US Pat. No. 9,794,098

MULTI-USER COMMUNICATION IN WIRELESS NETWORKS

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method implemented by an Access Point (AP) for performing a Multi-User (MU) transmission, the method comprising:
allocating, by the AP, a plurality of resources of an Up-Link (UL) MU transmission to a plurality of stations; and
transmitting, by the AP using a downlink (DL) bandwidth that spans one or more 20 MHz channels, a Down-Link (DL) PHY Layer
Convergence Procedure (PLCP) Protocol Data Unit (PPDU), wherein the DL PPDU includes trigger information within one or more
trigger Medium Access Control (MAC) Data Protocol Units (MPDUs), wherein the trigger information solicits the plurality of
stations to participate in the UL MU transmission using the allocated resources and includes resource allocation information,
wherein the resource allocation information indicates a plurality of assignments to respective stations in the plurality of
stations of respective one or more resource units in the allocated plurality of resources,

wherein each of the one or more trigger MPDUs includes a portion of the resource allocation information and each of the one
or more trigger MPDUs is transmitted using respective trigger bandwidths not used by any other of the one or more trigger
MPDUs,

wherein each of the trigger bandwidths is within the DL bandwidth of the DL PPDU,
wherein all of the allocated resources are in the one or more 20 MHz channels of the DL PPDU, and
wherein a trigger MPDU of the one or more trigger MPDUs includes a respective portion of the resource allocation information,
the respective portion of the resource allocation information including allocation information only for a resource unit that
is at least partially outside the respective trigger bandwidth of the trigger MPDU and is within the DL bandwidth of the DL
PPDU.

US Pat. No. 9,917,933

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR WIDE BANDWIDTH PPDU TRANSMISSION IN A HIGH EFFICIENCY WIRELESS LAN

NEWRACOM, Inc., Irvine, ...

1. A method for transmitting a Physical layer Protocol Data Unit (PPDU) in a wireless local area network, the method comprising:
performing a stream parsing of data bit streams to output blocks;
determining whether to perform a segment parsing of the output blocks based on a predetermined condition to output frequency
subblocks, wherein the predetermined condition is based on a resource unit size allocated in the PPDU;

performing a constellation mapping of the output blocks or the frequency subblocks; and
transmitting the PPDU.

US Pat. No. 9,408,184

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR MULTI-USER SIMULTANEOUS TRANSMISSIONS

Newracom, Inc., Irvine, ...

1. A method for performing communications in a wireless system, the method comprising:
processing, by a first wireless station in the wireless system, a first frame that is transmitted from an access point and
is addressed to the first wireless station and a second wireless station in the wireless system; and

transmitting, by the first wireless station, a second frame to the access point in response to the first frame, wherein the
second frame is identical to a third frame simultaneously transmitted by the second wireless station to the access point in
response to the first frame,

wherein the first frame requests use of a shared wireless channel, upon which the first frame is transmitted, for use in multiuser
communications and provides implicit timing information for transmitting the second and third frames, and

wherein the second frame provides clearance from the first wireless station to utilize the shared wireless medium, the second
frame is transmitted on the same sub-bands as the third frame, and the second and third frames are Clear-To-Send (CTS) frames.

US Pat. No. 9,374,821

CHANNEL ACCESS MECHANISM

NEWRACOM, Inc., Irvine, ...

1. A method implemented by a network device, the method to improve efficiency for clear channel assessment (CCA) in a wireless
local area network (WLAN) by adjusting a backoff counter to minimize delay caused by decoding a preamble of a received signal,
the method comprising:
detecting, on a wireless medium, a start of a frame;
decoding a preamble of the frame to determine a basic service set (BSS) associated with a transmitter of the frame;
indicating that the wireless medium is busy while decoding the preamble of the frame;
decrementing a random backoff counter prior to the detection of the start of the frame;
holding the random backoff counter upon detection of the start of the frame;
decoding a COLOR field in the preamble of the frame, the COLOR field is associated with the BSS; and
resuming decrementing the random backoff counter after decoding the COLOR field of the frame, when the COLOR field of the
frame is different from a COLOR field of the network device.

US Pat. No. 9,854,606

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR UPLINK CHANNEL ACCESS IN A HIGH EFFICIENCY WIRELESS LAN

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method for transmitting an uplink frame by a station (STA) to an access point (AP) in a wireless local area network,
the method comprising:
receiving from the AP a trigger frame for eliciting an uplink transmission from the STA;
transmitting to the AP the uplink frame according to a type of the trigger frame, wherein when the uplink frame is transmitted
in an uplink multiple user (MU) transmission, the uplink frame includes a padding added by the STA such that transmissions
from a plurality of STAs including the STA in the uplink MU transmission end at a same time indicated by the trigger frame;
and

receiving from the AP a frame in response to the uplink MU transmission a predetermined time after an end of the uplink MU
transmission,

wherein the frame received in response to the uplink MU transmission includes both acknowledgment (ACK) information for the
uplink MU transmission and another trigger frame for eliciting another uplink MU transmission, the other trigger frame including
scheduling information for the other uplink MU transmission.

US Pat. No. 9,907,073

EFFICIENT DL OFDMA FREQUENCY SELECTIVITY HARVESTING

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method for communication in a wireless local area network, the method comprising:
receiving a frame at a first device, the frame being transmitted by a second device;
determining, by the first device using the frame, respective channel strengths for a plurality of sub bands associated with
a bandwidth of the frame,

determining, by the first device, whether an indication of which information is to be included in a sub-band Channel State
Information (CSI) report has been received from the second device;

when the first device determines that the indication of which information is to be included in the sub-band CSI report has
been received from the second device, determining the sub-band CSI report according to the received indication of which information
is to be included in the sub-band CSI report and the respective channel strengths for the plurality of sub bands;

when the first device determines that the indication of which information is to be included in a sub-band CSI report has not
been received from the second device, determining the sub-band CSI report according to a policy of the first device and the
respective channel strengths for the plurality of sub bands; and

transmitting, by the first device, the sub-band CSI report to the second device,
wherein the first and second devices communicate using a sub-band selected from the plurality of sub-bands, the sub-band being
selected based on the channel strength determinations made using the frame.

US Pat. No. 9,571,257

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR WIRELESS CHANNEL ASSESSMENT

NEWRACOM, Inc., Irvine, ...

1. A method implemented by a first network device, the method to improve efficiency for clear channel assessment (CCA) in
a wireless local area network (WLAN), the method comprising:
detecting, by the first network device, a wireless signal from a second network device on a wireless medium;
determining whether a target network device of the wireless signal is a neighbor of the first network device; and
determining that the wireless medium is busy in response to determining that the target network device is a neighbor of the
first network device.

US Pat. No. 10,021,721

TRANSMISSION CONTROL METHOD

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A transmission control method by a device belonging to a basic service set (BSS) in a wireless local area network (WLAN), the method comprising:receiving a frame, the frame including a field indicating a BSS color of the frame;
determining the BSS color of the frame by decoding the field; and
in response to a transmission condition being satisfied, the transmission condition including a first condition that the BSS color of the frame indicates a neighbor BSS of the BSS, attempting a transmission at a time between a time of decoding the field and an end time of the frame.

US Pat. No. 9,866,359

DOWNLINK ACKNOWLEDGMENT IN RESPONSE TO UPLINK MULTIPLE USER TRANSMISSION

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

9. A method for receiving an ACKnowledgement (ACK) in response to uplink data transmitted to an Access Point (AP) by a Station
(STA) in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), the method comprising:
receiving, from the AP, a frame triggering transmission of a plurality of uplink data units from the STA and one or more other
STAs;

transmitting a Physical layer Protocol Data Unit (PPDU) frame including an uplink data unit of the STA a predetermined Inter-Frame
Space (IFS) after receiving the trigger frame, when the other one or more STAs transmit one or more data units; and

receiving an ACK frame including ACKs for the plurality of data units from the plurality of STAs,
wherein the ACK frame includes one or more ACK fields corresponding to one or more of the plurality of STAs, respectively,
wherein each of the one or more ACK fields includes a first subfield including identification information about a STA, a second
subfield indicating block ACK or ACK, and a third subfield indicating a Traffic Identifier (TID),

wherein when the second subfield included in the ACK field indicates block ACK, the ACK field includes block ACK bitmap information
and block ACK starting sequence control information, and

wherein when the second subfield included in the ACK field indicates ACK, the ACK field does not include the block ACK bitmap
information and the block ACK starting sequence control information.

US Pat. No. 10,021,694

MULTIPLE NETWORK ALLOCATION VECTOR OPERATION

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method implemented by a station in a wireless communication system, the method comprising:receiving a trigger frame soliciting an uplink frame from an access point;
generating the uplink frame comprising spatial reuse information and bandwidth information of the uplink frame, wherein the spatial reuse information comprises four Spatial Reuse (SR) values, and wherein a bandwidth of the uplink frame spans one or more 20 MHz channels; and
transmitting the uplink frame solicited by the trigger frame to the access point,
wherein each of the four SR values is determined based on the bandwidth of the uplink frame and a frequency band in which the station operates.

US Pat. No. 9,344,221

INTERLEAVING AND DEINTERLEAVING METHOD

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. An interleaving method by a transmitting device, the method comprising:
dividing a bandwidth into a plurality of bands;
assigning data of a plurality of users to the plurality of bands, respectively;
dividing an interleaver matrix into a plurality of matrices corresponding to the plurality of bands respectively in a predetermined
direction; and

arranging data of each user of the plurality of users assigned to a corresponding band among the plurality of bands in each
matrix of the plurality of matrices,

wherein when a maximum number of coded bits per subcarrier for a certain user from among the plurality of users corresponding
to a certain matrix from among the plurality of matrices is N, each row of the certain matrix is extended to N rows.

US Pat. No. 9,344,741

METHOD OF PREDICTING MOTION VECTORS IN VIDEO CODEC IN WHICH MULTIPLE REFERENCES ARE ALLOWED, AND MOTION VECTOR ENCODING/DECODING APPARATUS USING THE SAME

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A decoding method of a decoding device, comprising:
decoding, by the decoding device, an input bitstream to generate a motion vector difference for a current block and a reference
picture number;

obtaining, by the decoding device, a motion vector of a neighboring block of the current block to be decoded, wherein the
neighboring block and the current block are in a current picture to be decoded, and wherein the motion vector of the neighboring
block is used to decode the neighboring block according to a reference picture of the neighboring block;

interpolating, by the decoding device, the motion vector of the neighboring block of the current block based on a first distance
and a second distance to generate an interpolated motion vector, wherein the first distance is a distance between the reference
picture of the neighboring block and the current picture, and the second distance is a distance between a reference picture
of the current block and the current picture, wherein the reference picture of the neighboring block is different from the
reference picture of the current block;

predicting, by the decoding device, a motion vector of the current block based on the interpolated motion vector to generate
a predicted motion vector; and

adding, by the decoding device, the predicted motion vector and the motion vector difference to generate the motion vector
of the current block.

US Pat. No. 9,867,189

RESOURCE ALLOCATION INDICATION FOR MULTI-USER MULTIPLE-INPUT-MULTIPLE-OUTPUT (MU-MIMO) ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (OFDMA) COMMUNICATION

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method implemented by a wireless device, the method comprising:
receiving, by the wireless device, a frame, the frame including:
a first Resource Unit (RU) allocation subfield in a first channel, the first RU allocation subfield including resource information
for a first frequency area and indicating a first number of user fields in the first channel that correspond to the first
frequency area, and

a second RU allocation subfield in a second channel, the second RU allocation subfield including resource information for
a second frequency area and indicating a second number of user fields in the second channel that correspond to the second
frequency area; and

when the first frequency area and the second frequency area are the same RU, determining, using both the first RU allocation
subfield and the second RU allocation subfield, a number of users allocated to the same RU,

wherein frequencies used by the first channel are disjoint from frequencies used by the second channel, and
wherein determining the number of users allocated to the same RU comprises:
determining, using the first RU allocation subfield, the first number of user fields in the first channel that correspond
to the same RU;

determining, using the second RU allocation subfield, the second number of user fields in the second channel that correspond
to the same RU; and

determining a sum of the first number and the second number as the number of users allocated to the same RU.

US Pat. No. 9,686,757

PEAK TO AVERAGE POWER RATIO (PAPR) REDUCTION IN A WIRELESS NETWORK

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method performed by a wireless device, the method comprising:
generating a High Efficiency (HE) Physical layer Protocol Data Units (PPDU) including a non-High Throughput Signal (L-SIG)
field; and

transmitting the HE PPDU, including:
transmitting a first set of extra tones with the L-SIG field,
wherein the first set of extra tones include a first sequence of values,
wherein first, second, third, and fourth values of the first sequence of values respectively correspond to Binary Phase Shift
Keying (BPSK) constellation values of ?1, ?1, ?1, and +1, and

wherein the first set of extra tones are transmitted with non-zero power on ?28th, ?27th, 27th, and 28th subcarriers, relative
to a center (zero) subcarrier, of a 20 MHz bandwidth of the HE PPDU.

US Pat. No. 9,622,267

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR MULTI-USER SIMULTANEOUS TRANSMISSIONS

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A wireless device operating in a wireless network, the wireless device comprising:
a hardware processor; and
one or more memory devices coupled to the hardware processor, wherein the one or more memory devices include one or more instructions,
which when executed by the hardware processor cause the wireless device to:

analyze a downlink frame received by the wireless device from an access point, wherein the downlink frame is addressed to
multiple devices in the wireless network, including the wireless device, and wherein analyzing the downlink frame includes
detecting that the downlink frame requests use of a wireless channel for a transmission by the access point,

generate a first clear-to-send (CTS) frame for responding to the downlink frame, wherein the first CTS frame shares identical
information with that of a second CTS frame transmitted from another device in the wireless network that is addressed by the
downlink frame, wherein the first CTS frame is a response to the downlink frame and protects the wireless channel for use
by the access point, and

transmit the first CTS frame, in response to the downlink frame, to the access point, wherein the first CTS frame is transmitted
according to implicit timing information provided by the downlink frame, and wherein the downlink frame provides the implicit
timing information for the transmission of the second CTS frame by the another device in the wireless network.

US Pat. No. 9,344,739

METHOD OF PREDICTING MOTION VECTORS IN VIDEO CODEC IN WHICH MULTIPLE REFERENCES ARE ALLOWED, AND MOTION VECTOR ENCODING/DECODING APPARATUS USING THE SAME

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A decoding method of a decoding device, comprising:
decoding, by the decoding device, an input bitstream to generate a motion vector difference for a current block;
interpolating, by the decoding device, a motion vector of a first neighboring block of the current block based on a first
distance and a second distance to generate a first interpolated motion vector, wherein the first neighboring block and the
current block are in a current picture, the first distance is a distance between a reference picture of the first neighboring
block and the current picture, the second distance is a distance between a reference picture of the current block and the
current picture, and the motion vector of the first neighboring block is used to decode the first neighboring block according
to the reference picture of the first neighboring block, wherein the reference picture of the first neighboring block is different
from the reference picture of the current block;

interpolating, by the decoding device, a motion vector of a second neighboring block of the current block based on a third
distance and a fourth distance to generate a second interpolated motion vector, wherein the second neighboring block is in
the current picture, the third distance is a distance between a reference picture of the second neighboring block and the
current picture, the fourth distance is a distance between a reference picture of the current block and the current picture,
and the motion vector of the second neighboring block is used to decode the second neighboring block according to the reference
picture of the second neighboring block, wherein the reference picture of the second neighboring block is different from the
reference picture of the current block;

predicting, by the decoding device, a motion vector of the current block based on the first interpolated motion vector and
the second interpolated motion vector to generate a predicted motion vector; and

adding, by the decoding device, the predicted motion vector and the motion vector difference to generate the motion vector
of the current block.

US Pat. No. 9,967,877

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FRAME EXCHANGE IN A HIGH EFFICIENCY WIRELESS LAN

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method for exchanging frames by an access point (AP) in a wireless local area network, the method comprising:transmitting to one or more stations (STAs) a first frame eliciting a second frame from the one or more STAs in a downlink (DL) Physical layer Protocol Data Unit (PPDU), wherein the DL PPDU carrying the first frame includes information indicating a type of a PPDU carrying the second frame from PPDU types including a Single User (SU) PPDU and a Multiple User (MU) PPDU; and
receiving from the one or more STAs the second frame in an uplink (UL) PPDU having a type determined based on the information indicating the type of the PPDU,
wherein the DL PPDU carrying the first frame further includes information indicating a length of the PPDU carrying the second frame, and
wherein the information indicating the length of the PPDU carrying the second frame indicates a value equal to or greater than a predetermined minimum value.

US Pat. No. 9,900,878

DYNAMIC RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN A HIGH EFFICIENCY WIRELESS LAN

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method performed by a station (STA) in a wireless local area network, the method comprising:
transmitting, by the STA to an access point (AP), an operating mode field including a first subfield indicating a maximum
number of streams that the STA supports for uplink multiple user (UL MU) transmission and a second subfield indicating whether
uplink multiple user transmission is enabled or disabled, the streams relating to spaces, wherein the operating mode field
is included in a High Efficiency (HE) Control field in a MAC (Medium Access Control) header;

receiving, by the STA from the AP, a downlink frame including trigger information eliciting a next uplink multiple user (MU)
frame immediately following the downlink frame, the trigger information including first resource allocation information for
the next uplink MU frame, the first resource allocation information satisfying the maximum number of streams that the STA
supports for uplink multiple user transmission; and

processing, by the STA, the next uplink MU frame based on a resource indicated by the first resource allocation information.

