINCT FUNCTIONAL LEVELS

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A method of manufacturing a single-piece micromechanical component including at least two distinct functional levels, wherein
it includes the following steps:
a) forming a silicon substrate whose top surface is electrically conductive;
b) structuring a mould from a photosensitive resin in order to form cavities whose base is formed by said electrically conductive
top surface;

c) filling the cavities of the mould by galvanoplasty to form a metal part;
d) selectively machining one portion of the metal part to form a single-piece micromechanical component having at least two
distinct functional levels;

e) releasing the micromechanical component from the substrate and the photosensitive resin.

US Pat. No. 9,778,620

METHOD FOR CREATING A FLEXIBLE, MULTISTABLE ELEMENT

NIVAROX-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A method for creating a flexible, multistable strip comprising:
making a single-piece silicon component blank including at least one flexible beam to form a flexible, multistable strip between
two ends, and at least one rigid mass of greater mass than a mass of any of said flexible beam and having a larger cross-section
at every point than a cross-section of any of said flexible beam, and any of said rigid mass to form a more rigid structure
than any of said flexible, multistable strip, and so that at least one of said flexible beam having an initial curvilinear
length extends between a first of said rigid mass at a first said end and a second of said rigid mass at a second said end,
said first and second ends being formed by a boundary of an area of smallest cross-section of said flexible beam with an area
of largest cross-section of said rigid mass, and being separated by an initial distance less than or equal to said initial
curvilinear length, and said first rigid mass and said second rigid mass forming together a rigid frame which is also a rigid
mass;

subjecting said component, in a furnace, to a silicon dioxide SiO2 growth process by maintaining a temperature of 1100° C. for several hours;

adjusting a duration of said several hours so as to obtain a cross-section of silicon dioxide SiO2 which is greater on any of said rigid mass than that on any of said flexible beam; and

cooling is performed to ambient temperature, around 20° C., so as to deform by buckling at least said flexible beam having
the initial curvilinear length during cooling of said first rigid mass and of said second rigid mass whose contraction during
cooling is greater than contraction of said flexible beam, so that a final distance between said first and second ends is
strictly less than a final curvilinear length of said flexible beam having the initial curvilinear length, and so that said
final curvilinear length is more than or equal to said initial curvilinear length.

US Pat. No. 9,599,961

TOURBILLON MECHANISM

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A tourbillon mechanism for a timepiece movement, comprising:
a balance mechanism;
an escapement mechanism; and
a carriage mounted in a structure of the timepiece movement in rotation about a tourbillon axis, the balance mechanism comprising
a spring and a balance wheel mounted in the carriage to pivot about said tourbillon axis, the escapement mechanism comprising
an escape wheel with teeth and a pallet-lever comprising pallet-stones configured to engage said teeth, the pallet-lever being
mounted in the carriage and coupled in rotation to the carriage through a pivot device,

wherein the escape wheel encircles the tourbillon axis and is attached to or integral with said structure of the timepiece
movement and the pivot device is configured to pivot elastically and to support the pallet-lever, and

wherein the pivot device includes one or more elastic arms connecting the pallet-lever to an anchoring area attached to, or
integral with the carriage.

US Pat. No. 9,594,349

FLEXIBLE CONSTANT-FORCE PALLET LEVER

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A pallet lever for a timepiece escapement, comprising a pallet head carrying at least one entry pallet and/or one exit
pallet and arranged to cooperate with an escape wheel, and further including a fork arranged to cooperate with a balance,
wherein the angular position of said fork is variable relative to said head, and wherein the only direct, permanent, mechanical
connection between said head and said fork is provided by at least one flexible strip, and wherein the range of pivoting of
said head and that of said fork are limited with respect to each other by stops, and wherein said head includes at least a
first arm including a first support and stop surface arranged to cooperate, in abutment or support, in certain relative positions
of said head and said fork, with a second support and stop surface comprised in at least a second arm of said fork, wherein
said pallet lever is made in one-piece with said at least one flexible strip.

US Pat. No. 9,323,222

FLEXIBLE TIMEPIECE GUIDANCE

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A device for elastic guidance in rotation for a timepiece mechanism allowing rotation of one element relative to another
element about an axis of rotation Z defining an axial direction, comprising construction blades, each construction blade comprises
an assembly fixing part comprising a body and a functional part extending from the body as far as one end, the assembly fixing
part and the functional part being separated by at least one slot in at least two extensions which are elastically connected
and extend in a radial direction transverse to the axial direction, said device comprising furthermore anchorage zones which
are disposed at opposite axial ends of the flexible guidance device, and configured to be fixed to said elements, said device
being wherein the construction blades are formed from a wafer of material defining a main plane, the construction blades being
orientated such that the axis of rotation of the flexible guidance Z is parallel to the main plane of the construction blades.

US Pat. No. 9,235,191

TIMEPIECE MECHANISM STRUCTURE

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A timepiece mechanism structure to receive and guide at least one pivoting wheel set, the structure comprising:
at least one inseparable single-piece structure, which includes at least one inseparable single-piece frame which includes
pivot housings aligned in pairs in a direction of alignment to receive pivots of an arbour of at least one said pivoting wheel
set, and each said pivot housing is an open housing formed by a half bearing or by a dihedral, and includes at one end a stop
bearing surface in said direction of alignment,

wherein the at least one said inseparable single-piece structure includes a position adjustment mechanism for a position adjustable
component including a bearing carrier connected to said frame by an elastic return mechanism, said position adjustment mechanism
including a rigid structure carrying, via at least one resilient strip, said position adjustable component which further includes
an indexing mechanism arranged to cooperate with a complementary indexing mechanism comprised in an adjustment mechanism,
said complementary indexing mechanism being detachably mounted to the indexing mechanism and being lockable in a cooperating
position by a clamping mechanism resiliently secured to said rigid structure, said clamping mechanism being in turn subject
to an action of a locking mechanism which allows said clamping mechanism to occupy either a detached position wherein said
adjustment mechanism is free, or an engaged position wherein said clamping mechanism hinders said adjustment mechanism, said
locking mechanism also being resiliently secures to said rigid structure.

