US Pat. No. 9,305,735

REINFORCED POLYMER X-RAY WINDOW

Brigham Young University,...

1. An x-ray window including a film, the film comprising:
a) graphene embedded in a polymer;
b) the film is substantially transmissive to x-rays having an energy in the range of 100-20,000 electronvolts;
c) the film is capable of withstanding a differential pressure of at least 1 atmosphere;
d) the film has a thickness of between about 50 nm to about 500 nm;
e) the film is attached to a mount; and
f) the mount is configured for attachment to an x-ray tube or an x-ray window.

US Pat. No. 9,072,154

GRID VOLTAGE GENERATION FOR X-RAY TUBE

MOXTEK, INC., Orem, UT (...

1. An x-ray source comprising:
a. an x-ray tube including:
i. an anode attached to an evacuated enclosure, the anode configured to emit x-rays;
ii. a cathode including an electron emitter attached to the evacuated enclosure, the electron emitter configured to emit electrons
towards the anode;

iii. an electrically conducting grid disposed between the electron emitter and the anode, with a gap between the grid and
the anode, and a gap between the grid and the electron emitter;

b. an internal grid control configured to provide alternating current;
c. a grid high voltage multiplier electrically coupled between the internal grid control and the grid;
d. the grid high voltage multiplier configured to receive alternating current from the internal grid control, generate a direct
current (“DC”) voltage based on the alternating current, and provide the DC voltage to the grid;

e. a primary high voltage multiplier configured to provide a DC bias voltage at a high voltage connection to the electron
emitter, the grid high voltage multiplier, and the internal grid control;

f. electrically insulating potting substantially surrounding a cathode end of an exterior of the x-ray tube, a high voltage
connection end of an exterior of the primary high voltage multiplier, the grid high voltage multiplier, and the internal grid
control;

g. the internal grid control having a light sensor configured to receive a light control signal emitted by an external grid
control;

h. the internal grid control configured to modify the alternating current to the grid high voltage multiplier based on the
light control signal; and

i. the grid high voltage multiplier configured to modify the grid voltage based on the modified alternating current.

US Pat. No. 9,174,412

HIGH STRENGTH CARBON FIBER COMPOSITE WAFERS FOR MICROFABRICATION

Brigham Young University,...

1. A wafer comprising:
a. at least one sheet of carbon fiber composite (CFC) including carbon fibers embedded in a matrix;
b. a wafer thickness of between 10-500 micrometers;
c. at least one side of the wafer having a root mean square surface roughness Rq of less than 300 nm in an area of 100 micrometers
by 100 micrometers and less than 500 nm along a line of 2 millimeter length;

d. a yield strength at fracture of greater than 0.5 gigapascals (GPa), wherein yield strength is defined as a force, in a
direction parallel with a plane of a side of the wafer, per unit area, to cause the wafer to fracture; and

e. a strain at fracture of more than 0.01, wherein strain is defined as the change in length caused by a force in a direction
parallel with a plane of the wafer divided by original length.

US Pat. No. 9,354,374

POLARIZER WITH WIRE PAIR OVER RIB

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A wire grid polarizer comprising:
an array of parallel, elongated nano-structures disposed over a surface of a substrate, each of the nano-structures including:
a first rib disposed over the surface of the substrate;
a pair of parallel, elongated wires, each laterally oriented with respect to one another, and disposed over the first rib;
a first gap between the pair of wires; and
each wire of the pair of wires has two opposite sides substantially orthogonal to the surface of the substrate;
a plurality of second gaps including a second gap disposed between adjacent first ribs; and
the substrate being transmissive.