US Pat. No. 9,877,323

OFDMA MAPPING FOR CLIENTS WITH VARIOUS BANDWIDTHS

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method for communicating a signaling field in a wireless communications system, the method comprising:
transmitting, by a wireless device, a frame through a medium using an 80 MHz bandwidth, wherein transmitting the frame includes:
transmitting a first portion of a signaling field in the frame using a first channel having a 20 MHz bandwidth;
transmitting a second portion of the signaling field in the frame using a second channel having a 20 MHz bandwidth,
transmitting a third portion of the signaling field in the frame using a third channel having a 20 MHz bandwidth, and
transmitting a fourth portion of the signaling field in the frame using a fourth channel having a 20 MHz bandwidth,
wherein the second channel is different from the first channel, the third channel is different from the first and second channels,
and the fourth channel is different from the first, second, and third channels, and

wherein contents of the first portion are different from contents of the second portion, contents of the third portion are
the same as the contents of the first portion, and contents of the fourth portion are the same as the contents of the second
portion.

US Pat. No. 9,736,277

PPDU FORMAT PREAMBLE DESIGN

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. An apparatus for facilitating wireless communication, the apparatus comprising:
one or more memories; and
one or more processors coupled to the one or more memories, the one or more processors configured to cause:
generating a frame, the frame comprising:
a first signal field including a first signal portion and a first guard interval, the first signal field having a duration
of 4 ?s, the first signal portion having a duration of 3.2 ?s, the first guard interval having a duration of 0.8 ?s;

a second signal field including a second signal portion and a second guard interval, the second signal field having a duration
of 4 ?s, the second signal field having a duration of 3.2 ?s, the second guard interval having a duration of 0.8 ?s; and

a data field including one or more data symbols, each of the one or more data symbols having a symbol duration of 12.8 ?s,
the symbol duration excluding any guard interval duration; and

providing the frame for transmission,
wherein the first signal portion immediately follows the first guard interval, the second signal portion immediately follows
the first signal portion, and the second guard interval immediately follows the second signal portion,

wherein the first guard interval is the same as 0.8 ?s of the rear portion of the first signal portion in time domain,
wherein the second signal portion is the same as the first signal portion in time domain,
wherein the second guard interval is the same as 0.8 ?s of the foremost portion of the second signal portion in time domain.

US Pat. No. 9,712,362

METHOD FOR TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING DATA IN WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK AND APPARATUS FOR THE SAME

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method for transmitting data, performed in a station, the method comprising:
generating a physical layer (PHY) frame including a payload in which a plurality of Medium Access Control protocol data units
(MPDUs) are multiplexed; and

transmitting the PHY frame,
wherein the PHY frame includes information on subcarriers occupied by each of the plurality of MPDUs in an Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiplexing (OFDM) symbol of the payload, and

wherein the information on subcarriers include information on the numbers or proportions of subcarriers occupied by each of
the plurality of MPDUs in the OFDM symbol of the payload.

US Pat. No. 9,413,581

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR SYNCHRONIZATION FOR OFDMA TRANSMISSION

Newracom, Inc., Irvine, ...

1. An apparatus for facilitating wireless communication, the apparatus comprising:
one or more memories; and
one or more processors coupled to the one or more memories, the one or more processors configured to cause:
determining a second cyclic prefix length based on a first frame received;
generating a second frame that comprises a first set of symbols and a second set of symbols, the first set of symbols being
associated with a first cyclic prefix length, the second set of symbols being associated with the second cyclic prefix length;
and

providing the second frame for transmission,
wherein the first set of symbols comprises a legacy header portion and a first non-legacy header portion, and the second set
of symbols comprises a second non-legacy header portion and a payload portion, and

wherein the payload portion of the second frame is associated with the second cyclic prefix length and wherein the second
non-legacy header portion of the second frame is associated with the second cyclic prefix length.

US Pat. No. 9,344,740

METHOD OF PREDICTING MOTION VECTORS IN VIDEO CODEC IN WHICH MULTIPLE REFERENCES ARE ALLOWED, AND MOTION VECTOR ENCODING/DECODING APPARATUS USING THE SAME

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A decoding method of a decoding device, comprising:
decoding, by the decoding device, an input bitstream to generate a motion vector difference for a current block;
obtaining, by the decoding device, motion vectors of neighboring blocks of the current block, wherein the motion vectors correspond
to neighboring blocks respectively, the neighboring blocks and the current block are in a current picture, and the motion
vectors of the neighboring blocks are used to decode the respective neighboring blocks according to respective reference pictures
of the neighboring blocks;

generating, by the decoding device, interpolated motion vectors, wherein each of the interpolated motion vectors is generated
by interpolating a motion vector of a corresponding neighboring block of the current block based on a distance between a reference
picture of the corresponding neighboring block and the current picture and a distance between a reference picture of the current
block and the current picture, wherein the reference picture of the corresponding neighboring block is different from the
reference picture of the current block;

predicting, by the decoding device, a motion vector of the current block based on the interpolated motion vectors to generate
a predicted motion vector; and

generating, by the decoding device, a motion vector of the current block by using the predicted motion vector.

US Pat. No. 10,104,688

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR UPLINK CHANNEL ACCESS IN A HIGH EFFICIENCY WIRELESS LAN

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method for transmitting a plurality of uplink frames by a station (STA) to an access point (AP) in a wireless local area network, the method comprising:receiving from the AP a first trigger frame for eliciting a first uplink Multiple User (MU) transmission from a plurality of STAs, the plurality of STAs including the STA;
transmitting to the AP a first uplink frame, wherein the uplink frame is transmitted in the first uplink multiple user (MU) transmission;
receiving from the AP a frame in response to the first uplink MU transmission a predetermined time after an end of the first uplink MU transmission, wherein the frame received in response to the first uplink MU transmission includes acknowledgment (ACK) information for the first uplink MU transmission and a second trigger frame for eliciting a second uplink MU transmission, the second trigger frame including scheduling information for the second uplink MU transmission; and
transmitting to the AP a second uplink frame, wherein the second uplink frame is transmitted in the second uplink MU transmission.

US Pat. No. 9,866,290

APPARATUS AND METHODS FOR MULTI-USER SIMULTANEOUS TRANSMISSION

NEWRACOM, Inc., Irvine, ...

1. A method performed by a first station (STA) in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) for transmitting a frame to an Access
Point (AP) as part of an uplink multi-user simultaneous transmission, the method to avoid an occurrence of unintentional beamforming
at the AP, the method comprising:
receiving a first frame from the AP, wherein the first frame includes scheduling information for scheduling a simultaneous
uplink transmission for the first STA and one or more other STAs;

generating a second frame having a common part and a user-specific part, wherein the second frame is to be transmitted simultaneously
with frames generated by the one or more other STAs, according to the scheduling information;

determining a common part cyclic shift value to be applied to the common part of the second frame, wherein the common part
cyclic shift value is determined to be different from one or more cyclic shift values to be applied by each of the one or
more other STAs;

applying the common part cyclic shift value to the common part of the second frame; and
transmitting the second frame to the AP through a wireless medium.

US Pat. No. 9,801,206

SPATIAL REUSE BASED ON DISTRIBUTED REPORTING

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method executed by a network device in a wireless local area network (WLAN) to improve efficiency for clear channel assessment
(CCA) in the WLAN, the method comprising:
encoding an outgoing frame with an indication of a CCA threshold value to be used in a basic service set (BSS) associated
with the network device, wherein the CCA threshold value indicated in the outgoing frame indicates a CCA threshold level used
by all devices in the BSS to assess availability of a wireless medium upon which all the devices in the BSS are operating;

determining that the wireless medium is idle based on the CCA threshold value; and
transmitting the outgoing frame through the wireless medium upon determining that the wireless medium is idle.

US Pat. No. 9,705,622

SUPPORT FOR ADDITIONAL DECODING PROCESSING TIME IN WIRELESS LAN SYSTEMS

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method of a communication device in a wireless system, the method comprising:
generating a first High Efficiency Physical Layer Protocol Data Unit (HE PPDU) including a Non-High-Throughput (Non-HT) signal
(L-SIG) field, a High Efficiency signal (HE-SIG) field, and a data field, wherein the data field includes an Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiplexing (OFDM) symbol including padding bits;

appending an extension at an end of the first HE PPDU to increase an available processing time, the extension having a non-zero
signal strength; and

transmitting a second HE PPDU including the first HE PPDU and the extension,
wherein the L-SIG field includes a first length indication of the second HE PPDU, and
wherein the HE-SIG field includes a second length indication for a duration of the extension to avoid ambiguity of the extension.

US Pat. No. 9,883,490

IMPLICIT SOUNDING FOR OFDMA OPERATION

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method for communication in a wireless local area network, the method comprising:
receiving, at a first device, a control frame using a plurality of sub bands of a widest allowed bandwidth from a second device;
determining, by the first device using the control frame, a channel state information (CSI) for each of a plurality of sub
bands of a bandwidth of the control frame; and

allocating, by the first device to the second device, one or more sub bands from the plurality of sub bands based on the determination,
the one or more sub bands allocated to the second device for transmitting data to the second device from the first device
via an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) frame,

wherein the control frame is an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) frame having a bandwidth greater than 20
MHz,

wherein the control frame is a power save (PS) Poll frame, and
wherein the widest allowed bandwidth is determined by determining whether one or more of a secondary 80 MHz channel, a secondary
40 MHz channel, and a secondary 20 channel is sensed busy during a Point Coordination Function Interframe Space (PIFS) time
before transmission of the PS-Poll frame, wherein the determination is made when the first device indicates that the first
device permits transmission by the second device of the control frame using the widest allowed bandwidth.

US Pat. No. 9,848,442

METHOD FOR TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING FRAME IN WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK

NEWRACOM INC., Irvine, C...

1. A method for transmitting a frame, performed in a first station, the method comprising:
receiving a first physical layer (PHY) protocol data unit (PPDU);
determining whether a basic service set (BSS) of the first PPDU is a BSS to which the first station belongs or a BSS to which
the first station does not belong;

when the BSS of the first PPDU is the BSS to which the first station does not belong, a received signal strength of the first
PPDU is higher than a first threshold, and the first PPDU is a frame having a mode that is High Efficiency and having a PHY
header that includes duration information for setting a virtual carrier sensing, setting a PHY-level virtual carrier sensing,
wherein setting the PHY-level virtual carrier sensing includes setting a virtual carrier sensing by using the duration information
included in a the PHY header of the first PPDU;

when the BSS of the first PPDU is the BSS to which the first station does not belong, the received signal strength of the
first PPDU is higher than the first threshold, the first PPDU is a frame having a mode of a standard previous to a standard
defining the High Efficiency mode, and the first PPDU is a frame having a PHY header that does not include duration information
for setting the virtual carrier sensing, setting a medium access control (MAC)-level virtual carrier sensing, wherein setting
the MAC-level virtual carrier sensing includes setting the virtual carrier sensing by using duration information included
in a MAC header of the first PPDU; and

when the BSS of the first PPDU is the BSS to which the first station does not belong and the received signal strength of the
first PPDU is lower than the first threshold, attempting to obtain a transmission opportunity.

US Pat. No. 9,819,460

DOWNLINK PHYSICAL LAYER PROTOCOL DATA UNIT FORMAT IN A HIGH EFFICIENCY WIRELESS LAN

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method for transmitting data to a plurality of Stations (STAs) by an Access Point (AP) in a Wireless Local Area Network
(WLAN), the method comprising:
generating a High Efficiency-Long Training Field (HE-LTF) field for the plurality of STAs; and
transmitting a Physical layer Protocol Data Unit (PPDU) frame to the plurality of STAs, the PPDU frame including the HE-LTF
field and data for the plurality of STAs,

wherein the data for the plurality of STAs are transmitted to different STA on each of a plurality of subchannels,
wherein a starting point of the HE-LTF field is same across the plurality of STAs and an end point of the HE-LTF field is
same across the plurality of STAs,

wherein the HE-LTF field includes a plurality of HE-LTF symbols,
wherein the number of the plurality of HE-LTF symbols is equal to or greater than the number of spatial streams transmitted
in a subchannel having a maximum value among total numbers respectively corresponding to the plurality of subchannels,

each total number is a sum of the numbers of spatial streams allocated to all STAs in corresponding subchannel, and
at least two STAs are allocated to at least one of the plurality of subchannels for Multi-User Multiple Input Multiple Output
(MU-MIMO) transmission.

US Pat. No. 9,781,742

METHOD FOR TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING FRAME IN WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK AND APPARATUS FOR THE SAME

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A communication method performed in a first station, the communication method comprising:
receiving, through a channel from an access point, a first frame notifying a first period for transmission or reception of
a frame; and

processing the first frame,
wherein a second period is located between the first frame and the first period,
wherein the second period is a contention period during which stations are allowed to contend for the channel, and
wherein the first period starts with a guard frame transmitted by the access point to prevent a collision between frames in
the first period.

US Pat. No. 9,749,971

TRANSMISSION POWER CONTROL FOR DEVICE IN HIGH EFFICIENCY WIRELESS LAN

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method for transmitting an uplink frame to an Access Point (AP) by a Station (STA) in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)
system, the method comprising:
receiving first transmission power control information and second transmission power control information from the AP;
if a type related to the uplink frame is a first type, determining a maximum transmission power based on the first transmission
power control information, and if the type related to the uplink frame is a second type, determining a maximum transmission
power based on the second transmission power control information; and

transmitting the uplink frame based on the determined maximum transmission power,
wherein the first type and the second type correspond to different access schemes for uplink transmission, and
wherein if the type related to the uplink frame is the second type, transmission of the STA and transmissions of one or more
other STAs are performed simultaneously on one same channel in a first region of the uplink frame, and transmission of the
STA on one subchannel within the one channel and transmissions of the one or more other STAs on one or more different subchannels
within the one channel are performed simultaneously in a second region of the uplink frame.

US Pat. No. 9,769,746

OPERATION METHOD OF STATION IN WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. An operation method performed by a first station, the operation method comprising:
identifying standard information supported by a second station that has transmitted a frame detected by a CCA operation based
on a first clear channel assessment (CCA) threshold;

when a standard supported by the second station is a lower version than a standard supported by the first station, identifying
a basic service set (BSS) to which the second station belongs;

when the second station belongs to an overlapping BSS (OBSS), changing a CCA threshold of the first station to a second CCA
threshold greater than the first CCA threshold; and

performing a CCA operation based on the second CCA threshold.

US Pat. No. 9,762,487

ACK POLICY FOR UPLINK AND DOWNLINK MU PPDU

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

11. A method implemented by an access point (AP) in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) to elicit a trigger-based immediate
acknowledgement from a station (STA), the method comprising:
generating trigger information for an uplink (UL) multi-user (MU) transmission;
generating a frame, wherein an ACK Policy field of the frame is set to a binary value of ‘01’ to request the STA to provide
a trigger-based immediate acknowledgement where the STA is to transmit a trigger-based immediate acknowledgement frame to
the AP according to the trigger information if the trigger information is obtained by the STA and the STA is to refrain from
transmitting the trigger-based immediate acknowledgement frame to the AP if the trigger information is not obtained by the
STA, wherein the binary value of ‘01’ is a reserved value in a Power Save Multi-Poll (PSMP) context for indicating that a
response frame to a received frame is allowed but is neither an acknowledgement frame nor any data frame of subtype Contention
Free-Acknowledgement (+CF-Ack) when bit 6 of a frame control field is set to ‘1’, and for indicating that an acknowledgment for a frame received in a PSMP downlink
transmission time (PSMP-DTT) is to be received in a later PSMP uplink transmission time (PSMP-UTT) when bit 6 of the frame control field is set to ‘0’; and

transmitting a downlink (DL) MU physical layer (PHY) Protocol Data Unit (PPDU) to the STA, wherein the DL MU PPDU includes
the frame and the trigger information.

US Pat. No. 9,698,918

DISTRIBUTED ADAPTIVE CCA MECHANISMS

NEWRACOM, Inc., Irvine, ...

1. A method implemented by a first network device, the method to provide an adaptive clear channel assessment (CCA) process
in a wireless local area network (WLAN) to determine availability of a wireless channel in the WLAN, the method comprising:
detecting, by the first network device, a wireless signal from a second network device on a wireless medium;
determining whether a target network device of the wireless signal is a neighbor of the first network device; and
comparing a target device threshold with one or more signal quality values associated with transmissions of the target network
device in response to determining that the target network device is a neighbor of the first network device.

US Pat. No. 9,667,394

PROTECTION METHODS FOR WIRELESS TRANSMISSIONS

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method performed by a wireless device, the method comprising:
receiving a Multi-User Request-To-Send (MU-RTS) frame including first scrambled data;
descrambling the first scrambled data included in the MU-RTS frame using a first scrambling sequence;
generating second scrambled data by scrambling data for a clear to send (CTS) frame using a second scrambling sequence; and
transmitting the CTS frame in response to receiving the MU-RTS frame, the CTS frame including the second scrambled data,
wherein for each ith bit SS[i] of the second scrambling sequence, i=0 . . . M?1, SS[i] is equal to FS[(i+K) modulo L], where FS[j] is a jth bit of the first scrambling sequence, K being a fixed integer greater than 1, M being equal to a size of the second scrambled
data, and L being a repetitive length of the first scrambling sequence.

US Pat. No. 9,398,571

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR PACKET INFORMATION INDICATION IN COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Newracom, Inc., Irvine, ...

1. A method for performing wireless communications, the method comprising:
receiving, by a wireless device,
a trigger frame that coordinates an uplink multiuser transmission;
generating, by the wireless device, a second frame including a High Efficiency Signal A (HE-SIG-A) field;
determining to not include a High Efficiency Signal B (HE-SIG-B) field in the second frame in response to receiving the trigger
frame; and

transmitting, by the wireless device as an immediate response to the trigger frame, the second frame over a wireless channel.