US Pat. No. 9,122,245

TIMEPIECE MECHANISM CASSETTE

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A timepiece mechanism cassette, comprising:
at least one bearing surface for positioning the cassette in a movement;
at least one bottom plate and one top bar, at least said plate or said bar being rigid;
functional components positioned between or on said plate or said bar, at least two of the functional components being movable
relative to each other, and at least one of the functional components is a pivotally movable functional component positioned
between said plate and said bar,

wherein at least one of said bottom plate and said top bar forms an inseparable single-piece component with at least one of
said functional components, and forms a single-piece assembly with at least one elastically deformable connecting element,
and

wherein said plate and bar are movable between a proximate position where they are separated by a minimum distance and a distal
position where they are separated by a maximum distance,

wherein said plate includes snap fit means forming a single piece with said plate and arranged to cooperate, in the proximate
position only, with a complementary snap fit means comprised in said bar and forming a single piece with said bar for holding
said plate and bar in the proximate position,

wherein said plate further includes a guide means forming a single piece with said plate and cooperating, in any position,
with a complementary guide means further comprised in said bar and forming a single piece with said bar, for a parallel relative
movement of said plate with respect to said bar, and

wherein said pivotally movable functional component is positioned between a bottom pivot integral with said plate and a top
pivot integral with said bar, said pivotally movable functional component is freely inserted between the bottom pivot and
the top pivot in the distal position, and said pivotally movable functional component is mounted, axially confined and free
to pivot between the bottom pivot and the top pivot in the proximate position.

US Pat. No. 9,541,902

FLEXIBLE TIMEPIECE GUIDANCE

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A device for elastic guidance in rotation for a timepiece mechanism allowing rotation of one element relative to another
element about an axis of rotation Z defining an axial direction, the device comprising:
construction blades, each construction blade comprises an assembly fixing part comprising a body and a functional part extending
from the body as far as one end, the assembly fixing part and the functional part being separated by at least one slot in
at least two extensions which are elastically connected and extend in a radial direction transverse to the axial direction,
the device comprising furthermore anchorage zones which are disposed at opposite axial ends of the flexible guidance device,
and configured to be fixed to said elements, wherein the assembly fixing part of each of the construction blades comprises
a cavity or an assembly recess and an assembly extension which intersect and which fit together in a radial direction in order
to be locked together.

US Pat. No. 9,983,548

BALANCE SPRING INTENDED TO BE CLAMPED BY A RESILIENT WASHER

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A balance spring comprising:a strip wound around itself into several coils, an inner of the several coils coil being integral with a collet comprising a band extending substantially in the form of a triangle,
wherein the band includes, at each vertex of said triangle, a bulging portion extending radially towards the inner coil such that a thickness of the collet at each bulging portion is greater than a thickness of the collet at sections extending between the bulging portions, the point of attachment between the inner coil and the collet being situated on one of the bulging portions of the collet, the collet being symmetrical relative to the axis passing through the centre of the collet and said point of attachment,
wherein the distance between the centre of the collet and each of the center end points of each bulging portion are substantially the same to provide an outer contour on each bulging portion that includes two walls extending axially substantially parallel to each other but also parallel relative to a segment formed between the centre of the collet and the center end point of said bulging portion, and
wherein the band comprises, on the section between two vertices of said triangle which is opposite the point of attachment relative to the centre of the collet, a fourth bulging portion extending radially towards the inner coil so as to position the centre of gravity of the collet at the centre of the collet, and bulging portions are not included between each of the other vertices of said triangle.

US Pat. No. 9,684,283

PIVOT FOR TIMEPIECE MECHANISM

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A timepiece plate comprising:
at least one pivot for a timepiece mechanism, the pivot including a first rotational guide member for radially holding an
arbor in the plate, and a second front guide member for axially limiting an end of the arbor; and

at least one resilient shock absorber, including an upper shock absorber and a lower shock absorber, acting on at least the
first rotational guide member and/or the second front guide member, wherein the upper shock absorber and the lower shock absorber
are made in a one-piece manner by a MEMS or LIGA or lithography manufacturing technology for microcomponents, in a micromachinable
material or silicon or quartz or diamond or ruby or corundum with at least one structural element other than the first rotational
guide member and the second front guide member such that the upper shock absorber, the lower shock absorber, and the at least
one structural element form one piece;

the pivot including a first level and a second level which are superposed, and the first rotational guide member being suspended
to the structural element via at least the upper shock absorber on the first level, and the second front guide member being
suspended to the structural element via at least the lower shock absorber on the second level;

the plate forming the structural element for at least one of the pivot comprised therein,
wherein the first rotational guide member and the second front guide member are both made in a one-piece manner with the plate
by a MEMS or LIGA or lithography manufacturing technology for microcomponents, in a micromachinable material or in silicon
or quartz or diamond or ruby or corundum, and

wherein:
on the first level the first rotational guide member is suspended from an upper jewel-setting by a first connecting element,
the first connecting element being a flexible element separate from the upper shock absorber, the upper jewel-setting being
suspended from the structural element by the upper shock absorber, or

on the second level the second front guide member is suspended from a lower jewel-setting by a second connecting element,
the second connecting element being a flexible element separate from the lower shock absorber, the lower jewel-setting being
suspended from the structural element by the lower shock absorber.

US Pat. No. 9,575,465

PALLET LEVER FOR THE ESCAPEMENT MECHANISM OF A WATCH MOVEMENT

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A pallet lever for an escapement mechanism of a watch movement, including a fork portion, a pallet-stone holder portion,
pallet-stones mounted on the pallet-stone holder portion, and a lever interconnecting the pallet-stone holder portion to the
fork portion, the fork portion including a fork, a guard pin and a stud, the lever and the pallet-stone holder portion being
integral and forming a one-piece main body of the pallet lever, and the fork is an added part secured to the main body by
means of the stud driven into a securing hole in the main body and a securing hole in the fork, the added fork being at a
distance from the main body, wherein the stud is manufactured from a material having virtually no elongation at break and
a hardness greater than or equal to 850 HV.