US Pat. No. 9,282,622

MODULAR X-RAY SOURCE

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. An x-ray source comprising:
a. an x-ray tube and a power supply carried by and at least partially disposed in an electrically-conductive case;
b. the x-ray tube including:
i. an electrically-insulative enclosure with a cathode and an anode attached to the enclosure;
ii. an electron emitter disposed in the enclosure and associated with the cathode; and
iii. a target material associated with the anode and configured to emit x-rays in response to impinging electrons from the
electron emitter;

c. the electrically-conductive case including a socket in an exterior thereof, the socket having a depth of at least 8 millimeters;
d. the x-ray tube extending into the socket;
e. an electrically-conductive cap:
i. carrying the x-ray tube;
ii. removably received in the socket of the case forming an electrically and thermally conductive path between the cap and
the case;

iii. being elongated and annular with a hollow therein; and
iv. having an outer end opening and an inner end opening;
v. extending beyond an outer face of the case for a distance of at least 3 millimeters to allow removal of the cap by grasping
the cap and turning by hand without tools;

f. the anode of the x-ray tube attached to the cap and forming a thermally and electrically conductive path between the cap
and the anode;

g. the x-ray tube oriented to direct x-rays outward from the outer end opening;
h. a portion of the x-ray tube extending through the hollow of the cap towards the inner end opening with a first annular
gap separating a portion of the x-ray tube from a portion of the cap and providing electrical insulation between the portion
of the cap and the portion of the x-ray tube;

i. an annular, electrically-insulative, solid plug disposed in the first annular gap between the x-ray tube and the cap;
j. material of the plug is an electrically-insulative material and extends around and provides electrical insulation between
at least a portion of the power supply and the case;

k. the electrically-insulative material has a thermal conductivity of greater than

l. the electrically-insulative material is sealed to the case and the power supply and remains with the case and the power
supply when the cap and the x-ray tube are removed from the case;

m. an air-filled third annular gap between the plug and the x-ray tube with ribs on an interior surface of the plug facing
the x-ray tube.

US Pat. No. 9,240,303

DUAL TUBE SUPPORT FOR ELECTRON EMITTER

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. An x-ray tube, comprising:
a. an evacuated, electrically-insulative enclosure with a cathode and an anode at opposite ends;
b. dual, concentric, electrically-conductive emitter tubes extending from the cathode towards the anode, and comprising an
inner tube and an outer tube;

c. each of the inner and outer tubes having opposite ends comprising a far end disposed closer to the anode and an opposite
near end associated with the cathode;

d. a first gap between the far end of the outer tube and the anode and a second gap between the far end of the inner tube
and the anode;

e. an electron emitter:
i. electrically-coupled between the far end of the inner tube and the far end of the outer tube;
ii. substantially centered across the far end of the outer tube; and
iii. having a center that is substantially aligned with a longitudinal axis of the enclosure;
f. the inner and outer tubes being electrically isolated from one another except for the electron emitter;
g. a length of the inner tube being greater than a length of the outer tube;
h. the near end of the inner tube extending outside the enclosure; and
i. the near end of the inner tube being a pinched-shut end.

US Pat. No. 9,502,206

CORROSION-RESISTANT, STRONG X-RAY WINDOW

Brigham Young University,...

1. An x-ray window comprising:
a. a stack of thin film layers including a first aluminum layer, a second aluminum layer, a polyimide layer, and a corrosion-barrier
layer;

b. the corrosion-barrier layer comprises a material selected from the list consisting of amorphous carbon and hexamethyldisilazane;
c. an order of the stack of thin film layers is the corrosion-barrier layer, the first aluminum layer, the polyimide layer,
then the second aluminum layer;

d. an enclosure having a hollow center and an opening;
e. the stack of thin film layers is hermetically sealed to the opening of the enclosure;
f. the corrosion-barrier layer is disposed as the farthest layer away from the hollow center;
g. the stack of thin film layers having:
i. a transmissivity of greater than 60% for x-rays having an energy of 1.74 keV;
ii. a transmissivity of less than 10% for visible light at a wavelength of 550 nanometers; and
iii. a transmissivity of less than 10% for infrared light at a wavelength of 800 nanometers.

US Pat. No. 9,072,155

TRANSFORMER NETWORK

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A transformer network, comprising:
a. an LC switching circuit including a center connection, a top connection, and a bottom connection;
b. primary windings comprising top primary windings and bottom primary windings;
c. the center connection electrically connected to a first end of the top primary windings and to a first end of the bottom
primary windings, the top primary windings wrapped in a first direction around a first transformer core, the bottom primary
windings wrapped in a second direction around the first transformer core, the first direction is opposite to the second direction;

d. the top primary windings wrapped in the first direction around at least one additional transformer core then a second end
of the top primary windings electrically connected to the top connection;

e. the bottom primary windings wrapped in the second direction around the at least one additional transformer core then a
second end of the bottom primary windings electrically connected to the bottom connection;

f. secondary windings having a first end and a second end, the secondary windings wrapped around at least one of the first
transformer core and the at least one additional transformer core; and

g. the first end and the second end of the secondary windings configured to be electrically connected across a load.