US Pat. No. 9,893,790

PREAMBLE AND PAYLOAD FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY (HE) TRANSMISSION

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A station for facilitating communication in a wireless network, the station comprising:
one or more memories; and
one or more processors coupled to the one or more memories, the one or more processors configured to cause:
receiving a frame, wherein the frame comprises a header and a payload, the header comprises a signal field, the signal field
comprises a first length information and an identifier of a basic service set, and the payload comprises a second length information,

determining whether the basic service set is a same basic service set to which the station belongs using the identifier in
the signal field,

setting a network allocation vector using the first length information in a signal field of the header when the station determines
that the basic service set is not the same basic service set to which the station belongs,

wherein the first length information and the second length information are indicative of a transmission opportunity (TXOP)
duration remaining after transmission of the frame.

US Pat. No. 9,832,058

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR SCRAMBLING CONTROL FIELD INFORMATION FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A wireless device for transmitting a frame, comprising:
one or more memories; and
one or more processors coupled to the one or more memories, the one or more processors configured to cause:
generating a high-efficiency (HE) physical layer protocol data unit (PPDU) including an HE signal B (HE-SIG-B) field that
immediately follows an HE signal A (HE-SIG- A) field and immediately precedes an HE short training field (HE-STF), wherein
the generating comprises:

generating coded HE-SIG-B bits, interleaving the coded HE-SIG-B bits to generate interleaved HE-SIG-B bits, modulating the
interleaved HE-SIG-B bits to generate N modulated symbols, N being a positive integer, generating N phase-rotated symbols
by applying a first set of N phase rotation values to the N modulated symbols respectively, and by applying a second set of
N phase rotation values to the N modulated symbols respectively, wherein the second set of N phase rotation values is different
from the first set of N phase rotation values, and

transforming the N phase-rotated symbols to an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) symbol of the HE-SIG-B field;
and

transmitting the HE PPDU;
wherein the coded HE-SIG-B bits belong to a 20 MHz HE-SIG-B unit of the HE-SIG-B field,
wherein at least two complex values in the first set of N phase rotation values scrambling sequence are different resulting
in different phase rotations, and each phase rotation value in the second set of N phase rotation values has the same value
corresponding to the 20 MHz HE-SIG-B unit to each of the modulated symbols.

US Pat. No. 9,806,868

FRAME TRANSMITTING METHOD

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method of transmitting a frame by a first device belonging to a first basic service set (BSS) in a wireless communication
network, the method comprising:
determining whether a request to send (RTS) frame or a clear to send (CTS) frame is received from a second BSS that is a neighbor
BSS of the first BSS; and

transmitting to a second device a transmission frame whose transmission power is changed from a normal power during a predetermined
time in a data frame transmission time and an ACK frame transmission time of the second BSS when the RTS frame or the CTS
frame is received from the second BSS.

US Pat. No. 9,673,943

PHYSICAL LAYER PROTOCOL DATA UNIT FORMAT IN A HIGH EFFICIENCY WIRELESS LAN

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

8. A method for receiving a Physical layer Protocol Data Unit (PPDU) frame from a transmission apparatus by a reception apparatus
in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), the method comprising:
receiving a first region including a legacy preamble and a first field in a PPDU frame; and
receiving a second region including a High Efficiency (HE)-preamble in the PPDU frame based on information included in the
first region,

wherein the first field has a variable length, and the HE-preamble includes a High Efficiency-Short Training Field (HE-STF)
following the first field,

wherein the second region further includes a second field corresponding to a plurality of data tones within one channel, and
wherein the transmission apparatus is an Access Point (AP) and the reception apparatus is a station (STA), the second field
includes data for a plurality of STAs, and the data for the plurality of STAs are transmitted simultaneously on a plurality
of sub channels within the one channel.

US Pat. No. 9,801,184

MULTIPLE NETWORK ALLOCATION VECTOR OPERATION

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method performed by a first wireless device, the method comprising:
determining, by the first wireless device, a bandwidth on which a frame will be transmitted to a second wireless device;
determining, by the first wireless device, two or more Spatial Reuse (SR) parameter values for the bandwidth;
setting, by the first wireless device using the two or more SR parameter values, a first SR field and a second SR field of
the frame based on the bandwidth and a channel center frequency in which the bandwidth is carried; and

transmitting the frame to the second wireless device on the bandwidth,
wherein the first and second SR fields indicate respective properties other than the bandwidth and the channel center frequency
in which the bandwidth is carried.

US Pat. No. 9,775,117

DYNAMIC CLEAR CHANNEL ASSESSMENT

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method for controlling access to a medium in a wireless communication system, the method comprising:
determining, by a first device, a maximum allowable interference; and
transmitting a packet including an indicator of the maximum allowable interference and one or more of an indication of a transmission
power used to transmit the packet and an indication of a location of the first device,

wherein the maximum allowable interference corresponds to an amount of interference that is present at the first device without
preventing proper reception, by the first device, of packets from a second device, or to an amount of interference that is
present at the first device without resulting in a reduction in a current Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) of communications
between the first and second device.

US Pat. No. 9,742,543

ACKNOWLEDGMENT MECHANISMS FOR OFDMA OPERATION

Newracom, Inc., Irvine, ...

1. An apparatus for facilitating wireless communication based on orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA), the
apparatus comprising:
one or more memories; and
one or more processors coupled to the one or more memories, the one or more processors configured to cause:
receiving an uplink frame that is based at least on a plurality of acknowledgment controls in a downlink frame, the uplink
frame having a predetermined uplink bandwidth, the uplink frame comprising a payload, wherein the uplink frame comprises a
legacy header and a high efficiency (HE) header, wherein the legacy header is associated with the predetermined uplink bandwidth,
wherein the HE header is associated with the predetermined uplink bandwidth, wherein the HE header comprises signaling for
one or more stations not intended to participate in forming the uplink frame, and wherein the signaling comprises at least
one of a duration of the uplink frame or an indication whether there would be a downlink response frame to the uplink frame;
and

determining that the payload comprises a plurality of acknowledgment frames, each of the plurality of acknowledgment frames
associated with a respective one of a plurality of stations, each of the plurality of acknowledgment frames associated with
a respective one of a plurality of uplink sub-bands, each of the plurality of uplink sub-bands being a portion of the predetermined
uplink bandwidth.

US Pat. No. 9,742,544

DYNAMIC INTER-FRAME SPACE PROCESSING IN HIGH EFFICIENCY WIRELESS LAN

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method for processing a received frame by a Station (STA) in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), the method comprising:
receiving a first frame including a plurality of downlink data frames for a plurality of STAs, wherein the plurality of downlink
data frames for the plurality of STAs are respectively included in a plurality of downlink subchannels in the first frame,
wherein ACKnowledgment (ACK) policy fields of the plurality of downlink data frames are set to a same value, and wherein a
plurality of 20-Megahertz transmission channels occupied by the first frame include a primary channel;

when no error occurs in the received first frame, transmitting a second frame including an ACK of the STA, the ACK of the
STA being transmitted simultaneously with ACKs of one or more other STAs, wherein a plurality of uplink subchannels are allocated
for transmitting the ACK of the STA and the ACKs of the one or more other STAs such that at least one subchannel is allocated
for each of the plurality of 20-Megahertz transmission channels; and

when an error occurs in the received first frame, performing carrier sensing using a variably determined Inter-Frame Space
(IFS),

wherein a bandwidths of an uplink subchannel allocated to the STA is larger than a bandwidth of a downlink subchannel allocated
to the STA.

US Pat. No. 9,742,433

COMMUNICATION OF USER SPECIFIC CONTROL INFORMATION IN A WIRELESS NETWORK

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method performed by a wireless device, the method comprising:
generating, by the wireless device, a rate-matched High Efficiency Signal B (HE-SIG-B) field by Block Convolution Code (BCC)
encoding an HE-SIG-B field and rate-matching, according to a puncturing pattern, a BCC block of the encoded HE-SIG-B field;

generating, by the wireless device, a Physical Layer Protocol Data Unit (PPDU) including the rate-matched HE-SIG-B field;
and

transmitting, by the wireless device, the PPDU,
wherein a total number N is a total number of bits of the HE-SIG-B field that precede the BCC block,
wherein the total number N is greater than 0, and
wherein the puncturing pattern depends on the total number N.

US Pat. No. 9,763,259

SOUNDING METHOD

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A sounding method by a first receiving device, the method comprising:
receiving a null data packet announcement (NDPA) frame from a transmitting device;
receiving a null data packet (NDP) frame from the transmitting device after receiving the NPDA frame; and
transmitting to the transmitting device a feedback frame including subchannel information measured on a first subchannel after
receiving the NDP frame, the first subchannel being a subchannel that is allocated to the first receiving device among a plurality
of subchannels into which a predetermined band is divided,

wherein transmitting the feedback frame includes:
transmitting the feedback frame to the transmitting device while a second feedback frame including subchannel information
measured on the second subchannel is transmitted to the transmitting device by a second receiving device, the second subchannel
being a subchannel that is allocated to the second receiving device among the plurality of subchannels.

US Pat. No. 9,698,947

TRANSMISSION METHOD

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A transmission method by a first device in a wireless local area network (WLAN), the method comprising:
updating a first network allocation vector (NAV);
updating a second NAV;
receiving an initiate frame to initiate an uplink multi-user transmission; and
determining a permissibility of transmission of a response frame for the initiate frame, based on both the first NAV and the
second NAV,

wherein determining the permissibility comprises:
when a counter of the first NAV is not zero, determining to not permit the transmission of the response frame,
when the counter of the first NAV is zero and a transmission duration for the response frame is not larger than a predetermined
value, determining to permit the transmission of the response frame, and

when the counter of the first NAV is zero, the counter of the second NAV is not zero, and the transmission duration for the
response frame is larger than the predetermined value, determining to not permit the transmission of the response frame.

US Pat. No. 9,641,234

PREAMBLE AND PAYLOAD FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY (HE) TRANSMISSION

Newracom, Inc., Irvine, ...

1. An access point for facilitating multi-user communication in a wireless network, the access point comprising:
one or more memories; and
one or more processors coupled to the one or more memories, the one or more processors configured to cause:
generating a trigger frame, the trigger frame comprising a first content and a second content, wherein the first content is
associated with a legacy signal (L-SIG) field of an uplink frame, and the second content is associated with a high efficiency
signal-A (HE-SIG-A) field of the uplink frame;

providing the trigger frame for transmission;
receiving the uplink frame in response to the trigger frame, the uplink frame comprising the L-SIG field and the HE-SIG-A
field, wherein a length in the L-SIG field of the uplink frame is based on the trigger frame, and wherein a duration in the
HE-SIG-A field of the uplink frame is based on the trigger frame; and

providing the uplink frame for processing,
wherein the second content is a first transmission opportunity (TXOP) duration remaining after transmission of the trigger
frame,

wherein the duration is a second TXOP duration remaining after transmission of the uplink frame, and
wherein the second TXOP duration is derived from the first TXOP duration.

US Pat. No. 10,057,899

METHOD FOR TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING FRAME

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method of transmitting a frame by a device in a wireless communication network, the method comprising:generating a High Efficiency signal A (HE-SIG-A) field including a symbol having a first subcarrier spacing, the HE-SIG-A field carrying common signaling information for a plurality of receiving devices, the HE-SIG-A field occupying a 20 MHz bandwidth;
generating a High Efficiency signal B (HE-SIG-B) field carrying HE-SIG-B information, the HE-SIG-B information including dedicated signaling information for each of the plurality of receiving devices, and the HE-SIG-B field occupying the 20 MHz bandwidth;
generating a data field including a symbol having a second subcarrier spacing narrower than the first subcarrier spacing, the data field carrying data for the plurality of receiving devices; and
transmitting a frame including the HE-SIG-A field, the HE-SIG-B field, and the data field,
wherein an upper 10 MHz of the 20 MHz bandwidth in the HE-SIG-B field carries the HE-SIG-B information, and a lower 10 MHz of the 20 MHz bandwidth in the HE-SIG-B carries a duplicate of the HE-SIG-B information carried in the upper 10 MHz of the 20 MHz bandwidth in the HE-SIG-B field.

US Pat. No. 9,860,917

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING FRAME

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method of receiving a frame by a device in a wireless local area network (WLAN), the method comprising:
receiving a frame where a symbol is attached to a previous version frame, the symbol including basic service set (BSS) information;
determining whether the device belongs to a BSS of a transmitter of the frame based on the BSS information, and
setting a clear channel assessment (CCA) level based on whether the device belongs to the BSS of the transmitter of the frame,
wherein the CCA level is set to a first level when the device belongs to the BSS of the transmitter of the frame and is set
to a second level being higher than the first level when the device does not belong to the BSS of the transmitter of the frame.

US Pat. No. 9,716,606

METHOD FOR TRANSMITTING FRAME AND METHOD FOR DETECTING TRANSMISSION MODE

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method of transmitting a frame by a device in a wireless local area network (WLAN), the method comprising:
generating a legacy short training field;
generating a legacy long training field immediately following the legacy short training field;
generating a legacy signal field immediately following the legacy long training field;
generating a BPSK-modulated signal field including one orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) symbol immediately
following the legacy signal field, wherein the one OFDM symbol of the BPSK-modulated signal field includes a plurality of
information bits, a first part of the plurality of information bits corresponds to a mode field indicating whether a mode
of a frame is a High Efficiency (HE) mode of the WLAN, and a second part of the plurality of information bits corresponds
to tail bits; and

transmitting the frame including the legacy signal field, the legacy short training field, the legacy long training field,
and the BPSK-modulated signal field.

US Pat. No. 9,628,310

LONG TRAINING FIELD SEQUENCE CONSTRUCTION

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. An apparatus for facilitating wireless communication, the apparatus comprising:
one or more memories; and
one or more processors coupled to the one or more memories, the one or more processors configured to cause:
determining a channel bandwidth among a plurality of bandwidths including a 20 megahertz (MHz) channel bandwidth, 40 MHz channel
bandwidth, and 80 MHz channel bandwidth;

determining a high efficiency long training field (HE-LTF) mode among a plurality of HE-LTF modes including a 4×HE-LTF mode
and a 2×HE-LTF mode;

generating an HE-LTF symbol by using an HE-LTF sequence corresponding to the determined channel bandwidth and the determined
HE-LTF mode, wherein the HE-LTF sequence is among a plurality of HE-LTF sequences for the plurality of bandwidths and the
plurality of HE-LTF modes; and

transmitting a high efficiency physical layer protocol data unit (HE PPDU) including the HE-LTF symbol, in the determined
channel bandwidth,

wherein the plurality of HE-LTF sequences includes a first HE-LTF sequence for the 20 MHz channel bandwidth and the 4×HE-LTF
mode, a second HE-LTF sequence for the 20 MHz channel bandwidth and the 2×HE-LTF mode, a third HE-LTF sequence for the 40
MHz channel bandwidth and the 4×HE-LTF mode, a fourth HE-LTF sequence for the 40 MHz channel bandwidth and the 2×HE-LTF mode,
a fifth HE-LTF sequence for the 80 MHz channel bandwidth and the 4×HE-LTF mode, and a sixth HE-LTF sequence for the 80 MHz
channel bandwidth and the 2×HE-LTF mode.

US Pat. No. 9,609,090

SIGNALING METHOD

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A signaling method by a device in a wireless local area network, the method comprising:
including signaling information in an address field;
generating a medium access control (MAC) frame including the address field; and
transmitting a physical layer (PHY) frame including a data field into which the MAC frame is inserted,
wherein the address field further includes a compressed address into which an address of the device or an address of a device
destined to receive the MAC frame is compressed.

US Pat. No. 9,344,738

METHOD OF PREDICTING MOTION VECTORS IN VIDEO CODEC IN WHICH MULTIPLE REFERENCES ARE ALLOWED, AND MOTION VECTOR ENCODING/DECODING APPARATUS USING THE SAME

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A decoding method of a decoding device, comprising:
obtaining, by the decoding device, a motion vector difference for a current block in a current picture from an input bitstream;
obtaining, by the decoding device, a motion vector of a neighboring block of the current block, wherein the neighboring block
is in the current picture and wherein the motion vector of the neighboring block is used to decode the neighboring block according
to a reference picture of the neighboring block;

interpolating, by the decoding device, the motion vector of the neighboring block of the current block based on a distance
between the reference picture of the neighboring block and the current picture and a distance between a reference picture
of the current block and the current picture to generate an interpolated motion vector, wherein the refrence picture of the
neighboring block is different from the reference picture of the current block;

predicting, by the decoding device, a motion vector of the current block based on the interpolated motion vector to generate
a predicted motion vector; and

adding, by the decoding device, the predicted motion vector and the motion vector difference to generate the motion vector
of the current block.

US Pat. No. 9,917,679

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TRANSMITTING RESPONSE FRAME BASED ON TYPE IN A HIGH EFFICIENCY WIRELESS LAN

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method for transmitting an acknowledgement frame for notifying successful data reception by a station (STA) to an access
point (AP) in a wireless local area network, the method comprising:
receiving, from the AP, a downlink frame including a quality of service (QoS) control field including acknowledgement information
representing whether the STA is requested to transmit the acknowledgement frame in a single-user (SU) format or in a multiple-user
(MU) format at a Short Inter-Frame Space (SIFS) time after the downlink frame; and

transmitting, to the AP, the acknowledgement frame based on the acknowledgement information at the SIFS time after the downlink
frame,

wherein transmitting the acknowledgment frame comprises:
when the acknowledgment information represents that the STA is requested to transmit the acknowledgement frame in the MU format
and the STA is allocated a resource, transmitting the acknowledgement frame in the MU format on the allocated resource simultaneously
with transmission of at least one acknowledgement frame from at least one other STA, and

when the acknowledgment information represents that the STA is requested to transmit the acknowledgement frame in the SU format,
transmitting the acknowledgement frame in SU format.