US Pat. No. 9,551,976

PALLET LEVER FOR A TIMEPIECE ESCAPEMENT MECHANISM

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A timepiece assembly comprising:
a bottom plate; and
a mechanism for intermittent blocking of at least one escape wheel;
the intermittent blocking mechanism cooperating with at least one regulating member or a balance which is configured to be
actuated with an alternate motion under action of at least one balance spring or an alternate elastic return means,

the intermittent blocking mechanism being configured to be pivoted in at least the bottom plate,
wherein the intermittent blocking mechanism forms an inseparable one-piece component with the bottom plate, which also forms
a one-piece component with a first bearing for the escape wheel and with a second pivot bearing for the regulating member
or of the balance,

the first bearing and the second bearing being remote from each other with a fixed distance between centers thereof, and the
intermittent blocking mechanism pivoting about a virtual axis whose theoretical position is defined with reference to positions
of the first bearing and the second bearing,

wherein the inseparable one-piece component includes a position adjustable mechanism including a rigid structure carrying,
via a least one elastic strip, a position adjustable component including indexing means arranged to cooperate with complementary
indexing means comprised in an adjustment mechanism, the complementary indexing means being detachably mounted to the indexing
means and being blockable in a position of cooperation by a blocking mechanism elastically fixed to the structure, the blocking
mechanism being in turn subjected to action of a locking mechanism which allows the blocking mechanism to occupy either an
uncoupled position in which the adjustment mechanism is free, or a coupled position in which the blocking mechanism hinders
the adjustment mechanism, the locking mechanism also being elastically fixed to the structure.

US Pat. No. 9,804,567

CONSTANT FORCE ESCAPEMENT MECHANISM

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A constant force escapement mechanism for a timepiece movement, configured to be inserted between, on a first upstream
side, a gear train driven by an energy storage device, and on a second downstream side, an oscillator, the escapement mechanism
comprising, from upstream to downstream:
an input wheel;
a detent lever;
an escape wheel;
a stop member;
wherein the stop member is configured to cooperate downstream with the oscillator and upstream with a first toothing comprised
in the escape wheel,

wherein the escape wheel is a flexible one-piece component comprising a felloe carrying the first toothing and a pinion permanently
meshing with the input wheel which is configured to mesh with an input of the gear train, and the felloe and the pinion are
connected to each other by flexible arms configured to store energy from the gear train and to restore the energy according
to a position of the detent lever,

wherein the detent lever includes a first arm configured to cooperate with the first toothing of the escape wheel, and a second
arm configured to cooperate with a second toothing comprised in the input wheel to stop or release the input wheel,

wherein the detent lever is configured to tilt, about a pivot bearing comprised therein, at each passage of at least one tooth
of the first toothing of the escape wheel, and

wherein the pivot bearing is sized to allow passage of a determined number of teeth of the second toothing of the input wheel.

US Pat. No. 9,731,964

MICROMECHANICAL COMPONENT WITH A REDUCED CONTACT SURFACE AND ITS FABRICATION METHOD

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A method for fabricating a silicon-based micromechanical component comprising the following steps:
a) taking a silicon-based substrate;
b) forming a mask pierced with holes on a horizontal portion of the substrate;
c) etching, in an etching chamber, substantially vertical walls, in a part of the thickness of the substrate, from holes of
the mask, in order to form peripheral walls of the micromechanical component;

d) forming a protective layer on the vertical walls, leaving the bottom of the etch made in step c) without any protective
layer;

e) etching, in the etching chamber, predetermined oblique walls, in the remaining thickness of the substrate from the bottom,
which has no protective layer, in order to form oblique lower surfaces beneath the peripheral walls of the micromechanical
component;

f) releasing the micromechanical component from the mask and from the substrate.

US Pat. No. 9,511,990

COMPLEX MICROMECHANICAL PART

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A method of fabricating a micromechanical part in a single-piece made of a synthetic carbon-allotrope, comprising:
a) forming a substrate which includes a negative cavity for the micromechanical part to be fabricated;
b) coating the substrate, including the negative cavity and a portion of the substrate surrounding the negative cavity, with
a layer of the synthetic carbon allotrope in a thickness of between 0.2 ?m and 20 ?m, the thickness being less than the depth
of the negative cavity;

c) removing, after step b), from the substrate a larger thickness than the thickness of the layer of the synthetic carbon
allotrope deposited by the coating such that the layer of the synthetic carbon allotrope is removed from the portion of the
substrate surrounding the negative cavity, so as to leave a limited thickness of the layer of material in the negative cavity;
and

d) removing the substrate so as to release the single-piece micromechanical part formed in the negative cavity comprising
an external surface of comparable roughness to that of the substrate.

US Pat. No. 9,317,015

TIMEPIECE ANTI-TRIP MECHANISM

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A timepiece limiter or transmission mechanism to limit or transmit an angular travel of a mobile component of a timepiece
movement, said mobile component including at least one projecting pin or tooth, said timepiece limiter or transmission mechanism
comprising:
a limiting or transmission component which is fixed, via at least one monolithic flexible multistable bistable element, to
another component of said movement or to a rigid structural element of said movement,

wherein said mechanism forms an anti-trip mechanism to limit the angular travel of a timepiece balance of a timepiece movement,
said balance including a staff and a pin projecting from said staff, said anti-trip mechanism including at least one flexible
multistable or bistable element, carrying at least one anti-trip stop member, and which is fixed, via a plurality of flexible
and elastic connecting members, to a rigid structural element of said timepiece movement, and

