US Pat. No. 9,484,284

MICROFLUIDIC IMPINGEMENT JET COOLED EMBEDDED DIAMOND GAN HEMT

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A circuit assembly comprising:
a substrate including a top surface and a bottom surface, said substrate further including a plurality of microchannels formed
through the bottom surface and into the substrate;

a diamond layer provided within each of the microchannels in the substrate;
a plurality of semiconductor devices provided on the top surface of the substrate where each semiconductor device is positioned
directly opposite to a microchannel; and

a manifold coupled to the bottom surface of the substrate and including a plurality of channels formed therein that include
an impingement jet channel positioned adjacent each microchannel, a return channel positioned adjacent to each microchannel,
a supply channel supplying a cooling fluid to the impingement jet channels and a return channel collecting heated cooling
fluid from the supply channels so that an impingement jet of the cooling fluid is directed on to the diamond layer for removing
heat generated by the semiconductor devices.

US Pat. No. 9,196,703

SELECTIVE DEPOSITION OF DIAMOND IN THERMAL VIAS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method for fabricating a semiconductor device, said method comprising:
providing a semiconductor substrate including a front side and a back-side;
depositing semiconductor epitaxial layers on the front side of the semiconductor substrate;
etching at least one thermal via into the back-side of the semiconductor substrate;
depositing a diamond nucleation seed layer across the entire back-side of the semiconductor substrate so that the diamond
nucleation layer is deposited on planar portions of the back-side of the substrate and within the at least one thermal via
including sidewalls thereof;

depositing a mask layer on the diamond nucleation layer;
removing a portion of the mask layer outside of the thermal via on the planar portions of the back-side of the substrate so
that only mask material remains within the thermal via;

removing a portion of the diamond nucleation layer on the planar portions of the substrate outside of the at least one thermal
via;

removing the remaining portion of the mask material in the thermal via;
depositing a bulk diamond layer within the thermal via on the remaining portion of the diamond nucleation layer in a manner
that only allows diamond to be formed within the thermal via and not on the planar portions of the back-side of the substrate;
and

fabricating device layers on the epitaxial layers.

US Pat. No. 9,648,749

CIRCUIT CARD ASSEMBLY AND METHOD OF PROVIDING SAME

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A circuit card assembly, comprising:
a substantially planar substrate having longitudinally spaced first and second substrate end edges, transversely spaced top
and bottom substrate surfaces, and laterally spaced first and second substrate side edges, at least a selected one of the
top and bottom substrate surfaces having laterally arranged, longitudinally extending first, second, and third substrate regions,
the first substrate region being directly laterally adjacent the first substrate side edge, the third substrate region being
directly laterally adjacent the second substrate side edge, and the second substrate region being located laterally between
the first and third substrate regions; and

at least one circuit trace located on the selected substrate surface, with a portion of the circuit trace located in the first
substrate region being made of only a first material, a portion of the circuit trace located in the third substrate region
being made of only a second material, and a portion of the circuit trace located in the second substrate region being made
of both the first and second materials.

US Pat. No. 9,234,912

ATOMIC FAR-OFF RESONANCE TRAP (FORT) ACCELEROMETER SYSTEM

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An accelerometer system comprising:
a Far-Off Resonance Trap (FORT) control system configured to generate an optical trapping beam;
a FORT accelerometer detection system comprising a FORT that is configured to trap a cluster of atoms based on the optical
trapping beam, and also comprising an interrogation system configured to determine motion of the cluster of atoms along at
least one axis resulting from an external acceleration in the at least one axis based on a relative phase shift of an optical
probe beam through the cluster of atoms; and

an acceleration processor configured to calculate the external acceleration in the at least one axis based on the relative
phase shift of the optical probe beam.

US Pat. No. 9,252,182

INFRARED MULTIPLIER FOR PHOTO-CONDUCTING SENSORS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A photo-conducting infrared sensor, comprising:
(i) a substrate comprising a first surface including one or more trenches;
(ii) an infrared-reflective film deposited directly or indirectly onto and conforming in shape with the first surface of the
substrate; and

(iii) a lead chalcogenide film deposited directly over the top of the infrared-reflective film and conforming in shape with
the first surface of the substrate such that the infrared-reflective film is directly or indirectly sandwiched between the
substrate and the lead chalcogenide film.

US Pat. No. 9,369,133

HYBRID QUANTUM CIRCUIT ASSEMBLY

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A hybrid qubit circuit assembly comprising:
a first plural set of Josephson junctions arranged in series on a first path between two nodes of a circuit; and
a second plural set of Josephson junctions arranged in parallel with one another to form a direct current superconducting
quantum interference device (DC SQUID), the DC SQUID being in parallel with the first plural set of Josephson junctions;

wherein the hybrid qubit circuit assembly is responsive to a flux provided to the DC SQUID as to transition between a first
operating regime, in which the hybrid qubit circuit assembly behaves as a flux qubit, and a second operating regime, in which
the hybrid qubit circuit assembly behaves as a Transmon qubit.

US Pat. No. 9,154,107

LATERAL OVER-MODED BULK ACOUSTIC RESONATORS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

14. A channelizer system configured to separate an input signal into a plurality of frequency subbands to comprising:
a roofing filter configured to limit an input signal to a frequency band of interest;
a plurality of acoustic resonators, each comprising a sheet of low acoustic loss material and a transducer comprising an electromechanical
material disposed on and in contact with a given surface of the sheet, the plurality of acoustic resonators being configured
such that their corresponding sheets of low acoustic loss material are substantially coplanar, wherein the low acoustic loss
material comprises one of yttrium-aluminum-garnet, Gadolinium-Gallium-Garnet (GGG), and Spinel; and

a plurality of filters, each filter representing one of the plurality of frequency subbands and comprising an associated set
of at least one of the plurality of acoustic resonators, an associated length of each of the set of acoustic resonators associated
with a given filter being a function of its associated frequency sideband.

US Pat. No. 9,208,861

PHASE HYSTERETIC MAGNETIC JOSEPHSON JUNCTION MEMORY CELL

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A memory cell comprising:
a phase hysteretic magnetic Josephson junction (PHMJJ) that is configured to store one of a first binary logic state corresponding
to a binary logic-1 state and a second binary logic state corresponding to a binary logic-0 state in response to a write current
and to generate a superconducting phase based on the stored digital state; and

at least one Josephson junction having a critical current that is based on the superconducting phase of the PHMJJ and being
configured to provide an output corresponding to the stored digital state in response to a read current.

US Pat. No. 9,472,634

ALL AROUND CONTACT DEVICE AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A device comprising:
a first pillar disposed in a first region and overlying a base structure;
a second pillar disposed in a second region and overlying the base structure and being spaced apart from the first pillar
by a device region;

a bridge disposed in the device region with a first end connected to the first pillar and a second end connected to the second
pillar, the bridge having a top, sides, and a bottom, the bridge being formed from one or more heterostructures with an undercut
opening extending from the bridge to an underlying structure; and

a four-sided conductive contact that wraps around and substantially surrounds the bridge around its top, its sides and its
bottom along at least a portion of its length between the first and second end.

US Pat. No. 9,422,459

COATINGS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST CORROSION IN ADHESIVELY BONDED STEEL JOINTS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An apparatus comprising:
a first steel component having a first surface;
a second steel component having a second surface;
an electrically conductive, corrosion resistant coating directly on at least one of the first and second surfaces; and
an electrically conductive adhesive directly between the electrically conductive, corrosion resistant coating and one of the
first and second surfaces, the electrically conductive adhesive bonding the first and second components together.

US Pat. No. 9,058,474

BIOMETRIC DEVICE, SYSTEM, AND METHOD FOR INDIVIDUAL ACCESS CONTROL

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A biometric system useable to control human access to an arbitrary area, the biometric system comprising:
a central server provided at a remote location; and
a biometric device comprising:
a biometric capture system that reads specified biometric information from an individual and that compares the specified biometric
information to previously stored biometric information to determine a match between the read and stored biometric information;

a position location system that determines geographic location data of the biometric device;
an encryption system that encrypts the geographic location data and a device-unique identification; and
a wireless system using a wireless connection, that sends the encrypted geographic location data and the encrypted device-unique
identification to the central server;

wherein the central server determines a geographic location of the biometric device from the encrypted geographic location
data received from the biometric device, wherein if the geographic location is inside the United States, the biometric device
receives a test satisfactory signal from the central server, and wherein if the geographic location is outside the United
States, the central server determines that an exit verification procedure is in progress and updates a travel record with
the date and time of exit, the central server generates an exit verification signal based on the determined geographic location
and sends the exit verification signal to the biometric device, and the biometric device receives the exit verification signal
from the central server and displays an exit verification in response to the received exit verification signal; and

wherein the biometric device is shut down and disabled upon receiving the exit verification signal or the biometric device
disconnects the wireless connection upon receiving the exit verification signal.

US Pat. No. 9,425,110

YIELD ENHANCING VERTICAL REDUNDANCY METHOD FOR 3D WAFER LEVEL PACKAGED (WLP) INTEGRATED CIRCUIT SYSTEMS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

12. A method for fabricating a three-dimensional wafer level package including vertically redundant integrated circuits, said
method comprising:
providing a plurality of wafer substrates;
fabricating a plurality of integrated circuits on each of the wafer substrates;
testing a performance of each of the integrated circuits on all of the wafer substrates;
generating a wafer map for each of the wafer substrates based on the performance test for each of the integrated circuits
on each wafer substrate that identifies each circuit as being an operable active circuit or an inoperable inactive circuit
based on its performance;

pairing two or more wafer substrates together based on their respective wafer maps to optimize a yield of pairs of vertically
opposed circuits where an optimized number of pairs of integrated circuits includes at least one active circuit;

processing each integrated circuit on each wafer based on the wafer-to-wafer pairing so that the active circuits include active
circuit connections and the inactive circuits include a metallization layer that short circuits components in the inactive
circuit; and

providing wafer-to-wafer bonding of the wafer substrates that have been paired together so that vertically opposed active
and inactive integrated circuits are positioned within a cavity between the wafer substrates.

US Pat. No. 9,202,906

SUPERLATTICE CRENELATED GATE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A field effect transistor device comprising:
a base structure;
a first heterostructure having a first layer located over said base structure, a second layer located over said first layer,
and a first 2DxG channel located near the interface between said first and said second layers;

a first delta doping material located in the second layer near the interface between the first layer and second layer;
a second heterostructure having a third layer located in direct contact with said second layer, a fourth layer located over
said third layer, and a second 2DxG channel located near the interface between said third and said fourth layers;

a second delta doping material located in the fourth layer near the interface between the third layer and fourth layer;
a third heterostructure having a fifth layer located over said fourth layer, a sixth layer located over said fifth layer,
and a third 2DxG channel located near the interface between said fifth and said sixth layers;

a source electrode located over said sixth layer and ohmically connected to each of said 2DxG channels;
a drain electrode located over said sixth layer and ohmically connected to each of said 2DxG channels;
a plurality of trenches located between said source electrode and said drain electrode, each of said trenches having a length,
a width and a depth defining a first sidewall surface, a second sidewall surface and a bottom surface located therebetween,
the bottom surface of each of said trenches being at or below the first 2DxG channel;

wherein all of said 2DxG channels are either 2DEG channels or 2DHG channels, thereby creating a unipolar device; and
a crenelated gate electrode located over said sixth layer, said gate electrode located within each of said trenches, said
gate electrode having a top and a bottom surface, the bottom surface of said gate electrode being in juxtaposition with the
first sidewall surface, the bottom surface and the second sidewall surface of each of said trenches.

US Pat. No. 9,440,358

ROBOTIC TOOL CHANGE SYSTEM

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A robotic tool system comprising:
a robotic gripping mechanism including a pair of movable jaws, each jaw having a convex inner surface that cooperate to define
a first adaptor having a spheroid shape, a first electrical coupling being positioned within at least one of the jaws; and

a tool assembly including a tool and a spheroid second adaptor connected to the tool, a second electrical coupling being positioned
within the second adaptor;

the jaws being movable towards one another from a first condition spaced from the second adaptor to a second condition in
which the first adaptor engages the second adaptor to securely fasten the tool assembly to the gripping mechanism, the first
and second electrical couplings being electrically connected with one another when the jaws are in the second condition, engagement
of the first adaptor with the second adaptor when the second adaptor is misaligned with the first adaptor automatically correcting
at least one of angular and longitudinal misalignment between the adaptors to allow the jaws to reach the second condition.

US Pat. No. 9,143,028

POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS AND METHODS

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A method for generating a clock signal via an oscillator system, the method comprising:
increasing a first comparison voltage at a first comparison node of a comparator from a first magnitude to a second magnitude
in response to a first state of a clock signal that is output from the comparator;

increasing a second comparison voltage at a second comparison node of the comparator from approximately the first magnitude
to greater than the second magnitude in response to the first state of the clock signal;

changing the clock signal from the first state to a second state in response to the second comparison voltage increasing to
a magnitude that is greater than the first comparison voltage;

decreasing the first comparison voltage from the second magnitude to the first magnitude in response to the second state of
the clock signal;

decreasing a second comparison voltage from approximately the second magnitude to less than the first magnitude in response
to the second state of the clock signal; and

changing the clock signal from the second state to the first state in response to the second comparison voltage decreasing
to a magnitude that is less than the first comparison voltage.

US Pat. No. 9,461,613

SUPERCONDUCTING PHASE-SHIFT SYSTEM

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A superconducting phase-shift system comprising:
an all-pass filter comprising at least one variable inductance element comprising at least one Superconducting Quantum Interference
Device (SQUID), the all-pass filter being configured to receive an input signal and to provide the input signal as an output
signal that is phase-shifted relative to the input signal based on a variable inductance provided by each of the at least
one variable inductance element; and

a phase controller configured to provide a phase-control current to control the variable inductance of the at least one variable
inductance element based on a characteristic of the phase-control current.

US Pat. No. 9,384,827

TIMING CONTROL IN A QUANTUM MEMORY SYSTEM

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A quantum memory system comprising:
a plurality of quantum memory cells arranged in an array of rows and columns, each of the plurality of quantum memory cells
being configured to store a binary logic state in response to write currents in a write operation and configured to provide
an indication of the binary logic state in response to read currents in a read operation; and

an array controller comprising a plurality of flux pumps configured to provide the write currents and the read currents with
respect to the rows and columns, the array controller being configured to control timing associated with the write operation
and the read operation in response to memory request signals based on application of the write currents and the read currents
and based on recharging flux associated with the plurality of flux pumps.

US Pat. No. 9,362,710

MULTICHANNEL CONTROLLER

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method of output control, comprising the steps of:
modifying an adjustable characteristic of each of a plurality of inputs using a setpoint belonging to a plurality of setpoints
and a dither magnitude belonging to a plurality of dither magnitudes, each input being modified using a different setpoint
belonging to the plurality of setpoints and a different dither magnitude belonging to the plurality of dither magnitudes,
the modifying resulting in a plurality of modified inputs;

obtaining a first measurement of a characteristic of an output associated with the dither magnitude added to the setpoint,
the output resulting from a combination using the plurality of modified inputs;

obtaining a second measurement of the characteristic associated with the dither magnitude subtracted from the setpoint;
using the first and second measurements to calculate a current adjustment value;
modifying each dither magnitude in the plurality of dither magnitudes using the current adjustment value to create a plurality
of currently adjusted dither magnitudes;

combining each currently adjusted dither magnitude belonging to the plurality of currently adjusted dither magnitudes with
a corresponding integrated prior adjusted dither magnitude belonging to a plurality of integrated prior adjusted dither magnitudes
to create a plurality of setpoint adjustments; and

updating the plurality of setpoints by combining each setpoint adjustment belonging to the plurality of setpoint adjustments
with a corresponding setpoint belonging to the plurality of setpoints.

US Pat. No. 9,286,720

LOCATIVE VIDEO FOR SITUATION AWARENESS

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A system for providing a combined video stream with geospatial information, comprising:
a camera providing a video stream showing a view of the camera and camera position information;
a geospatial data repository;
a computer including:
locative video software that receives video frames of the video stream and the camera position information from the camera;
and

a visualization tool that instantiates a virtual camera and a virtual visualization space, wherein the visualization tool
receives the camera position information from the locative video software, retrieves geospatial data from the geospatial data
repository, and uses the camera position information and the geospatial data to position the virtual camera within the virtual
visualization space by rendering and mathematically transforming, without ortho-rectifying, the geospatial data to align a
view of the virtual camera with the camera view such that the virtual camera view mimics the camera view;

wherein the locative video software periodically requests and receives geospatial snapshots of the virtual camera view from
the visualization tool, and combines the video frames and the geospatial snapshots to generate a combined video stream, the
geospatial snapshots provide captured virtual camera view images corresponding to the geospatial data retrieved from the geospatial
data repository, the combined video stream including information associated with one or more geospatial features in the video
frames and nearby landmarks, and wherein the associated information is rendered in geospatial alignment with the one or more
geospatial features.

US Pat. No. 9,281,749

MULTIPLE POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A power supply system comprising a plurality of power supplies, each of the plurality of power supplies comprising:
an oscillator system configured to generate a clock signal at a clock node, wherein the oscillator system of each of the plurality
of power supplies is electrically coupled at the clock node to synchronize the clock signal associated with each of the plurality
of power supplies;

a pulse-width modulation (PWM) generator configured to generate a PWM switching signal based on an error voltage and the clock
signal; and

a power stage configured to generate an output voltage based on the PWM switching signal.

US Pat. No. 9,197,006

ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR HAVING MALE AND FEMALE CONTACTS IN CONTACT WITH A FLUID IN FULLY MATED CONDITION

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A wet-mateable electrical connector in an adverse environment comprising:
a female connector body comprising at least one receptacle;
a female contact disposed within the at least one receptacle; and
a male connector body having at least one axially directed male contact pin having a forward end portion; wherein
the male contact pin and the female contact form a releasable fully-mated engagement, and wherein the male and female contact
are in contact with fluids in

the fully-mated engagement and
wherein a high resistance ionic path is created between the male contact pin and the female contact and the environment surrounding
the male contact pin and the female contact when the male contact pin and the female contact are fully-mateably engaged and
wherein the high resistance ionic path comprises a channel defined by a first sidewall and a second sidewall extending axially
from the contact surface of the female connector body or male connector body.

US Pat. No. 9,355,362

QUANTUM BITS AND METHOD OF FORMING THE SAME

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

9. A method of forming Josephson junction (JJ) quantum bits (qubits), the method comprising:
depositing a first superconductor material layer over a substrate;
forming a dielectric layer over the first superconductor material layer;
depositing a second superconductor material layer over the dielectric layer, the first superconductor material layer, the
dielectric layer and the second superconductor material layer forming a JJ trilayer;

annealing the JJ trilayer in an inert environment at a temperature between about 150° C. to about 400° C. for a time period
between about 15 minute to about 120 minutes to control diffusion of the dielectric layer into the first superconductor material
layer and the second superconductor material layer; and

etching openings in the JJ trilayer to form one or more JJ qubits.

US Pat. No. 9,355,364

RECIPROCAL QUANTUM LOGIC COMPARATOR FOR QUBIT READOUT

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A reciprocal quantum logic (RQL) readout system comprising:
an input stage on which a read pulse is provided;
an output stage configured to propagate an output pulse; and
an RQL comparator comprising a first Josephson junction and a second Josephson junction that are coupled to a qubit, such
that a bias current switches between a first Josephson junction in a first quantum state of the qubit and a second Josephson
junction in a second quantum state of the qubit, such that the first Josephson junction triggers to provide the output pulse
on the output stage in the first quantum state in response to the read pulse and the second Josephson junction triggers to
provide no output pulse on the output stage in the second quantum state in response to the read pulse.