US Pat. No. 9,647,816

WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS WITH VARYING SUBCARRIER SPACINGS

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A transmission method performed in a station, the transmission method comprising:
generating a legacy preamble;
generating a high efficiency (HE) preamble including at least one HE-signal (HE-SIG) field, a HE-short training field (HE-STF),
and at least one HE-long training field (HE-LTF);

generating a HE physical layer convergence procedure protocol data unit (HE PPDU) including the legacy preamble and the HE
preamble; and

transmitting, over a wireless medium, the HE PPDU,
wherein the legacy preamble, the at least one HE-SIG field, and the HE-STF each have a subcarrier spacing of 312.5 kHz, and
wherein the at least one HE-LTF has a subcarrier spacing of 156.25 kHz and a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) period having
a length of 6.4 ?sec when the HE PPDU is transmitted in a first communication environment, and has a subcarrier spacing of
78.125 kHz and a DFT period having a length of 12.8 ?sec when the HE PPDU is transmitted in a second communication environment.

US Pat. No. 9,621,311

PILOT TRANSMISSION AND RECEPTION FOR ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method of a wireless device for transmitting a frame, the method comprising:
determining, by the wireless device, a plurality of Resource Units (RUs) of the frame;
providing, by the wireless device, a first plurality of pilots in a first RU of the frame at a first set of positions, respectively;
providing, by the wireless device, a second plurality of pilots in a second RU of the frame at a second set of positions,
respectively; and

transmitting, by the wireless device, the frame,
wherein the first set of positions is different from the second set of positions,
wherein the frame is an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) frame and the plurality of RUs include respective
pluralities of subcarriers,

wherein the first RU includes a lowest subcarrier having an odd-numbered index,
wherein the second RU includes a lowest subcarrier having an even-numbered index,
wherein the first RU is a 52-subcarrier RU and the second RU is a 52-subcarrier RU,
wherein the first set of positions include a first pilot tone position spaced five subcarriers away from a lowest-indexed
subcarrier of the first RU, a second pilot tone position separated by thirteen subcarriers from the first pilot tone position,
a third pilot tone position separated by eleven subcarriers from the second pilot tone position, and a fourth pilot tone position
separated by thirteen subcarriers from the third pilot tone position and spaced six subcarriers away from a highest-indexed
subcarrier of the first RU, and

wherein the second set of positions include a fifth pilot tone position spaced six subcarriers away from a lowest-indexed
subcarrier of the first RU, a sixth pilot tone position separated by thirteen subcarriers from the fifth pilot tone position,
a seventh pilot tone position separated by eleven subcarriers from the sixth pilot tone position, and an eighth pilot tone
position separated by thirteen subcarriers from the seventh pilot tone position and spaced five subcarriers away from a highest-indexed
subcarrier of the second RU.

US Pat. No. 9,531,520

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR DOWNLINK AND UPLINK MULTI-USER TRANSMISSIONS

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method, implemented by a network device in a wireless network, for coordinating an uplink multi-user response transmission
to a downlink multi-user transmission, the method comprising:
generating, by the network device, a downlink multi-user frame addressed to a plurality of stations operating in the wireless
network, the downlink multi-user frame including a plurality of resource units (RUs), wherein generating the downlink multi-user
frame comprises:

assigning each RU of the plurality of RUs to a respective station in the plurality of stations, and
including a respective set of MAC Protocol Data Units (MPDUs) in each RU of the plurality of RUs,
wherein an MPDU in one or more of the RUs in the plurality of RUs includes acknowledgement information indicating properties
of a multi-user acknowledgement transmission that the station in the plurality of stations to which the RU is assigned is
requested to transmit to acknowledge the downlink multi-user frame;

transmitting the downlink multi-user frame to the plurality of stations over a wireless channel; and
receiving the uplink multi-user response transmission, the uplink multi-user response transmission including multi-user acknowledgement
transmissions respectively and simultaneously transmitted by two or more stations in the plurality of stations,

wherein the plurality of RUs respectively correspond to a plurality of simultaneous uplink transmissions, and each of the
plurality of simultaneous uplink transmissions uses a sub-channel, spatial stream, or sub-channel and spatial stream combination
that is not used by any other of the plurality of simultaneous uplink transmissions.

US Pat. No. 9,936,537

CHANNEL ACCESS MECHANISM

NEWRACOM, Inc., Irvine, ...

1. A wireless device operating in a wireless network, the wireless device comprising:a hardware processor; and
one or more memories coupled to the hardware processor, wherein the one or more memories include one or more instructions, which when executed by the hardware processor cause the wireless device to:
detect a wireless medium is idle,
decrement a backoff counter from a current value in response to detecting the wireless medium is idle, wherein the backoff counter is associated with a clear channel assessment of the wireless medium and the backoff counter was originally set to an initial random value,
detect a frame received from a transmitting device over the wireless medium,
determine whether the frame is an inter-basic service set (BSS) frame or an intra-BSS frame,
during a period of time that the wireless device determines whether the frame is an inter-BSS frame or an intra-BSS frame:
set and maintain a condition for the wireless medium in a busy state, and
hold decrementing the backoff counter associated with the clear channel assessment of the wireless medium while determining whether the frame is an inter-BSS frame or an intra-BSS frame, and
resume decrementing the backoff counter in response to determining that the frame is an inter-BSS frame relative to the wireless device.

US Pat. No. 9,860,349

METHOD FOR TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING FRAME, AND WIRELESS DEVICE IMPLEMENTING THE SAME METHOD

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

9. A wireless device for facilitating wireless communications, the device comprising:
a first pre-compensator configured to compensate a sampling frequency with a sampling frequency offset (SFO);
an inverse Fourier transformer configured to perform an inverse Fourier transform to an output of the first pre-compensator;
and

a second pre-compensator configured to compensate a carrier frequency with a carrier frequency offset (CFO) to an output of
the inverse Fourier transformer,

wherein a value of the CFO is delivered from a Media Access Control layer.

US Pat. No. 9,860,099

SUPPORT OF FREQUENCY DIVERSITY MODE FOR BLOCK CODE BASED TRANSMISSION IN OFDMA

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

6. A method for transmitting a frame using a wireless device, the method comprising:
determining whether to transmit data using an orphan subcarrier pair, the orphan subcarrier pair including an orphan subcarrier
of a first space-time stream and an orphan subcarrier of a second space-time stream;

transmitting a first constellation point of a spatial stream using the orphan subcarrier of the first space-time stream and
a second constellation point of the spatial stream using the orphan subcarrier of the second space-time stream when a determination
to use the orphan subcarrier pair to transmit data is made and a total number of constellation points corresponding to an
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) symbol is an even number; and

transmitting a single constellation point of a spatial stream using the orphan subcarrier of the first space-time stream and
the orphan subcarrier of the second space-time stream when the determination to use the orphan subcarrier pair to transmit
data is made and the total number of constellation points corresponding to the OFDM symbol is an odd number.

US Pat. No. 9,712,342

FRAME TRANSMITTING METHOD AND FRAME RECEIVING METHOD

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. An apparatus for facilitating wireless communication, the apparatus comprising:
a Radio Frequency (RF) transmitter;
an antenna coupled to the RF transmitter, and
a processor configured to transmit, using the RF transmitter and the antenna, a frame, the frame including:
a first set of symbols having a first number of subcarriers used for carrying training information, and
a second set of symbols having the first number of subcarriers, and additional subcarriers including a predetermined pattern
using a value 1 or ?1,

wherein each of the first and second set of symbols includes, on a 20 MHz bandwidth basis, a direct current subcarrier, an
index of the direct current subcarrier is 0, indices of the first number of subcarriers are ?26 to 26 excluding the index
of the direct current subcarrier, and

wherein indices of first, second, third, and fourth subcarriers of the additional subcarriers are ?28, ?27, 27 and 28, respectively,
on a 20 MHz bandwidth basis.

US Pat. No. 9,949,290

BANDWIDTH DETERMINATION FOR MULTIPLE USER TRANSMISSION IN A HIGH EFFICIENCY WIRELESS LAN

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

13. A method for receiving by an access point (AP) from a plurality of stations (STAs) an uplink Physical layer Protocol Data Unit (PPDU) frame in a wireless local area network, the method comprising:transmitting information on an available bandwidth of the AP to the plurality of STAs before transmitting a trigger frame;
receiving information on the available bandwidth of each of the plurality of STAs from the plurality of STAs, after transmitting the information on the available bandwidth of the AP and before transmitting the trigger frame;
transmitting to the plurality of STAs the trigger frame including bandwidth information, the trigger frame eliciting a transmission of the uplink PPDU frame including a plurality of data units of the plurality of STAs; and
receiving the plurality of data units of the plurality of STAs in the uplink PPDU frame, the transmission of the uplink PPDU frame being determined by each of the plurality of STAs based on an available bandwidth of the each of the plurality of STAs and a bandwidth indicated by the bandwidth information included in the trigger frame,
wherein the information on the available bandwidth of the AP is included in a Request-To-Send (RTS) frame or an Uplink Multiple User (UL MU) transmission Poll Request frame, and
the information on the available bandwidth of the STA is included in a Clear-To-Send (CTS) frame or a UL MU transmission Poll Response frame.

US Pat. No. 9,893,784

LTF DESIGN FOR WLAN SYSTEM

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method for a transmitting apparatus to transmit a frame, the method comprising:
generating a frame, the frame comprising a long training field (LTF) portion and a data portion which are associated with
a plurality of tones, wherein the plurality of tones in the data portion are grouped into a plurality of tone groups, wherein
each tone group of the plurality of tones in the data portion comprises two or more consecutive tones of the plurality of
tones, wherein a plurality of beamforming steering matrices are respectively applied to the plurality of tones, wherein at
least two different beamforming steering matrices of the plurality of beamforming steering matrices are applied to different
tone groups of the plurality of tone groups, wherein a same beamforming steering matrix is applied to each tone belonging
to a same tone group, wherein the plurality of tone groups occupy different frequency areas; and

providing the frame for transmission.

US Pat. No. 9,825,738

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT METHOD AND MULTI USER TRANSMISSION METHOD

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method of operating an access point in a wireless communication network, the method comprising:
generating downlink data;
generating uplink setup information, the uplink setup information including a first information to be used for uplink multi-user
transmission;

transmitting the downlink data and the uplink setup information in a single physical downlink frame to a plurality of stations;
simultaneously receiving multiple uplink frames from multiple stations of the plurality of stations; and
transmitting an acknowledgement frame to the multiple stations after a successful reception of the multiple uplink frames,
wherein the uplink setup information includes a common information portion and a dedicated information portion, the common
information portion includes a second information being common to all of the plurality of stations to receive the uplink setup
information, and the dedicated information portion includes respective third information specific to each of the plurality
of stations to receive the uplink setup information, and

wherein the second information is a function of a total number of space time streams to be used to transmit the multiple uplink
frames.

US Pat. No. 9,621,238

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR SOUNDING WIRELESS CHANNEL

NEWRACOM, Inc., Irvine, ...

1. A non-transitory computer-readable medium having stored therein computer code, which when executed by a networking device
functioning as a beamformer in a wireless local area network (WLAN), cause the networking device to perform a set of operations
to improve a sounding procedure where a steering matrix or a compressed beamforming report is utilized by the beamformer using
feedback from at least one beamformee, the steering matrix or compressed beamforming report to determine a spatial path for
transmission from the beamformer to a set of beamformees in the WLAN, the set of operations comprising:
selecting, by the beamformer, a bandwidth for a sounding frame used to perform the sounding procedure;
generating, by the beamformer, the sounding frame at the selected bandwidth using a mode of operation from a plurality of
modes of operation, wherein each mode of operation corresponds to a frame format and the mode of operation used to generate
the sounding frame has a minimum pilot tone density amongst frame formats of the plurality of modes of operation with the
selected bandwidth;

and
transmitting the sounding frame to the set of beamformees.

US Pat. No. 9,553,699

FRAME TRANSMITTING METHOD AND FRAME RECEIVING METHOD

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method of transmitting a frame by a device in a wireless communication network, the method comprising:
generating a first symbol having a first subcarrier spacing, a symbol duration of the first symbol, excluding a guard interval,
having a first length;

generating a second symbol having a second subcarrier spacing narrower than the first subcarrier spacing, a symbol duration
of the second symbol, excluding a guard interval, having a second length that is twice the first length; and

transmitting a frame including the first symbol and the second symbol,
wherein generating the second symbol includes:
allocating non-zero values to even-numbered subcarriers of a plurality of subcarriers;
allocating zero values to each of odd-numbered subcarriers of the plurality of subcarriers;
generating a waveform by performing an inverse Fourier transform on the plurality of subcarriers, the waveform having a duration;
and

generating the second symbol using only half of the duration of the waveform.

US Pat. No. 9,532,187

INTERLEAVER FOR PHYSICAL LAYER PROTOCOL DATA UNIT IN A HIGH EFFICIENCY WIRELESS LAN

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method for transmitting data to a plurality of Stations (STAs) through a transmission channel by an Access Point (AP)
in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) system, wherein the transmission channel is divided into a plurality of resource units
which are allocated to the plurality of STAs respectively, the method comprising:
interleaving a plurality of data units for the plurality of STAs based on sizes of the plurality of resource units allocated
to the plurality of STAs to generate a plurality of interleaved data units; and

transmitting, through the transmission channel, a Physical layer Protocol Data Unit (PPDU) frame including the plurality of
interleaved data units respectively on the plurality of resource units to the plurality of STAs,

wherein a set of sizes available to a resource unit allocated to a first STA among the plurality of STAs includes a first
size and a second size,

wherein the interleaving of the plurality of data units for the plurality of STAs comprises:
when the size of the resource unit allocated to the first STA is the first size, interleaving a data unit for the first STA
using a first set of interleaving parameter values; and

when the size of the resource unit allocated to the first STA is the second size, interleaving the data unit for the first
STA using a second set of interleaving parameter values, and

wherein the first size is smaller than a size of the transmission channel, the second size is smaller than the first size,
and the second set of interleaving parameter values is different from the first set of interleaving parameter value.

US Pat. No. 9,832,772

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR PACKET INFORMATION INDICATION IN COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method for performing wireless communications, the method comprising:
receiving, by a wireless device, a trigger frame that coordinates an uplink multiuser transmission;
generating, by the wireless device, an uplink frame, wherein generating the uplink frame includes:
providing, in the uplink frame, a High Efficiency Signal A (HE-SIG-A) field including frame format information for the uplink
frame, and

providing, in the uplink frame, a High Efficiency Short Training Field (HE-STF) immediately after the HE-SIG-A field in response
to receiving the trigger frame; and

transmitting, by the wireless device as an immediate response to the trigger frame, the uplink frame over a wireless channel.

US Pat. No. 9,774,425

FRAME TRANSMITTING METHOD AND FRAME RECEIVING METHOD

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method of transmitting a frame by a device in a wireless communication network, the method comprising:
generating a symbol using a part of a plurality of resource units having a different number of tones, a length of symbol duration
excluding a guard interval in the symbol being 12.8 ?s; and

transmitting a frame including the symbol,
wherein the plurality of resource units includes a first resource unit having 26 tones, a second resource unit having 52 tones,
and a third resource unit having 242 tones,

wherein two tones in the 26 tones of the first resource unit are used as pilot tones, four tones in the 52 tones of the second
resource unit are used as pilot tones, and eight tones in the 242 tones of the third resource unit are used as pilot tones,
and

wherein the frame is transmitted on a 20 MHz band.

US Pat. No. 9,960,824

HIGH-EFFICIENCY (HE) SOUNDING METHODS FOR MIMO AND OFDMA

NEWRACOM, Inc., Irvine, ...

1. A method implemented by a network device operating in a wireless local area network (WLAN), the method to improve efficiency for beamforming for multiple antenna array communications where a steering matrix or compressed beamforming report is determined by the network device using implicit feedback from at least one station in the WLAN, where explicit feedback is channel characteristics calculated and provided by the at least one station and where implicit feedback is channel characteristics calculated by the network device using a response frame from the at least one station, the steering matrix to determine a spatial path for transmission from a beamformer to each beamformee in the WLAN, the method comprising:generating a first sounding frame to initiate a sounding feedback sequence, the first sounding frame including an indicator to request a first response frame from a first station to enable the network device to compute a first steering matrix or a first compressed beamforming report, wherein the indicator indicates either null data packet (NDP) response allowed or NDP response required, wherein when the indicator indicates the NDP response allowed, the first response frame is one of a Very High Throughput (VHT) NDP, a High Efficiency (HE) NDP or a VHT Compressed Beamforming Report and wherein when the indicator indicates the NDP response required, the first response frame is one of a VHT NDP and HE NDP; and
sending, by the network device, the first sounding frame to a set of stations in the WLAN, including the first station, wherein the sounding feedback sequence initiates with the sending of the first sounding frame.

US Pat. No. 9,912,513

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR SYNCHRONIZATION FOR OFDMA TRANSMISSION

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. An apparatus for facilitating wireless communication, the apparatus comprising:
one or more memories; and
one or more processors coupled to the one or more memories, the one or more processors configured to cause:
receiving, in a trigger frame transmitted by an access point, an indication of a first guard interval length, wherein the
trigger frame allocates one or more resources for an uplink (UL) multi-user (MU) transmission and solicits the UL MU transmission,
wherein a value of the first guard interval length is to be used by each of a plurality of stations, including the apparatus,
associated with the UL MU transmission,

generating an uplink frame for the UL MU transmission solicited by the trigger frame, wherein the uplink frame comprises a
payload and a physical layer (PHY) header, and

transmitting the uplink frame using a resource allocated by the trigger frame to the apparatus,
wherein at least a portion of the payload of the uplink frame is associated with the first guard interval length.