wherein one end of said anti-trip stop member is arranged, according to an angular position of said balance, to interfere
with a trajectory of said pin, and to perform a function of a stop member if said balance exceeds a normal angular travel
thereof, wherein said anti-strip stop member includes two arms, whose respective ends can each interfere with the trajectory
of said pin, wherein said flexible multistable or bistable element is fixed, via at least two flexible strips forming said
flexible and elastic connecting elements, to said rigid structural element and wherein said anti-trip stop member includes
at least two levels in order to hold said arms in a plane of said pin, on a first top level with said arms cooperating with
said pin, and on a second lower level with a dart cooperating with a notch in said balance, and wherein said flexible multistable
or bistable element includes flexible elements integrated in said arms of said stop member to prevent excessive shocks, wherein
said flexible multistable or bistable element and said at least one anti-trip stop member together form a monolithic component,
wherein said flexible and elastic connecting members are formed by at least thin strips each fixed at a first end to the structural
element and connected via a second end to the body of the flexible element in a “V” shape, so as to define a virtual pivot
about which the anti-trip stop member pivots, said flexible multistable or bistable element forming a flexible multistable
or bistable pivot, and wherein two additional flexible strips are mounted prestressed and buckled relative to said structural
element or relative to a frame comprised in said flexible multistable or bistable element, and said two additional flexible
strips are each fixed at a first end to the structural element and connected via a second end to the body of the flexible
element.

US Pat. No. 10,114,341

INERTIA SETTING OR POISING OF A TIMEPIECE SPRUNG BALANCE ASSEMBLY

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A method for producing and for setting inertia of and/or for poising a sprung balance assembly mounted in a timepiece oscillator mechanism which includes, mounted on a plate carrying a balance spring stud via a balance cock, the sprung balance assembly including a balance pivoting about a pivot axis and a balance spring whose inner coil is fixed to the balance or to a collet mounted integrally with the balance and whose outer coil is fixed to the stud to be held in the plate or in the balance cock, the method comprising:selecting a re-machining technology for setting the inertia of and/or for poising the balance by removal of material, from among tool or abrasive machining or laser beam or plasma projection or liquid jet projection, the re-machining technology being implemented by a re-machining means including a means of ablation and/or of charging and/or of deformation and/or of heat treatment;
defining, according to the selection of the re-machining technology, a value of a first distance, forming a minimum distance between any point of the balance spring and a re-machining area for setting the inertia of and/or for poising the balance;
determining a peripheral surface for setting the inertia of and/or for poising the balance, at a periphery of the balance, as a re-machining area, any point of the surface being separated from the balance spring by at least the value of the first predefined distance, to prevent any modification of features of the balance spring during irreversible re-machining of the balance on the peripheral area for setting the inertia of and/or for poising the balance on the assembled sprung-balance assembly;
making the balance spring, prior to attachment to the balance, with the outer coil thereof bent and/or twisted on the attachment thereof to the balance spring stud to move an active end part of the outer coil away from the peripheral surface;
manufacturing the balance and the balance spring, and irreversibly assembling to each other by fixing the inner coil to the balance or to the collet mounted integrally with the balance;
fixing the outer coil in position to the balance spring stud which is immobilized by irreversible attachment with respect to the balance cock;
defining, according to the selected re-machining technology, a value of a second distance, greater than or equal to the first distance and forming the minimum distance between the balance spring stud and the peripheral surface separated from the balance spring stud by a value greater than a second predefined distance, to prevent any modification of features of the attachment of the balance spring to the balance spring stud during re-machining of the balance on the peripheral area for setting the inertia of and/or for poising the balance on the assembled sprung-balance assembly;
determining a value and location of any necessary re-machining operations for setting the inertia and/or for poising;
determining a limit of a trajectory of the re-machining means, the limit being a volume external to a first surface of revolution about the pivot axis and resting on a minimum radius of the peripheral surface and at a third distance from any active point of the balance spring, the determining including comparing the third distance to the first distance to ensure that the third distance is equal to or greater than the first distance, and the first surface is a cone with a first apex centered on the pivot axis and whose first apex angle is lower than a first predetermined value; and
performing the inertia setting and/or poising re-machining operations only on the peripheral surface according to the limit of the trajectory of the re-machining means.

US Pat. No. 10,001,749

RESONATOR WITH REDUCED SENSITIVITY TO CLIMATIC VARIATIONS

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A compensating balance spring for a thermally compensated sprung balance resonator, comprising:a core formed from at least one non-metallic material including quartz; and
an electrically conductive and moisture-proof layer, including chromium and entirely coating the core, wherein
the electrically conductive and moisture-proof layer is at least partially formed on an oxidized coating that is interposed between the core and the layer, so that the electrically conductive and moisture-proof layer protects the oxidized coating from being exposed, and
the electrically conductive and moisture-proof layer includes a thickness that is configured to render the compensating balance spring mechanically less sensitive to variations in temperature and moisture when the layer collects condensation of moisture thereon.

US Pat. No. 9,927,772

FLEXIBLE CONSTANT-FORCE PALLET LEVER

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. Pallet lever for a timepiece escapement, comprising:a pallet head carrying at least one entry pallet and/or one exit pallet, and arranged to cooperate with an escape wheel;
a fork arranged to cooperate with a balance, wherein said fork includes a guard pin and horns for cooperation with said balance, and the angular position of said fork is variable relative to said head; and
at least one flexible strip which provides the only direct, permanent, mechanical connection between said head and said fork, wherein:
the range of pivoting motion of said head and that of said fork are limited with respect to each other by stops, and
said head includes at least a first arm including a first support and stop surface arranged to cooperate, in abutment or support, in certain relative positions of said head and of said fork, with a second support and stop surface in at least a second arm of said fork, and
a repulsive interaction between said head and said fork is achieved in a magnetic and/or electrostatic manner.