US Pat. No. 9,154,234

EXTENDED RANGE UNDERSEA COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A transmitter comprising:
an ultraviolet (UV) encoder conversion block that receives network data from a network interface to generate a conversion
output, wherein the UV conversion block converts the network data to a modulated signal that drives a plurality of multi-spectrum
sources to generate the conversion output;

a wave front optical component to receive the conversion output from the UV encoder conversion block and generate an output
beam, wherein the wave front optical component employs refraction compensation to mitigate absorption and scattering of the
output beam in a liquid medium; and

an isotropic transmitter cluster to transmit the output beam received from the wave front optical component as photon energy
in the liquid medium; wherein the isotropic transmitter cluster includes at least two transmitting nodes to facilitate transmission
of the photon energy in a plurality of directions in the liquid medium.

US Pat. No. 9,054,500

INTEGRATED MICRO-PLASMA LIMITER

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A plasma power limiter comprising:
a signal substrate having a first side and a second side, said signal substrate including a signal-in line formed on the first
side of the signal substrate, a signal-in via extending through the signal substrate and being electrically coupled to the
signal-in line, a signal transmission line formed on the second side of the signal substrate and being electrically coupled
to the signal-in via, a signal-out via extending through the signal substrate and being electrically coupled to the signal
transmission line and a signal-out line formed on the first surface of the signal substrate and being electrically coupled
to the signal-out via; and

a trigger substrate having a first side and a second side, said trigger substrate being bonded to the signal substrate so
as to form a hermetically sealed cavity where the second side of the signal substrate faces the second side of the trigger
substrate within the cavity, said trigger substrate including at least one trigger probe extending from the second side of
the trigger substrate into the cavity towards the signal line, said cavity being filled with an ionizable gas, said at least
one trigger probe being covered by a trigger metal, wherein a signal propagating from the signal-in line to the signal-out
line through the signal line having a power level greater than a threshold power level will ionize the gas within the cavity
and create a short circuit between the signal transmission line and the trigger probe.

US Pat. No. 9,048,184

METHOD OF FORMING A GATE CONTACT

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

11. A method for forming a compound semiconductor device, the method comprising:
depositing a first photoresist material layer over a substrate;
depositing a second photoresist material layer over the first photoresist material layer, the second photoresist material
layer having a higher sensitivity to a photoresist development process than the first photoresist material layer;

performing an electron beam lithography process to form a first via in the first photoresist material layer and a second larger
via, overlying the first via, in the second photoresist material layer;

depositing a first conductive material to form a gate contact having a gate contact portion formed in the first via in contact
with the substrate and a wing contact portion located over and in contact with the gate contact portion in the second larger
via;

stripping a conductive material layer that results from the depositing the first conductive material from the second photoresist
material layer;

performing an oxygen O2 plasma process, after the stripping of the conductive material, to remove additional portions of the second photoresist material
layer from the second larger via to laterally extend the second larger via; and

evaporating and depositing, after the performing of the oxygen O2 plasma process, a second conductive material to form an outer wing contact portion to increase the cross-sectional area of
the wing contact portion, while maintaining the length of the gate contact portion, wherein the length of the gate contact
portion is selected to provide a desired operating frequency and the cross-sectional area of the wing contact portion is selected
to provide a desired gate contact resistance and to maintain the desired operating frequency.

US Pat. No. 9,478,458

WAVEGUIDE AND SEMICONDUCTOR PACKAGING

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A pixel for a sub-millimeter wavelength (SMMW) imaging system using a focal plane array (FPA) , each pixel of said FPA
comprising:
a chip interface layer comprising one or more DC through vias, and one or more solder balls on the upper surface of the chip
interface that are coupled with the one or more DC through vias;

a waveguide layer comprising one or more rectangular waveguide cavities said waveguide layer having a lower surface operatively
connected to the upper surface of the chip interface layer such that the rectangular waveguide cavities are aligned with the
solder balls;

one or more monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) chips attached to the one or more solder balls on the chip interface
layer and electromagnetically coupled to the one or more rectangular waveguide cavities in the waveguide layer; and

an antenna layer operatively coupled to an upper surface of the waveguide layer such that an antenna is aligned with at least
one of the rectangular waveguide cavities;

wherein SMMW signals are received through the antenna, transmitted through the rectangular waveguide cavities and processed
by the MMIC chips.

US Pat. No. 9,176,213

ADAPTIVE CODED MODULATION IN LOW EARTH ORBIT SATELLITE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method for transmitting data to a receiver by a LEO satellite comprising the steps executed by the LEO satellite of:
predicting a received signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) experienced by the receiver based on a range between the LEO satellite and
the receiver;

adapting the coding rate and modulation format of a transmitter in the LEO satellite to the predicted SNR without real-time
feedback about the received SNR from the receiver.

US Pat. No. 9,461,159

SELF-STOP GATE RECESS ETCHING PROCESS FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method for fabricating a field effect transistor (FET) device on a common wafer with other FET devices, said method comprising:
providing a plurality of semiconductor layers including a substrate, a buffer layer deposited on the substrate, a channel
layer deposited on the buffer layer, a barrier layer deposited on the channel layer, an undoped etch stop layer deposited
on the barrier layer, and a heavily doped cap layer deposited on the undoped etch stop layer;

depositing an electron-beam lithography (EBL) photoresist layer on the semiconductor wafer;
patterning the EBL photoresist layer using an electron-beam lithography process to form a wide an upper opening in the EBL
photoresist layer and a narrow lower opening in the EBL photoresist layer where the upper opening is wider than the lower
opening;

performing a first etch in a first chemical solution through the upper and lower openings in the EBL photoresist layer and
into the wafer for a predetermined period of time; and

performing a second etch in a second chemical solution through the upper and lower openings in the EBL photoresist layer for
a predetermined period of time to form a gate recess to a depth defined by a transition between the undoped etch stop layer
and the barrier layer.

US Pat. No. 9,368,935

METHOD FOR MODE CONTROL IN MULTIMODE SEMICONDUCTOR WAVEGUIDE LASERS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An apparatus, comprising:
exactly one wide stripe semiconductor waveguide which is cleaved at a Talbot length thereof, the wide stripe semiconductor
waveguide being defined by transverse index steps and having facets with mirror coatings and a predetermined laser diode structure;
and

a system for selectively pumping the wide stripe semiconductor waveguide to create and support an electric field distribution
comprising a diffraction limited transverse Talbot mode, the system comprising a layer of silicon nitride (SiN) on a surface
of the wide stripe semiconductor waveguide, the system further comprising patterning vias in the layer of SiN where current
injection is desired, the layer of SiN and the surface of the wide stripe semiconductor waveguide covered with ohmic metal.

US Pat. No. 9,292,570

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR OPTIMIZING PATTERN QUERY SEARCHES ON A GRAPH DATABASE

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A method for optimizing pattern query searches on a graph database, the method being implemented by a computer including
at least one processor and comprising:
providing a pattern search engine operative to generate a search plan on the graph database from a first pattern query, the
pattern search engine being executed by the processor;

identifying, by the at least one processor, in the first pattern query a first subpattern query and a second subpattern query
that is structurally equivalent to the first subpattern query;

wherein the first subpattern query and the second subpattern query each comprise a single path;
wherein the structural equivalence meets criteria of:
the paths have a same number of nodes;
nodes in a same position on the paths are of a same type;
nodes in a same position on the paths have same qualifications;
only start and end nodes are shared;
none of non-shared nodes between the paths are exported;
any shared node is shared with both paths in a same position;
having one shared node between both paths; and
non-shared nodes in the paths are not used in pattern query language (PQL) value or constraint expressions; and
reducing the number of search expressions in the search plan based on the structural equivalence between the first subpattern
query and the second subpattern query.

US Pat. No. 9,438,246

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR QUBIT READOUT

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A system for readout of qubits, the system comprising:
a plurality of bandpass (BP) filter resonant sections that are each coupled to a different respective point on a read line,
wherein each BP filter resonant section is coupleable to a respective qubit through a respective qubit readout resonator;

a plurality of tunable couplers, wherein each tunable coupler is coupled between a respective BP filter resonant section and
a qubit readout resonator; and

a coupling controller that controls the coupling strength of each qubit to the read line by controlling the impedance of each
tunable coupler of the plurality of tunable couplers.

US Pat. No. 9,296,609

OPTICAL-MICROWAVE-QUANTUM TRANSDUCER

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An optical-microwave-quantum transducer comprising:
a first nanophotonic slab and a second nanophotonic slab, wherein each of the first and second nanophotonic slabs includes
an optical region and a superconducting region;

the first nanophotonic slab further comprising a pair of torsional beams anchored to a substrate to facilitate relative rotation
between the first and second nanophotonic slabs about an axis of rotation;

wherein a gap between the optical region of the first and second nanophotonic slabs forms an optical cavity in response to
an optical signal, wherein the optical cavity induces mechanical oscillation of the first nanophotonic slab about the axis
of rotation; and

wherein the mechanical oscillation induces electrical modulation on a superconducting cavity coupled to the superconducting
regions of the first and second nanophotonic slabs.

US Pat. No. 9,292,688

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR AUTOMATED MACHINE-LEARNING, ZERO-DAY MALWARE DETECTION

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A computer-implemented method for improved zero-day malware detection comprising:
receiving, at a computer that includes one or more processors and memory, a set of training files which are each known to
be either malign or benign, wherein the training files comprise one or more types of computer files;

analyzing, using the one or more computer processors, a training file from the set of training files to determine features
of the training file, wherein the analyzing determines n-gram features;

tagging, using the one or more computer processors, the determined features of the training file with qualified meta-features
(QMF) tags, wherein the tagging includes:

extracting one of the determined n-gram features from the training file;
identifying a location of the extracted n-gram feature in the training file;
determining an appropriate QMF tag of the extracted n-gram feature based on the identified location;
applying the determined QMF tag to the extracted n-gram feature; and
repeating the extracting, identifying, determining and applying for the remaining determined n-gram features of the training
file;

repeating the analyzing and tagging for remaining training files in the set of training files; and
building, using the one or more computer processors, a model identifying n-gram features indicative of a malign file using
the QMF-tagged n-gram features, wherein the model is capable of being used to detect malign files.

US Pat. No. 9,286,488

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR SECURE DATABASE QUERIES

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A method of performing secure computations on a protected database comprising:
providing, in a secure processor, a database of cryptographically hashed values based on a database of cleartext values;
receiving a plurality of cryptographically hashed query values as input into the secure processor, wherein the plurality of
cryptographically hashed query values are hashes formed from a cleartext query and variations of the cleartext query;

performing a comparison operation within the secure processor to determine the presence of one or more of the plurality of
received hashed query values or any of a set of associated hashed query values within the database of cryptographically hashed
values; and

providing the results of the comparison operation to an external interface of the secure processor, wherein the contents of
the database of cryptographically hashed values and the comparison operation are encapsulated within the secure processor
and unexposed externally therefrom.

US Pat. No. 9,246,234

ANTENNA FOR MULTIPLE FREQUENCY BANDS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An antenna for transmitting and receiving radio frequency signals comprising:
a sub-reflector being an ellipsoid defined by a portion of an ellipse having a major axis not parallel to an axis of the antenna,
the portion of the ellipse being in a plane that includes the axis of the antenna, where the portion of the ellipse is rotated
perpendicularly about the axis of the antenna to define a first reflecting surface of the sub-reflector, a center of the sub-reflector
being on the axis of the antenna with the first reflecting surface facing and cooperating with a signal feed system consisting
of a signal horn centered at the axis of the antenna so that radio waves from a distal end of the feed system impinge on the
first reflecting surface and signals received by the antenna are reflected from the first reflecting surface to the distal
end of the feed system; and

a main reflector defined by a portion of a parabola being in a plane that includes the axis of the antenna, where the portion
of the parabola is rotated perpendicularly about the axis of the antenna to form a second reflecting surface, the main reflector
having a center being on the axis of the antenna with the second reflecting surface facing the first reflecting surface of
the sub-reflector so that radio waves reflected from the first reflecting surface strike the second reflecting surface which
in turn reflects the radio waves to form radio waves transmitted from the antenna, radio waves received by the antenna strike
the second reflecting surface of the main reflector and are reflected to the first reflecting surface which in turn reflects
the radio waves to the distal end of the feed system;

the antenna not comprising a phase shifter, the antenna producing a signal pattern of a wide coverage conical beam with a
selectable beam peak between 45 degrees and 90 degrees relative to the antenna axis.

US Pat. No. 9,466,679

ALL AROUND CONTACT DEVICE AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method of forming a transistor device, the method comprising:
depositing a sacrificial layer over a base structure;
forming a superlattice structure comprising a plurality of heterostructures over the sacrificial layer;
etching away openings in the superlattice structure over a channel region to form a multichannel ridge;
etching away a portion of the sacrificial layer through the channel region to extend the openings to the base structure and
to form an undercut opening on a bottom surface of the multichannel ridge to form a multichannel bridge; and

performing a gate contact fill process to form a four-sided conductive wrap around gate contact that substantially surrounds
the multichannel bridge around its top, its sides and its bottom along at least a portion of its length.

US Pat. No. 9,431,715

COMPACT WIDE BAND, FLARED HORN ANTENNA WITH LAUNCHERS FOR GENERATING CIRCULAR POLARIZED SUM AND DIFFERENCE PATTERNS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A flared feed horn comprising:
a dielectric substrate including a top surface and a bottom surface;
at least one microstrip feed line deposited on the bottom surface of the substrate;
a ground plane deposited on the top surface of the substrate;
an outer conductor electrically coupled to the ground plane and including an internal chamber, said outer conductor including
an opening opposite to the substrate defining an aperture of the feed horn, said outer conductor including a first tapered
portion electrically coupled to the ground plane, a second tapered portion transitioning from the first tapered portion and
having a greater taper than the first tapered portion, and a cylindrical portion transitioning from the second tapered portion
and ending at the horn aperture;

an embedded conductor positioned within the chamber and being coaxial with the outer conductor, said embedded conductor including
a conical section in electrical contact with the at least one microstrip line and a cylindrical section opposite to the substrate;
and

a signal mode launcher electrically coupled to the outer conductor proximate the aperture.

US Pat. No. 9,079,663

CANARD-LOCKED OBLIQUE WING AIRCRAFT

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An aircraft comprising:
a fuselage;
a main wing pivotally coupled to an aft portion of the fuselage; and
a canard coupled to a forward portion of fuselage;
wherein the main wing and the canard are configured to be connected together for supersonic flight and disconnected from each
other for subsonic flight.

US Pat. No. 9,061,379

GROMMET INSTALLATION TOOL

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. An improved tool assembly for installing a grommet inserted in a hole in a panel, the hole having a first end and a second
end having a tapered countersink portion, the grommet having a tubular body with an internal bore and a head portion abutting
the first end of the panel and the second end extending out of the second end of the panel, the improved tool assembly comprising:
an anvil having a bore there through and a convex curved surface for contacting the head of the grommet such that said curved
surface contacts only the area of the head about the internal bore of the grommet;

a flaring die for flaring the second end of the grommet into the counter sink portion of the panel, said flaring die having
a tapered tubular portion for inserting into the second end of the grommet, a conical surface for flaring the second end of
the grommet and a griping surface for preventing rotation of the die when griped and an internal hole there though;

means for contacting said anvil and said flaring die for pulling said anvil and said die toward each other;
such that when said means pulls said anvil and said die toward each other said die moves into the second end of the grommet
flaring it into contact with the countersink portion of the hole of the panel locking the grommet in place.

US Pat. No. 9,417,260

OPTICAL ACCELEROMETER SYSTEMS AND METHOD

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An accelerometer system comprising:
an optical beam source configured to generate an optical beam having a predefined center frequency and which is frequency-modulated
about the predefined center frequency;

an optical cavity comprising:
a first mirror at a first end of an axial length of the optical cavity;
a second mirror at a second end of the axial length of the optical cavity, the second mirror being movable along the axial
length of the optical cavity in response to an external acceleration, the optical cavity being configured to receive the optical
beam and to emit a resonated optical beam; and

a plurality of force rebalance electrodes configured to apply a force to the second mirror in response to a change of the
intensity of the resonated optical beam corresponding to an external acceleration along the axial length of the optical cavity,
the magnitude of the force corresponding to the magnitude of the external acceleration; and

an acceleration detection system configured to measure an intensity of the resonated optical beam and to calculate a magnitude
of the external acceleration along the axial length of the optical cavity based on the intensity of the resonated optical
beam resulting from motion of the second mirror; and

a stabilization system configured to stabilize the predefined center frequency of the optical beam independently of the external
acceleration based on the frequency modulation signal of the optical beam.

US Pat. No. 9,420,043

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR WIRELESS PACKET CAPTURE USING MOBILE COMMUNICATION DEVICES

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A method for wireless packet capture using a mobile communication device, comprising:
launching an application on a mobile communication device, wherein the application provides a user interface for providing
a user with various selections to make regarding wireless packet capture and for receiving user input regarding wireless packet
capture on the mobile communication device;

receiving user input regarding wireless packet capture entered directly into the user interface on the mobile communication
device that specifies one or more functions to be performed;

capturing wireless packets, wherein the captured wireless packets are transmitted over a network from a third party and are
addressed for receipt by the communication device or another communication device;

processing the captured wireless packets; and
storing the processed wireless packets.

US Pat. No. 9,250,277

MAGNETICALLY COUPLED, HIGH RESOLUTION LINEAR POSITION SENSOR FOR USE IN HIGH TEMPERATURE, HIGH PRESSURE ENVIRONMENT

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A system for implementing a high resolution, high reliability, magnetically coupled, linear position sensor system, the
system comprising:
a sensor that utilizes a ratiometric measuring scheme for providing built-in temperature compensation;
the sensor having a sensor topology that supports measurement techniques including time domain reflectometry and linear resistive
measurements;

the sensor including a sensor architecture for enabling the sensor system to use more than one type of input and response
to measure position;

the sensor formed having a sensor geometry including a plurality of conductive rod shaped resistive elements with at least
two rod shaped resistive elements arranged essentially parallel to one another supported by a ceramic guide within a structural
housing; one of the two rod shaved resistive elements is formed from a low electrical impedance (conductive) material and
a second of the two rod shaped resistive elements is formed from a substantially higher impedance (resistive) material;

a slider element forming a bridging contact mechanism of the sensor having at least one moving part having high reliability
to easily operate within a harsh environment using selected materials appropriate for a desired operating environment to construct
the electro-mechanical elements of the sensor; said at least one moving part of the sensor is spherical shaped and provides
a precise line of contact across two rod shaped resistive elements; and,

the sliding element being magnetically coupled to an object being tracked;
whereby the sensor provides a non-contact sensing ability for determining position of the object being tracked.

US Pat. No. 9,260,289

OPTICAL-MICROWAVE-QUANTUM TRANSDUCER

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An optical-microwave-quantum transducer comprising:
a tapered optical fiber configured to transmit and receive optical signals; and
a cantilever comprising:
an optical cavity that includes a nanophotonic crystal, the optical cavity being configured to provide mechanical excitation
in response to electromagnetic excitation induced by photons emitted from the tapered optical fiber; and

a mechanical coupler being configured to induce electrical modulation onto a superconducting cavity in response to the mechanical
excitation and to provide mechanical excitation in response to electromagnetic excitation induced by photons from the superconducting
cavity, wherein the optical cavity is further configured to provide electromagnetic excitation that induces optical modulation
on the tapered optical fiber in response to the mechanical excitation.

US Pat. No. 9,455,073

SUPERCONDUCTING CIRCUITS WITH REDUCED MICROWAVE ABSORPTION

Intermolecular, Inc., Sa...

11. A superconducting circuit comprising:
a superconducting element;
a conducting element;
a dielectric element; and
a voltage controller,
wherein the dielectric element is disposed between the superconducting element and the conducting element;
wherein the dielectric element comprises structural defects; and
wherein the voltage controller is connected to apply a direct current (DC) voltage between the superconducting element and
the conducting element at least when the superconducting element is operating.