US Pat. No. 9,954,656

TRANSMISSION METHOD

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A wireless communication device in a wireless local area network (WLAN), the wireless communication device comprising:a hardware processor; and
one or more memory devices coupled to the hardware processor, wherein the one or more memory devices include one or more instructions, which when executed by the hardware processor cause the wireless communication device to:
receive, from an access point, an initiate frame to initiate an uplink multi-user transmission;
acquire information associated with a required duration for transmission completion of a response frame for the initiate frame;
receive a signal;
determine whether the signal was transmitted by a device of an Overlapping Basic Service Set (OBSS);
update an OBSS Network Allocation Vector (NAV) based on the signal when the signal is determined to be transmitted by the device of the OBSS;
determine a permissibility of transmission of the response frame for the initiate frame in the uplink multi-user transmission, based on the OBSS NAV and the acquired information; and
transmit the response frame to the access point in the uplink multi-user transmission, responsive to a determination that transmission of the response frame for the initiate frame in the uplink multi-user transmission is permissible,
wherein the acquired information represents whether the wireless communication device is to transmit an acknowledgement frame whose required duration for transmission completion is not larger than a predetermined value or other frame than the acknowledgement frame whose required duration for transmission completion is not larger than the predetermined value.

US Pat. No. 10,098,151

TRANSMISSION METHOD FOR MULTI USER IN WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. An operation method of a first station in a wireless local area network (WLAN), the method comprising:determining, by the first station, a Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) for a High Efficiency Signal B (HE-SIG-B) field;
generating, by the first station, an HE Signal A (HE-SIG-A) field including an indication of the MCS for the HE-SIG-B field;
generating, by the first station, a physical layer protocol data unit (PPDU) including a legacy preamble, a high efficiency (HE) preamble, and a payload, the HE preamble including the HE-SIG-A field and the HE-SIG-B field; and
transmitting, by the first station, the PPDU, transmitting the PPDU including coding and modulating the HE-SIG-B field according to the MCS for the HE-SIG-B field included in the HE-SIG-A field.

US Pat. No. 10,154,520

METHODS FOR RANDOM ACCESS IN A WIRELESS NETWORK

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method implemented by a station of performing a random access (RA) communication, the method comprising:receiving, by the station, a first trigger frame;
determining, by the station using information in one or more per-station information parts of the first trigger frame, that one or more resource units (RUs) of a response transmission are allocated to RA;
selecting, by the station, a selected RU from the one or more RUs allocated to RA; and
in response to receiving the first trigger frame, performing, by the station, the RA communication using the selected RU of the response transmission,
wherein determining that the one or more RUs of the response transmission are allocated to RA comprises:
determining that a first per-station information part associates an identifier of a first RU of the response transmission with a predetermined reserved Association Identifier (AID);
determining that the first RU is allocated to RA in response to a bandwidth of the first RU being equal to a bandwidth indicated by an RA Bandwidth (RABW) value; and
determining that a second RU of the response transmission is allocated to RA in response to the bandwidth of the first RU being greater than the bandwidth indicated by the RABW value, a bandwidth of the second RU being equal to the bandwidth indicated by the RABW value, and the second RU being comprised of tones that are within the first RU.

US Pat. No. 9,985,739

RATE DETERMINATION IN HIGH EFFICIENCY WIRELESS LAN

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method for receiving one or more uplink frames from one or more stations by an Access Point (AP) in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), the method comprising:transmitting, a first Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) map field for uplink single-user transmission and a second MCS map field for uplink multi-user transmission, the second MCS map field including a plurality of subfields, wherein the plurality of subfields respectively corresponds to a plurality of spatial stream numbers, and each sub-field indicates a maximum MCS for a corresponding spatial stream number;
transmitting, to the one or more stations, a downlink frame eliciting the one or more uplink frames; and
receiving the one or more uplink frames from the one or more stations, each uplink frame having a coding rate determined based on whether the downlink frame elicits multiple uplink frames to be simultaneously transmitted from multiple stations to the AP or a single uplink frame to be transmitted from a single station to the AP,
wherein the coding rate is determined based on the first MCS map field when the downlink frame elicits the single uplink frame, and
wherein the coding rate is determined based on the second MCS map field when the downlink frame elicits the multiple uplink frames.

US Pat. No. 10,116,360

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR UPLINK MULTI-USER TRANSMISSION IN A HIGH EFFICIENCY WIRELESS LAN

Newracom, Inc., Lake For...

1. A method for performing a frame exchange sequence including an uplink multi-user (UL MU) transmission by an access point (AP) in a wireless local area network, the method comprising:acquiring a transmission opportunity (TXOP) for initiating the frame exchange sequence;
determining whether a time required for the frame exchange sequence that excludes a control response frame exceeds a TXOP limit;
transmitting a trigger frame to one or more stations (STAs) when the time required for the frame exchange sequence was determined not to exceed the TXOP limit; and
when the time required for the frame exchange sequence was determined to exceed the TXOP limit:
adjusting a duration value of the UL MU transmission included in the trigger frame to meet the TXOP limit; and
transmitting the trigger frame with the adjusted duration value of the UL MU transmission to the one or more STAs.

US Pat. No. 10,091,771

SOUNDING PROCEDURE INCLUDING UPLINK MULTIPLE-USER TRANSMISSION IN A HIGH EFFICIENCY WIRELESS LAN

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method of transmitting a response frame by a responding station to a transmitting station in a wireless local area network, the method comprising:receiving, by the responding station, from the transmitting station, a trigger frame indicating a type of feedback requested, the trigger frame including information related to a modulation and coding scheme (MC S) for a response frame; and
transmitting, by the responding station, to the transmitting station, the response frame according to an MCS determined based on the information related to the MCS for the response frame included in the trigger frame, the response frame including a first compressed beamforming frame according to the type of feedback requested,
wherein, when the type of feedback requested corresponds to a multiple-user (MU) type, the first compressed beamforming frame is simultaneously transmitted with multiple compressed beamforming frames from a plurality of stations.

US Pat. No. 10,257,857

APPARATUS AND METHODS FOR TXOP DURATION FIELD IN PHY HEADER

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method implemented by a station (STA) in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) to update a Network Allocation Vector (NAV) maintained by the STA, the method comprising:receiving a first Physical Layer Protocol Data Unit (PPDU), wherein the STA is able to decode a preamble portion of the first PPDU but unable to decode a payload portion of the first PPDU;
determining whether a duration indicated in a control field of the preamble portion of the first PPDU is greater than a current NAV value;
determining whether the first PPDU is received as an immediate response to a second PPDU previously transmitted by the STA;
updating the NAV maintained by the STA using the duration indicated in the control field of the preamble portion of the first PPDU in response to a determination that the duration indicated in the control field of the preamble portion of the first PPDU is greater than the current NAV value and the first PPDU is not received as an immediate response to the second PPDU previously transmitted by the STA, wherein the STA is configured to refrain from updating the NAV maintained by the STA in response to a determination that the first PPDU is received as an immediate response to the second PPDU previously transmitted by the STA; and
attempting to access the wireless medium after the NAV has expired, wherein the STA is configured to refrain from attempting to access the wireless medium before the NAV has expired.

US Pat. No. 10,149,296

SIGNAL FIELD ENCODING AND DECODING

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method comprising:receiving, by a receiving device, a compressed field, the compressed field including a combined field and a remaining portion, the combined field having been generated by combining a destination address and a first checksum, the first checksum having been generated by applying a generator function to the destination address and the remaining portion, wherein the compressed field does not include the destination address;
determining, using the combined field, an address of the receiving device, and the generator function, whether the compressed field is addressed to the receiving device, wherein determining whether the compressed field is addressed to the receiving device comprises:
generating, by performing a bit-wise exclusive-or operation using the combined field and the address of the receiving device, an estimated checksum;
generating a codeword including the address of the receiving device, the remaining portion, and the estimated checksum;
generating, by applying the generator function to the codeword, a remainder; and
comparing the remainder to zero.

US Pat. No. 10,057,806

MULTI-USER COMMUNICATION IN WIRELESS NETWORKS

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method implemented by a first wireless device operating in a wireless network for communicating status, the method comprising:generating a frame for transmission to a second wireless device operating in the wireless network, wherein generating the frame includes:
inserting, by the first wireless device into a High Throughput (HT) Control field of the frame, buffer status information for multiple traffic identifiers (TIDs); and
transmitting, by the first wireless device, the frame to the second wireless device in the wireless network,
wherein the second wireless device uses the buffer status information to allocate resources of a transmission to the second wireless station.

US Pat. No. 9,936,488

SOUNDING PROCEDURE INCLUDING UPLINK MULTIPLE-USER TRANSMISSION IN A HIGH EFFICIENCY WIRELESS LAN

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method for transmitting a response frame by a responding station to a transmitting station in a wireless local area network, the method comprising:receiving, from the transmitting station, a null data packet announcement (NDPA) frame including first information indicating whether a single compressed beamforming frame is transmitted from a single station or multiple compressed beamforming frames are simultaneously transmitted from a plurality of stations;
receiving, from the transmitting station, a null data packet (NDP) frame after receiving the NDPA frame;
receiving, from the transmitting station, after receiving the NDP frame, a trigger frame requiring the plurality of stations to transmit the multiple compressed beamforming frames, the trigger frame including second information related to a Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) for the response frame; and
transmitting, to the transmitting station, as the response frame to the trigger frame, a first compressed beamforming frame of the multiple compressed beamforming frames according to an MCS determined based on the second information related to the MCS for the response frame,
wherein, when the first information indicates that the multiple compressed beamforming frames are simultaneously transmitted from the plurality of stations, the multiple compressed beamforming frames including the first compressed beamforming frame are simultaneously transmitted from the plurality of stations including the responding station.

US Pat. No. 10,085,258

FRAME TRANSMITTING METHOD AND FRAME RECEIVING METHOD

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method of transmitting a frame by a first device in a wireless local area network, the method comprising:receiving a second frame including bandwidth information of a second channel from a second device before transmitting a first frame, the second channel being selected from among a plurality of channels into which an entire channel width is divided;
transmitting the first frame including bandwidth information of a first channel directly to the second device, the first channel being selected from among the plurality of channels into which the entire channel width is divided and discontinuous channels capable of being selected as the first channel from among the plurality of channels; and
performing a direct communication with the second device through the first channel,
wherein a direct transmission is performed through a third channel between a third device and a fourth device when the direct communication with the second device through the first channel is performed, the third channel is determined by the third device using the bandwidth information included in the second frame and the bandwidth information included in the first frame, and the third channel is a part of the plurality of channels and the first and third channels have disjoint bandwidths, and
wherein each channel of the plurality of channels is a wireless channel, and
wherein the second channel has a bandwidth that includes the first channel and the third channel.

US Pat. No. 9,991,995

MULTIUSER SIGNALING AND ACCESS REQUEST MECHANISMS

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A station for communicating in a wireless network, the station comprising:one or more memories; and
one or more processors coupled to the one or more memories, the one or more processors configured to cause:
processing a first trigger frame;
generating a first uplink frame in response to the first trigger frame and based on resource status of the station;
providing the first uplink frame for transmission;
providing, for transmission, a second uplink frame in response to the first trigger frame, prior to providing the first uplink frame; and
processing a second trigger frame that is based on the first uplink frame, the second trigger frame comprising a first allocation of resources for the station, the first allocation of resources comprising one or more sub-bands assigned to the station, the one or more sub-bands being a portion of an uplink channel bandwidth,
wherein the resources comprise at least one of a bandwidth, a duration of the first uplink frame or a duration of the second uplink frame, a coding and modulation scheme, and a number of spatial streams.

US Pat. No. 10,075,316

METHOD FOR TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING DATA IN WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK AND APPARATUS FOR THE SAME

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method performed by a wireless device of transmitting an acknowledgement in a wireless communications system,receiving a frame from an access point, wherein the frame elicits an acknowledgement;
generating the acknowledgement in response to receiving the frame, the acknowledgement comprising:
i) a traffic identifier (TID) information when the acknowledgment is associated with a response to a VHT single A-MPDU (Aggregate MAC (Medium Access Control) Protocol Data Unit including only one MPDU), wherein when the acknowledgment is associated with responses to a plurality of VHT single A-MPDUs, respective TID information is included for each of TIDs associated with acknowledgment to the plurality of VHT single A-MPDUs, and
ii) one or more block acknowledgement (BA) information when the acknowledgement is associated with a response to an A-MPDU (Aggregate MPDU), the A-MPDU including a plurality of MPDUs, wherein a respective BA information is included for each of TIDs associated with acknowledgement to the A-MPDU, each of the BA information comprising a TID information, a starting sequence control information, and a BA bitmap; and
transmitting the acknowledgement to the access point.

US Pat. No. 10,020,919

PROTECTION METHODS FOR WIRELESS TRANSMISSIONS

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method performed by a wireless device, the method comprising:receiving a Null Data Packet Announcement (NDPA), the NDPA including one or more station information fields;
determining exactly a number of the one or more station information fields in the NDPA;
receiving a Null Data Packet (NDP); and
in response to determining that the number of the one or more station information fields in the NDPA is one, transmitting first Channel State Information (CSI) feedback in response to receiving the NDP,
wherein the number of the one or more station information fields in the NDPA is the cardinality of the one or more station information fields in the NDPA.

US Pat. No. 9,998,185

AGGREGATION METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR MULTI-USER MIMO OR OFDMA OPERATION

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

16. A computer-implemented method of facilitating multi-user communication in a wireless network, the method comprising:receiving, by a station, a downlink frame from an access point, the downlink frame comprising a first signaling field and a second signaling field, wherein the first signaling field is a high efficiency signal-A (HE SIG-A) field, wherein the second signaling field is a high efficiency signal-B (HE SIG-B) field;
determining, by the station, whether the first signaling field indicates a multi-user (MU)-multi-input multi-output (MIMO) transmission in the downlink frame;
when the first signaling field indicates the MU-MIMO transmission, determining one or more attributes of the MU-MIMO transmission in the second signaling field;
when the first signaling field indicates a transmission that is a non-MU-MIMO transmission, determining one or more attributes of the non-MU-MIMO transmission in the second signaling field;
decoding, by the station, one or more portions of the downlink frame based on the one or more attributes of the MU-MIMO transmission; and
providing the decoded one or more portions of the downlink frame for processing.

US Pat. No. 10,219,271

BANDWIDTH ALLOCATION SIGNALLING

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method implemented by an Access Point (AP) for performing a Multi-User (MU) transmission, the method comprising:determining, by the AP, an allocation of Resource Units (RUs) of a first bandwidth of an MU frame, including determining that a first RU of the MU frame is not allocated to a station in the MU transmission;
determining, by the AP, a value of a first RU Allocation Subfield according to the allocation of the RUs of the MU frame, the value of the first RU Allocation Subfield indicating that the first RU is not allocated;
generating, by the AP, a first High Efficiency Signal B (HE-SIG-B) field, wherein generating the first HE-SIG-B field comprises providing the first RU Allocation Subfield in a common info field of the first HE-SIG-B field and providing a plurality of user-specific subfields in the first HE-SIG-B field;
generating, by the AP, the MU frame, wherein generating the MU frame includes providing the first HE-SIG-B field in the MU frame; and
transmitting, by the AP, the MU frame over a wireless channel,
wherein the first RU Allocation Subfield provides an indication of a number of user-specific subfields in the first HE-SIG-B field.

US Pat. No. 10,172,137

APPARATUS AND METHODS FOR EFFICIENT WIRELESS CHANNEL USAGE

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method for performing a multi-user uplink transmission, the method comprising:assessing, by an access point, a wireless channel using clear channel assessment parameters;
determining spatial reuse information based on the assessment of the wireless channel;
generating a trigger frame; and
transmitting the trigger frame,
wherein the trigger frame includes resource allocation information for a first wireless station and a second wireless station to participate in the multi-user uplink transmission to the access point, and
wherein the trigger frame further includes the spatial reuse information in a payload of the trigger frame, the spatial reuse information to be used by the first wireless station and the second wireless station for respectively setting a spatial reuse field in the multi-user uplink transmission.

US Pat. No. 10,129,064

WIRELESS DEVICE LOW POWER WAKE UP

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method performed by a wireless device, the method comprising:generating a Legacy preamble including a Legacy Short Training Field (L-STF), a Legacy Long Training Field (L-LTF) and a Legacy Signal (L-SIG) field;
generating a 20 MHz Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) symbol having a duration of 4 ?s;
generating a Wake-Up (WU) signal portion having a frequency bandwidth that is narrower than a frequency bandwidth of the Legacy preamble; and
transmitting a frame, including:
transmitting the Legacy preamble,
transmitting the 20 MHz OFDM symbol immediately after transmitting the Legacy preamble, and
transmitting the WU signal portion immediately after transmitting the 20 MHz OFDM symbol.

US Pat. No. 10,070,458

RESOURCE REQUEST AND ALLOCATION FOR UPLINK MULTI-USER COMMUNICATION

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. An access point for facilitating communication in a wireless network for multi-user transmission, the access point comprising:one or more memories; and
one or more processors coupled to the one or more memories, the one or more processors configured to cause:
generating a first trigger frame, wherein the first trigger frame includes a resource allocation and a trigger indication;
transmitting the first trigger frame to one or more stations, wherein the first trigger frame schedules an uplink multi-user transmission with at least the one or more stations, wherein the trigger indication indicates that a second trigger frame will be transmitted during a time interval; and
transmitting the second trigger frame to the one or more stations during the time interval, wherein the second trigger frame does not repeat the resource allocation included in the first trigger frame and requests the one or more stations to utilize the resource allocation included in the first trigger frame for the uplink multi-user transmission.