US Pat. No. 9,915,922

CONTACTLESS CYLINDER ESCAPEMENT

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A timepiece escapement mechanism, arranged to cooperate with means for providing torque and comprising at least one escape
wheel, which is subjected to a rotational torque, whose moment is lower than or equal to a nominal moment, about a first pivot
axis, under the action of said means for providing torque, and comprising a regulating member integral with a regulating wheel
set mounted to pivot about a second pivot axis, wherein said escapement mechanism constitutes a magnetic cylinder escapement,
and in that said escape wheel comprises a plurality of actuators, regularly spaced around the periphery of a first disc, pivoting
integrally with said escape wheel, said actuators each comprising magnetically charged or ferromagnetic magnetic field conductor
parts, and each being arranged to work in attraction, via said first disc, with at least a second disc comprised in said regulating
wheel set and pivoting integrally therewith, said second disc being soft ferromagnetic and not magnetically charged, each
said actuator including at least: a first magnetic impulse part, and a second magnetic stop part, which generate or guide
magnetic fields of substantially the same direction and the same sense, substantially parallel to said first pivot axis of
said escape wheel, and in that said escape mechanism comprises, substantially in the same plane as said second disc, a conductive
ferromagnetic plate, disposed underneath said first disc and not in contact therewith, said plate comprising a cutout which
surrounds, in a contactless manner, the periphery of said second disc, so as to provide a variable air-gap between said plate
and said second disc, and said plate being arranged to ensure the closing of the magnetic circuit formed by at least one said
actuator, said first disc, said second disc, and a structure in which said escape wheel pivots and which carries said plate,
and wherein said second disc comprises a first peripheral area defining with said plate a first air-gap greater than a second
air-gap that exists between said plate and a second peripheral area adjacent to said first area, and in that said actuators
and said first air-gap and said second air-gap are dimensioned such that a said first magnetic part can only cross said second
air-gap and is blocked by said first air-gap.

US Pat. No. 10,001,750

RESONATOR WITH REDUCED SENSITIVITY TO CLIMATIC VARIATIONS

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A compensating balance spring for a thermally compensated sprung balance resonator comprising:a core formed from at least one non-metallic material including quartz,
wherein the core is partially coated with at least one layer which is resistant and impermeable to moisture and comprises chromium,
the at least one layer that is resistant and impermeable to moisture is at least partially formed on an oxidized coating that is interposed between the core and the at least one layer, so that the at least one layer that is resistant and impermeable to moisture protects the oxidized coating from being exposed, and
the at least one layer that is resistant and impermeable to moisture includes a thickness that is configured to render the compensating balance spring mechanically less sensitive to variations in temperature and moisture when the at least one layer and a remainder of the core that is not coated with the at least one layer collect condensation of the moisture thereon.

US Pat. No. 9,740,174

METHOD FOR FABRICATION OF A SILICON-BASED COMPONENT WITH AT LEAST ONE OPTICAL ILLUSION PATTERN

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A method for fabrication of at least one silicon-based component with at least one optical illusion pattern, wherein the
method comprises the following steps:
a) forming a substrate comprising a silicon-based layer;
b) etching at least one hole through the thickness of the silicon-based layer to form the contour of the at least one silicon-based
component and blind recesses in the thickness of the silicon-based layer to form the at least one silicon-based component
with a flat surface comprising the at least one optical illusion pattern making the surface appear not to be flat;

c) releasing the at least one silicon-based component thereby formed from the substrate.

US Pat. No. 9,690,260

METHOD FOR ADJUSTING THE OSCILLATION FREQUENCY OF A SPRUNG BALANCE ASSEMBLY

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A method for adjustment of an oscillation frequency of a timepiece sprung balance assembly formed at random from among
a total output of balance springs and an output of balance wheels to obviate a need for any grading of the balance wheels
and balance springs:
wherein a predetermined mean value is set to produce said balance springs, and in order to limit a sample standard deviation
of said output of said balance springs to a predetermined maximum value,

wherein a predetermined mean value is set to produce balances, and in order to limit a sample standard deviation of said output
of said balances to a predetermined maximum value and within a given unbalance tolerance for a total population of said balances,

wherein:
a mean of a single batch of balance springs of a given type produces a given oscillation frequency for a predetermined balance
wheel inertia, each of said balance springs being finished, cut to be pinned up to a stud and ready for assembly, and forming
a single population of balance springs whose sample standard deviation is peculiar to an output of said single batch of balance
springs, and

a mean of a single batch of balances of a given type produces a given oscillation frequency for a predetermined balance spring
torque and forming a single population of balances whose sample standard deviation is peculiar to an output of said single
batch of balances,

the method comprising:
determining manufacturing parameters for said balances and said balance springs in order to classify said mean of the population
of the balances according to said mean of the population of the balance springs, so that there exists a difference corresponding
to a maximum allowable value of a decrease in inertia for each said balance, between extreme values of:

a gaussian distribution of theoretical frequency values for each balance as a function of said reference balance spring torque,
a gaussian distribution of theoretical frequency values for each balance spring as a function of said reference inertia of
the balance;

taking a random balance spring sample from said single balance spring batch, and
taking a random balance sample from said single batch of balances,
measuring a torque value of said balance spring sample,
machining said balance sample to adjust the unbalance of said balance sample to bring the unbalance within a given unbalance
tolerance, and

carrying out a complementary inertia adjustment operation of said balance sample taking into account the torque value of said
balance spring sample,

in order to form a sprung balance assembly oscillating at said oscillation frequency after said inertia adjustment operation
has been performed on said balance.

US Pat. No. 9,671,756

FASTENING OF A TIMEPIECE SPRING BY ADHESIVE BONDING

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A timepiece sub-assembly, comprising a balance spring stud arranged to be fastened to a balance cock of a timepiece movement,
and said sub-assembly comprising a balance spring, including in series and in order: a spiral wound part, an outer coil, a
connection area, and an end plate of larger section than that of said outer coil, said end plate ending in a distal end opposite
to said spiral wound part, said balance spring stud comprising, between an entry and an exit, a housing which is arranged,
in a first free state of said sub-assembly, to loosely contain said end plate of said balance spring with tangential mobility
in a tangential direction with respect to said outer coil in said connection area, and, in a second immobilised state of said
sub-assembly, to immobilise said end plate to which said housing is joined by a layer of adhesive which secures said end plate
and housing to each other, wherein, in said second immobilised state, said adhesive layer covers at least one change-of-section
shoulder of said end plate, and wherein, in said second immobilised state, said adhesive layer forms a mechanical seal for
said balance spring at least in a longitudinal direction of said housing substantially parallel to said tangential direction
of said balance spring, wherein said end plate includes at least one eye communicating with said layer in said second immobilised
state.