US Pat. No. 9,160,341

EFFICIENT RESOURCE STATE DISTILLATION

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A system for generating at least one high fidelity resource state from a plurality of relatively low fidelity resource
states, the system comprising:
an encoding circuit that encodes a set of logical qubits into a plurality of physical qubits according to a punctured classical
code;

a rotation component that consumes the relatively low fidelity resource states to apply a rotation to a state stored in each
physical qubit around an axis of the Bloch sphere of ?/g, where g is a positive integer power of two;

a decoding circuit that decodes the rotated logical states stored in the physical qubits to provide the set of logical qubits
stored in a proper subset of the plurality of physical qubits, at least one of the set of logical qubits comprising a high
fidelity magic state.

US Pat. No. 9,065,982

RECONFIGURABLE SURVEILLANCE APPARATUS AND ASSOCIATED METHOD

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An apparatus comprising:
a housing;
a plurality of cameras in the housing, each of the cameras being configured to capture image data of a portion of a scene
external to the housing;

an attitude detector configured to detect an orientation of the housing and produce an orientation signal that is representative
of an orientation of the apparatus;

a transmitter disposed within the housing, the transmitter being configured to transmit the image data and the orientation
signal to a station disposed remotely from the scene;

a plurality of hoops encircling the housing wherein one or more of the hoops serves as an antenna system for the transmitter;
and

further comprising at least one of:
a receiver configured to receive signals from the remotely disposed station:
a self-destruction device connected to a receiver triggered by a signal from the remote station to destroy the apparatus;
and

a two-wag speakerphone to enable communication with occupants in the scene.

US Pat. No. 9,287,830

STACKED BIAS I-V REGULATION

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A RF amplifier circuit comprising:
a plurality of stacked field effect transistor (FET) devices each including a drain terminal, a gate terminal and a source
terminal, wherein a source terminal of at least one of the FET devices in the stack is electrically coupled to the drain terminal
of another FET device in the stack, and wherein a bottom FET device in the stack of the FET devices is electrically coupled
to ground;

a voltage divider network including a plurality of resistors;
a plurality of operational amplifiers where a separate one of the operational amplifiers is provided for each FET device in
the stack, each operational amplifier including a positive input terminal, a negative input terminal and an output terminal,
where the output terminal for a particular operational amplifier is electrically coupled to a gate terminal of a particular
FET device, the negative input terminal of each operational amplifier is electrically coupled to the source terminal of the
particular FET device and the positive input terminal of each operational amplifier is electrically coupled to a different
location in the voltage divider network so that the source terminal provides a feedback voltage to the operational amplifier
that controls a voltage applied to the gate terminal of the particular FET device;

a source resistor electrically coupled to the source terminal of the bottom FET device and ground; and
a voltage source electrically coupled across the voltage divider network and providing the voltage that is divided.

US Pat. No. 9,185,528

WIFI MAPPING AND MOTION DETECTION

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An apparatus comprising:
a plurality of transceivers positioned outside of a building to transmit and receive signals that pass through at least a
portion of the building, wherein each of the transceivers receives at least one of the signals that pass through at least
a portion of the building from at least one of the other transceivers; and

a processor using strength of the received signals, locations of the transceivers, prior knowledge of building practices,
and exterior characteristics of the building to produce a map of an interior of the building, wherein the transceivers are
positioned in vertically displaced planes and the processor produces maps of the interior of the building along the planes
to produce a three-dimensional map of the interior of the building.

US Pat. No. 9,109,980

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR AUTOMATED COLLECTION OF ANALYTES

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An automated system for collecting analytes, the system comprising:
a screen supply cartridge for holding a stack of clean tabs including sorbent coated screens (SCS) residing in SCS channels,
with SCS channels offset from the SCS channels of adjacent tabs to isolate the SCS channels from one another and the environment;

an air source that provides an analyte to be adsorbed by an SCS channel of a respective tab at a sampling region; and
a linear actuator that moves a given clean tab into the sampling region for exposing the SCS channel of the given clean tab
to the analyte and providing a given exposed tab.

US Pat. No. 9,455,707

SUPERCONDUCTIVE GATE SYSTEM

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A superconductive gate system comprising:
a Josephson D-gate circuit comprising a plurality of Josephson junctions and a bi-stable loop, the Josephson D-gate circuit
being configured to set a bi-stable current in the bi-stable loop in a first direction by triggering a first portion of the
plurality of Josephson junctions in response to an enable single flux quantum (SFQ) pulse provided on an enable input and
an absence of a data SFQ pulse on a data input to store a digital state of the Josephson junction as a first data state, and
to set the bi-stable current in the bi-stable loop in a second direction opposite the first direction by triggering a second
portion of the plurality of Josephson junctions in response to the enable SQF provided on the enable input and a presence
of a data SFQ pulse provided on the data input to store the digital state of the Josephson junction as a second data state,
the digital state being provided at an output; and

a readout circuit coupled to the output and being configured to reproduce the digital state as an output signal.

US Pat. No. 9,401,488

COBALT-CARBON EUTECTIC METAL ALLOY OHMIC CONTACT FOR CARBON NANOTUBE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A method for depositing a cobalt-carbon (Co—C) eutectic metal alloy, the method comprising:
providing a graphite crucible;
placing Co and a C source within the graphite crucible;
heating the graphite crucible containing the Co and C source such that the Co and C source combine with graphite from the
graphite crucible to thereby form a Co—C eutectic metal alloy; and

creating an ohmic contact by depositing the Co—C eutectic metal alloy directly on top surfaces of carbon nanotubes (CNTs)
of a radio-frequency (RF) CNT field effect transistor (FET) device such that the Co—C eutectic metal alloy is in direct contact
with the CNTs.

US Pat. No. 9,293,800

RF TRANSMISSION LINE DISPOSED WITHIN A CONDUCTIVELY PLATED CAVITY LOCATED IN A LOW MASS FOAM HOUSING

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A low mass radio frequency (RF) transmission line structure comprising:
a heat dissipating metallic foam material formed into a first housing section, said first housing section further comprising
a first cavity machined out of a first side of the first housing section and entirely plated with a first conductive surface,
said first cavity forming half of the RF transmission line structure;

a heat dissipating metallic foam material formed into a second housing section, said second housing section further comprising
a second cavity machined out of a first side of the second housing section and entirely plated with a second conductive surface,
said second cavity forming half of the RF transmission line structure, wherein the first side of the second housing section
is adapted and constructed to couple to the first side of the first housing section so that the first and second cavities
are aligned;

a printed circuit board disposed between the first and second housing sections and located inside the first and second cavities;
and

an electrical component mounted on the printed circuit board.

US Pat. No. 9,285,390

OPTICAL ACCELEROMETER SYSTEM

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An accelerometer system comprising:
a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) configured to oscillate between emitting an optical beam at a first linear
polarization and emitting the optical beam at a second linear polarization perpendicular to the first linear polarization
in response to the VCSEL receiving a reflected optical beam;

an optical cavity system comprising a mirror that is coupled to an accelerometer housing via a spring and is configured to
reflect the optical beam to provide the reflected optical beam, the optical cavity system also comprising at least one photodetector
configured to receive at least a portion of at least one of the optical beam and the reflected optical beam to generate an
acceleration signal based on the oscillation between the first linear polarization and the second linear polarization that
is indicative of motion of the mirror resulting from an external acceleration acting upon the accelerometer housing; and

an acceleration processor configured to calculate a magnitude of the external acceleration based on the acceleration signal.

US Pat. No. 9,106,051

MULTI-WAVELENGTH SEED SOURCE FOR COHERENT FIBER AMPLIFIERS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A seed beam source for a fiber amplifier system, said seed beam source producing a seed beam having reduced thermal instability
caused by coupling of seed beam light propagating through an optical fiber into higher order modes, said optical fiber having
a fiber core, said seed beam source comprising:
a plurality of M continuous wave master oscillator lasers, each generating a laser beam at a different wavelength;
a plurality of M switching modulators each receiving the laser beam from a particular one of the master oscillator lasers,
each switching modulator being controlled so as to output its laser beam as optical pulses based on a predetermined timing
sequence, wherein the plurality of M switching modulators are also controlled so that the optical pulses have a pulse width
that is less than or equal to 1/M times a thermal diffusion time across the fiber core so as to provide the reduced thermal
instability;

an optical coupler responsive to the optical pulses from the plurality of switching modulators where the optical coupler only
receives one of the optical pulses from the switching modulators at any particular point in time, and where the optical coupler
continuously receives the optical pulses from the plurality of switching modulators and outputs an interleaved continuous
optical seed beam including the optical pulses from all of the switching modulators; and

an electrical pulse driver selectively providing an electrical signal to the plurality of switching modulators so as to cause
the switching modulators to only output one of the optical pulses at the particular point in time.

US Pat. No. 9,755,318

MESH REFLECTOR WITH TRUSS STRUCTURE

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A reflector assembly comprising:
a frame centered about a longitudinal axis and extending a first distance along the axis the frame including a plurality of
longerons and struts that are pivotable relative to one another such that the frame is moveable between a deployed condition
and a collapsed condition;

a curved first body secured to the frame and extending a second distance along the longitudinal axis greater than the first
distance; and

a reflective mesh having an electromagnetically reflective surface and being secured to the curved first body.

US Pat. No. 9,448,110

THREE-DIMENSIONAL HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING SYSTEMS AND METHODS USING A LIGHT DETECTION AND RANGING (LIDAR) FOCAL PLANE ARRAY

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A system for three-dimensional (3D) hyperspectral imaging, comprising:
an illumination source configured to illuminate a target object;
a dispersive element configured to spectrally separate light received from the target object into different colors; and
a light detection and ranging (LIDAR) focal plane array (FPA) configured to receive the light from the dispersive element,
configured to acquire spatial information regarding the target object in one dimension in the plane of the FPA, configured
to acquire spectral information in a second dimension in the plane of the FPA, wherein the second dimension is perpendicular
to the first dimension, configured to obtain information regarding a distance from the FPA to the target object by obtaining
different times of flight of at least two wavelengths, and configured to detect a single photon of light, thereby hyperspectrally
imaging the target object in three dimensions and acquiring spectral information on at least one 3D point.

US Pat. No. 9,385,224

METHOD OF FORMING AN INTEGRATED MULTICHANNEL DEVICE AND SINGLE CHANNEL DEVICE STRUCTURE

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method of forming an integrated multichannel device and single channel device structure, the method comprising:
depositing a single shared heterostructure over a substrate structure;
depositing a barrier layer over the single shared heterorstructure;
forming a superlattice structure comprising a plurality of heterostructures over the barrier layer;
etching away a portion of superlattice structure over a single channel area to the barrier layer;
etching away a portion of the barrier layer over the single channel area to expose a top surface of the single shared heterostructure
over the single channel area;

forming an isolation region on the single shared heterostructure to isolate the single channel area from a multichannel area
to provide a single channel device electrically isolated from a multichannel device; and

performing a gate contact fill process to form a first gate contact for the single channel device and a second gate contact
for the multichannel device.

US Pat. No. 9,231,697

TRANSMISSION PROTOCOL CONTROLLER

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A free-space optical (FSO) transceiver comprising:
a transmission protocol controller configured to encapsulate outgoing Ethernet frames by employing the Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP) to form outgoing TCP-encapsulated packets, wherein the protocol controller is configured to employ a congestion
algorithm that optimizes throughput over a lossy link, wherein the outgoing Ethernet frames encapsulate TCP packets, such
that each of the outgoing TCP-encapsulated packets generated by the transmission protocol controller encapsulates one of the
outgoing Ethernet frames that encapsulates another TCP packet; and

a transmitter configured to provide an output optical signal corresponding to the outgoing TCP-encapsulated packets over a
FSO link.

US Pat. No. 9,142,546

METHOD OF MAKING BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR BY FORMING BASE EPITAXY REGION ON ETCHED OPENING IN DARC LAYER

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A method of forming a bipolar transistor device, the method comprising:
depositing a collector dielectric layer over a substrate in a collector active region;
depositing a dielectric anti-reflective (DARC) layer over the collector dielectric layer;
dry etching away a base opening in the DARC layer;
wet etching away a portion of the collector dielectric layer in the base opening to provide an extended base opening to the
substrate;

performing a base deposition to form a base epitaxy region in the extended base opening and extending over first and second
portions of the DARC layer that remains as a result of the dry etching away the base opening in the DARC layer, wherein the
base deposition comprises:

forming a doped collector interface region over the substrate in the extended base opening;
forming a doped silicon germanium base layer over the doped collector interface region; and
forming a doped emitter interface region over the doped silicon germanium base layer; and
forming an emitter region over the base epitaxy region.

US Pat. No. 9,103,280

AIRCRAFT AIRFLOW MODULATION SYSTEM AND METHOD

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method of propelling an aircraft having an integrated turbine and a plurality of high Mach aircraft engines disposed
about the integrated turbine, the integrated turbine defining a center shaft and a generally circular turbine intake face,
the method comprising:
positioning a translatable cylindrical air duct upstream of the turbine and high Mach aircraft engines, the cylindrical air
duct being axially translatable with respect to the center shaft and positioned upstream of the turbine intake face; and

axially translating the cylindrical air duct from a first position wherein the aft end of the cylindrical duct is positioned
forward of the plurality of high Mach engines, such that airflow through the cylindrical air duct is communicated to both
the turbine and the plurality of high Mach aircraft engines to generate a thrust on the aircraft in a first propulsion mode,
to a second position wherein the aft end of the cylindrical air duct substantially abuts the outer circumference of the turbine
intake face such that air flow through the cylindrical air duct is communicated only to the turbine to generate a thrust on
the aircraft in a second propulsion mode.

US Pat. No. 9,419,800

SECURE NETWORK SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A secure network system comprising:
a computing system comprising:
a client system configured to communicate with a node on a trusted network system; and
a trusted network interface (TNI) coupled to the client system that encrypts and decrypts communication between the client
system and the trusted network system, the TNI providing the trusted network system with a cryptographically-secure credential
pair authenticating the TNI to the trusted network to initiate a negotiation of an encrypted communication session with the
trusted network system, wherein all network traffic of the client system flows through the TNI.

US Pat. No. 9,385,657

TRIPLE BALANCED, INTERLEAVED MIXER

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A triple-balanced mixer comprising:
a first plurality of field effect transistors (FETs) interconnected as a first double-balanced mixer receiving an input signal
and a local oscillator (LO) signal; and

a second plurality of FETs paired with and interleaved on a substrate with the first plurality of FETs and interconnected
as an inverted double-balanced mixer, each FET receiving an inverse of the input signal and the LO signal relative to its
paired FET;

wherein a LO leakage signal in an output signal of the triple-balanced mixer is removed.

US Pat. No. 9,369,321

INCREASING SENSOR DATA CARRYING CAPABILITY OF PHASE GENERATED CARRIERS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method comprising:
generating first and second sensed signals from first and second sensors, respectively;
coupling to the first sensor a first carrier signal having a first frequency and first phase carried on light in a first optical
fiber, and coupling to the second sensor a second carrier signal having said first frequency and a second phase carried on
light in a second optical fiber;

modulating the first and second sensed signals on the first and second carrier signals, respectively, such that information
represented by the first and second sensed signals are separately recoverable from the first and second carrier signals based
on the first and second phases, respectively, even though the first and second carrier signals have the same frequency;

recovery of the first and second sensor information including converting digital time domain samples of the first frequency
carrier into a frequency domain having second and third frequency signals each containing components associated with the first
and second phases, recovering the first and second sensor information from the second and third frequency signals, wherein
only a single frequency domain conversion is required in order to recover information associated with two sensors.

US Pat. No. 9,312,966

FADE TOLERANT OPTICAL COMMUNICATION RECEIVER

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A system comprising:
a first low noise amplifier (LNA) having a first gain to amplify an optical input signal and to generate an amplified optical
output signal, wherein the first gain is set to compensate for signal losses in the optical input signal due to atmospheric
fading; and

a second LNA having a second gain to amplify the amplified optical output signal from the first LNA and to generate a saturated
output signal when the combined first and second gain of the first LNA and the second LNA exceeds a predetermined output saturation
level of a photo detector.

US Pat. No. 9,503,867

DUAL BUTTON PUSH TO TALK DEVICE

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A dual button push to talk (PTT) device that enables a user to simultaneously monitor multiple call nets/voice conferences
and selectively respond on each call net/voice conference comprising:
a PTT controller that connects to and controls a plurality of audio streams received from a radio and an audio stream received
from a voice telephony end user device (EUD), selectively routing the plurality of audio streams from the radio and the audio
stream of the EUD to left and right earpiece outputs simultaneously and selectively routing audio received from microphone
input to the radio and the EUD, the dual button PTT device including:

the left and the right earpiece outputs;
the microphone input; and
a radio interface, wherein the plurality of radio audio streams are received through the radio interface and the audio received
from the microphone input is selectively routed to the radio through the radio interface.

US Pat. No. 9,473,234

ARRAY PROCESSING FOR SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A satellite communications system, comprising:
a plurality of satellites that generate communications data over a plurality of channels;
a plurality of antennas that receive the communications data over the plurality of channels generated by the plurality of
satellites, wherein each of the antennas receives a separate signal from each of the plurality of satellites over the channels;

a converter to digitize each of the separate signals from each of the plurality of satellites received at the plurality of
antennas; and

a processor that forms separate digital beams from each of the separate signals digitized by the converter, wherein the processor
determines a collective signal for a selected satellite by summing each of the separate digital beams associated with each
of the plurality of satellites, and utilizes the separate digital beams from the non-selected satellites from the plurality
of satellites to filter cross-channel interference from the collective signal.

US Pat. No. 9,174,840

JOSEPHSON AC/DC CONVERTER SYSTEMS AND METHOD

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. An AC/DC converter system comprising:
a flux-shuttle loop that is inductively coupled with an AC input signal; and
a plurality of stages each comprising at least one Josephson junction, the plurality of stages being spaced about the flux
shuttle loop and being configured to sequentially trigger the respective at least one Josephson junction in response to the
AC input signal and to provide a single-flux quantum (SFQ) pulse that moves sequentially and continuously through each stage
of the plurality of stages around the flux-shuttle loop via each of the at least one Josephson junction of each of the respective
stages that results in a DC output signal being provided through an output inductor.

US Pat. No. 9,257,647

PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL SWITCH AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method for making a switch, the method comprising:
forming an insulating layer over a substrate;
forming a resistive heater element over the insulating layer;
depositing a thermally conductive electrically insulating barrier layer over the heating element;
forming openings in the barrier layer aligned with ends of the resistive heater element;
forming a phase change material (PCM) element over the barrier layer spaced apart and proximate to the resistive heater element
comprising:

forming a patterned photoresist over the barrier layer with an opening overlying and aligned with the resistive heater element;
depositing PCM to form the PCM element; and
removing the patterned photoresist and excess PCM by applying a chemical solvent lift-off material; and
forming conductive lines from ends of the PCM element and control lines from ends of the resistive heater element.

US Pat. No. 9,158,859

SEGMENT MATCHING SEARCH SYSTEM AND METHOD

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A database management system comprising at least one processor coupled to a memory, and further comprising,
at least one server including an engine configured to:
communicate with at least one data storage unit;
cause storage in the at least one data storage unit of data in a symbolic relational format of tables, a match diagram, using
at least one set of tuples, wherein the at least one set of tuples has at least one attribute; and

create at least one sub-tree of the match diagram using a projection of the tuple attributes,
wherein the sub-tree includes at least one node that is a vertex table that is represented one of directly and indirectly
by the match diagram and includes at least one edge that defines at least one relationship with at least one other node; and
wherein the indirectly represented Vertex Table is one of a nested match diagram and a query applied to an external database.