US Pat. No. 9,826,610

ELECTROSTATIC-DISSIPATION DEVICE

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. An electrostatic-dissipation device configured to dissipate static electricity between a flat-panel-display (FPD) and a
table during manufacture of the FPD, the device comprising:
a. an x-ray tube, wherein:
i. the x-ray tube includes a cathode and an anode electrically insulated from one another;
ii. the cathode is configured to emit electrons towards the anode;
iii. the anode is configured to emit x-rays out of the x-ray tube in response to impinging electrons from the cathode;
b. a shell, wherein the shell:
i. carries the x-ray tube;
ii. is electrically-conductive;
iii. is electrically coupled to the anode and electrically insulated from the cathode;
iv. has a proximal-end closer to the cathode and a distal-end closer to the anode;
v. has a connector, at the proximal-end, configured to be coupled to an actuator for lifting the FPD;
vi. includes a hollow-region between a distal-end of the anode and the distal-end of the shell, the hollow-region being vented
to allow passage of ions and x-rays outward from the hollow-region; and

c. a maximum outside diameter of less than 20 millimeters.

US Pat. No. 9,839,108

XRF ANALYZER ACTIVATION SWITCH

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. An x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer comprising:
a) an x-ray source configured to emit x-rays towards a sample and an x-ray detector configured to receive fluoresced x-rays
emitted from the sample;

b) an activation switch electrically coupled to an electronic processor and operable to activate an XRF analysis, the XRF
analysis including:

i) the x-ray source emitting the x-rays towards the sample;
ii) the x-ray detector receiving the fluoresced x-rays emitted from the sample; and
iii) analysis of the fluoresced x-rays; and
c) the activation switch including a finger tap switch configured to activate the XRF analysis by a tap from a finger of a
user on the finger tap switch, the finger tap switch having a required duration of less than three seconds.

US Pat. No. 9,448,156

OPTICAL PARTICLE ANALYSIS

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A particle analysis system comprising:
a. an unpolarized light source directed towards a charge couple device camera (CCD);
b. a fluid-flow region disposed between the light source and the CCD;
c. a light-blocking screen disposed between the light source and the fluid-flow region; and
d. two polarization devices, oppositely-polarized with respect to each other, disposed in the screen, and capable of allowing
light from the light source to pass through the polarization devices, through the fluid-flow region, and onto the CCD.

US Pat. No. 9,961,753

XRF ANALYZER WITH A HAND SHIELD

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer comprising:an engine component having an x-ray emission end and an engine component casing;
a power component spaced-apart from the engine component;
a handle and a hand shield, the handle and the hand shield extending in parallel between the engine component and the power component and wherein said handle and hand shield, together, attach the engine component to the power component;
a finger gap between the handle and the hand shield;
the hand shield disposed closer to the x-ray emission end than the handle to the x-ray emission end;
an x-ray source and an x-ray detector disposed in the engine component casing;
the x-ray source disposed in a location and oriented to emit x-rays outward from the x-ray emission end towards a sample;
the x-ray detector disposed in a location and oriented to receive fluoresced x-rays emitted from the sample; and
the power component including electrical connections configured for electrical connection to a portable, electric power-source.

US Pat. No. 9,184,020

TILTABLE OR DEFLECTABLE ANODE X-RAY TUBE

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. An x-ray tube comprising:
a. an electron emitter, a flexible coupling with a coupling axis, and a window hermetically sealed to an enclosure;
b. an anode attached to the flexible coupling;
c. the electron emitter configured to emit electrons from the electron emitter to the anode;
d. the anode including a target configured to produce x-rays in response to impinging electrons from the electron emitter;
e. the anode spaced-apart from the window by a gap through which the x-rays emitted from the target travel to the window;
f. the anode being selectively tiltable in all directions from the coupling axis outward to a circle around the coupling axis
to selectively position a region of the target material in the electron beam.