US Pat. No. 9,612,576

TIMEPIECE ESCAPEMENT MECHANISM WITHOUT LUBRICATION

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A timepiece escapement mechanism with improved tribology, comprising:
at least one pair of separate components including a first component and a second component respectively including a first
friction surface on the first component and a second friction surface on the second component, the first friction surface
and the second friction surface are ranged to cooperate in frictional contact with each other, wherein

said second friction surface includes at least one silicon-based material taken from a group including silicon, silicon dioxide,
amorphous silicon, polycrystalline silicon, porous silicon, or a mixture of silicon and silicon oxide, and wherein

said first friction surface is formed by a surface of a solid element which is made of solid silicon nitride in a stoichiometric
formulation Si3N4.

US Pat. No. 9,488,961

ASSEMBLY SYSTEM UTILISING A CONICAL, ELASTIC LOCKING ELEMENT

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. An assembly system comprising:
a member made of at least a first material including a staff and a shoulder, the staff of the member being received in an
aperture of a part made of a silicon-based material, wherein

the assembly system includes a locking element made of a metal or a metal alloy arranged to elastically attach the part made
of the silicon-based material between the shoulder of the member and the locking element, and wherein

the locking element is a washer having an internal wall including a substantially straight portion over part of a height of
the locking element which radially grips the staff of the member, the internal wall including, adjacent to the substantially
straight portion, a portion which flares conically towards the part made of the silicon-based material so that only a peripheral
portion of the locking element exerts an axial elastic force vertical to the shoulder of the member so as to secure assembly
of the member, the part made of the silicon-based material, and the locking element.

US Pat. No. 10,138,529

METHOD FOR FABRICATION OF A TIMEPIECE BALANCE SPRING

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A method for fabricating an antiferromagnetic and temperature compensated timepiece balance spring, the method comprising:(10) selecting an amagnetic compensating alloy comprising, by mass percent, between and including the range limit values:
from 21.0% to 25.0% of manganese,
from 9.0% to 13.0% of nickel,
from 6.0% to 15.0% of chromium,
from 0.2% to 2.0% of beryllium,
the remainder iron,
the total of the nickel and the manganese being higher than or equal to 33.0%;
(11) working said alloy to obtain a blank;
(12) shaping said blank by casting, forging, wire drawing, rolling, drawing, or any combination thereof, to obtain a blank of spring wire;
(13) winding said wire on a winder to obtain a spiral spring; and
(14) subjecting said spiral spring to at least a heat setting treatment, by annealing at a temperature comprised between 540° C. and 650° C., for a duration of 30 to 200 minutes, to obtain a balance spring.

US Pat. No. 10,061,269

BALANCE WHEEL-SPRING ASSEMBLY OF TIMEPIECE

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A balance wheel-spring system comprising:at least one balance wheel which oscillates about a pivot axis via a balance wheel shaft mounted between a bottom plate and a bridge and aligned on the pivot axis; and
at least one spring, one inner spiral of which is fixed to the balance wheel shaft or to a collet mounted integrally with the balance wheel shaft and one outer spiral of which is fixed to a stud integral with the bridge bearing the balance wheel shaft;
the balance wheel comprising a balance wheel hub, a rim, at least one arm connecting the hub to the rim, a front face of which includes a countersink and a rear face, the at least one arm comprising a housing for receiving and retaining at least one flyweight comprising a head and a rod, and the spring being mounted opposite the front face of the balance wheel,
wherein the at least one flyweight is mounted on the rear face of the balance wheel, on the at least one arm of the balance wheel,
wherein the head resting against the rear face of the balance wheel and the rod is flush with a bottom of the countersink, and
wherein a distance between the bottom of the countersink of the front face of the balance wheel and the spring is at a predetermined interval between 0.05 mm and 1.50 mm.

US Pat. No. 9,897,973

PIVOTING ASSEMBLY FOR A TIMEPIECE

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A pivoting assembly comprising:
two bearing assemblies one of which includes a bridge housing a bearing;
an arbor rotatably mounted between the two bearing assemblies, the arbor having a longitudinal axis, and
a member mounted on the arbor with an aid of at least one resilient washer which is in direct contact with the arbor,
wherein the bridge comprises a limit stop which protrudes from a surface of the bridge toward the at least one resilient washer
and is arranged to enter into direct contact with the at least one resilient washer along the longitudinal axis in order to
restrict the relative movement between the arbor and the one of the two bearing assemblies.

US Pat. No. 9,746,829

CONTACTLESS CYLINDER ESCAPEMENT MECHANISM FOR TIMEPIECES

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A timepiece escapement mechanism, comprising:
an escape wheel subjected to a rotational torque, having a lower or equal moment to a nominal moment, about a first pivot
axis; and

a resonator integral with a regulating wheel set mounted to pivot about a second real or virtual pivot axis;
the escape wheel including a plurality of actuators regularly spaced on a periphery thereof and each arranged to cooperate
directly with at least a first track of the regulating wheel set;

wherein each actuator includes first magnetic or electrostatic stopping means forming a barrier and arranged to cooperate
with the first track which is magnetically, or respectively electrically charged, or ferromagnetic, or respectively electrostatically
conductive, to exert on the first track a torque having a moment greater than the nominal moment; and

wherein each actuator further includes second stopping means arranged to constitute an end-of-travel stop, arranged to constitute
an autonomous escapement mechanism with at least a first complementary stop surface included in the regulating wheel set.

US Pat. No. 9,709,954

TIMEPIECE ASSORTMENT USING AN AMORPHOUS METAL ALLOY

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A method of assembling a timepiece assortment comprising the following steps:
a) separately manufacturing a timepiece component and a fixing element, the fixing element being manufactured from an at least
partially amorphous metal alloy;

b) partially inserting at least one portion of the timepiece component into the thickness of the fixing element heated to
between its vitreous transition temperature and its crystallisation temperature in order to form a timepiece component fixing
element assembly;

c) driving an arbor into a hole of the fixing element to form the timepiece assortment so as to leave a gap between timepiece
component and the arbor.