US Pat. No. 9,417,762

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR PROVIDING A VIRTUAL IMMERSIVE ENVIRONMENT

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A method for triggering movement of a user in a virtual immersive environment, the method comprising:
determining, using a motion capture system, a first location of the user within an actual space of the environment, wherein
the actual space of the environment includes a plurality of concentric zones centered about a center point of the actual space
of the environment, the plurality of concentric zones includes a first zone and a second zone, the first zone includes the
center point and is defined by an outer boundary, the second zone surrounds the first zone and is defined by an inner boundary
and an outer boundary, wherein the outer boundary of the first zone coincides with the inner boundary of the second zone,
and wherein the first location is within a first zone;

determining, using the motion capture system, a second location of the user within the actual space of the environment, wherein
the second location is within the second zone; and

triggering movement of the user within a virtual world using evaluation criteria derived from the motion capture system when
the user moves from the first zone to the second zone, wherein movement of the user within the virtual world is at a constant
speed when the user is standing still while located in the second zone.

US Pat. No. 9,407,430

CARRIER FREQUENCY SYNCHRONIZATION OF DATA

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method implemented by a radio frequency receiver for synchronizing the recovery of data carried by frames received by
a radio frequency communication channel where the frames have been encoded using a variable modulation system by which the
amount of data carried by a frame can vary on a frame-to-frame basis, the method comprising the steps of:
determining a first carrier frequency estimate and using the first carrier frequency estimate to establish carrier synchronization
with the data to identify each data unit contained in a first frame;

receiving an indication from error correction applied to the identified data units of the first frame of whether all the errors,
if any, in the data units within the first frame were correctable, the radio frequency communication channel being subject
to changing conditions causing a variation of the signal-to-noise ratio for the received data where the possibility of errors
in the received data increases as the signal-to-noise decreases and also increases as the amount of data carried in each frame
increases;

if the indication represents that all the errors, if any, were corrected by the error correction, saving the first carrier
frequency estimate in memory and using it for synchronization of data contained in a predetermined number of subsequent frames
regardless of other carrier frequency information associated with the subsequent frames in which uncorrectable errors are
present;

counting the number of frames received; and
upon determining for another frame, following the first frame and before reaching the predetermined number of subsequent frames,
that the another frame is error free, with the error correction having been applied, saving a carrier frequency estimate associated
with the another frame and resetting a count of the number of frames received so that the carrier frequency estimate associated
with the another frame will be used for the predetermined number of subsequent frames beginning from the another frame.

US Pat. No. 9,387,926

MODULAR ARTICULATED-WING AIRCRAFT

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An autonomous modular flyer operable to loiter over an area of interest at a first high altitude, comprising:
a solar-electric powered airborne object having two wings, each wing having an upper wing surface having a photovoltaic array
thereon exposed to solar flux during flight of the autonomous modular flyer and a wingtip, the wingtips being operably joinable
to at least one other solar-electric powered autonomous modular flyer's wingtips to form an aggregation when a first predetermined
condition is met, and being operably disaggregable from the at least one other autonomous modular flyer's wingtips when a
second predetermined condition is met;

the aggregation forming an autonomous solar-electric powered multiple-articulated flying system having a high aspect ratio
wing platform, operable to loiter over the area of interest at an altitude at least as high as the first high altitude, each
autonomous modular flyer in the aggregation being of the same type; and

means for controlling the number of autonomous modular flyers of the autonomous multiple-articulated flying system based on
the amount of solar flux to which the photovoltaic arrays are exposed.

US Pat. No. 9,281,057

PHASE HYSTERETIC MAGNETIC JOSEPHSON JUNCTION MEMORY CELL

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A memory cell comprising:
a phase hysteretic magnetic Josephson junction (PHMJJ) that is configured to store one of a first binary logic state corresponding
to a binary logic-1 state and a second binary logic state corresponding to a binary logic-0 state in response to a write current
that is provided to the memory cell and to generate a superconducting phase based on the stored digital state;

a superconducting read-select device that is configured to implement a read operation in response to a read current that is
provided to the memory cell; and

at least one Josephson junction configured to provide an output based on the superconducting phase of the PHMJJ during the
read operation, the output corresponding to the stored digital state.

US Pat. No. 9,913,376

BRIDGING ELECTRONIC INTER-CONNECTOR AND CORRESPONDING CONNECTION METHOD

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A bridging inter-connector for establishing electrical connections between conductors on a surface of a first board and
conductors on a surface of a printed circuit board (PCB) on which the first board is mounted, the conductors on the surface
of the first board and the surface of the PCB being aligned to be adjacent to each other, the bridging inter-connector comprising:
a thin flexible sheet of a non-conductive material dimensioned to cover at least a portion of the conductors on the surface
of the first board and the surface of the PCB when the thin flexible sheet of a non-conductive material is disposed in an
assembled position;

separated conductive strips on one surface of the sheet are dimensioned to align with and engage at least a portion of both
the adjacent aligned conductors on the first board and the PCB when the thin flexible sheet of a non-conductive material is
disposed in the assembled position;

a thin film of a bonding agent disposed on the separated conductive strips and located to engage at least a portion of both
the adjacent aligned conductors on the board and the PCB when the thin flexible sheet of a non-conductive material is disposed
in the assembled position;

the conductors on the surface of the first board and the surface of the PCB being disposed adjacent respective edges of the
first board and the PCB, and the first board and the PCB disposed substantially within a common plane;

the thin film of bonding agent bonding and securing the separated conductive strips on the thin flexible sheet to the respective
conductors on the surface of the first board and the conductors on the surface of the PCB on which the first board is mounted
so that the thin flexible sheet is secured to the first board and the PCB by the thin film of bonding agent.

US Pat. No. 9,826,621

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE REFRACTION VIA CONTROLLED PLASMA

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A system for redirecting electromagnetic radiation, having a frequency within a frequency band of interest, around an object
of interest, the system comprising:
a first assembly, comprising a first interior wall and a first exterior wall enclosing a propellant gas, the first assembly
substantially enclosing the object of interest;

a first control system configured to energize the propellant gas within the first assembly to provide a first volume of plasma,
such that an electron number density of the first volume of plasma is controlled via the first control system, the electron
number density of the first volume of plasma being selected to minimize reflection of the electromagnetic radiation from the
first exterior wall;

a second assembly, comprising a second interior wall and a second exterior wall enclosing a propellant gas, the second assembly
being positioned as to be substantially concentric with the first assembly and to substantially enclose the object of interest;
and

a second control system configured to energize the propellant gas within the second assembly to provide a second volume of
plasma, such that an electron number density of the second volume of plasma is controlled via the second control system.

US Pat. No. 10,091,888

LARGE-SCALE RECONFIGURABLE ELECTRONICS USING LOW COST NANOPARTICLE INK PRINTING METHOD

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method of manufacturing electronics using a nanoparticle ink printing method, comprising:synthesizing a phase change material (PCM) ink composition using hot injection to develop nanoparticles of the PCM;
suspending the nanoparticles with a solvent; and
printing a reconfigurable component using the PCM ink composition in additive manufacturing.

US Pat. No. 9,385,068

STACKED INTERCONNECT STRUCTURE AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method of forming an interconnect structure, the method comprising:
forming a first dielectric layer overlying a first conductive layer;
etching a trench opening in the first dielectric layer;
depositing a sacrificial material layer in the trench opening;
forming a second conductive layer overlying the sacrificial material layer;
forming an etch stop layer over the second conductive layer;
etching away portions of the etch stop layer and the second conductive layer to provide a second conductive portion over the
first conductive layer, and an etch stop that overlies the second conductive portion;

forming a second dielectric layer overlying the etch stop layer and the sacrificial material layer;
forming a via to the sacrificial material layer; and
performing an etch to remove the sacrificial material layer through the via and leave a resultant air gap between the first
conductive layer and the second conductive layer decreasing the effective dielectric constant between the first and second
conductive layers, and decreasing the RC time constant of the interconnect structure.

US Pat. No. 9,377,874

GESTURE RECOGNITION LIGHT AND VIDEO IMAGE PROJECTOR

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A gesture recognition interface system comprising:
a projector configured to project invisible light and visible images onto a background surface, the projection of the invisible
light being interleaved with the projection of the visible images;

at least one camera configured to receive a plurality of images based on a reflected light contrast difference between the
background surface and a sensorless input object during projection of the invisible light; and

a controller configured to determine a given input gesture based on changes in relative locations of the sensorless input
object in the plurality of images, and being further configured to initiate a device input associated with the given input
gesture.

US Pat. No. 9,328,661

APPARATUS FOR AIRCRAFT WITH HIGH PEAK POWER EQUIPMENT

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. An apparatus for providing electrical power and cooling for an aircraft, the apparatus comprising:
a cooling turbine connected to a shaft;
a compressor connected to the shaft, and including an input for receiving engine bleed air or ambient air, and an output for
discharging compressed air;

a flywheel connected to the shaft;
a power turbine connected to the shaft; and
a starter generator connected to the shaft between the compressor and the power turbine, wherein during periods of transient
or peak power requirements, kinetic energy stored in the flywheel is converted into electrical power by the starter generator.

US Pat. No. 9,992,911

CONTROLLABLE CONDUCTANCE THERMAL INTERFACE

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A thermal transfer system for controlling a temperature of an electronic device, said system comprising:a thermally conductive device to which the electronic device is coupled;
a heat sink;
a thermal rail mounted to the heat sink; and
at least one shape memory alloy (SMA) element positioned in contact with the rail and the thermally conductive device, said at least one SMA element being shaped in a deformed configuration, and attempting to return to an undeformed configuration when the at least one SMA element is heated above a transition temperature so as to increase heat transfer between the thermally conductive device and the rail.

US Pat. No. 10,129,976

HIGH PERFORMANCE, ULTRA LOW LOSS, ULTRA LIGHTWEIGHT, MULTI-LAYERED RIGID CIRCUIT BOARDS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method for fabricating an electronic component made of only Dyneema® and Indalloy, said method comprising:providing a spool of a Dyneema® filament and a spool of an Indalloy wire on a Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) machine;
feeding the Dyneema® filament to a first head of the FDM machine;
feeding the Indalloy wire to a second head of the FDM machine; and
coextruding the Dyneema® filament and the Indalloy wire to fabricate the electronic component using the FDM machine wherein said Dyneema filament and Indalloy wire are utilized in the fabricated electronic component without any further additives.

US Pat. No. 9,660,349

MULTIFERROIC SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE ANTENNA

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A multiferroic antenna element comprising:
a resonator assembly comprising a magnetoelastic resonator that transform an electromagnetic wave into mechanical oscillations
corresponding to a frequency of the electromagnetic wave;

an electroelastic substrate operably coupled to the magnetoelastic resonator to transform the mechanical oscillations into
an electrical output; and

an electrode assembly operably coupled to the electroelastic substrate to allow monitoring of the electrical output.

US Pat. No. 9,653,816

ANTENNA SYSTEM

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An antenna system comprising:
a plurality of antenna arrays arranged circumferentially about an axis, wherein the antenna system has radial symmetry, each
of the plurality of antenna arrays comprising:

a first panel of radiators extending from a vertex in a first substantially linear direction; and
a second panel of radiators extending from the vertex in a second substantially linear direction, wherein the first panel
of radiators and the second panel of radiators form an angle between about 1 degree and about 45 degrees to enhance gain;

wherein the antenna system is configured to propagate a broadcast beam with a polar or elevation angle within a range of about
180 degrees and an azimuth angle within a range of about 360 degrees.

US Pat. No. 9,653,153

PHASE HYSTERETIC MAGNETIC JOSEPHSON JUNCTION MEMORY CELL

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A memory cell comprising:
a magnetic memory storage device that is configured to store one of a first binary logic state corresponding to a binary logic-1
state and a second binary logic state corresponding to a binary logic-0 state in response to a write current that is provided
to the memory cell;

a magnetic-barrier Josephson junction (MBJJ) that is configured to implement a read operation in response to a read current
that is provided to the memory cell; and

at least one Josephson junction configured to provide an output corresponding to the stored digital state.

US Pat. No. 9,685,258

HYBRID CARBON NANOTUBE SHIELDING FOR LIGHTWEIGHT ELECTRICAL CABLES

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A cable comprising:
a hybrid mechanical-electrical architecture configured to provide better shielding effectiveness than either of the two components
through a frequency range of approximately 50 megahertz (MHz) to approximately 1 Gigahertz (GHz), the hybrid mechanical-electrical
architecture further configured to provide greatly reduced weight, the hybrid mechanical-electrical architecture comprising:

at least one conducting wire;
at least one insulating layer covering at least one of the at least one conducting wire;
a metallic foil component configured for lower frequency shielding function; and
a CNT tape component configured for higher frequency shielding function, the CNT tape component further configured to perform
a mechanical function of holding the metallic foil component in place.

US Pat. No. 9,651,399

CONTINUOUS CALIBRATION OF AN INERTIAL SYSTEM

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An inertial system comprising:
at least one inertial sensor configured to measure an inertial parameter associated with each of at least one axis;
a calibration system configured to sequentially measure an inertial calibration parameter at each of a plurality input axes;
a motion controller configured to sequentially rotate the calibration system about a pivot to each of a plurality of predetermined
orientations such that the calibration system is rotated between a neutral position corresponding to a first predetermined
orientation, a first predetermined angle with respect to the neutral position corresponding to a second predetermined orientation,
and a second angle with respect to the neutral position corresponding to a third predetermined orientation; and

an inertial processor configured to calculate motion of the inertial system based on the inertial parameter associated with
each of the respective at least one axis and the sequential measurements of the inertial calibration parameter at each of
the plurality of input axes associated with each of the respective plurality of predetermined orientations.

US Pat. No. 9,666,948

COMPACT CROSS-LINK ANTENNA FOR NEXT GENERATION GLOBAL POSITIONING SATELLITE CONSTELLATION

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A communications system for a satellite comprising:
an earth-directed antenna aperture on an earth-facing deck of the satellite; and
a cross-link subsystem providing ultra-high frequency (UHF) communications between the satellite and other satellites in an
earth-orbiting constellation, said cross-link subsystem comprising;

eight quadrifilar helix antennas equally spaced in a circular pattern surrounding the earth-directed antenna aperture, where
each of the quadrifilar helix antennas has a central axis which is parallel to an aiming direction of the earth-directed antenna
aperture and perpendicular to the earth-facing deck, and where each of the quadrifilar helix antennas includes;

a ground plate at a first end of the quadrifilar helix antenna proximal the earth-facing deck of the satellite;
a center feed wire located along the central axis and in communication with a communications controller onboard the satellite;
four wire filaments formed in a helical cylinder; and
four end branches extending radially outward from the center feed wire at a second end of the antenna distal from the earth-facing
deck, where each of the end branches connects one of the wire filaments to the center feed wire.

US Pat. No. 9,106,692

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR ADVANCED MALWARE ANALYSIS

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A method for advanced malware analysis comprising:
filtering incoming messages with a watch-list, wherein the incoming messages include one or more attachments;
when an incoming message matches the watch-list, forwarding the message to a malware detection engine;
stripping the one or more attachments from the forwarded message, wherein the one or more attachments include one or more
executable files;

launching a plurality of malware analysis platform (MAP) sandboxes, wherein the MAP sandboxes are each of different computing
environments;

separately executing each executable file of the one or more executable files in different sandboxes of the plurality of sandboxes
such that the same executable file is separately executed in a plurality of different sandboxes, wherein the different sandboxes
are each of different computing environments such that each different sandbox runs in a different virtual machine with a different
operating system and separately generate analysis results that are used to determine whether each executable file is malicious;

forwarding the separately generated analysis results from each of the different sandboxes to a results normalizer;
normalizing, via the results normalizer, the forwarded analysis results;
evaluating the risk level of the attachments to the forwarded message based on the normalized analysis results of the executable
files in the attachments to the forwarded message; and

when the risk level of an attachment to the forwarded message is above a certain level, determining that the forwarded message
is malicious and permanently quarantining the forwarded message.

US Pat. No. 10,165,707

DEVICE AND METHOD FOR PROVIDING IMMERSION COOLING IN A COMPACT-FORMAT CIRCUIT CARD ENVIRONMENT

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An apparatus for providing immersion cooling in a compact-format circuit card environment, the apparatus comprising:a plurality of circuit cards, each circuit card including first and second longitudinally spaced circuit card subassemblies, connected together into a single circuit card oriented substantially in a lateral-longitudinal plane, the first and second circuit card subassemblies being connected together by a longitudinally extending card connector, the first and second circuit card subassemblies having first and second operating temperatures, respectively, the first and second operating temperatures being different from one another;
a plurality of thermal energy transfer devices, with each thermal energy transfer device being operatively connected to an area of a corresponding circuit card correlated with a selected one of the first and second circuit card subassemblies, each thermal energy transfer device at least partially inducing the respective one of the first and second operating temperatures to a corresponding circuit card subassembly, each thermal energy transfer device transversely overlying at least a supermajority of the corresponding circuit card subassembly and being longitudinally spaced from an other circuit card subassembly of the corresponding circuit card;
at least one first temperature cooling manifold being in selective fluid communication with at least one thermal energy transfer device at least partially inducing the first operating temperature, the first temperature cooling manifold selectively introducing a first cooling fluid into, and selectively removing the first cooling fluid from, the thermal energy transfer device at least partially inducing the first operating temperature;
at least one second temperature cooling manifold being in selective fluid communication with at least one thermal energy transfer device at least partially inducing the second operating temperature, the second temperature cooling manifold selectively introducing a second cooling fluid into, and selectively removing the second cooling fluid from, the thermal energy transfer device at least partially inducing the second operating temperature;
a plurality of manifold interfaces, with each manifold interface being in fluid communication with a corresponding thermal energy transfer device, each manifold interface for selective fluid communication with a corresponding cooling manifold; and
a housing including a first operating fluid inlet in fluid communication via the first temperature cooling manifold with a first operating fluid outlet and a second operating fluid inlet in fluid communication via the second temperature cooling manifold with a second operating fluid outlet, the housing supporting and at least partially surrounding the plurality of circuit cards, the plurality of thermal energy transfer devices, the plurality of manifold interfaces, and the first and second temperature cooling manifolds.

US Pat. No. 9,671,200

KINETIC AIR DEFENSE

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A missile defense system on an aircraft for destroying threats to the aircraft, said defense system comprising:
at least one guided missile mounted in a launch tube on the aircraft, said guided missile including a target acquisition and
seeker system;

at least two sensors on the aircraft for acquiring a target, including a cueing sensor and a tracking sensor, where the cueing
sensor identifies the target and the tracking sensor tracks the target; and

a controller on the aircraft responsive to signal from the at least ene two sensors, said controller generating a fire control
solution that is provided to the at least one guided missile that directs the guided missile once the guided missile is fired
from the launch tube towards the target, wherein the seeker system on the guided missile acquires the target once the guided
missile is launched from the aircraft so as to destroy the target.

US Pat. No. 9,698,492

LOW-COST DIPLEXED MULTIPLE BEAM INTEGRATED ANTENNA SYSTEM FOR LEO SATELLITE CONSTELLATION

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An integrated antenna system for a satellite, said antenna system comprising:
a support structure including a base plate and a strut assembly mounted to the base plate and defining an enclosure, said
support structure further including an alignment plate mounted to the strut assembly opposite to the base plate;

a plurality of feed horns mounted to the alignment plate in a rigid manner so that each feed horn has a predetermined pointing
direction, each feed horn including a plurality of tapered sections defining transitions therebetween that support propagation
modes for both up-link signals and down-link signals, each feed horn further including an input end and an aperture end, wherein
a down-link frequency band for the down-link signals is separated into four separate frequency channels and an up-link frequency
band for the up-link signals is separated into two separate frequency channels, where a plurality of the plurality of feed
horns operate at the frequency for a particular frequency channel and where the feed horns operating at the same down-link
frequency channel are not adjacent to each other;

a plurality of septum polarizers where a separate septum polarizer is coupled to the input end of each feed horn, each septum
polarizer converting circularly polarized signals to linearly polarized signals for the up-link signals received by the feed
horn and converting linearly polarized signals to circularly polarized signals for the down-link signals to be transmitted
by the feed horn;

a Y-shaped waveguide including a polarizer port, a transmit leg and a receive leg, said polarizer port being coupled to the
septum polarizer opposite to the feed horn, wherein the receive leg includes a transmit reject filter for selectively passing
the up-link signals and rejecting the down-link signals and the transmit leg includes a receive reject filter for selectively
passing the down-link signals and rejecting the up-link signals;

an RF circuit board mounted on the base plate within the enclosure and including a plurality of RF modules for processing
the up-link and down-link signals; and

a plurality of flex waveguides where a separate flex waveguide is coupled to the receive leg of each Y-shaped waveguide and
one of the RF modules and coupled to the transmit leg of each Y-shaped waveguide and one of the RF modules to direct the down-link
signals from the RF module to the transmit leg and direct the up-link signals from the receive leg to the RF module.