US Pat. No. 10,028,142

APPARATUS AND METHODS FOR CHANNEL ACCESS IN WLAN

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method implemented by an Access Point (AP) in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) to facilitate an unassociated station (STA) to participate in an uplink multi-user simultaneous transmission, the method comprising:receiving a request frame from the unassociated STA;
generating a response frame, wherein the response frame includes timing information regarding a future transmission, by the AP, of a trigger frame, wherein the trigger frame includes scheduling information for scheduling an uplink multi-user simultaneous transmission, wherein at least one transmission resource unit allocated for the uplink multi-user simultaneous transmission allows random access, wherein the timing information includes an indication of a target trigger time (TTT) of the trigger frame that represents a time at which the AP will transmit the trigger frame, wherein the timing information further includes an indication of a trigger frame transmission period (TTP) that represents a period between the trigger frame and a next trigger frame, and wherein the timing information further includes an indication of a TTP limit that represents a time at which the TTP expires; and
transmitting the response frame to the unassociated STA through a wireless medium.

US Pat. No. 10,327,226

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR RESOURCE ALLOCATION FOR MULTIPLE USER TRANSMISSION IN A HIGH EFFICIENCY WIRELESS LAN

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method by an access point (AP) in a wireless network for transmitting a Physical layer Protocol Data Unit (PPDU) to a plurality of stations (STAs), the method comprising:generating resource allocation information intended for the plurality of STAs, wherein the resource allocation information intended for the plurality of STAs includes subchannel allocation structure information that specifies subchannel structure in a frequency domain per 20 MHz channel and subchannel assignment information that specifies which STAs are allocated to which subchannels specified by the subchannel allocation structure information;
generating a preamble including a High-Efficiency SIGNAL (HE-SIG) field, an HE-Short Training Field (HE-STF) field and an HE-Long Training Field (HE-LTF) field, wherein the HE-SIG field includes an HE-SIG-A field and an HE-SIG-B field, wherein the HE-SIG-A field includes the subchannel allocation structure information and the HE-SIG-B field includes the subchannel assignment information, wherein the subchannel allocation structure information included in the HE-SIG-A field indicates a subchannel bandwidth size of each of one or more subchannels into which a 20 MHz channel is divided using a value, wherein the value being set to 0 indicates a subchannel bandwidth size of 5 MHz and the value being set to 1 indicates a subchannel bandwidth size of 10 MHz;
generating an individually addressed frame;
generating a group addressed frame including a multicast address, wherein STAs for which the group addressed frame is intended do not overlap with a STA for which the individually addressed frame is intended;
allocating, for the group addressed frame, a first subchannel among a plurality of subchannels into which a transmission channel is divided;
allocating, for the individually addressed frame, a second subchannel among the plurality of subchannels, wherein the second subchannel is different from the first subchannel;
transmitting the preamble to the plurality of STAs; and
transmitting, on the transmission channel, a data field following the preamble, wherein the data field includes the group addressed frame transmitted in the first subchannel and the individually addressed frame transmitted in the second subchannel.

US Pat. No. 10,027,499

MULTI-USER AGGREGATION METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR DATA AND CONTROL FRAMES

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A station for facilitating multi-user communication in a wireless network, the station comprising:one or more memories; and
one or more processors coupled to the one or more memories, the one or more processors configured to cause:
determining a common information field and a per user information field within a received downlink frame, wherein the common information field and the per user information field are located in a payload section of the received downlink frame, wherein the common information field includes information for all of a plurality of stations, and wherein the per user information field includes information specific to the station, wherein the downlink frame is for triggering a multi-user uplink transmission with the plurality of stations, and the downlink frame includes a trigger type sub-field;
generating a multi-user uplink frame based on the common information field and the per user information field; and
transmitting the multi-user uplink frame based on the downlink frame as part of the multi-user uplink transmission with the plurality of stations,
wherein the received downlink frame is a multi-user block acknowledgment request (MU BAR) frame having an identification that identifies the station, and wherein the one or more processors are configured to cause providing, for transmission, a block acknowledgment (BA) frame in an indicated resource unit.

US Pat. No. 10,027,782

LINK ADAPTATION FOR 802.11 SYSTEM

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method implemented by a first network device in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) to provide Modulation Coding Scheme (MCS) feedback, the method comprising:determining a reference payload size based on a payload size of a Physical Layer Protocol Data Unit (PPDU) received from a second network device that is used by the first network device to measure a link quality of a wireless communications link between the first network device and the second network device;
selecting an MCS that is determined to have a highest data rate among a plurality of available MCSes that when used to transmit a frame having the reference payload size over the wireless communications link between the first network device and the second network device results in a frame error rate that is less than or equal to a threshold error rate for a given set of transmission properties, wherein the given set of transmission properties include any one of a coding scheme, an allocated frequency resource unit size, a number of spatial streams, beamforming vectors/matrices, use of Space-time Block Codes (STBC) or Space-frequency Block Codes (SFBC), and use of Dual Carrier Modulation (DCM);
generating a frame having a Media Access Control (MAC) header, wherein a control field of the MAC header includes an indication of the selected MCS; and
transmitting the generated frame to the second network device through a wireless medium.

US Pat. No. 10,433,336

METHOD FOR TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING FRAME IN WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK AND APPARATUS FOR THE SAME

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A communication method performed in a communication station, comprising:transmitting, by the communication station to an access point (AP), a request frame requesting the access point to schedule one or more durations, wherein a first group of one or more stations is allowed to participate in a communication between non-AP stations during the one or more durations, and a second group of one or more stations is prohibited from transmitting any frames during the one or more durations; and
receiving, by the communication station from the access point, a response frame of the request frame,
wherein the communication station is not an access point, and
wherein the request frame includes information on a start time of an earliest duration of the one or more durations, and information on a time length of the one or more durations.

US Pat. No. 10,321,483

MID-PACKET DETECTION IN WIRELESS LAN

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method implemented by a transmitting device for performing mid-packet detection in a wireless channel, the method comprising:receiving, by the transmitting device, a signal through the wireless channel;
detecting, using a first autocorrelation of the signal, one or more first symbols having a first symbol duration in the signal during a first detection window; and
detecting, using a second autocorrelation of the signal, one or more second symbols having a second symbol duration in the signal during a second detection window, determining whether the wireless channel is idle or busy during the first detection window using the results of detecting the one or more first symbols;
when the wireless channel is determined to be busy during the first detection window, preventing the transmitting device from transmitting using the wireless channel; and
when the wireless channel is determined to be idle during the first detection window: determining whether the wireless channel is idle or busy during the second detection window using the results of detecting the one or more second symbols,
when the wireless channel is determined to be idle during the second detection window, permitting the transmitting device to transmit either a High Efficiency (HE) frame or a Very High Throughput (VHT) frame, and
when the wireless channel is determined to be busy during the second detection window, permitting the transmitting device to transmit the VHT frame and preventing the transmitting device from transmitting the HE frame.

US Pat. No. 10,321,485

MULTIPLE NETWORK ALLOCATION VECTOR OPERATION

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method performed by a first wireless device for determining a Basic Service Set (BSS) associated with a wireless transmitter, the method comprising:receiving, by the first wireless device, a first frame;
determining an address of the first frame;
receiving, by the first wireless device, a second frame;
determining, by the first wireless device, an address of the second frame;
determining, using the address of the first frame and the address of the second frame, whether the second frame is an inter-BSS frame; and
setting an inter-BSS Network Allocation Vector (NAV) in response to determining that the second frame is an inter-BSS frame,
wherein the first wireless device comprises the inter-BSS NAV and an intra-BSS NAV different from the inter-BSS NAV.

US Pat. No. 10,142,151

PEAK TO AVERAGE POWER RATIO (PAPR) REDUCTION IN A WIRELESS NETWORK

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method performed by a wireless device, the method comprising:generating a frame including a first field and a second field immediately following the first field; and
transmitting the frame,
wherein the first field is associated with a first set of subcarriers, and a set of tones for channel estimation are transmitted on the first set of subcarriers in the first field,
wherein the second field is associated with a second set of subcarriers, the second set of subcarriers includes the first set of subcarriers and four extra subcarriers, and a first set of four extra tones for channel estimation are transmitted on the four extra subcarriers in the second field,
wherein first, second, third, and fourth values of the first set of four extra tones respectively correspond to Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) constellation values of ?1, ?1, ?1, and +1.

US Pat. No. 10,219,272

OFDMA MAPPING FOR CLIENTS WITH VARIOUS BANDWIDTHS

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method for communicating a signaling field in a wireless communications system, the method comprising:transmitting, by a wireless device, a frame through a medium using a 160 MHz bandwidth, wherein transmitting the frame includes:
transmitting a first portion of a signaling field in the frame using a first channel having a 20 MHz bandwidth,
transmitting a second portion of the signaling field in the frame using a second channel having a 20 MHz bandwidth,
transmitting a third portion of the signaling field in the frame using a third channel having a 20 MHz bandwidth, and
transmitting a fourth portion of the signaling field in the frame using a fourth channel having a 20 MHz bandwidth,
wherein the second channel is different from the first channel, the third channel is different from the first and second channels, and the fourth channel is different from the first, second, and third channels, and
wherein contents of the first portion are different from contents of the second portion, contents of the third portion are the same as the contents of the first portion, and contents of the fourth portion are the same as the contents of the second portion.

US Pat. No. 10,142,148

METHOD FOR TRANSMITTING FRAME, CLEAR CHANNEL ASSESSMENT METHOD, AND APPARATUS IMPLEMENTING THE SAME METHOD

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method for transmitting frames of a device in a wireless local area network (WLAN), the method comprising:generating a symbol, the symbol including a data duration and a cyclic prefix prepended to the data duration, in which a plurality of legacy cyclic prefixes are periodically located in the data duration at intervals corresponding to a symbol duration of a Very High Throughput (VHT) symbol; and
transmitting a frame including the symbol,
wherein the length of the data duration is 12.8 microseconds.

US Pat. No. 10,142,993

METHODS FOR EXCHANGING OPERATION CHANGES BETWEEN WLAN STATIONS

NEWRACOM, Inc., Lake For...

1. A method implemented by a receiving station in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) to initiate a change in a receive operating mode during a current transmission opportunity (TXOP) of a transmitting station, the method comprising:sending, by the receiving station, a receive operating mode change to the transmitting station, wherein the receive operating mode change requests changes to at least one receive operating mode parameter associated with at least one transmission from the transmitting station to the receiving station;
determining whether the receive operating mode change requests a change of the at least one receive operating mode parameter (1) from higher receiver resource usage, which is used during the current TXOP, to lower receiver resource usage or (2) from lower receiver resource usage, which is used during the current TXOP, to higher receiver resource usage;
changing, by the receiving station in response to determining that the receive operating mode change requests a change of the at least one receive operating mode parameter from lower receiver resource usage to higher receiver resource usage, the at least one receive operating mode parameter from lower receiver resource usage to higher receiver resource usage after receiving an acknowledgment from the transmitting station of the receive operating mode change; and
changing, by the receiving station in response to determining that the receive operating mode change requests a change of the at least one receive operating mode parameter from higher receiver resource usage to lower receiver resource usage, the at least one receive operating mode parameter from higher receiver resource usage to lower receiver resource usage, wherein changing the at least one receive operating mode parameter occurs only after completion of the current TXOP when the at least one receive operating mode parameter changes from higher receiver resource usage to lower receiver resource usage.

US Pat. No. 10,136,346

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR INDICATING CHANNEL ASSESSMENT INFORMATION

NEWRACOM, Inc., Irvine, ...

1. A method implemented by a network device in a wireless local area network (WLAN), the method to provide clear channel assessment (CCA) from a physical layer to an upper layer within the network device, the method comprising:identifying, by the physical layer of the network device, at least one condition on a wireless medium where a decision by the upper layer is required to determine a state of the wireless medium;
passing at least one piece of requisite data from the physical layer to the upper layer to enable a decision on the state of the wireless medium,
adjusting, by the upper layer of the network device, an adjusted CCA threshold based on an amount of power reduction from a maximum transmission power level of the network device; and
determining the state of the wireless medium based on the adjusted CCA threshold and the signal quality of the received frame.

US Pat. No. 10,116,361

METHODS FOR UPLINK MULTIUSER SIGNALING AND TRANSMISSION

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method implemented by an Access Point (AP) in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) to initiate an uplink (UL) multi-user (MU) simultaneous transmission, the method comprising:generating a trigger frame that initiates the UL MU simultaneous transmission, wherein the trigger frame includes (1) a UL MU Physical Layer Convergence Protocol (PLCP) Protocol Data Unit (PPDU) attributes field to indicate attributes pertaining to a UL MU PPDU transmitted to the AP during the UL MU simultaneous transmission that are common to a plurality of stations (STAs) that are scheduled to participate in the UL MU simultaneous transmission and (2) a STA Physical Layer Service Data Unit (PSDU) attributes field for a particular STA from the plurality of STAs to indicate attributes pertaining to the UL MU PPDU that are specific to the particular STA,
wherein the UL MU PPDU attributes field includes a guard interval subfield to indicate a guard interval that the plurality of STAs are to apply to one or more portions of the UL MU PPDU and wherein the STA PSDU attributes field for the particular STA includes an assignment subfield to indicate a transmission resource unit that the particular STA is to use to transmit a set of Media Access Control (MAC) Protocol Data Units (MPDUs) within the UL MU PPDU to the AP during the UL MU simultaneous transmission; and
transmitting the trigger frame through a wireless medium.

US Pat. No. 10,433,338

METHOD FOR TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING FRAME IN WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method for transmitting a frame, performed in a first station, the method comprising:receiving a first physical layer (PHY) protocol data unit (PPDU);
determining whether a basic service set (BSS) of the first PPDU can be determined;
in response to determining that the BSS of the first PPDU cannot be determined, when a received signal strength of the first PPDU is higher than a first threshold, setting a medium access control (MAC)-level virtual carrier sensing, wherein setting the MAC-level virtual carrier sensing includes setting a virtual carrier sensing by using duration information included in a MAC header of the first PPDU;
in response to determining that the BSS of the first PPDU can be determined, determining whether the BSS of the first PPDU is a BSS (MyBSS) to which the first station belongs or an Other BSS (OBSS) to which the first station does not belong;
when the BSS of the first PPDU is determined to be the OBSS:
when the received signal strength of the first PPDU is higher than the first threshold and the first PPDU is a frame having a mode that is a High Efficiency mode and having a PHY header that includes duration information for setting a virtual carrier sensing, setting a PHY-level virtual carrier sensing, wherein setting the PHY-level virtual carrier sensing includes setting the virtual carrier sensing by using the duration information included in a PHY header of the first PPDU,
when the received signal strength of the first PPDU is higher than the first threshold and the first PPDU is a frame having a mode of a standard previous to a standard defining the High Efficiency mode, setting a medium access control (MAC)-level virtual carrier sensing, wherein setting the MAC-level virtual carrier sensing includes setting a virtual carrier sensing by using the duration information included in the MAC header of the first PPDU, and
when the received signal strength of the first PPDU is lower than the first threshold, trying to obtain a transmission opportunity.

US Pat. No. 10,327,246

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR WIDE BANDWIDTH PPDU TRANSMISSION IN A HIGH EFFICIENCY WIRELESS LAN

NEWRACOM, Inc., Lake For...

1. A method for transmitting a Physical layer Protocol Data Unit (PPDU) in a wireless local area network, the method comprising:determining whether Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) is used by the PPDU;
selectively performing segment parsing on blocks received from either a stream parser or a Space-Time Block Coding (STBC) decoder based on whether Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) is used by the PPDU, wherein the segment parsing, when performed, outputs frequency subblocks; and
transmitting the PPDU with the frequency subblocks when segment parsing is performed.

US Pat. No. 10,200,165

BEAMFORMED TRANSMISSION IN HIGH EFFICIENCY WIRELESS LAN

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method for transmitting by an access point (AP) to a plurality of stations (STAs) a Physical layer Protocol Data Unit (PPDU) frame in a wireless local area network, the method comprising:transmitting a SIGNAL field of the PPDU frame, the SIGNAL field including beamforming information indicating whether beamforming is applied to individual data units of the PPDU frame; and
transmitting the data units of the PPDU frame, the data units being individually beamformed or not beamformed according to the beamforming information,
wherein the SIGNAL field has a same size as a number of subchannels in a transmission channel to the plurality of STAs.