US Pat. No. 9,665,067

OPTIMISED ESCAPEMENT WITH SECURITY MEANS

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A timepiece escapement mechanism comprising:
a stop member between a resonator and an escape wheel set subjected to a drive torque lower than or equal to a substantially
non-zero nominal torque, the stop member comprising at least a first actuator arranged to cooperate with the resonator and
at least a second actuator arranged to cooperate with the escape wheel set, the at least one first actuator comprising at
least a first magnetically charged or ferromagnetic, or respectively electrically charged or electrostatically conductive
pole piece; and

the resonator comprising at least one first magnetically charged or ferromagnetic, or respectively electrically charged or
electrostatically conductive track, and at least the first pole piece and/or the first track creating a first magnetic or
electrostatic field in a first air gap between the at least one first pole piece and the first track;

wherein the first field has an intensity ensuring relative driving of the stop member and of the resonator provided that the
torque applied to the escape wheel set is lower than or equal to the nominal torque,

wherein the stop member and/or the resonator comprises first arresting means for limiting relative movement between the first
actuator and the resonator when the torque applied to the escape wheel set is greater than the nominal torque, and

wherein the first arresting means comprises a magnetic or electrically charged barrier arranged to create a magnetic or electrostatic
field higher than the first magnetic or electrostatic field beyond the first air gap.

US Pat. No. 10,088,804

PAWL LOCK ASSEMBLY SYSTEM

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A timepiece comprising a system for assembling a part in an aperture of a component, the system for assembling comprising a system for securing the component and the part to each other in a same plane, the system for securing comprising at least one pawl device configured to lock the component and the part such that, once the component and the part are locked, the component and the part are locked in a final assembled configuration and move integrally with each other,wherein the locking of the component and the part prevents the component and the part from slipping relative to one another in all directions once the component and the part are locked,
wherein the system for securing does not comprise a clutch mechanism, and
wherein, once the component and the part are locked, the component and the part are unable to be unlocked without destroying the system.

US Pat. No. 9,921,547

OSCILLATOR WITH ROTATING DETENT

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. An oscillator comprising:
a pivoting staff connected to a mechanical energy source,
an inertia-elasticity resonator in one piece comprising a member forming the inertia fitted with a release element and a flexible
structure forming the elasticity, which is mounted between the pivoting staff and the member forming the inertia,

a detent escapement comprising a single-piece detent fixed to the pivoting staff, which comprises at least one flexible blade
and a stop member arranged to elastically lock the pivoting staff in relation to a concentric escapement toothing, wherein

the release element is arranged to elastically unlock the stop member in relation to the concentric escapement toothing, by
movement of the member forming the inertia, so that the pivoting staff counts each oscillation of the resonator while transmitting
to the resonator the energy able to maintain the resonator.

US Pat. No. 10,126,713

TIMEPIECE COMPONENT WITH A PART WITH A DECOUPLED WELDING SURFACE

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A timepiece component comprising:a one-piece part welded on a member provided with a substantially horizontal surface and a substantially vertical surface, the one-piece part including a strip extending in a closed curve, the space delimited by the closed curve receiving the member,
wherein a lower portion of the substantially vertical surface is in direct contact with the substantially horizontal surface,
wherein the one-piece part includes a first plurality of elastic deformation portions and a second plurality of elastic deformation portions,
wherein said elastic deformation portions of said first plurality are attached to the substantially vertical surface, and
wherein said elastic deformation portions of said second plurality are welded on the substantially horizontal surface and not in direct contact with said substantially vertical surface.

US Pat. No. 10,048,649

TIMEPIECE SPRING MADE OF AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A spring for a timepiece or piece of jewelry comprising a stainless steel alloy comprising:a base comprising iron and chromium, arranged in an austenitic face centered cubic structure and comprising manganese and nitrogen,
wherein, at least in an area of smallest thickness thereof, the spring has a thickness of less than 0.20 mm;
and further wherein composition by mass of the alloy is:
chromium: minimum value 15%, maximum value 25%;
manganese: minimum value 5%, maximum value 25%;
nitrogen: minimum value 0.40%, maximum value 0.75%;
carbon: minimum value 0.10%, maximum value 1.00%;
with the total (C+N) carbon and nitrogen content between 0.50% and 1.50% by mass;
with the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N) by mass between 0.133 and 0.550;
impurities and additional metals with the exception of iron: minimum value 0%, maximum value 12.0%;
iron: the complement to 100%.

US Pat. No. 9,766,590

METHOD OF PRODUCING A DECORATED COMPONENT FOR A TIMEPIECE OR PIECE OF JEWELLERY, AND COMPONENT MADE BY THE METHOD

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A method for producing a decorated timepiece component, the method comprising:
taking a base substrate and performing a micromachining operation on or in said base substrate in order to obtain an upper
part of the component with a decoration of micrometric structure that extends completely through a thickness of the upper
part in a programmed pattern, the micromachining operation including etching openings as part of the decoration that extend
completely through the thickness of the upper part;

producing a base support that includes a housing extending upward from a surface of the base support, the base support including
an opening within the housing;

filling the base support with a luminescent or colored substance up to a top of the opening of the housing; and
after the filling the base support, fixing the upper part on the housing of the base support such that the luminescent or
colored substance is visible through the openings in the decoration of the upper part.

US Pat. No. 9,671,755

ASSEMBLY SYSTEM UTILIZING A FLAT, ELASTIC LOCKING ELEMENT

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. An assembly system comprising:
a member made of at least a first material including a staff and a shoulder, the staff of the member being received in the
aperture of a part made of a second material,

wherein the assembly system includes a locking element made of a third material arranged to elastically attach the part between
the shoulder of said member and the locking element, and

wherein the locking element is a washer whose internal wall radially grips the staff of said member and, after the washer
is moved to contact the part in order to secure the member-part-locking element assembly, the washer is elastically deformed
to exert an axial force to the shoulder of said member that is larger along peripheral portions of the washer than at radially
inward portions of the washer, and

wherein the second material is silicon-based.