US Pat. No. 9,501,748

MIXED COUPLING BETWEEN A QUBIT AND RESONATOR

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A quantum system comprising:
a qubit;
a transmission line resonator having an associated resonant wavelength characterized by a plurality of antinodes and a plurality
of nodes along the transmission line resonator;

a coupling capacitor configured to capacitively couple the qubit to the transmission line resonator; and
a transformer configured to inductively couple the qubit to the transmission line resonator;
wherein a selected one of an associated capacitance of the coupling capacitor and an associated mutual inductance of the transformer
is a function of a location of the qubit along the transmission line resonator, the location of the qubit being remote from
any nodes or antinodes of the transmission line resonator.

US Pat. No. 9,468,989

HIGH-CONDUCTIVITY BONDING OF METAL NANOWIRE ARRAYS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A thermally-conductive and mechanically-robust bonding method for attaching a metal nanowire (MNW) array to an adjacent
surface, comprising the steps of:
removing a template membrane from the MNW array;
infiltrating the MNW array with a bonding material;
placing the bonding material on the adjacent surface;
bringing an adjacent surface into contact with a top surface of the MNW array while the bonding material is bondable; and
allowing the bonding material to form a solid bond between the MNW array and the adjacent surface.

US Pat. No. 9,509,274

SUPERCONDUCTING PHASE-SHIFT SYSTEM

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A superconducting phase-shift system comprising:
an all-pass filter comprising at least one variable inductance element comprising at least one Superconducting Quantum Interference
Device (SQUID), the all-pass filter being configured to receive an input signal and to provide the input signal as an output
signal that is phase-shifted relative to the input signal based on a variable inductance provided by each of the at least
one variable inductance element; and

a phase controller configured to provide a phase-control current to control the variable inductance of the at least one variable
inductance element based on a characteristic of the phase-control current.

US Pat. No. 9,503,183

FREE SPACE OPTICAL TRANSCEIVER

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A free-space optical (FSO) transceiver comprising:
a link predictor configured to estimate conditions for an FSO link over a window of time in the future; and
a scheduler configured to assign outgoing packets to blocks of time in the window of time based on quality of service (QoS)
parameters of each of the outgoing packets and on conditions estimated for each block of time in the window of time;

wherein the estimated conditions for a given block of time in the window of time is based on a rate of change of a measured
power of an incoming signal received at the FSO transceiver.

US Pat. No. 9,251,407

SECURITY SYSTEM UTILIZING GESTURE RECOGNITION

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A security system for restricting access to an item of interest, comprising:
a gesture input interface configured to convert a continuous gesture from a user into an input trajectory;
a normalization component configured to resample the input trajectory to produce a resampled trajectory having a standard
size;

a reference point generator configured to reduce the resampled trajectory to respective values for a set of reference points,
each of the values for the set of reference points having at least two associated coordinates;

at least one authentication region, each of the at least one authentication region representing at least one of the set of
reference points, such that each authentication region is defined within a multidimensional feature space having dimensions
corresponding to the at least two coordinates associated with each of the at least one points associated with the authentication
region from respective sets of representative statistics for the at least one of the set of reference points represented by
the authentication region;

a verification component configured to determine if the values for the set of reference points from a given input falls within
the at least one authentication region;

an access restriction mechanism configured to restrict access to the item of interest unless a threshold number of values
for the set of reference points from the input falls within their associated authentication regions; and

a parameter calculation component configured to receive training data representing a characteristic gesture for the user,
the characteristic gesture comprising values for the set of reference points generated by the normalization component and
the reference point generator and derived from a user input at the gesture input interface, the parameter calculation component
being further configured to calculate a respective one of the sets of representative statistics for each of the set of reference
points, the respective one of the sets of representative statistics comprising a mean value for each of the at least two associated
coordinates, a variance value for each of the at least two associated coordinates, and a covariance between a first coordinate
and a second coordinate of the at least two associated coordinates.

US Pat. No. 9,812,192

SUPERCONDUCTING GATE MEMORY CIRCUIT

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A superconducting gate memory circuit comprising:
a Josephson D-gate circuit configured to set a digital state as one of a first data state and a second data state in response
to a write enable single flux quantum (SFQ) pulse provided on a write enable input and a respective presence of or absence
of a write data SFQ pulse provided on a data write input; and

a storage loop coupled to the Josephson D-gate, the storage loop being configured to store the digital state and to readout
the digital state at an output in response to a read enable SFQ pulse provided on a read enable input and a read data SFQ
pulse provided on a read data input.

US Pat. No. 9,653,982

POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A power supply system comprising:
an oscillator system configured to generate a clock signal at a clock node, the oscillator system comprising:
a comparator configured to compare a first variable voltage at a first comparator node and a second variable voltage at a
second comparator node, the first and second variable voltages having respective magnitudes that are based on the clock signal;

a capacitor coupled to the first comparator node; and
a feedback circuit element interconnecting the clock node and the first comparator node and which is configured as a discharge
current path to substantially discharge the capacitor during a given state of the clock signal, and is configured as a charging
current path to substantially charge the capacitor during another state of the clock signal;

a pulse-width modulation (PWM) generator configured to generate a PWM signal based on an error voltage and the clock signal;
and

a power stage configured to generate an output voltage based on the PWM signal.

US Pat. No. 9,627,199

METHODS OF FABRICATING MICRO- AND NANOSTRUCTURE ARRAYS AND STRUCTURES FORMED THEREFROM

University of Maryland, C...

1. A method of fabricating an array of microstructures, comprising the steps of:
providing an epilayer of gallium nitride (GaN) grown on a substrate;
etching an array of GaN pillars in said epilayer; and
growing GaN shells on said etched array of GaN pillars to form core-shell structures via selective epitaxy, wherein a first
portion of said GaN shells are doped with a first material, and a second portion of said GaN shells are doped with a second
material different than said first material.

US Pat. No. 9,593,414

HYDROGENATED AMORPHOUS SILICON DIELECTRIC FOR SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES

Intermolecular, Inc., Sa...

1. A method, comprising:
forming a first layer on a substrate, wherein the first layer comprises hydrogenated amorphous silicon;
performing a first anneal of the first layer in an environment of high hydrogen chemical potential;
after the first anneal, performing a second anneal of the first layer in an environment of low hydrogen chemical potential,
and

after the second anneal, forming a second layer over the first layer, wherein the second layer is operable as a hydrogen barrier.

US Pat. No. 9,570,695

CARBON MIXTURE OHMIC CONTACT FOR CARBON NANOTUBE TRANSISTOR DEVICES

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

12. A method for depositing a cobalt-carbon mixture as an ohmic contact, the method comprising:
providing a graphite crucible;
placing cobalt and a C source within the graphite crucible;
heating the graphite crucible containing the cobalt and C source such that the cobalt and C source combine with graphite from
the graphite crucible to thereby form a cobalt-C mixture; and

creating an ohmic contact by depositing the cobalt-C mixture directly on top surfaces of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) of a CNT
transistor device such that the cobalt-C mixture is in direct contact with the CNTs that serves as an adhesion layer.

US Pat. No. 9,499,268

NEAR BELLY-TANGENT POD SYSTEM FOR AN AIRCRAFT

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A pod system for an aircraft, the pod system comprising:
at least one left-side bay configured for external placement on a left side of a fuselage of an aircraft and having an external
side panel;

at least one right-side bay configured for external placement on a right side of the fuselage of the aircraft and having an
external side panel; and

a central compartment configured for external placement on a bottom surface of the fuselage of the aircraft and extending
between the at least one left-side bay and the at least one right-side bay;

wherein a distance between the external side panel of the left-side bay and the external side panel of the right-side bay
is configured to be greater than a largest width of a portion of the fuselage of the aircraft positioned above the pod system;

wherein a bottom surface of the central compartment is substantially tangent to a central bottom external surface of the fuselage
of the aircraft; and

wherein top surfaces of the left side and right-side bays are substantially above the bottom of the fuselage of the aircraft
in that the left-side and right-side bays are large enough to accommodate equipment for use with or by the aircraft.

US Pat. No. 9,502,780

ANTENNA ARRAY USING SANDWICHED RADIATING ELEMENTS ABOVE A GROUND PLANE AND FED BY A STRIPLINE

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An antenna array having a plurality of antenna cells where each antenna cell comprises:
first self-complementary antenna of conductive material in a first plane;
second self-complementary antenna of conductive material in a second plane parallel to the first plane, the second self-complementary
antenna having substantially the same dimensions as the first self-complementary antenna;

a first dielectric layer forming a middle of a sandwich between the first and second self-complementary antennas;
a conductive strip disposed in the first dielectric layer together with the first and second self-complementary antennas forms
a first stripline that carries radio frequency (RF) signals to/from the first and second self-complementary antennas;

a slot feed couples the RF signals between the first stripline and each of the first and second self-complementary antennas
and provides a symmetrical coupling of the RF signals for the first and second self-complementary antennas;

a conductive layer in a third plane parallel to the first and second planes;
a second dielectric layer forming the middle of a sandwich between the conductive layer and the second plane that contains
the second self-complementary antenna where the conductive layer serves as a first ground plane for signals radiated from/to
the first and second self-complementary antennas.

US Pat. No. 9,482,477

NANO-THERMAL AGENTS FOR ENHANCED INTERFACIAL THERMAL CONDUCTANCE

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A thermal interface material (TIM) comprising:
a vertically aligned carbon nanotube array (VACNT) for providing heat transfer between two surfaces in an electronic device;
and

a plurality of high thermal conductivity nanorods or nanowires distributed on the surface of the VACNT such that they are
co-planar and lie flat in an interface region between the VACNT and one of the surfaces in the electronic device.

US Pat. No. 9,458,648

RAPID PANEL ACCESS FASTENER FOR HIGHLY CURVED PANELS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An access panel fastener system, said system comprising:
a pneumatic chamber incorporated in a fixed structure;
a Belleville spring retained around its outer periphery to the fixed structure, where a lower surface of said spring is in
fluid communication with the pneumatic chamber and the spring is responsive to a pneumatic pressure in the chamber;

a pneumatic piston slidably disposed through a central hole in the Belleville spring, a lower end of said piston being in
fluid communication with the pneumatic chamber and responsive to the pneumatic pressure, where the piston deploys upward until
a piston base flange contacts the lower surface of the Belleville spring when the pneumatic pressure in the chamber exceeds
a first pressure threshold, and where the Belleville spring deflects upward when the pneumatic pressure in the chamber exceeds
a second pressure threshold;

a pneumatic valve fitted in a central bore of the piston proximate the lower end of the piston, where the pneumatic valve
opens when the pneumatic pressure in the chamber exceeds a third pressure threshold;

a plurality of locking dogs slidably disposed in an upper end of the piston, where the locking dogs deploy radially outward
when exposed to the pneumatic pressure after the pneumatic valve opens; and

a retainer cavity mounted on a lower surface of a removable panel such that an opening of the cavity faces downward toward
the fixed structure, and where the locking dogs when deployed engage with the retainer cavity to lock the removable panel
to the fixed structure,

where the fastener system latches the removable panel to the fixed structure upon application of a latching sequence of pneumatic
pressures, and the fastener system unlatches the removable panel from the fixed structure upon application of an unlatching
sequence of pneumatic pressures.

US Pat. No. 9,425,840

WIDEBAND TUNABLE NOTCH CANCELLATION

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A radio frequency receiver comprising:
a splitter for receiving an input signal comprising a preferred portion of a input frequency spectrum and an interference
portion of the input frequency spectrum and splitting the input signal between a first output that provides a first spectrum
that is in phase with the input signal and a second output that provides a second spectrum that is 180 degrees out of phase
from the input signal;

a delay line for receiving the first output from the splitter;
a tunable notch filter for receiving the second output from the splitter and filtering out the preferred portion of the input
frequency spectrum and outputting only the interference portion, said tunable notch filter further comprising:

a first wideband hybrid coupler with an input coupled to the second output of the splitter and first and second outputs;
first and second band stop filters coupled to the first and second outputs of the first wideband hybrid coupler, each band
stop filter having an output; and

a second wideband hybrid coupler with inputs coupled to the outputs of the first and second band stop filters and an output;
and

a summer for combining the output of the second wideband hybrid coupler and the delay line such that the interference portion
of the input frequency spectrum is cancelled out in the output signal of the summer.

US Pat. No. 9,413,220

POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A power supply system comprising:
an error amplifier system configured to generate an error voltage based on a feedback voltage of the power supply system relative
to a reference voltage;

a pulse-width modulation (PWM) generator comprising a comparator configured to generate a PWM signal based on the error voltage
and a ramp signal; and

a power stage configured to generate the output voltage based on the PWM signal, the power stage comprising a transconductance
amplifier configured to generate a temperature-compensated sense current associated with a magnitude of an output current
associated with the power stage, the ramp signal being generated based on the temperature-compensated sense current, the power
stage further comprising a gain resistor interconnecting an output of the transconductance amplifier and a low-voltage rail,
the gain resistor being configured to set a sense voltage associated with the temperature-compensated sense current.

US Pat. No. 9,335,569

TUNABLE-FOCUS THIN ELECTRONIC LENS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An optical lens assembly comprising:
a Fresnel lens including a plurality of lens sections where each lens section provides a same range of focal lengths and where
each lens section includes a plurality of lens segments, wherein each of the lens segments is curved in both a first direction
and a second direction so that each lens segment separately provides the range of focal lengths;

a light filter positioned adjacent to the Fresnel lens and including a plurality of control lines; and
a control device coupled to the light filter and controlling whether the control lines are opaque or transparent, wherein
the control device operates to make the control lines opaque or transparent so that light is only able to propagate through
parts of the lens sections having the same focal length.

US Pat. No. 9,613,726

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR REDUCING THE STORAGE TIME OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A method of reducing the storage time of spent nuclear fuel, the method comprising:
providing a spent nuclear fuel rod; and
irradiating, by a gamma ray free electron laser (FEL), the spent nuclear fuel rod along a longitudinal axis of the spent nuclear
fuel rod with substantially collimated gamma ray photons having energy levels of about 10 MeV to about 15 MeV for a predetermined
time period to initiate a photofission reaction in remaining fertile fissile material in the spent nuclear fuel rod.

US Pat. No. 9,536,021

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR PROVIDING A RENEWABLE ENERGY NETWORK OPTIMIZATION TOOL

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A method for optimizing a renewable energy network, comprising:
(a) determining an initial configuration state, wherein initial configuration state includes information about any renewable
energy candidate sites kept from a prior iteration, if any;

(b) populating a pool of candidate sites for placement of renewable-energy generating units using a hybrid simulated annealing-genetic
algorithm, wherein the populating includes:

adding identified kept sites; and
adding candidate sites by quasi-random geographical selection;
(c) constructing a plurality of candidate renewable energy generation networks from the pool of candidate sites using random
selection;

(d) evaluating the candidate renewable energy generation networks using scoring metrics;
(e) ranking the evaluated candidate renewable energy generation networks with respect to each other and prior iteration candidate
renewable energy generation networks;

(f) adding candidate sites from a top ranked candidate renewable energy generation network to a list of candidate sites to
be kept;

repeating (a)-(f) until a final best candidate renewable energy generation network of kept sites is determined; and
outputting the final best candidate renewable energy generation network for review, in which the outputting outputs the final
best candidate renewable energy generation network for display on computing device display,

wherein the constructing constructs candidate renewable energy generation networks without replacement to ensure sites from
the pool candidate sites are not repeated within a single candidate network.

US Pat. No. 9,489,534

MULTI-LEVEL SECURITY SYSTEM FOR ENABLING SECURE FILE SHARING ACROSS MULTIPLE SECURITY LEVELS AND METHOD THEREOF

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A multi-level security system, the system comprising: a storage medium, the storage medium partitionable into a plurality
of partitions; a file system coupleable to the plurality of partitions;
a plurality of enclaves each assigned a security classification level, wherein each one of the plurality of enclaves resides
in a different storage partition of the storage medium;

wherein data stored on the storage medium is cryptographically separated at rest on a per-enclave basis, and wherein cryptographic
separation occurs at the disk block level thereby allowing individual blocks to be read and decrypted; wherein every disk
block is encrypted using a unique key for each security classification level; and

a reference monitor that enforces a system security policy that governs access to information between the plurality of enclaves,
wherein the reference monitor allows an enclave of the plurality of enclaves having a first classification level to securely
read-down to another enclave of the plurality of enclaves having a second classification level lower than the first classification
level and to write to another enclave of the plurality of enclaves having the first classification level.

US Pat. No. 9,292,642

SUPERCONDUCTING CIRCUIT PHYSICAL LAYOUT SYSTEM AND METHOD

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A computer-implemented method for generating a physical layout output file for fabricating a superconducting circuit, the
method comprising:
receiving a netlist file defining terminal input/output (I/O) connections between superconducting components;
determining a respective gate tile type for each gate in the netlist, wherein the gate tile type includes a gate type associated
with each gate type in the netlist and a plurality of associated unassigned Josephson junctions;

determining position placement of each gate tile and its associated Josephson junctions in a circuit layout;
assigning unassigned Josephson junctions to Josephson junctions defined in active interconnect circuits of the netlist that
provide terminal I/O connections between superconducting components;

determining wire routes to couple the assigned Josephson junctions to one another and provide the wired inductors to form
the active interconnect circuits that couple the terminal I/O connections between the superconducting components; and

generating a physical layout output file with the determined position placement of each gate tile, and the determined wire
routes.

US Pat. No. 9,651,378

NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE GYROSCOPE SYSTEM

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) gyroscope system comprising:
a vapor cell that is sealed to enclose an alkali metal and a gyromagnetic isotope;
a magnetic field source configured to generate a magnetic field that is aligned with a sensitive axis of the NMR gyroscope
system and which is provided through the vapor cell to cause the alkali metal and the gyromagnetic isotope to precess;

a laser configured to generate an optical beam that polarizes the alkali metal in the vapor cell to facilitate the precession
of the alkali metal and the gyromagnetic isotope, the optical beam being provided through the vapor cell at an offset angle
relative to the magnetic field, the offset angle being based on a signal-to-noise ratio associated with absorption of the
optical beam by the alkali metal; and

an angular rotation sensor configured to calculate a rotation angle about the sensitive axis based on a measured characteristic
of a detection beam corresponding to the optical beam exiting the vapor cell, the characteristic being associated with the
precession of the gyromagnetic isotope.

US Pat. No. 9,595,970

SUPERCONDUCTING CELL ARRAY LOGIC CIRCUIT SYSTEM

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A superconducting cell array logic circuit system comprising a plurality of superconducting cells arranged in an array
of at least one row and at least one column, the superconducting cell array logic circuit system being configured to implement
a logic operation on at least one logic input signal received at at least one respective input associated with the respective
at least one row to provide at least one logic output signal on at least one respective output associated with the at least
one column based on a predetermined selective coupling of the at least one input to the at least one output via the plurality
of superconducting cells.