US Pat. No. 10,182,361

RECEIVER BEHAVIOR FOR UPLINK MULTI-USER TRANSMISSION IN WIRELESS LAN SYSTEMS

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method implemented by a wireless communication device for receiving a frame, the method comprising:transmitting, by the wireless communication device, a first frame that solicits an Up-Link Multi-User (UL MU) frame;
determining, by the wireless communication device, whether a second frame the UL MU frame solicited by the first frame;
receiving the second frame by performing a first procedure in response to determining that the second frame is the solicited UL MU frame; and
receiving the second frame by performing a second procedure in response to determining that the second frame is not the solicited UL MU frame,
wherein performing the first procedure includes performing a comparison of contents of a Legacy Signal (L-SIG) field of the second frame to expected contents of the L-SIG field of the second frame, performing a comparison of contents of a Signal A (SIG-A) field of the second frame to expected contents of the SIG-A field of the second frame, or both,
wherein performing the comparison of the contents of the L-SIG field to the expected contents of the L-SIG field includes comparing a value of a LENGTH field of the L-SIG field of the second frame to an expected value of the LENGTH field, comparing a value of a rate field of the L-SIG field of the second frame to an expected value of the rate field, or both, and
wherein performing the comparison of the contents of the SIG-A field to the expected contents of the SIG-A field includes one or more of:
comparing a value of a bandwidth field of the SIG-A field indicating an operating bandwidth to an expected value of the bandwidth field,
comparing a value of a Spatial Reuse field of the SIG-A field indicating a Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) level, an interference level accepted, or a transmission (TX) power to an expected value of the Spatial Reuse field,
comparing a value of a Space Time Block Coding (STBC) field of the SIG-A field indicating whether the second frame applies STBC to an expected value of the STBC field,
comparing a value of a Group Identifier (ID) field of the SIG-A field indicating a group which includes a station related to the second frame to an expected value of the Group ID field,
comparing a value of a Number of Space-Time Streams (NSTS) field of the SIG-A field indicating a number of space-time streams to an expected value of the NSTS field,
comparing a value of a Coding field of the SIG-A field indicating a coding type of the second frame to an expected value of the Coding field,
comparing a value of a Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) field of the SIG-A field indicating a MCS of the second frame to an expected value of the MCS field,
comparing a value of a beamforming field of the SIG-A field indicating if the second frame applies beamforming to an expected value of the beamforming field,
comparing a value of a Transmission Opportunity (TXOP) Duration field of the SIG-A field indicating the remaining time in the current TXOP to an expected value of the TXOP Duration field, and
comparing a value of a Guard Interval (GI) field of the SIG-A field indicting a type of a length of a Cyclic Prefix (CP) of the second frame to an expected value of the GI field.

US Pat. No. 10,153,820

RECEIVER ADDRESS FIELD FOR MULTI-USER TRANSMISSIONS IN WLAN SYSTEMS

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A wireless device, comprising:one or more memories; and
one or more processors coupled to the one or more memories, the one or more processors configured to cause:
receiving a trigger frame including resource allocation information for an uplink multi-user transmission;
generating an uplink frame depending on a type of the trigger frame, wherein the uplink frame includes a receiver address field, wherein the receiver address field is set differently for different types of trigger frames; and
transmitting, in response to the trigger frame, the uplink frame on a resource allocated by the resource allocation information in the uplink multi-user transmission.

US Pat. No. 10,135,651

ENHANCED CLEAR CHANNEL ASSESSMENT

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A wireless device for facilitating spatial reuse in a first wireless network, the wireless device comprising:one or more memories; and
one or more processors coupled to the one or more memories, the one or more processors configured to:
process a first frame and a second frame of a frame exchange between a first station and a second station, the second frame being responsive to the first frame of the frame exchange;
determine that the first frame or the second frame is associated with a second wireless network;
determine, in response to determining that the first frame or the second frame is associated with the second wireless network, a second frame signal measurement of the second frame; and
determine a status of a communication medium associated with the wireless device, based on a comparison of a first frame signal measurement of the first frame and the second frame signal measurement to an overlapping basic service set (OBSS) threshold.

US Pat. No. 10,129,001

BLOCK ACKNOWLEDGMENT FOR MULTI-USER TRANSMISSIONS IN WLAN SYSTEMS

Newracom, Inc., Lake For...

1. A station for facilitating communication in a wireless network for a multi-user transmission, the station comprising:one or more memories; and
one or more processors coupled to the one or more memories, the one or more processors configured to cause:
generating, by the station, a first frame, wherein the first frame comprises a plurality of media access control protocol data units (MPDUs), and wherein each of the plurality of MPDUs is associated with a traffic identifier (TID);
transmitting the first frame to an access point; and
receiving a second frame comprising a first per station information (Per STA Info) subfield and a second Per STA Info subfield, wherein, when the first Per STA Info subfield includes a first predetermined value and the second Per STA Info subfield includes a second predetermined value, the second frame includes an indication that all of the plurality of MPDUs having TIDs are received.

US Pat. No. 10,314,067

RESOURCE REQUEST AND ALLOCATION FOR UPLINK MULTI-USER COMMUNICATION

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A station for facilitating communication in a wireless network for multi-user transmission, the station comprising:one or more memories; and
one or more processors coupled to the one or more memories, the one or more processors configured to cause:
processing a first trigger frame received from an access point; and
processing a second trigger frame received from an access point during a time interval, wherein the second trigger frame does not repeat a resource allocation included in the first trigger frame and requests one or more stations to utilize the resource allocation for an uplink multi-user transmission.

US Pat. No. 10,257,324

LINK ADAPTATION FOR MULTI-USER TRANSMISSION IN 802.11 SYSTEMS

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

1. A method performed by a network device in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) for transmitting link adaptation information, the method comprising:generating a frame having a Media Access Control (MAC) header, wherein the MAC header includes a control field including a first bit corresponding to a foremost bit of the control field and a second bit immediately following the first bit, wherein a value of the second bit of the control field indicates whether the control field has a High Efficiency (HE) variant field format, and wherein the control field is to include an indication of one or more link adaptation feedback values associated with a wireless communications link between the network device and a second network device;
determining a link adaptation feedback value for an entire operation bandwidth of the wireless communications link;
inserting an indication of the link adaptation feedback value for the entire operation bandwidth in the control field;
determining a link adaptation feedback value for a given subchannel among a plurality of subchannels into which the operation bandwidth of the wireless communications link is divided;
inserting an indication of the link adaptation feedback value for the given subchannel in the control field, wherein the indication of the link adaptation feedback value for the given subchannel is indicated as a difference between the link adaptation feedback value for the given subchannel and the link adaptation feedback value for the entire operation bandwidth; and
transmitting the frame to the second network device through a wireless medium.

US Pat. No. 10,205,566

TRANSMISSION METHOD

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A wireless communication device in a wireless local area network (WLAN), the wireless communication device comprising:a hardware processor; and
one or more memory devices coupled to the hardware processor, wherein the one or more memory devices include one or more instructions, which when executed by the hardware processor cause the wireless communication device to:
receive, from an access point, an initiate frame to initiate an uplink multi-user transmission;
acquire information associated with a required duration for transmission completion of a response frame for the initiate frame;
receive a signal;
determine a Basic Service Set (BSS) from which the signal was received;
update a conventional Network Allocation Vector (NAV) based on the signal in response to determining that the BSS from which the signal was received is an Overlapping BSS;
determine a permissibility of transmission of the response frame for the initiate frame in the uplink multi-user transmission, based on the conventional NAV and the acquired information; and
transmit the response frame to the access point in the uplink multi-user transmission, responsive to a determination that transmission of the response frame for the initiate frame in the uplink multi-user transmission is permissible.

US Pat. No. 10,153,873

PHYSICAL LAYER PROTOCOL DATA UNIT FORMAT APPLIED WITH SPACE TIME BLOCK CODING IN A HIGH EFFICIENCY WIRELESS LAN

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method for transmitting data to a plurality of Stations (STAs) on a transmission channel by an Access Point (AP) in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), the transmission channel being divided into a plurality of subchannels allocated to the plurality of STAs, the method comprising:generating a High Efficiency-Long Training Field (HE-LTF) having a plurality of HE-LTF symbols;
determining a space-time-stream sum for each subchannel of the plurality of subchannels by computing a sum of numbers of space-time streams transmitted for all STAs respectively allocated to each subchannel; and
transmitting, to the plurality of STAs and using the plurality of subchannels, a Physical layer Protocol Data Unit (PPDU) frame, the PPDU frame including the HE-LTF and a plurality of data units for the plurality of STAs,
wherein a number of the plurality of HE-LTF symbols is equal to or greater than a maximum of the respective space-time-stream sums of the plurality of subchannels.

US Pat. No. 10,405,351

TRANSMISSION METHOD FOR MULTI USER IN WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. An operation method of a first station in a wireless local area network (WLAN), the method comprising:determining, by the first station, an number of symbols to be used to transmit a High Efficiency Signal B (HE-SIG-B) field;
generating, by the first station, a High Efficiency Signal A (HE-SIG-A) field, the HE-SIG-A field including an indication of the determined number of symbols to be used to transmit the HE-SIG-B field;
generating, by the first station, a physical layer protocol data unit (PPDU) including a legacy preamble, a high efficiency (HE) preamble, and a payload, the HE preamble including the HE-SIG-A field and the HE-SIG-B field; and
transmitting, by the first station, the PPDU, transmitting the PPDU including transmitting the HE-SIG-B field according to the determined number of symbols number of symbols to be used to transmit the HE-SIG-B field.

US Pat. No. 10,313,976

OFDMA SOUNDING FOR WLAN SYSTEM

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A station for facilitating communication in a wireless network for multi-user transmission, the station comprising:one or more memories; and
one or more processors coupled to the one or more memories, the one or more processors configured to cause:
receiving a first frame, wherein the first frame indicates whether a first type of feedback or a second type of feedback is requested;
receiving a second frame associated with the first frame;
generating a beamforming report, wherein the beamforming report comprises a plurality of average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values for the first and second types of feedback, wherein each of the plurality of average SNR values is associated with a respective subband of a bandwidth to be reported, wherein a size of each respective subband is 26 tones, wherein the 26 tones correspond to 26 tones in a smallest resource unit of a numerology of orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) transmission associated with a channel bandwidth of the second frame, and wherein the beamforming report includes a delta SNR value for each reported subcarrier of the respective subband of the bandwidth to be reported when the first frame indicates that the second type of feedback is requested, the delta SNR value indicating a deviation of an SNR value of a reported subcarrier relative to an average SNR value averaged over subcarriers for a subband of the bandwidth; and
providing a third frame for transmission, wherein the third frame comprises the beamforming report,
wherein the first frame comprises station-specific information associated with an allocation of subbands of the bandwidth.

US Pat. No. 10,257,003

MULTI-USER COMMUNICATION IN WIRELESS NETWORKS

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method implemented by an Access Point (AP) in a wireless communication system, the method comprising:generating a downlink multi-user (MU) transmission comprising resource allocation information, wherein the resource allocation information indicates allocation of a plurality of resource units to a plurality of stations to be used for uplink transmission, wherein the downlink MU transmission has a bandwidth that spans two or more 20 MHz channels, wherein the downlink MU transmission comprises a trigger information in a Medium Access Control (MAC) header of a MAC Protocol Data Unit (MPDU) in a 20 MHz channel of the two or more 20 MHz channels, and wherein the trigger information solicits a first station in the plurality of stations to participate in the uplink transmission, the trigger information in the MAC header including an indication that a first resource unit is allocated to the first station for the uplink transmission, the first resource unit being within the bandwidth of the downlink MU transmission and outside the bandwidth of the 20 MHz channel including the trigger information;
transmitting the downlink MU transmission to the plurality of stations; and
receiving simultaneously a plurality of uplink frames from the plurality of stations, respectively, immediately after transmitting the downlink MU transmission, wherein an uplink frame of the plurality of uplink frames is respectively received from each station of the plurality of stations, and wherein a payload of a first uplink frame in the plurality of uplink frames is received from the first station using the first resource unit.

US Pat. No. 10,264,107

METHOD FOR TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING FRAME, AND WIRELESS DEVICE IMPLEMENTING THE SAME METHOD

NEWRACOM, INC., Irvine, ...

8. A wireless device for performing wireless communications, the device comprising:a transmitter, and
a processor,
wherein the processor is configured to:
allocate data tones for a last symbol based on a payload size;
generate the last symbol having repeated waveforms;
determine indices of the data tones according to a number of used data tones in the last symbol before padding;
allocate the data tones to N×k indexed data subcarriers, and one period waveform is one-Nth of the repeated waveforms; and
transmit, using the transmitter, a frame including the one period waveform of the repeated waveforms in the last symbol,
wherein N is selected from the group consisting of 2, 4, or 8, and
wherein k denotes negative and positive sequence integers.

US Pat. No. 10,243,641

FRAME TRANSMITTING METHOD AND FRAME RECEIVING METHOD

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method of transmitting a frame by a device in a wireless communication network, the method comprising:generating a first symbol having a first subcarrier spacing, a symbol duration of the first symbol, excluding a guard interval, having a first length;
generating a second symbol having a second subcarrier spacing narrower than the first subcarrier spacing, a symbol duration of the second symbol, excluding a guard interval, having a second length that is twice the first length;
generating a third symbol, a symbol duration of the third symbol, excluding a guard interval, having a third length that is twice the second length; and
transmitting a frame including the first symbol, the second symbol, and the third symbol,
wherein the frame includes a legacy preamble part, a HE (high efficiency) long training field that is adapted for use in channel estimation, and a data field,
wherein the legacy preamble part includes the first symbol, the HE long training field includes the second symbol, and the data field includes the third symbol,
wherein a basic bandwidth of the frame is divided into a plurality of subbands,
wherein the data field is encoded per each subband and transmitted,
wherein the data field transmitted on a first subband includes data for a first receiving device allocated to the subband, and
the method further including:
forming a guard band between the first subband and a second subband in response to the second subband being allocated to a second receiving device, and
not forming a guard band between the first subband and the second subband in response to the second subband being allocated to the first receiving device,
wherein the second subband is adjacent to the first subband.

US Pat. No. 10,181,930

MULTIPLEXING ACKNOWLEDGMENT MESSAGES IN RESPONSE TO DOWNLINK FRAMES

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A station for facilitating multi-user communication in a wireless network, the station comprising:one or more memories; and
one or more processors coupled to the one or more memories, the one or more processors configured to cause:
determining a control field within a first frame of a downlink transmission for a plurality of stations, wherein the control field is located in a media access control (MAC) header of a trigger MAC PDU (MPDU) within a payload section of the first frame;
determining whether an extension indication field in the control field indicates that the control field includes an extended control field, the extended control field indicating one or more sub-bands assigned to the station, wherein the control field indicates scheduling information for transmitting a second frame when the extension indication field indicates that the control field includes the extended control field;
generating the second frame, for a multi-user uplink transmission with the plurality of stations, based on the scheduling information; and
providing for transmission of the second frame using the one or more sub-bands based on the control field of the first frame as part of the multi-user uplink transmission with the plurality of stations.

US Pat. No. 10,153,886

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR DOWNLINK AND UPLINK MULTI-USER TRANSMISSIONS

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method for transmitting a response frame in a wireless network, the method comprising:receiving, by a wireless device, a downlink frame from an access point;
identifying, by the wireless device, scheduling information in the downlink frame, the scheduling information soliciting an uplink response frame from the wireless device;
in response to the scheduling information being located in a Media Access Control (MAC) header in the downlink frame, generating, by the wireless device based on the scheduling information, the uplink response frame responsive to the downlink frame, the uplink response frame including only a single high efficiency long training field (HE-LTF) that consists of a single orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) symbol; and
transmitting, by the wireless device to the access point, the uplink response frame using the scheduling information.

US Pat. No. 10,420,121

AGGREGATED HE CONTROL CONTENT IN A-MPDU

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method implemented by an Access Point (AP) in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), the method comprising:providing, by the AP, a first Media Access Control (MAC) Protocol Data Unit (MPDU) in a downlink frame, wherein the first MPDU is addressed to a first set of stations and the first MPDU includes first trigger information for scheduling an uplink transmission;
providing, by the AP, a second MPDU in the downlink frame, wherein the second MPDU is addressed to a second set of stations and the second MPDU includes second trigger information for scheduling the uplink transmission and the second trigger information includes a second set of values that are set to be the same as a first set of values in the first trigger information, wherein the second set of values that are set to be the same as the first set of values includes a value indicative of a combination of guard interval and long training field (LTF) for the uplink transmission; and
transmitting, by the AP, the downlink frame to the first and second set of stations.

US Pat. No. 10,348,471

CONTROL INFORMATION FOR MULTI-USER TRANSMISSIONS IN WLAN SYSTEMS

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. An access point for facilitating communication in a wireless network for a multi-user transmission, the access point comprising:one or more memories; and
one or more processors coupled to the one or more memories, the one or more processors configured to cause:
generating a first frame for allocating resources to a plurality of stations, wherein the first frame comprises a first high efficiency signal-B (HE-SIG-B) field and a second HE-SIG-B field arranged in a plurality of content channels occupying respective subbands of a channel bandwidth, wherein the first HE-SIG-B field and the second HE-SIG-B field each contains an additional indication as to whether an additional resource unit of a plurality of resource units is allocated to at least one station of the plurality of stations when the channel bandwidth of the multi-user transmission is associated with a first channel bandwidth size, wherein the first frame excludes the additional indication when the channel bandwidth of the multi-user transmission is associated with a second channel bandwidth size that is less than the first channel bandwidth size; and
transmitting the first frame to the plurality of stations for the multi-user transmission,
wherein the additional resource unit consists of two of a plurality of tones being separated by a plurality of direct current (DC) tones,
wherein station specific information associated with the additional resource unit is located between a last station specific subfield of a plurality of station specific subfields and the end of at least one of the first HE-SIG-B field or the second HE-SIG-B field in a first content channel of the plurality of content channels, and
wherein the first HE-SIG-B field and the second HE-SIG-B field are concurrently transmitted in separate channels of the plurality of channels.

US Pat. No. 10,285,203

NETWORK ALLOCATION VECTOR TYPES AND TRANSMISSION OPPORTUNITY TYPES FOR SPATIAL REUSE

Newracom, Inc., Lake For...