US Pat. No. 9,989,921

TIMEPIECE ASSORTMENT USING AN AMORPHOUS METAL ALLOY

NIVAROX-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A timepiece assortment that is assembled by the following steps:a) separately manufacturing a timepiece component and a fixing element, the fixing element being manufactured from an at least partially amorphous metal alloy;
b) partially inserting at least one portion of the timepiece component into a thickness of the fixing element heated to between its vitreous transition temperature and its crystallization temperature in order to form a timepiece component fixing element assembly;
c) driving an arbor into a hole of the fixing element to form the timepiece assortment so as to leave a gap between timepiece component and the arbor,
the timepiece assortment comprising:
the timepiece component fixed to the arbor with the aid of the fixing element including the hole into which the arbor is driven, wherein the fixing element is secured to the timepiece component by partial insertion of one into the other, and wherein the timepiece component includes an opening which extends around the hole of the fixing element and has a larger cross-section so that the gap is between a wall of the opening and the arbor.

US Pat. No. 10,214,831

ONE-PIECE ELECTROFORMED METAL COMPONENT

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A method for fabricating a one-piece component, comprising:a) forming a mould on an electrically conductive substrate;
b) filling the mould by electroforming to form at least one one-piece metal component comprising an electroformed metal body;
c) releasing the at least one one-piece metal component from the electrically conductive substrate and from the mould;
wherein the method further comprises:
d) effecting desorption of trapped hydrogen in the at least one one-piece metal component during electroforming so as to form, only over a predetermined depth of an external surface of the body, a hardening relative to the rest of the body,
wherein the metal is electroformed in the filling b) in amorphous form and the external surface comprises an at least partially crystalline phase of the electroformed metal.

US Pat. No. 10,162,310

METHOD OF FORMING A DECORATIVE SURFACE ON A MICROMECHANICAL TIMEPIECE PART AND SAID MICROMECHANICAL TIMEPIECE PART

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A method of forming a decorative surface on a micromechanical timepiece part including a silicon-based substrate, said method comprising:forming pores on the surface of said silicon-based substrate over a zone of the silicon-based substrate which corresponds to the decorative surface to be formed, said pores being designed to open out at an external surface of the micromechanical timepiece part,
wherein said pores are assimilated, in the plane of the timepiece part, with orifices of circular section, and have a diameter between 10 nm and 1,000 nm and a depth greater than 100 nm.

US Pat. No. 10,106,400

ONE-PIECE, HOLLOW MICROMECHANICAL PART WITH SEVERAL FUNCTIONAL LEVELS FORMED OF A SYNTHETIC CARBON ALLOTROPE BASED MATERIAL

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Lec...

1. A method for fabrication of a one-piece micromechanical part made of a synthetic carbon allotrope based material, the method comprising:a) forming a substrate, the substrate including, on at least three levels, a negative cavity for the one-piece micromechanical part to be fabricated;
b) coating the negative cavity of the substrate with a layer of the synthetic carbon allotrope based material in a smaller thickness than a depth of each of the at least three levels of the negative cavity; and
c) removing the substrate to release the one-piece micromechanical part formed in the negative cavity,
wherein a) comprises:
i) forming a first wafer including at least a first pattern etched through;
ii) forming a second wafer including at least a second pattern etched through;
iii) forming a third wafer with no through pattern; and
iv) bonding the first, second, and third wafers to form the substrate including the negative cavity on the at least three levels.

US Pat. No. 10,343,234

FABRICATION METHOD INCLUDING A MODIFIED ASSEMBLY STEP

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A method for fabrication of a timepiece component comprising:forming a first part made from metal and a second part made from silicon or ceramic;
mounting an intermediate part on a shoulder of the first part;
mounting a first surface of the second part directly on a surface of the intermediate part and a second surface of the second part directly on a surface of the first part; and
welding, by laser electromagnetic radiation, the first surface of the second part to the surface of the intermediate part and welding the second surface of the second part to the surface of the first part, in order to secure the first part, the second part, and the intermediate part to each other and to form the timepiece component.

US Pat. No. 10,281,879

MICROMECHANICAL TIMEPIECE PART COMPRISING A LUBRICATED SURFACE AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING SUCH A MICROMECHANICAL TIMEPIECE PART

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A micromechanical timepiece part comprising;a silicon-based substrate including at least one surface;
pores on at least one part of said surface, the pores being configured to open out at an external surface of the micromechanical timepiece part and comprising a tribological agent; and
pillars between the pores, the pillars being silicon-based fibres, wherein at least one polymer brush including fibres covers walls of the silicon-based fibres, a length of the fibres of the polymer brush being shorter than a length of the silicon-based fibres, the polymer brush and the silicon-based fibres being impregnated with the tribological agent.

US Pat. No. 10,197,973

SILICON-BASED COMPONENT WITH AT LEAST ONE CHAMFER AND ITS FABRICATION METHOD

Nivarox-FAR S.A., Le Loc...

1. A method for fabricating a micromechanical component made of a silicon-based material comprising:taking a silicon-based substrate;
forming a mask pierced with holes on a horizontal portion of the substrate;
etching, in an etching chamber, predetermined oblique walls, in part of a thickness of the substrate, from the holes in the mask, in order to form upper chamfered surfaces of the micromechanical component, by continually flowing both an etching gas and a passivation gas simultaneously in the etching chamber during the etching of the predetermined oblique walls while pulsing flow of at least one of the etching gas and the passivation gas;
etching, in the etching chamber, substantially vertical walls, in at least part of the thickness of the substrate, from a bottom of an etch made in the etching of the redetermined oblique walls, in order to form peripheral walls of the micromechanical component beneath the upper chamfered surfaces; and
releasing the micromechanical component from the substrate and the mask.