US Pat. No. 9,586,674

COLLAPSIBLE AIRFOIL SPOOLED RETRACTABLE ROTOR

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A retractable rotor system for an aircraft comprising:
a retractor connectable to the aircraft and having a spool rotatable in a first direction and a second direction opposite
the first direction;

a rotor blade extending along a radial axis and having a first end secured to the spool and a second end extending away from
the spool, the rotor blade being movable between a first condition having a first thickness and a second condition having
a second thickness less than the first thickness; and

a support frame connectable to the aircraft through which the rotor blade extends and which the rotor blade engages to secure
the first end of the rotor blade to the spool;

wherein the spool is rotatable in the first direction to unwind the rotor blade from the spool and to extend the rotor blade
away from the support frame and place the rotor blade in the first condition, and the spool is rotatable in the second direction
to wind the rotor blade on to the spool and to retract the rotor blade into the support frame and place the rotor blade in
the second condition.

US Pat. No. 9,559,308

METHOD FOR GROWING CARBON NANOTUBES

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method of forming carbon nanotubes (CNTs), the method comprising:
dispersing a plurality of substantially semiconductor pure carbon nanotube (CNT) seeds on a substrate to provide a seeded
substrate;

ozonating the seeded substrate to remove defects on end faces of the plurality of substantially semiconductor pure CNT seeds;
and

growing carbon extensions on the end faces of the plurality of substantially semiconductor pure CNT seeds to form a plurality
of substantially pure CNTs.

US Pat. No. 9,541,507

COLOR-BASED FOREIGN OBJECT DETECTION SYSTEM

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method for detecting foreign objects in or on a subject of interest, the method comprising:
capturing a first set of images of a sample subject known to be free of foreign objects;
classifying a plurality of colors from a defined color palette according to a color content of the first set of images into
at least first and second classes;

capturing a second set of images of the subject of interest; and
determining if a foreign object is present in or on the subject of interest if a color from the first class is present in
the second set of images.

US Pat. No. 9,518,839

WAVELET BASED MONITORING OF SYSTEM PARAMETERS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A system comprising:
a plurality of sensors, each monitoring at least one parameter associated with the system;
a controller configured to receive a signal representing the monitored at least one parameter from each of the plurality of
sensors and adjust a function of the system based on the received signals; and

respective discrete wavelet transform components associated with each of the plurality of sensors, each of the discrete wavelet
transform components configured to provide a set of discrete wavelet transform coefficients representing a content of the
signal for its associated sensor to a discrete wavelet transform monitoring component;

a signal reconstruction component configured to reconstruct a portion of the signal only from a set of discrete wavelet transform
coefficients that fall outside of associated defined range of values; and

a fault analysis component configured to evaluate the reconstructed portion of the signal to identify an anomaly that is represented
by the set of discrete wavelet transform coefficient falling outside of the defined range of values.

US Pat. No. 9,520,181

SUPERCONDUCTING PHASE-CONTROLLED HYSTERETIC MAGNETIC JOSEPHSON JUNCTION JMRAM MEMORY CELL

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A JMRAM memory cell comprising:
a phase hysteretic magnetic Josephson junction (PHMJJ) that is configured to store one of a first binary state and a second
binary state in response to a write current provided during a data write operation and to provide a superconducting phase
based on the stored digital state;

a directional write element configured to provide a directional bias current during the data write operation to provide the
superconducting phase of the PHMJJ in a predetermined direction corresponding to the first binary state; and

at least one Josephson junction having a critical current that is based on the superconducting phase of the PHMJJ and being
configured to provide an output corresponding to the stored digital state in response to a read current that is provided during
a read operation.

US Pat. No. 9,500,725

PROBE BEAM FREQUENCY STABILIZATION IN AN ATOMIC SENSOR SYSTEM

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An atomic sensor system comprising:
a magnetic field generator configured to generate a magnetic field along an axis;
a probe laser configured to generate an optical probe beam;
a pump laser configured to generate an optical pump beam along the axis;
beam optics configured to direct the optical probe beam through a sensor cell comprising an alkali metal vapor such that the
optical probe beam has at least a vector component along the axis;

detection optics comprising a photodetector assembly configured to measure a Faraday rotation associated with the optical
probe beam exiting the sensor cell and to generate a feedback signal based on the Faraday rotation associated with the optical
probe beam exiting the sensor cell; and

a laser controller configured to modulate a frequency of the optical probe beam about a center frequency and to substantially
stabilize the center frequency of the optical probe beam based on the feedback signal.

US Pat. No. 9,466,643

GROUND GRID FOR SUPERCONDUCTING CIRCUITS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A superconducting circuit comprising:
a plurality of layers comprising a first conductor layer and a second conductor layer overlying the first conductor layer,
each of the first and second conductor layers comprising at least one Josephson transmission line configured to transmit a
single flux quantum pulse; and

a ground grid that is conductively coupled to ground and comprises a first plurality of parallel ground lines that occupy
the first conductor layer and extend in a first direction and a second plurality of parallel ground lines that occupy the
second conductor layer and extend in a second direction that is orthogonal with respect to the first direction.

US Pat. No. 9,429,426

ADAPTIVE INERTIAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM AND METHOD

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A control system, comprising:
a processor that adjusts at least one of an automatic gain control (AGC) loop, an offset loop, and a phase modulator scale
factor loop based on environmental conditions for an inertial measurement unit (IMU), wherein a gain of the AGC loop is adjusted
by the processor in accordance with a digital gain factor and an analog gain factor, wherein the analog gain factor is increased
and the digital gain factor is decreased during low dynamic conditions, or the analog gain factor is decreased and the digital
gain factor is increased during high dynamic conditions, wherein each of the at least one of the AGC loop, the offset loop,
and the phase modulator scale loop operates over a range of set points defined for each respective control loop.

US Pat. No. 9,425,511

EXCITATION METHOD OF COAXIAL HORN FOR WIDE BANDWIDTH AND CIRCULAR POLARIZATION

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A coaxial feed horn comprising:
a dielectric substrate including a top surface and a bottom surface;
at least one microstrip feed line deposited on the bottom surface of the substrate;
a first ground plane deposited on the top surface of the substrate;
a cylindrical outer conductor electrically coupled to the ground plane and including an internal chamber, said outer conductor
including an opening opposite to the substrate defining an aperture of the feed horn;

an embedded conductor positioned within the chamber and being coaxial with the outer conductor, said embedded conductor including
a conical section in electrical contact with the at least one microstrip line, a cylindrical section opposite the substrate
and a tapered section extending out of the outer conductor at the aperture; and

a dielectric member positioned within the chamber and being external to the embedded conductor, said dielectric member including
a tapered portion extending out of the outer conductor at the aperture.

US Pat. No. 9,417,366

HYBRID DIFFRACTIVE OPTICAL ELEMENT AND SPECTRAL BEAM COMBINATION GRATING

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An optical device comprising:
a substrate having a top surface;
a periodic pattern formed in the top surface of the substrate in a first direction;
a plurality of dielectric layers deposited on the top surface of the substrate and having a shape that conforms to the periodic
pattern;

a top dielectric layer deposited on the plurality of dielectric layers so that the top dielectric layer has the shape of the
periodic pattern, said top dielectric layer having a top surface and a thickness greater than the thickness of any of the
plurality of dielectric layers; and

a periodic grating formed through the top surface and into the top dielectric layer, said periodic grating having channels
that extend along a second direction substantially orthogonal to the first direction where the periodic pattern is formed
into the periodic grating so that the pattern crosses the channels.

US Pat. No. 9,353,684

AIRCRAFT ENGINE AIRFLOW MODULATION APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR ENGINE BAY COOLING AND CYCLE FLOW MATCHING

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An airflow modulation system for use in aircraft propulsion, the airflow modulation system comprising:
a turbine engine disposed at least partially within an engine bay defined by an engine bay wall, the turbine engine including:
a first fan duct defined at an outer diameter by a center housing, the center housing having an upstream end;
a second fan duct including a first portion defined by an annular duct wall formed concentrically about a first portion of
the center housing, and a second portion formed concentrically about a second portion of the center housing, wherein the annular
duct wall has an upstream end and a downstream end;

an annular cooling duct formed concentrically about at least a portion of the second fan duct, wherein the cooling duct and
the second fan duct are at least partially defined by a common wall portion formed concentrically about the second portion
of the center housing, wherein the annular duct wall and the common wall portion are radially aligned with one another with
respect to a longitudinal axis of the turbine engine, and wherein the upstream end of the annular duct wall surrounds the
upstream end of the center housing; and

an airflow modulator mounted on the downstream end of the annular duct wall and operably associated with the second fan duct
and the cooling duct, the airflow modulator movable between a first position,

wherein the airflow modulator directs airflow to the second fan duct, and at least a second position,
wherein the airflow modulator directs airflow to both the second fan duct and the cooling duct.

US Pat. No. 9,330,330

POLARIZED MILLIMETER WAVE IMAGING SYSTEM AND METHOD

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

13. A detection system, comprising:
a polarization analyzer that generates one or more null detection values if an object is sensed in a received millimeter wave
(MMW) brightness temperature data set, wherein the polarization analyzer analyzes a polarization parameter in the received
MMW brightness temperature data set to generate the one or more null detection values;

an object detector that detects if the object is present based on a comparison of the one or more null detection values to
a predetermined threshold;

a singular value decomposition (SVD) unit that is enabled by the object detector to decompose the MMW brightness temperature
data set into a plurality of image layers, wherein each image layer includes at least one feature of a scene; and

an identification unit that analyzes the plurality of image layers from the SVD unit to determine a shape or a location of
the object from the scene.

US Pat. No. 9,293,465

MONOLITHIC BI-DIRECTIONAL CURRENT CONDUCTING DEVICE AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method of making a monolithic bi-directional device for providing bi-directional power flow and bi-directional blocking
of high-voltages, the method comprising:
forming a semiconductor structure stack over a doped substrate, the semiconductor structure stack comprising a heavily doped
contact interface layer overlying a lightly doped drift layer overlying a medium doped channel layer;

performing an etching process on the semiconductor structure stack to form a first set of drain pillars formed over a first
portion of the medium doped channel layer, and a second set of drain pillars formed over a second portion of the medium doped
channel layer;

forming drain contacts on the first set of drain pillars and the second set of drain pillars, and first gate contacts between
the first set of drain pillars and in contact with the first portion of the medium doped channel layer and second gate contacts
between the second set of drain pillars and in contact with the second portion of the medium doped channel layer; and

forming a source contact on the doped substrate.

US Pat. No. 10,088,641

RADIATION RESISTANT FIBER OPTICAL ASSEMBLY

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method for minimizing radiation levels experienced by an optical fiber that must operate in an environment containing radiation, the method including the steps of infusing under high pressure a gas into small particles coated with a resilient material that is permeable to the gas; sealing the enclosure; controllably supplying heat to the small particles so that at least a portion of the gas embedded in the small particles is released inside the enclosure to provide a gaseous interior environment in the enclosure that reduces the effects of the radiation upon the optical fiber due to the radiation external to the enclosure.

US Pat. No. 9,810,820

OPTICAL AND MICROWAVE REFLECTORS COMPRISING TENDRILLAR MAT STRUCTURE

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method for manufacturing optical and microwave reflectors, comprising:
placing an assembly comprising a resin-infiltrated tendrillar mat structure on a mandrel;
placing a pre-impregnated carbon fiber (CF) lamina on top of the tendrillar mat structure;
placing the assembly in a vacuum device so as to squeeze out excess resin;
and placing the assembly in a heating device so as to cure the tendrillar mat structure together with the CF lamina, forming
the CF laminae into a laminate that combines with the tendrillar mat structure to create a cured assembly, the cured assembly
having a loading of between approximately 20% and approximately 50%, the cured assembly exhibiting a thermal strain that is
reduced by two to five times relative to pure resin.

US Pat. No. 9,663,021

EXPANDING CLAMPING TWISTLOCK FOR ISO APERTURE SECUREMENT

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A twistlock comprising:
a main body including a front wall, a back wall, opposing side walls and a bottom wall, said body further including an internal
slot and first and second bores extending through the body from the front wall to the back wall and through the slot;

a first shaft extending through the first bore and a second shaft extending through the second bore;
a first clamping cam toggle including an opening through which the first shaft extends, said first cam toggle being positioned
in the slot;

a second clamping cam toggle including an opening through which the second shaft extends, said second cam toggle being positioned
in the slot;

a T-clamp screw including a body portion, a threaded end portion at one end of the body portion, and a clamping portion at
an opposite end of the body portion, said body portion extending through an opening in the main body and through the slot
between the first and second cam toggles so that the clamping portion is positioned adjacent to an outside of the bottom wall
of the main body; and

a first toggle bolt extending through one of the side walls of the main body and engaging the first cam toggle and a second
toggle bolt extending through the other side wall of the main body and engaging the second cam toggle, wherein the T-clamp
screw is rotatable to engage an underside of a wall in a fitting and the first and second toggle bolts are operable to toggle
the first and second cam toggles to engage edges of an aperture in the fitting through which the T-clamp screw extends.

US Pat. No. 9,540,115

DUAL MODE FRANGIBLE REFUELING NOZZLE

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. An in-flight refueling probe for an aircraft to be refueled by a fuel dispensing aircraft having a receptacle for connecting
to the refueling probe, the refueling probe comprising:
a first tubular member secured to the aircraft;
a second tubular member having a releasable connection with the first tubular member such that the second tubular member detaches
from the first tubular member in response to a predetermined force applied to the connection;

a nozzle secured to the second tubular member for coupling to the receptacle of the fuel dispensing aircraft and being in
fluid communication with the first tubular member; and

a tethering member having a first end connected to the first tubular member and a second end connected to one of the second
tubular member and the nozzle, the tethering member remaining intact to connect the detached second tubular member to the
first tubular member when a first tensile force is applied to the tethering member, the tethering member rupturing to disconnect
the detached second tubular member from the first tubular member when a second tensile force greater than the first tensile
force is applied to the tethering member.

US Pat. No. 9,467,126

JOSEPHSON CURRENT SOURCE SYSTEMS AND METHOD

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A Josephson current source system comprising:
a flux-shuttle loop comprising a plurality of stages arranged in a series loop, each of the plurality of stages comprising
at least one Josephson junction, the flux-shuttle loop being configured, when activated, to sequentially trigger the at least
one Josephson junction in each of the plurality of stages about the flux-shuttle loop in response to an inductively-coupled
AC clock signal to generate a DC output current provided through an output inductor; and

a flux injector system that is configured to activate the flux-shuttle loop, and is further configured to automatically deactivate
the flux-shuttle loop in response to an amplitude of the DC output current increasing to a predetermined deactivation threshold.

US Pat. No. 9,225,920

STARING FOCAL PLANE SENSOR SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR IMAGING LARGE DYNAMIC RANGE SCENES

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A focal plane staring sensor comprising:
an M×N sensor, where M is a number of rows of sensor pixels in the sensor and N is a number of columns of sensor pixels in
the sensor, where M and N are integers greater than one, wherein the M×N sensor employs at least two integration wells to
acquire photonic charge for each sensor pixel for a present frame and to store photonic charge for each sensor pixel from
a previous frame; and

a control circuit that samples a sensor pixel value for each sensor pixel of the M×N sensor at a plurality of different integration
times corresponding to an amount of time that the photonic charge can be acquired in each sensor pixel of the M×N sensor,
wherein the control circuit selects one sample from a set of samples to generate a scaled value to facilitate an equalization
of a signal to noise ratio between the sensor pixels, wherein the control circuit switches between the at least two integration
wells of the M×N sensor to acquire photonic charge for the present frame in one of the at least two integration wells and
to enable readout of the stored photonic charge from the previous frame from the other of the at least two integration wells.

US Pat. No. 10,122,062

CRESCENT RING RESONATOR

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A metamaterial resonator structure having a size for resonating a predetermined frequency band, said structure comprising:at least one dielectric slab having a top surface and a bottom surface; and
at least one conductive resonator element configured on one of the surfaces of the at least one dielectric slab, said conductive element having a crescent shape including a center portion and opposing rounded end portions defining a gap therebetween, wherein the center portion has a wider dimension than the end portions so that a width of the element gradually tapers from the center portion to the end portions, and wherein the dielectric slab has a thickness that is less than a wavelength of the frequency band, and wherein the at least one dielectric slab is a plurality of dielectric slabs each including a conductive resonator element configured on the top surface of the slab so as to define a stack of the slabs, wherein each slab and each conductive element has a different size so that each conductive element resonates at a different frequency band, and wherein the plurality of dielectric slabs are configured so that a largest size dielectric slab is positioned at a bottom of the structure and the slabs decrease in size to a top of the structure.

US Pat. No. 10,073,454

MACHINE VISION ENABLED SWARM GUIDANCE TECHNOLOGY

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

13. A target swarm system comprising:an airborne platform; and
a plurality of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) configured to be launched from the platform, wherein the UAVs download target information from the airborne platform before being launched therefrom, each UAV including a vision sensor providing image data after the UAV is launched from the platform, a navigation module receiving the image data and causing the UAV to fly towards a target, a target destruction module receiving the image data and causing the UAV to engage the target, and munitions to destroy the target, wherein the airborne platform includes a weapon sensor model that identifies the vision sensor on each UAV and provides target type and state and environment information to each UAV, and a reduced dimension feature extraction model that constructs grids and a target contour dome over the target, the navigation module includes a sensing layer having weapons navigation sensors and weapons databases that identify terrain and landmarks around the target, a processing layer that provides sensor processing and environment feature detection, feature correlation and tracking, geo-registration and sensor resource management, a measurement and abstraction layer that extracts measurement data, and a navigation and fusion layer that provides UAV state information of position, velocity, attitude and error estimates, and the target destruction module includes an optimal detection morphology filter that uses the downloaded target information to improve detection and segmentation of the target and reduce a target search base, a reduced-dimension and global feature matching module that identifies invariant target features, provides target feature matching, provides a pose estimate of elevation angle and target aspect angle, and provides target verification and tracking, a reduced-dimension contour matching module that provides contour extraction and matching, target verification and tracking and target interpolation, and a terminal local feature matching and tracking module that provides component matching, identification verification, aim-point selection, local feature tracking and robust-to-partial occlusions.

US Pat. No. 9,810,279

VIBRATORY BANDGAP DEVICE

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A vibratory isolator, comprising:
a periodic alternating structure comprising:
a plurality of mass inertia components, wherein at least one mass inertia component comprises a disk; and
a plurality of compliant components attaching adjacent mass inertia components to each other, wherein at least one compliant
component comprises a ring,

wherein at least one ring is sandwiched between two disks, and
wherein at least one ring is in contact with at least two disks,
the periodic alternating structure alternating between the disks and the rings,
the vibratory isolator providing a vibratory bandgap having a range of frequencies through which vibrations cannot pass, the
vibratory bandgap being bounded by an upper rocking mode frequency of approximately 85 Hertz (Hz), the vibratory bandgap being
bounded by a lower shearing mode frequency of approximately 60 Hertz (Hz).

US Pat. No. 9,809,294

HIGH ALTITUDE BALLOON WITH ALTITUDE CONTROL

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A high altitude balloon comprising:
a balloon film;
a lifting gas disposed within the balloon film;
a payload operably coupled to the balloon film, the payload generating waste heat during operation of the payload; and
a heat transfer element operably coupled between the payload and the balloon film configured to transfer the waste heat from
the payload to the lifting gas causing a change in buoyancy of the high altitude balloon;

wherein the payload is an electronic device, and wherein the waste heat is generated by the electronic device.