1. A wireless device for facilitating spatial reuse, the wireless device comprising:one or more memories; and
one or more processors coupled to the one or more memories, the one or more processors configured to:
process a received frame from a first station, the received frame having duration information;
determine whether the received frame is associated with a first wireless network or a second wireless network, wherein the wireless device is associated with the first wireless network;
determine whether a network allocation vector (NAV) included in the received frame is a first type of NAV or a second type of NAV;
update a first network allocation vector (NAV) counter stored in the wireless device with the duration information from the received frame when the received frame is associated with the first wireless network and the NAV included in the received frame is the first type of NAV;
update a second NAV counter stored in the wireless device with the duration information from the received frame when the received frame is associated with the first wireless network or the second wireless network and the NAV included in the received frame is the second type of NAV, wherein the second type of NAV indicates that the wireless device is not permitted to ignore the NAV included in the received frame irrespective of which wireless network is associated with the received frame; and
ignore an update to the first NAV counter when the received frame is associated with the second wireless network and the NAV included in the received frame is the first type of NAV.

US Pat. No. 10,368,269

BANDWIDTH DETERMINATION FOR MULTIPLE USER TRANSMISSION IN A HIGH EFFICIENCY WIRELESS LAN

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method for transmitting by a station (STA) to an access point (AP) an uplink Physical layer Protocol Data Unit (PPDU) frame in a wireless local area network, the method comprising:receiving, using a receiver of the STA, a trigger frame including bandwidth information the trigger frame eliciting a transmission of the uplink PPDU frame including a data unit of the STA and at least one data unit of at least one other STA;
determining an available bandwidth of the STA;
determining whether to transmit the data unit by comparing the available bandwidth of the STA and a bandwidth indicated by the bandwidth information included in the trigger frame; and
in response to determining to transmit the data unit, transmitting, as a response to the trigger frame and using a transmitter of the STA, the data unit of the STA in the uplink PPDU frame,
wherein in response to the available bandwidth of the STA being less than the bandwidth indicated by the bandwidth information included in the trigger frame, a transmission bandwidth for transmitting the data unit in the uplink PPDU frame is equal to the available bandwidth and less than the bandwidth indicated by the bandwidth information,
wherein an information on an available bandwidth of the AP is received by the STA in a Request-to-Send (RTS) message separate from the trigger frame, and
wherein an information on the available bandwidth of the STA is sent to the AP by the STA in a Clear-To-Send (CTS) frame.

US Pat. No. 10,305,647

PHYSICAL LAYER PROTOCOL DATA UNIT FORMAT IN A HIGH EFFICIENCY WIRELESS LAN

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method by a Station (STA) for transmitting an Uplink (UL) Physical layer Protocol Data Unit (PPDU) frame to an Access Point (AP) simultaneously with one or more other STAs in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), the method comprising:receiving, from the AP, a frame including a parameter for the UL PPDU frame; and
participating in an UL Multi-User (MU) PPDU frame transmission by transmitting the UL PPDU frame based on the parameter,
wherein the parameter includes a first parameter for a guard interval applied to a High Efficiency-Long Training Field (HE-LTF) field of the UL PPDU frame and a second parameter for a guard interval applied to a Physical layer Service Data Unit (PSDU) of the UL PPDU frame, and
wherein a guard interval applied to a Legacy-Long Training Field (L-LTF) of the UL PPDU frame is a predefined value.

US Pat. No. 10,270,463

COMMUNICATION OF USER SPECIFIC CONTROL INFORMATION IN A WIRELESS NETWORK

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A wireless device for transmitting a frame, comprising:one or more memories; and
one or more processors coupled to the one or more memories, the one or more processors configured to cause:
Block Convolution Code (BCC) encoding of bits of a BCC block to generate rate-matched bits of the BCC block according to a puncturing pattern;
generating a frame including a High Efficiency Signal B (HE-SIG-B) field, the HE SIG B field including the rate-matched bits of the BCC block; and
transmitting the frame,
wherein the puncturing pattern depends on a total number N of bits of the HE-SIG-B field that precede the BCC block, the total number N being greater than 0.

US Pat. No. 10,263,821

RANDOM ACCESS PPDU FOR WLAN SYSTEMS

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A station for facilitating communication in a wireless network for multi-user transmission, the station comprising:one or more memories; and
one or more processors coupled to the one or more memories, the one or more processors configured to cause:
processing a first trigger frame received from an access point, wherein the first trigger frame schedules a first uplink multi-user transmission and includes an indication to the station that selects between a non-data packet and a packet with an abbreviated payload for soliciting from the station, wherein the first trigger frame indicates a plurality of resources for indicating existence of data to he sent to the access point; and
transmitting, during the first uplink multi-user transmission to the access point and in response to the first trigger frame, a first uplink frame that signals existence of data at the station to be sent from the station to the access point in a frame different from the first uplink frame, wherein the first uplink frame includes the non-data packet when the indication solicits the non-data packet, wherein the first uplink frame includes the packet with the abbreviated payload when the indication solicits the packet with the abbreviated payload, and wherein the transmitting comprises transmitting the first uplink frame on a first resource of the plurality of resources.

US Pat. No. 10,397,110

ACK POLICY FOR UPLINK AND DOWNLINK MU PPDU

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A network device to function as a station (STA) in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), the STA configured to acknowledge a downlink (DL) multi-user (MU) physical layer (PHY) Protocol Data Unit (PPDU) transmitted by an access point (AP), comprising:one or more memories; and
one or more processors coupled to the one or more memories, the one or more processors configured to cause the network device functioning as the STA to perform operations comprising:
receiving the DL MU PPDU;
decoding a frame from the DL MU PPDU;
determining whether an ACK Policy field of the frame is set to a binary value of ‘01’, wherein the binary value of ‘01’ indicates to the STA to provide a trigger-based immediate acknowledgement;
determining whether a trigger information for an uplink (UL) MU transmission has been obtained from the DL MU PPDU;
responsive to the determination that the ACK Policy field of the frame is set to the binary value of ‘01’ and a determination that the trigger information has been obtained from the DL MU PPDU, transmitting a trigger-based immediate acknowledgement frame to the AP, according to the trigger information; and
responsive to the determination that the ACK Policy field of the frame is set to the binary value of ‘01’ and a determination that the trigger information has not been obtained from the DL MU PPDU, refraining from transmitting the trigger-based immediate acknowledgement frame to the AP.

US Pat. No. 10,320,537

DOWNLINK PHYSICAL LAYER PROTOCOL DATA UNIT FORMAT IN A HIGH EFFICIENCY WIRELESS LAN

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method for transmitting data to a plurality of Stations (STAs) by an Access Point (AP) in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), the method comprising:allocating one or more of the STAs of the plurality of STAs to each of a plurality of sub channels;
generating a High Efficiency-Long Training Field (HE-LTF) for the plurality of STAs by:
determining, for each subchannel of the plurality of subchannels respectively, a sum of a number of spatial streams allocated to all STAs of the subchannel,
determining a maximum of the respective sums of the subchannels of the plurality of subchannels, and
including a plurality of HE-LTF symbols in the HE-LTF, a number of the plurality of HE-LTF symbols being equal to or greater than the maximum of the respective sums; and
transmitting a Physical layer Protocol Data Unit (PPDU) frame to the plurality of STAs, the PPDU frame including the HE-LTF and data for the plurality of STAs,
wherein the data for the plurality of STAs are transmitted to different STA on each of a plurality of subchannels, and
wherein a starting point of the HE-LTF is same across the plurality of STAs and an end point of the HE-LTF is same across the plurality of STAs.

US Pat. No. 10,321,403

IMPLICIT SOUNDING FOR OFDMA OPERATION

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method for communication in a wireless local area network, the method comprising:receiving, at a first device, a control frame using a plurality of sub bands of a widest allowable bandwidth from a second device, the control frame having a bandwidth greater than 20 MHz;
determining, by the first device using one or more of a Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) determined by the first device using the control frame, a Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio (SINR) determined by the first device using the control frame, a Modulation and Coding Scheme (MC S) of the control frame, and a Number of Spatial Streams (NSS) of the control frame, a channel state information (CSI) for each of a plurality of sub bands of a bandwidth of the control frame; and
allocating, by the first device to the second device, one or more sub bands from the plurality of sub bands based on the CSI,
wherein the widest allowable bandwidth is determined according to whether one or more of a secondary 80 MHz channel, a secondary 40 MHz channel, and a secondary 20 MHz channel is sensed busy during a Point coordination function InterFrame Space (PIFS) before transmission of the control frame,
wherein when both the first and second device may communicate using a 160 MHz bandwidth, the widest allowable bandwidth is 80 MHz when the secondary 80 MHz channel is sensed busy, and
wherein when both the first and second device may communicate using, an 80 MHz or greater bandwidth, the widest allowable bandwidth is 40 MHz when the secondary 40 MHz channel is sensed busy.

US Pat. No. 10,448,378

SOUNDING PROCEDURE INCLUDING UPLINK MULTIPLE-USER TRANSMISSION IN A HIGH EFFICIENCY WIRELESS LAN

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method of facilitating a sounding procedure in a wireless local area network, the method comprising:receiving, from a transmitting station, a null data packet announcement (NDPA) frame;
receiving, from the transmitting station, a null data packet (NDP) frame after receiving the NDPA frame;
processing, by a responding station, a trigger frame received from the transmitting station after the NDP frame, the trigger frame indicating a type of feedback requested;
generating, by the responding station, a feedback report according to the type of feedback requested; and
transmitting, by the responding station, to the transmitting station, a response frame including the feedback report, wherein, when the type of feedback requested corresponds to a multiple-user (MU) type, the feedback report is to simultaneously transmit with multiple feedback reports from a plurality of stations,
wherein the feedback report comprises a compressed beamforming frame that is transmitted by the responding station after the responding station receives the NDPA frame and the NDP frame.

US Pat. No. 10,432,415

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR INTERFERENCE AWARE COMMUNICATIONS

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method for interference aware communications by a transmit device in a wireless local area network, the method comprising:selecting, by the transmit device, a transmission channel among a plurality of sub-channels for transmission of a frame;
generating, by the transmit device, interference aware information based on an interference condition of the plurality of sub-channels;
inserting, by the transmit device, the interference aware information into a medium access control (MAC) header of the frame, wherein the interference aware information is included in an interference aware information field of the frame, and the interference aware information field includes:
a first field that indicates at least one sub-channel, wherein the first field comprises a sub-channel field value based on an integer value indicating the at least one sub-channel,
a second field that indicates an interference aware mode, wherein the interference aware mode comprises (a) an interference aware acknowledgment (IAA) mode, the IAA mode set by the transmit device affected by interference, or (b) a dynamic channel access (DCA) mode that indicates support of a dynamic channel access, and
a third field that indicates a response frame transmission delay, wherein the response frame transmission delay comprises (a) a first value that indicates immediate transmission of an acknowledgement (ACK) frame, (b) a second value that indicates a delay transmission of one ACK frame, or (c) a third value that indicates a delay transmission of a particular number of ACK frames; and
transmitting, by the transmit device, the frame in the selected transmission channel to a receive device, wherein the selected transmission channel includes interference associated with the interference condition, and wherein the interference aware information field of the frame facilitates the receive device to transmit a particular ACK frame by referring to the first field that indicates the at least one sub-channel and the third field that indicates the response frame transmission delay, or facilitates the receive device to request dynamic channel access to the transmit device based at least in part on the second field that indicates the DCA mode.

US Pat. No. 10,433,204

MULTI-USER COMMUNICATION IN WIRELESS NETWORKS

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A method implemented by a first wireless device operating in a wireless network for communicating status, the method comprising:generating a frame for transmission to a second wireless device operating in the wireless network, wherein generating the frame includes:
inserting, by the first wireless device into a High Throughput (HT) Control field of the frame, channel quality information (CQI) for one or more resource units of a wireless channel; and
transmitting, by the first wireless device, the frame to the second wireless device in the wireless network,
wherein the second wireless device uses the CQI to allocate resources of a transmission to the second wireless station, and
wherein the CQI includes at least one of a preferred modulation and coding scheme, a preferred number of spatial streams, a signal to noise ratio, or a signal to interference and noise ratio.

US Pat. No. 10,412,610

RECEIVER BEHAVIOR FOR UPLINK MULTI-USER TRANSMISSION IN WIRELESS LAN SYSTEMS

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. A wireless communication device comprising:a transmitter circuit; and
a receiver circuit,
wherein the wireless communication device is configured to:
transmit, using the transmitter circuit, a first frame that solicits an Up-Link Multi-User (UL MU) frame;
determine whether a second frame is the UL MU frame solicited by the first frame;
receive, using the receiver circuit, the second frame by performing a first procedure in response to determining that the second frame is the solicited UL MU frame; and
receive, using the receiver circuit, the second frame by performing a second procedure in response to determining that the second frame is not the solicited UL MU frame,
wherein performing the first procedure includes performing a comparison of contents of a Legacy Signal (L-SIG) field of the second frame to expected contents of the L-SIG field of the second frame, performing a comparison of contents of a Signal A (SIG-A) field of the second frame to expected contents of the SIG-A field of the second frame, or both, and
wherein performing the comparison of the contents of the SIG-A field to the expected contents of the SIG-A field includes one or more selected from the group consisting of:
comparing a value of a bandwidth field of the SIG-A field indicating an operating bandwidth to an expected value of the bandwidth field,
comparing a value of a Spatial Reuse field of the SIG-A field indicating a Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) level, an interference level accepted, or a transmission (TX) power to an expected value of the Spatial Reuse field,
comparing a value of a Space Time Block Coding (STBC) field of the SIG-A field indicating whether the second frame applies STBC to an expected value of the STBC field,
comparing a value of a Group Identifier (ID) field of the SIG-A field indicating a group which includes a station related to the second frame to an expected value of the Group ID field,
comparing a value of a Number of Space-Time Streams (NSTS) field of the SIG-A field indicating a number of space-time streams to an expected value of the NSTS field,
comparing a value of a Coding field of the SIG-A field indicating a coding type of the second frame to an expected value of the Coding field,
comparing a value of a Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) field of the SIG-A field indicating a MCS of the second frame to an expected value of the MCS field,
comparing a value of a beamforming field of the SIG-A field indicating if the second frame applies beamforming to an expected value of the beamforming field,
comparing a value of a Transmission Opportunity (TXOP) Duration field of the SIG-A field indicating the remaining time in the current TXOP to an expected value of the TXOP Duration field, and
comparing a value of a Guard Interval (GI) field of the SIG-A field indicting a type of a length of a Cyclic Prefix (CP) of the second frame to an expected value of the GI field.

US Pat. No. 10,411,850

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR NETWORK ALLOCATION VECTOR OPERATIONS

Newracom, Inc., Lake For...

1. A station for facilitating multi-user communication in a wireless network, the station comprising:one or more memories; and
one or more processors coupled to the one or more memories, the one or more processors configured to cause:
receiving a trigger frame, wherein the trigger frame solicits an uplink multi-user transmission as an immediate response, and wherein the trigger frame comprises an indication that indicates both whether carrier sensing is to be performed and whether a clear-to-send (CTS) frame is to be returned, by the station;
when the indication is set to a first state, transmitting an uplink frame as the immediate response to the trigger frame without performing carrier sensing, wherein the uplink frame excludes the CTS frame and indicates that the immediate response is sent without a network allocation vector (NAV) check; and
when the indication is set to a second state:
performing carrier sensing;
determining whether or not to transmit the uplink frame as the immediate response to the trigger frame based on a result of the carrier sensing; and
transmitting the uplink frame following the carrier sensing, wherein the uplink frame includes the CTS frame.

US Pat. No. 10,327,172

LONG TRAINING FIELD SEQUENCE CONSTRUCTION

Newracom, Inc., Lake For...

1. An apparatus for facilitating wireless communication in a 20 megahertz (MHz) channel bandwidth, the apparatus comprising:one or more memories; and
one or more processors coupled to the one or more memories, the one or more processors configured to cause:
determining a high efficiency long training field (HE-LTF) mode among a plurality of HE-LTF modes including a 4x HE-LTF mode and a 2x HE-LTF mode;
generating an HE-LTF symbol by using a portion or an entirety of an HE-LTF sequence corresponding to the 20 MHz channel bandwidth and the determined HE-LTF mode, wherein the HE-LTF sequence is among a plurality of HE-LTF sequences for the plurality of bandwidths and the plurality of HE-LTF modes, wherein the HE-LTF sequence includes zero values on every odd subcarrier index of a first range of subcarrier indices and a second range of subcarrier indices, non-zero values on every even subcarrier index of the first range and the second range, and direct current tones on subcarrier indices of a third range of subcarrier indices; and
transmitting a high efficiency physical layer protocol data unit (HE PPDU) including the HE-LTF symbol, in the 20 MHz channel bandwidth.

US Pat. No. 10,326,618

FRAME TRANSMITTING METHOD AND FRAME RECEIVING METHOD

NEWRACOM, INC., Lake For...

1. An apparatus for facilitating wireless communication, the apparatus comprising:a Radio Frequency (RF) transmitter;
an antenna coupled to the RF transmitter, and
a processor configured to transmit, using the RF transmitter and the antenna, a frame, the frame including:
a first set of symbols used for carrying training information, each symbol of the first set of symbols having a direct current (DC) subcarrier and guard tones, wherein an index of the DC subcarrier is 0 and indices of the guard tones are ?27 to ?32 and 27 to 31 on a 20 MHz bandwidth basis, and
a second set of symbols, each symbol of the second set of symbols having a DC subcarrier, guard tones, and additional data subcarriers, wherein an index of the DC subcarrier is 0, indices of the guard tones are ?29 to ?32 and 29 to 31, and indices of the additional data subcarriers are ?27, ?28, 27 and 28 on a 20 MHz bandwidth basis, and wherein the additional data subcarriers include training information,
wherein a number of symbols included in the first set of symbols is identical to a number of symbols included in the second set of symbols.