US Pat. No. 9,812,445

BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR DEVICE HAVING BASE EPITAXY REGION ON ETCHED OPENING IN DARC LAYER

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) transistor device comprising:
a collector dielectric layer overlying a silicon substrate in a collector active region;
a first dielectric anti-reflective (DARC) layer overlying the collector dielectric layer;
a base epitaxy region extending through a base opening through the collector dielectric layer and the first DARC layer and
extending over first and second portions of the first DARC layer on opposing sides of the base opening, the base epitaxy region
having a single crystal portion overlying the silicon substrate and polysilicon regions on the opposing sides of the base
opening;

an emitter dielectric layer overlying the base epitaxy region;
a second DARC layer overlying the emitter dielectric layer;
a highly doped emitter material region extended though an emitter opening in contact with the single crystal portion and extending
over first and second portions of the second DARC layer on opposing sides of the emitter opening;

a base contact opening extending through the highly doped emitter material region, the second DARC layer and the emitter dielectric
to one or more doped regions of the base epitaxy region;

an emitter contact opening extending through the highly doped emitter material region, the second DARC layer, the emitter
dielectric, the base epitaxy region, the first DARC layer, and the collector dielectric layer to a doped collector contact
region in the silicon substrate; and

wherein the first DARC layer and the second DARC layer are formed from silicon-rich oxynitride layers that both function as
hard masks and ant-reflective layers during photolithography and have a low dielectric constant.

US Pat. No. 9,810,751

CUSTOMIZED MAGNETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY MATERIALS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method for fabricating a compound material, the method comprising:
providing a first discrete material layer having a first thickness dimension, the first discrete material layer comprising
a first material having a first magnetic susceptibility;

depositing a second discrete material layer having a second thickness dimension over the first discrete material layer, the
second discrete material layer comprising a second material having a second magnetic susceptibility different from that of
the first material; and

depositing a third discrete material layer of titanium or copper between the first discrete material layer and the second
discrete material layer, the third discrete material layer comprising a third material having a third magnetic susceptibility
different from those of the first and second materials, wherein the third discrete material layer is configured as a non-magnetic
adhesion layer with respect to the first and second discrete material layers, and the relative first, second, and third thickness
dimensions are selected to provide the desired magnetic susceptibility of the compound material comprising the first, second,
and third discrete material layers;

and wherein one of:
the first discrete material layer is gold and the second discrete material layer is tungsten carbide, or
the first discrete material layer is a zirconium oxide ceramic and the second discrete material layer is an yttrium oxide
ceramic.

US Pat. No. 9,696,808

HAND-GESTURE RECOGNITION METHOD

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method or providing device inputs, the method comprising:
illuminating hand gestures performed via a bare hand of a user in a three-dimensional foreground of a background surface with
at least one infrared (IR) light source;

generating a first plurality of silhouette images associated with the bare hand based on an IR light contrast between the
bare hand and the background surface;

generating a second plurality of silhouette images associated with the bare hand based on an IR light contrast between the
bare hand the background surface;

determining a plurality of three-dimensional features of the bare hand relative to the background surface based on a parallax
separation of the bare hand in the first plurality of silhouette images relative to the second plurality of silhouette images;

determining a first provided input gesture based on the plurality of three-dimensional features of the bare hand, the provided
input gesture comprising the bare hand being positioned in a flat, open hand gesture and being rotated at an associated wrist
approximately 180 degrees;

determining a second provided input gesture comprising the flat, open hand gesture being maintained subsequent to rotation
of the associated wrist while at least one additional gesture input is performed from one of the bare hand and another bare
hand of the user;

comparing the provided first and second input gestures with a plurality of predefined gesture inputs in a gesture library;
providing at least one first device input corresponding to interaction with displayed visual content based on the provided
first input gesture corresponding to one of the plurality of predefined gesture inputs, the at least one first device input
responsive to the provided first input gesture comprising one of a page-up input and a page-down input associated with a document;
and

providing at least one second device input corresponding to interaction with the displayed visual content based on the provided
second input gesture corresponding to one of the plurality of predefined gesture inputs, the at least one second device input
responsive to the provided second input gesture comprising one of:

scrolling a page of the document one of upwards and downwards in response to the at least one additional gesture input from
the bare hand;

repeating at least one of the page-up and the page-down inputs associated with the document in response to the at least one
additional gesture input; and

auto-turning a page of the document at one of an acceleration and a deceleration that is based on a duration at which the
at least one additional gesture input is maintained.

US Pat. No. 9,559,875

BLIND EQUALIZATION IN A SINGLE CARRIER WIDEBAND CHANNEL

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A receiver system, comprising:
a decision-directed (DD) least mean squares (LMS) blind equalizer for equalizing a minimum shift keying (MSK) signal in a
single carrier channel, the output signal of the DD LMS blind equalizer having, after equalizing approximately 5.11×108 MSK symbols, a non-zero phase offset ?0, the DD LMS equalizer further comprising a finite impulse response filter with tap weights that are adaptively updated using
a filter tap update algorithm, the output signal having, after equalizing approximately 5.11×108 MSK symbols, a non-zero carrier frequency offset (CFO) f0, wherein:

the DD LMS blind equalizer averages a block to compute an independent phase estimate for a block,
the DD LMS blind equalizer computes an error variable for a block from the phase estimate for the block,
the DD LMS blind equalizer uses the phase estimate and alternating in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) one dimensional/binary slicing
to make a hard decision that does not comprise output of the receiver system, and

operating simultaneously in DD mode and as a blind equalizer, the DD LMS blind equalizer uses the hard decision to derive
an error variable that is used to update the filter tap weights of the DD LMS equalizer.

US Pat. No. 9,537,580

OPTICAL RECEIVER SENSITIVITY SYSTEM

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A system comprising:
a detector array having a plurality of level detectors to monitor an optical input signal, wherein each level detector of
the detector array operates in a different operating range, each operating range for each level detector having a different
saturation level and a different cutoff level based on a power level of the optical input signal;

a first level detector of the plurality of level detectors having a first operating range and operating at cutoff in response
to the optical input signal;

a second level detector of the plurality of level detectors having a second operating range and operating at saturation in
response to the optical input signal;

a third level detector of the plurality of level detectors operating at a third level between the first level and the second
level, the third level being associated with a present power level of the optical input signal; and

a controller to monitor each level detector of the plurality of level detectors to detect the present power level for the
optical input signal, and to dynamically adjust the sensitivity level of a receiver photodetector in response to the detected
present power level.

US Pat. No. 9,475,592

REACTION SPHERE FOR STABILIZATION AND CONTROL IN THREE AXES

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A spherical motor system for control and stabilization of a vehicle in three orthogonal axes, the system comprising:
a spherical rotor having permanent magnets positioned in evenly-spaced antipodal pairs, wherein each of the permanent magnets
are oriented with the same magnetic pole facing outward from a center of the rotor;

a stator having electromagnets positioned in evenly-spaced antipodal pairs that spatially correspond with the permanent magnets,
the stator further having magnetic sensors surrounding at least one of each electromagnet antipodal pair to detect one of
the permanent magnets; and

a control system that controls timing and duration of energization of the electromagnets based on the detection of the one
of the permanent magnets with the sensors to provide the electromagnets with the opposite magnetic pole of the permanent magnets
in order to attract the permanent magnets whereby momentum is transferred between the rotor and the stator along a controlled
vector.

US Pat. No. 9,466,024

LEARNING HEALTH SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method for providing personalized health support comprising:
conducting biochemical assays at scheduled intervals on blood samples taken from an individual to provide, for each of a plurality
of biochemical parameters, a time series of values representing the individual;

extracting a plurality of clinical parameters associated with the individual from a knowledge base;
determining a plurality of genomic parameters for the individual;calculating an expected time series for each of a plural subset of the plurality of biochemical parameters from at least the
clinical parameters and the genomic parameters;
comparing, for each of the plural subset of biochemical parameters, the time series of values representing the individual
to the calculated expected time series to determine a likelihood of each of a plurality of conditions for the individual;

wherein comparing the time series of values representing the individual to the calculated expected time series to determine
the likelihood of each of the plurality of conditions for the individual comprises:
determining a deviation of the time series of values from the calculated expected time series;applying the deviation as an input to a predictive model associated with one of the plurality of conditions, the predictive
model being configured to determine the likelihood of the associated one of the plurality of conditions from at least one
parameter derived from the deviation;
outputting the likelihood of at least one of the plurality of conditions whereby a healthcare course of action can be made;
storing each of the time series of values, the plurality of genomic parameters, and measured clinical outcomes in the knowledge
base such that the knowledge base contains biochemical assays, genomic parameters, clinical parameters, and measured clinical
outcomes for a population of patients;

applying a data mining algorithm to the knowledge base to identify at least one causality case relating one of the clinical
parameters, the genomic parameters, and the cohort parameters to a condition; and
refining a predictive model according to the identified causality case.

US Pat. No. 9,401,758

UNMANNED AIR VEHICLE WITH AUTONOMOUS AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL COMMUNICATIONS CAPABILITY

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method implemented by an unmanned air vehicle (UAV) for providing voice communications to an air traffic control (ATC)
station comprising the steps of:
supporting two-way first voice communications with a human operator at a control station that is in control of the UAV over
a digital radio frequency (RF) link and two-way second voice communications with a controller at the ATC station over an analog
RF link;

coupling the first and second voice communications to each other so that two-way voice communications are provided between
the human operator and the controller; determining that the first communications with the human operator is not operative;

based on said determination, generating autonomous voice announcements of flight parameters of the UAV, and transmitting the
autonomous voice announcements via the analog radio frequency link to the ATC station;

determining that the first communications with the human operator, which was not operative, has now become operative; and
ceasing the generation of autonomous voice announcements of flight parameters of the UAV based on the first communications
with the human operator now being operative.

US Pat. No. 9,362,714

ARCHITECTURE FOR ALL-FIBER DELIVERY OF COHERENTLY COMBINED LASER POWER

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A fiber amplifier system comprising:
a master oscillator generating a signal beam;
at least one beam splitter splitting the signal beam into a plurality of fiber beams;
a plurality of polarization modulators each receiving one of the fiber beams, each polarization modulator providing polarization
control of the fiber beam;

a plurality of phase modulators each receiving one of the fiber beams, each phase modulator providing phase control of the
fiber beam;

a plurality of fiber amplifiers each receiving a polarization and phase controlled fiber beam, each fiber amplifier amplifying
a fiber beam, said fiber amplifiers each including an output end;

a fiber-coupled combiner including a plurality of input end fibers, a plurality of output end fibers and a center mixing portion,
each input end fiber being coupled to a separate one of the output end of the fiber amplifiers, said mixing portion combining
all of the fiber beams received by the input end fibers into a single combined beam and each output end fiber being capable
of receiving the combined beam separately from the other output end fibers;

a separate delivery fiber coupled to each output end fiber of the fiber-coupled combiner;
a plurality of optical output turrets each being coupled to a separate one of the delivery fibers opposite to the fiber-coupled
combiner;

at least one phase controller receiving a phase signal from the optical output turrets and controlling the phase modulators,
said phase controller providing phase control so as to direct the combined beam to a selected main one of the optical output
turrets, where the other optical output turrets are nulled turrets that do not receive optical power from the fiber-coupled
combiner; and

at least one polarization controller receiving a polarization signal from one or more of the optical output turrets and controlling
the polarization modulators, wherein one or more of the delivery fibers or the polarization controller reduce the effect of
cross-phase modulation (XPM) instability in the delivery fiber coupled to the main output turret.

US Pat. No. 9,658,765

IMAGE MAGNIFICATION SYSTEM FOR COMPUTER INTERFACE

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A computer interface system comprising:
a user interface screen configured to display visual content;
an input system configured to detect a presence of an input object within a non-zero threshold distance along a normal axis
of the user interface screen;

a visual content display engine configured to magnify the portion of the visual content by superimposing a portion of a scaled
copy of the visual content onto the visual content, the scaled copy of the visual content being magnified by a scale factor
greater than one relative to the visual content; and

a graphical controller configured to:
magnify a portion of the visual content in accordance with the scale factor that is centered at an approximate location of
a base of the normal axis on the user interface screen;

set a fixed position on the visual content at an intersection of the normal axis and the visual content, and a corresponding
fixed position on of the scaled copy of the visual content at an intersection of the normal axis and a respective superimposed
portion of the scaled copy of the visual content in response to the input object being moved to within the threshold distance,
such that the superimposed portion of the scaled copy of the visual content is moved a first distance from the corresponding
fixed position along the scaled copy of the visual content in response to movement of the input object a second distance from
the fixed position along the user interface screen within the threshold distance, the first distance and the second distance
being approximately equal; and

continuously superimpose a single contiguous portion of the scaled copy of the visual content onto the visual content, the
single contiguous portion beginning at the fixed position on the user interface screen and continuing along a path on the
user interface screen such that the single contiguous portion increases in size as it extends from the fixed position to a
current position in response to contiguous movement of the input object along the path on the user interface screen from the
fixed position to the current position within the threshold distance.

US Pat. No. 9,657,999

ALTERNATING CHANNEL HEAT EXCHANGER

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A heat exchanger comprising:
a matrix of channels including a plurality of rows and a plurality of columns, where half of the channels are hot flow channels
through which a hot fluid flows in a first direction and half of the channels are cold flow channels through which a cold
fluid flows in a second direction opposite the first direction, and hot and cold flow channels alternate in each row and each
column to define an alternating channel counter-flow arrangement; and

an end blocker attached at each end of each channel, where each end blocker blocks only a top portion or a bottom portion
of the end of the channel to define a blocked portion and an open portion, and the blocked portions and the open portions
alternate position in each row and each column.

US Pat. No. 9,653,398

NON-OXIDE BASED DIELECTRICS FOR SUPERCONDUCTOR DEVICES

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method of forming a superconductor device, the method comprising:
depositing a non-oxide based dielectric layer over a substrate;
depositing a photoresist material layer over the non-oxide based dielectric layer;
irradiating and developing the photoresist material layer to form a via pattern in the photoresist material layer;
etching the non-oxide based dielectric layer to form openings in the non-oxide based dielectric layer based on the via pattern;
stripping the photoresist material layer;
depositing another photoresist material layer over the non-oxide based dielectric layer;
irradiating and developing the other photoresist material layer to form a trench pattern in the other photoresist material
layer overlying the via pattern;

etching the non-oxide based dielectric layer to form trench openings in the non-oxide based dielectric layer based on the
trench pattern;

stripping the other photoresist material layer; and
filling the openings and the trench openings in the non-oxide based dielectric with a superconducting material to form both
a set of superconducting contacts and conductive lines that overly the set of superconducting contacts.

US Pat. No. 9,641,312

METHOD FOR SYMBOL CLOCK RECOVERY IN PULSE POSITION MODULATION (PPM) SYSTEMS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A symbol clock recovery circuit for recovering a symbol clock in an M-ary pulse position modulation (PPM) signal, said
PPM signal including symbol groups defined by consecutive M number of time slots, said symbol clock recovery circuit comprising:
a slot clock recovery circuit that provides a slot clock pulse for each time slot in the PPM signal;
a pulse sampler circuit receiving the PPM signal and being controlled by the slot clock pulses to selectively provide sample
values for each time slot in the PPM signal;

at least M?1 number of sequentially organized delay circuits that each delay the sample values one time slot to provide at
least M?1 number of increasingly delayed sample values;

at least one largest magnitude select circuit responsive to the sample values from the pulse sampler circuit and the delay
circuits and outputting a largest magnitude sample value for each symbol group of M time slots;

a divider circuit responsive to the slot clock pulses from the slot clock recovery circuit and generating a symbol clock signal
having a single symbol clock pulse for every M number of time slots;

at least one largest magnitude sampler circuit responsive to the largest magnitude sample values from at least one largest
magnitude select circuit for each time slot and selectively providing that largest magnitude sample value every symbol clock
pulse; and

a position correct circuit responsive to the largest magnitude sample values from at least one largest magnitude sampler circuit
and providing a control signal to the divider circuit to correct a position of the symbol clock pulses to identify a first
time slot in each symbol group.

US Pat. No. 9,641,772

COMPACT PMMW CAMERA CALIBRATION TARGET

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A calibration system for a camera, said calibration system comprising a thermal calibrator including a first thermally
conducting body, a second thermally conducting body, a first black body target mounted to a back surface of the first conducting
body, a second black body target mounted to a back surface of the second conducting body, and a thermo-electric (TE) cooling
device having a hot side and a cold side that are on opposite sides of the device from each other, wherein the hot side of
the TE cooling device is thermally attached to the first conducting body and the cold side of the TE cooling device is thermally
attached to the second conducting body.

US Pat. No. 9,613,882

NANOPARTICLE THERMAL INTERFACE AGENTS FOR REDUCING THERMAL CONDUCTANCE RESISTANCE

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A thermal interface material (TIM) comprising:
a vertically aligned metal nanowire array (VAMNW) for providing heat transfer between two surfaces in an electronic device;
and

a plurality of high thermal conductivity nanorods or nanowires distributed on the surface of the VAMNW such that they are
co-planar and lie flat in an interface region between the VAMNW and one of the surfaces in the electronic device.

US Pat. No. 9,590,299

INTEGRATED ANTENNA AND RF PAYLOAD FOR LOW-COST INTER-SATELLITE LINKS USING SUPER-ELLIPTICAL ANTENNA APERTURE WITH SINGLE AXIS GIMBAL

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An inter-satellite link (ISL) subsystem for a communications satellite, said ISL subsystem comprising:
a main reflector having a super-elliptical shape and an elongated central opening;
a mounting plate fixed to a back side of the main reflector, said mounting plate also having an elongated central opening;
a single axis gimbal motor including a motor mount which mounts the motor to a chassis of the communications satellite;
a pivot arm attached at a first end to an output shaft of the motor, said pivot arm being attached at a second end to the
mounting plate such that a rotation of the output shaft of the motor causes the main reflector to tilt;

a radio frequency (RF) feed circuit contained in an electronics housing, where said electronics housing is mounted to the
chassis;

a feed cone mounted to the electronics housing, said feed cone having a generally tubular shape and positioned where it passes
through the central openings of the main reflector and the mounting plate;

a horn in communication with the RF feed circuit, said horn sending and receiving RF signals to and from a remote satellite,
where the horn is positioned inside the feed cone; and

a subreflector mounted via a plurality of struts to the feed cone and centered on an axis of the feed cone,
where the RF signals radiate from the horn to the subreflector to the main reflector to the remote satellite, and vice versa,
and a beam of the RF signals is steered in an elevation plane only via tilting of the main reflector by the motor.

US Pat. No. 9,583,884

ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE (ESD) SAFE CONNECTOR INSERT

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A dissipative insert provided within an electrical connector having multiple connector pins and an outer conductive housing
where the insert is configured around the pins within the housing and provides structural integrity thereto and prevents a
short circuit between the pins and between the pins and the housing, said insert being comprised of a mixture of a polymer
and a conductive material that causes the insert to have a volume resistivity in the range of 1×106-1×1010 ohm-cm.

US Pat. No. 9,581,722

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR NONINVASIVELY DETERMINING POSITIONING OF A COMPONENT BENEATH A SUBSTRATE

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method of noninvasively determining desired positioning of a component beneath a substrate having a concealing surface
longitudinally separated by a substrate body from an accessible surface of the substrate, the method comprising:
providing a component having longitudinally differing activated and deactivated positions, the component being located longitudinally
beneath the concealing surface of the substrate;

inspecting, with an inspection device from the accessible surface of the substrate the component located beneath the accessible
and concealing surfaces;

detecting, with the inspection device, at least one of an activated and a deactivated position of the component; and
indicating, in a user-perceptible format, the detected activated and/or deactivated position of the component.

US Pat. No. 9,567,075

TILT WING AERIAL VEHICLE

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A multi-engine aircraft convertible from a horizontal flight mode to a vertical flight mode, the aircraft comprising:
an aircraft fuselage defining a fuselage longitudinal axis;
first and second wings attached to the fuselage, each wing defining first and second wing segments, each wing segment being
separately attached to the fuselage, the first wing segments of each wing being translatable about the fuselage longitudinal
axis, independent of any translation of the second wing segments about the fuselage longitudinal axis, from a horizontal flight
mode position adjacent the second wing segments, wherein the first and second wing segments collectively form the first and
second wings, to a vertical flight mode wherein the first wing segments are substantially offset from the second wing segments,
and the first and second wing segments do not collectively form the first and second wings;

an aircraft propulsion unit attached to each of the first and second wing segments, the propulsion units attached to the first
wing segment being disposed in substantial axial aliment when the aircraft operates in a horizontal mode, and being substantially
offset when the aircraft operates in a vertical mode; and

a sensor unit connected to a forward portion of the fuselage, the sensor unit defining a field of view substantially along
the fuselage center axis.

US Pat. No. 9,544,562

CONVERTING AN IMAGE FROM A DUAL-BAND SENSOR TO A VISIBLE COLOR IMAGE

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An apparatus for displaying dual-band image sensor data as a visible color image, comprising:
a dual-band image sensor;
a non-transitory memory storing machine-readable instructions to at least:
fuse different bands of the dual-band image sensor data using wavelet-based image fusion to generate the L* component of an
{L*, a*, b* } color space placeholder image;

generate the a* and b* components of the placeholder image by:
generating an {R, G, B } visible color space temporary image having red, green, and blue channels, wherein the red channel
of the temporary image is created from one band of the dual-band image sensor, the green channel of the temporary image is
created from the other band of the dual-band image sensor, and the blue channel of the temporary image is created from either
the product of the two bands of the dual-band image sensor or the ratio of the two bands of the dual-band image sensor;

generating the a* component of the placeholder image as a function of the red and green channels of the temporary image; and
generating the b* component of the placeholder image as a function of the red, green, and blue channels of the temporary image;
and

converting the placeholder image to an {R, G, B } visible color space output image having red, green, and blue channels, wherein
the red channel of the output image is created as the sum of the L* component and the sum of 1/2 times the a* component and 1/3 times the b* component, the green channel of the output image is created as the difference between the L* component and the
sum of 1/2 times the a* component and 1/3 times the b* component, and the blue channel of the output image is created as the difference between the L* component and
2/3 times the b* component; and

a processor, operably coupled to the memory and the dual-band image sensor, configured to execute the machine-readable instructions.

US Pat. No. 9,419,120

MULTICHANNEL DEVICES WITH IMPROVED PERFORMANCE

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A transistor device comprising:
a base structure;
a superlattice structure overlying the base structure and comprising a multichannel ridge having sidewalls, the multichannel
ridge comprising a plurality of heterostructures that each form a channel of the multichannel ridge, wherein at least one
parameter of at least one of the heterostructures is varied relative to the other heterostructures of the plurality of heterostructures,
such that a parameter of the at least one parameter is a dopant concentration of each heterostructure, such that longer width
channels associated with a given heterostructure are doped with less dopant concentration than shorter width channels associated
with a given heterostructure to substantially equalize a pinch-off voltage of each channel of the multichannel ridge during
operation; and

a gate contact that wraps around and substantially surrounds the top and at least one side of the multichannel ridge along
at least a portion of its depth.

US Pat. No. 9,810,535

VIBRATING-MASS GYROSCOPE SYSTEMS AND METHOD

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A vibrating-mass gyroscope system comprising:
a sensor system comprising a vibrating-mass and a plurality of electrodes coupled to the vibrating-mass that are configured
to facilitate in-plane motion of the vibrating-mass; and

a gyroscope controller configured to generate:
a drive signal that is provided to a first set of the plurality of electrodes to provide an in-plane periodic oscillatory
motion of the vibrating-mass along a drive axis in response to a drive axis force along the drive axis generated in response
to the drive signal,

a force-rebalance signal that is provided to a second set of the plurality of electrodes to calculate a rotation of the vibrating-mass
gyroscope system about an input axis, the force-rebalance signal being configured to generate a force-rebalance force along
a second axis that is orthogonal to the drive axis, and

a quadrature signal that is provided to a third set of the plurality of electrodes to generate a quadrature force along a
third axis that is arranged at approximately 45° relative to the drive axis and the second axis to substantially mitigate
quadrature effects associated with the vibrating-mass.

US Pat. No. 9,809,295

FLIGHT ACTUATED DOOR SEAL

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. A sealing system for an aircraft having an opening and a door movable between an open condition spaced from the opening
and a closed condition covering the opening, the system comprising:
a cover plate connected to the aircraft adjacent the opening;
a first magnetic coupling secured to the cover plate and including a first plurality of magnets; and
a second magnetic coupling for securing to the door and including a second plurality of magnets, the first magnetic coupling
being repelled by the second magnetic coupling when the couplings have a first degree of alignment with one another which
causes the cover plate to move away from the door, the first magnetic coupling being attracted to the second magnetic coupling
when the magnetic couplings have a second degree of alignment with one another greater than the first degree causing the magnetic
couplings to engage one another and seal the opening in the aircraft.

US Pat. No. 9,726,491

VIBRATING-MASS GYROSCOPE SYSTEMS AND METHOD

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A vibrating-mass gyroscope system comprising:
a sensor system comprising a substantially planar vibrating-mass comprising a first surface, a second surface opposite the
first surface, and a plurality of electrodes that extend longitudinally in a periodic pattern across at least one of the first
and second surfaces, the plurality of electrodes comprising an array of drive electrodes, an array of sense electrodes, and
an array of quadrature electrodes arranged at a 45° angle with respect to each of the sets of drive and sense electrodes,
the array of drive electrodes, the array of sense electrodes, and the array of quadrature electrodes being capacitively coupled
to a substantially matching array of drive electrodes, a substantially matching array of sense electrodes, and a substantially
matching array of quadrature electrodes, respectively, associated with a housing and which are separated from and facing the
respective at least one of the first and second surfaces, the substantially matching array of quadrature electrodes being
arranged at a 45° angle with respect to each of the substantially matching sets of drive and sense electrodes; and

a gyroscope controller configured to generate a drive signal that is provided to one of the array of drive electrodes and
the substantially matching array of drive electrodes to provide for an in-plane periodic oscillatory motion of the substantially
planar vibrating-mass, and to generate a force-rebalance signal that is provided to one of the array of sense electrodes and
the substantially matching array of sense electrodes to calculate a rotation of the vibrating-mass gyroscope system about
an input axis.

US Pat. No. 9,657,762

THERMALLY ACTIVATED, SHAPE CONFIGURABLE MECHANICAL LOCKING Z-PIN

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A Z-pin comprising:
a first bi-metal structure including a first metal strip and a second metal strip bonded together, where the first and second
metal strips have different coefficients of thermal expansion; and

a second bi-metal structure including a third metal strip and a fourth metal strip bonded together, where the third metal
strip and the fourth metal strip have different coefficients of thermal expansion, wherein the second metal strip and the
third metal strip are selectively secured together at at least one discrete location so that heating of the Z-pin causes the
first and second bi-metal strip structures to deform relative to each other, and wherein the first and second bi-metal structures
are selectively secured together by at least one weld.

US Pat. No. 9,652,571

RECIPROCAL QUANTUM LOGIC (RQL) CIRCUIT SYNTHESIS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A non-transitory computer readable medium configured to store instructions that, when executed, are configured to perform
a method for generating a Reciprocal Quantum Logic (RQL) circuit design via a synthesis tool, the method comprising:
providing data associated with behavior and constraints of the RQL circuit design and a component library to the synthesis
tool;

generating an RQL netlist circuit comprising a flip-flop device placeholder and a circuit system coupled to at least one of
an input and an output of the flip-flop device placeholder via the synthesis tool based on the data and the component library;

separating the circuit system into a plurality of circuit subsystems that are each associated with a separate respective phase
of a clock signal via the synthesis tool based on inputs;

removing the flip-flop device placeholder from the RQL netlist circuit via the synthesis tool based on the inputs to generate
the RQL circuit design from the RQL netlist circuit; and

controlling fabrication of a semiconductor circuit based on the generated RQL circuit design.

US Pat. No. 9,646,682

RECIPROCAL QUANTUM LOGIC (RQL) SENSE AMPLIFIER

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A reciprocal quantum logic (RQL) sense amplifier system comprising:
an input stage configured to amplify a sense current received at an input;
a detection stage configured to trigger at least one detection Josephson junction (JJ) in response to the amplified sense
current and based on a clock signal to generate a single flux quantum (SFQ) pulse; and

a Josephson transmission line (JTL) stage configured to propagate the SFQ pulse to an output of the RQL sense amplifier system
based on at least one output JJ and to generate a negative SFQ pulse to reset the at least one detection JJ and the at least
one output JJ based on the clock signal.

US Pat. No. 9,640,948

METHOD FOR MODE CONTROL IN MULTIMODE SEMICONDUCTOR WAVEGUIDE LASERS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method, comprising:
depositing, for patterning current injection, a layer of SiN on a surface of a wide stripe semiconductor waveguide;
patterning vias in the layer of SiN where current injection is desired;
covering the layer of SiN and the surface of the wide stripe semiconductor waveguide with ohmic metal; and
selectively pumping the wide stripe semiconductor waveguide to create and support a desired electric field distribution comprising
a diffraction limited transverse Talbot mode.

US Pat. No. 9,618,362

SELF-CALIBRATING NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE (NMR) GYROSCOPE SYSTEM

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) gyroscope system comprising:
a vapor cell comprising an alkali metal and a plurality of gyromagnetic isotopes;
a pump laser configured to generate an optical pump beam configured to spin-polarize the alkali metal;
a probe laser configured to generate an optical probe beam;
a detection system configured to monitor the optical probe beam and to calculate a rotation of the NMR gyroscope system about
a sensitive axis based on a modulation of the optical probe beam in response to precession of the plurality of gyromagnetic
isotopes resulting from the spin-polarization of the alkali metal; and

a calibration controller configured to modulate a characteristic of the optical pump beam to substantially mitigate bias errors
associated with the gyromagnetic isotopes in the calculation of the rotation of the NMR gyroscope system about the sensitive
axis.

US Pat. No. 9,612,297

MAGNETIC FIELD TRIMMING IN AN ATOMIC SENSOR SYSTEM

NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS ...

1. An atomic sensor system comprising:
a magnetic field generator configured to generate a magnetic field in a volume;
a vapor cell arranged within the volume and comprising a polarized alkali metal vapor; and
at least one magnetic field trimming system configured to generate a magnetic field gradient within the vapor cell separate
from the magnetic field to provide a substantially uniform collective magnetic field within the vapor cell.

US Pat. No. 9,583,589

SELF-ALIGNED DOUBLE GATE RECESS FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method for fabricating a double-recess gate structure for a field effect transistor (FET) device, said method comprising:
providing a semiconductor wafer having a plurality of semiconductor layers including a substrate, a channel deposited on the
substrate, a barrier layer deposited on the channel and a doped cap layer deposited on the barrier layer;

depositing at least one electron-beam lithography (EBL) resist layer on the semiconductor wafer;
patterning the at least one EBL resist layer using an electron-beam lithography process to form a wide upper opening in the
at least one EBL resist layer and a narrow lower opening in the at least one EBL resist layer, the wide upper opening in the
at least one EBL resist layer being wider than the narrow lower opening in the at least one EBL resist layer;

performing a first wet etch through the wide upper and narrow lower openings in the at least one EBL resist layer and into
the semiconductor wafer to form a first recess in the semiconductor wafer;

depositing a dielectric layer over the at least one EBL resist layer and into the first recess;
performing a dry etch to remove a portion of the dielectric layer in the first recess to form an opening in the dielectric
layer, the opening in the dielectric layer aligns with the narrow lower opening in the at least one EBL resist layer in a
vertical direction substantially perpendicular to a top surface of the substrate;

performing a second wet etch through the opening in the dielectric layer and into the semiconductor wafer to form a second
recess in the semiconductor layer, where the second recess is aligned with the first recess in the vertical direction;

depositing a gate metal layer on the FET device so that a first portion of the gate metal layer is deposited in the first
and second recesses and in the wide upper and narrow lower openings in the at least one EBL resist layer to form a gate terminal
having a T-shape including an upper horizontal portion and a lower vertical portion, where a width of the lower vertical portion
is in the range of 25-35 nm; and

removing the at least one EBL resist layer to remove a second portion of the gate metal layer on top of the at least one EBL
resist layer to define the T-shaped gate terminal.

US Pat. No. 9,567,774

TEMPORALLY STAGED RAPID PANEL ACCESS FASTENER FOR HIGHLY CURVED PANELS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An access panel fastener system, said system comprising:
a pneumatic chamber incorporated in a fixed structure;
a Belleville spring retained around its outer periphery to the fixed structure, where a lower surface of said spring is in
fluid communication with the pneumatic chamber and the spring is responsive to a pneumatic pressure in the chamber;

a pneumatic piston slidably disposed through a central hole in the Belleville spring, a lower end of said piston being in
fluid communication with the pneumatic chamber and responsive to the pneumatic pressure, where the piston deploys upward until
a piston base flange contacts the lower surface of the Belleville spring when the pneumatic pressure in the pneumatic chamber
exceeds a first pressure threshold, and where the Belleville spring deflects upward when the pneumatic pressure in the pneumatic
chamber exceeds a second pressure threshold;

a piston chamber located in a central bore of the piston with a lower orifice proximate the lower end of the piston and an
upper orifice proximate an upper end of the piston, where pressurized air from the pneumatic chamber flows through the lower
orifice into the piston chamber and flows out of the piston chamber through the upper orifice;

a plurality of locking dogs slidably disposed in the upper end of the piston, where the locking dogs deploy radially outward
when the pneumatic pressure in the piston chamber exceeds a third pressure threshold; and

a retainer cavity mounted on a lower surface of a removable panel such that an opening of the cavity faces downward toward
the fixed structure, and where the locking dogs when deployed engage with the retainer cavity to lock the removable panel
to the fixed structure,

where the fastener system latches the removable panel to the fixed structure upon application of a latching sequence of pneumatic
pressures, and the fastener system unlatches the removable panel from the fixed structure upon application of an unlatching
sequence of pneumatic pressures.

US Pat. No. 9,570,646

NANO AVALANCHE PHOTODIODE ARCHITECTURE FOR PHOTON DETECTION

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An integrated circuit comprising:
a substrate material that includes an epitaxial layer, wherein the substrate material and the epitaxial layer form a first
semiconductor material with the epitaxial layer having a first conductivity type; and

at least one nanowire comprising a second semiconductor material having a second conductivity type doped differently than
the first conductivity type of the first semiconductor material, wherein the at least one nanowire is positioned on a surface
the first semiconductor material and runs from a given edge of the first semiconductor material to an opposite edge of the
semiconductor material to form a junction crossing region with the first semiconductor material, wherein the at least one
nanowire and the first semiconductor material form an avalanche photodiode (APD) in the junction crossing region to enable
single photon detection.

US Pat. No. 9,503,294

AMPLITUDE AND PHASE SHIFT KEYING MODULATION FOR SATURATED AMPLIFIER SYSTEMS

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. An amplitude and phase modulation circuit for modulating an M-ary digital signal having pulses, said modulation circuit
comprising:
a digital source generating a digital signal including pulses representing logical 1s and no pulses representing logical zeros,
where a group of M pulses represents a constellation point to be transmitted;

a phase control circuit responsive to the digital signal from the digital source, said phase control circuit including a plurality
of signal delay lines, where each delay line delays the digital signal a predetermined period of time representing a rotational
shift of the constellation point on the constellation, said phase control circuit further including a first multiplexer coupled
to the delay lines at its input and receiving a phase control signal from the digital source that selects a particular delayed
digital signal at an output of the first multiplexer for the constellation point to be transmitted;

an amplitude control circuit including a plurality of pulse width adjust circuits responsive to the delayed digital signal
from the first multiplexer, said pulse width adjust circuits adjusting a width of the pulses in the signal where the width
of the pulses identifies a ring in the constellation that the constellation point is located on, said amplitude control circuit
including a second multiplexer coupled to the pulse width adjust circuits at its input digital signals at its input and receiving
an amplitude control signal from the digital source that selects a particular pulse width adjusted digital signal at an output
of the second multiplexer for the constellation point to be transmitted;

a saturated amplifier responsive to the amplitude controlled digital signal from the second multiplexer and amplifying the
digital signal where the amplifier operates in saturation so that it is only using power when logical one pulses are being
provided to the amplifier;

a filter responsive to the amplified digital signal from the amplifier, said amplifier integrating and averaging the digital
signal to remove noise from the signal so as to convert the digital signal to an analog signal; and

an antenna responsive to the analog signal from the filter to transmit the analog signal.

US Pat. No. 9,494,462

BALANCED INTENSITY DIFFERENTIAL PHOTO DETECTOR

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A circuit comprising:
a first photo detector to receive a first light input signal and to generate a first current output signal in response to
the first light input signal;

a second photo detector to receive a second light input signal to generate a second current output signal in response to the
second light input signal;

a current multiplier stage that receives the second current output signal from the second photo detector to generate a multiplied
current output signal that is greater than the magnitude of the second current output signal; and

a differential multiplier having a first current path that receives a portion of the multiplied current output signal and
a second current path that receives another portion of the multiplied current output signal, wherein the first current path
is in series with the first current output signal to facilitate balancing of currents between the first current output signal
of the first photo detector and the second current output signal of the second photo detector.

US Pat. No. 9,337,606

SPECTRAL-TEMPORAL MULTIPLEXER FOR PULSED FIBER SCALING

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A pulsed fiber laser amplifier system comprising:
a plurality of optical seed beam sources each generating a seed pulse beam at a different point in time than the other seed
beam sources and at a different wavelength than the other seed beam sources;

an optical coupler responsive to each of the seed pulse beams from each of the seed beam sources and outputting each of the
seed pulse beams on a common optical path as spaced apart optical pulses defining a combined pulse envelope beam;

at least one laser amplifier stage responsive to the pulse envelope beam from the coupler and amplifying each pulse beam in
the pulse envelope beam; and

a spectral-temporal beam combiner (STBC) responsive to the amplified pulse envelope beam and providing a separate delay for
each of the amplified pulse beams in the pulse envelope beam so as to output a single output beam pulse that is an overlap
of all of the individual amplified pulse beams in the pulse envelope beam, said STBC including a plurality of spectral beam
combining (SBC) gratings and wavelength dependent temporal delay (WDTD) optics, wherein the plurality of SBC gratings redirect
the individual pulse beams in the pulse envelope beam along different propagation paths and the WDTD optics delays each pulse
beam so that the optical pulse beams overlap in time, said WDTD optics including opposing mirror arrays each including a plurality
of separate mirror elements configured at different angles relative to each other so as to reflect the pulse beams in different
directions and a lens array including a plurality of lenses positioned therebetween.

US Pat. No. 10,104,773

RESILIENT MICRO LATTICE ELECTRICAL INTERCONNECTION ASSEMBLY

Northrop Grumman Systems ...

1. A method for making an electrical interconnector disposed on a first printed circuit board (PCB), the method comprising the steps of:using three dimensional printing to form a micro lattice truss structure from a bath of material;
an external planar surface of the first PCB having at least one conductive area disposed within the bath of material;
forming a first end of the truss structure in contact with the at least one conductive area so that the truss structure is adhered to the at least one conductive area due to the three dimensional printing;
the micro lattice truss structure formed to extend outward away from the first PCB about a perpendicular axis to the first PCB and having a second end opposing the first end, the outwardly extending micro lattice truss structure including layers of interconnected trusses with each truss having a plurality of spaced-apart, elongated strands, the strands being interconnected to each other at each layer of interconnected trusses;
forming the strands with resiliency so that the strands that form an outside of the micro lattice truss structure parallel to the perpendicular axis bow outwardly away from the perpendicular axis upon a force being applied to the second end compressing the micro lattice truss structure towards the first end, the resiliency of the micro lattice truss structure causing the strands that form the outside of the micro lattice truss structure to return to a not bowed state when the force is removed;
the micro lattice truss structure being conductive to provide resilient electrical conductivity.