US Pat. No. 9,177,755

MULTI-TARGET X-RAY TUBE WITH STATIONARY ELECTRON BEAM POSITION

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A transmission x-ray tube comprising:
a. an end window hermetically sealed to a first end of a flexible coupling;
b. a second end of the flexible coupling hermetically sealed to one end of an enclosure;
c. a cathode including an electron emitter hermetically sealed to an opposite end of the enclosure;
d. the electron emitter configured to emit electrons in an electron beam along an electron beam axis extending between the
electron emitter and the window and through a hollow core of the flexible coupling;

e. the window including a target material configured to produce x-rays in response to impinging electrons from the electron
emitter;

f. the window configured to allow the x-rays to be transmitted out of the enclosure through the window; and
g. the window being selectively tiltable to selectively align a region of the window with the electron beam axis, and thus
selectively position the region in the electron beam by tilting the window and the first end of the flexible coupling at an
acute angle with respect to the electron beam axis.

US Pat. No. 9,839,107

FLOWING-FLUID X-RAY INDUCED IONIC ELECTROSTATIC DISSIPATION

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A system for reducing static charge, the system comprising:
a. an ionization chamber including a fluid inlet port and a fluid outlet port;
b. an x-ray source attached to the ionization chamber and configured to emit x-rays into the ionization chamber to ionize
a fluid in the chamber to create an ionized fluid;

c. a bottom side of a flat panel display with liquid crystal having a static charge, the system being configured to direct
the ionized fluid out through the outlet port and onto the bottom side of the flat panel display;

d. a rubbing machine for aligning the liquid crystal;
e. a lift pin, for lifting the flat panel display off of the rubbing machine, passes through the ionization chamber, though
the outlet port, and through a connection tube between the ionization chamber and the bottom side of the flat panel display;

f. the connection tube and the lift pin pass through a hole in a table portion of the rubbing machine; and
g. the ionized fluid passes around an outside of the lift pin, within the connection tube, from the ionization chamber to
the bottom side of the flat panel display.

US Pat. No. 9,351,387

GRID VOLTAGE GENERATION FOR X-RAY TUBE

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. An x-ray source comprising:
a. an x-ray tube including:
i. an anode attached to an evacuated enclosure, the anode configured to emit x-rays;
ii. a cathode including an electron emitter attached to the evacuated enclosure, the electron emitter configured to emit electrons
towards the anode;

iii. an electrically conducting grid disposed between the electron emitter and the anode, with a gap between the grid and
the anode, and a gap between the grid and the electron emitter;

b. an internal grid control configured to provide alternating current;
c. a grid high voltage multiplier electrically coupled between the internal grid control and the grid;
d. the grid high voltage multiplier configured to receive alternating current from the internal grid control, generate a direct
current (“DC”) voltage based on the alternating current, and provide the DC voltage to the grid;

e. a primary high voltage multiplier configured to provide a DC bias voltage at a high voltage connection to the electron
emitter, the grid high voltage multiplier, and the internal grid control;

f. electrically insulating potting substantially surrounding a cathode end of an exterior of the x-ray tube, at least part
of the primary high voltage multiplier including a high voltage connection end, the grid high voltage multiplier, and the
internal grid control; and

g. a solar cell electrically coupled to the internal grid control and disposed in the potting, and wherein the solar cell
is configured to receive light emitted by an external light source and configured to convert energy from the light into electrical
energy for the internal grid control.

US Pat. No. 9,173,623

X-RAY TUBE AND RECEIVER INSIDE MOUTH

Samuel Soonho Lee, Newto...

1. A method of taking x-rays of a patient's tooth, the method comprising:
a. placing an x-ray emission portion of an x-ray source on one side of the tooth inside of a mouth of the patient and an x-ray
image receiving portion of an x-ray receiver on an opposite side of the tooth inside the mouth, wherein:

i. the source or the receiver is between a cheek or lip of the mouth and the tooth; and
ii. the other of the source or the receiver is on an opposite side of the tooth; and
b. emitting x-rays from the source through the tooth and onto the receiver.

US Pat. No. 9,851,591

BROADBAND OPTICAL ISOLATOR OR CIRCULAR POLARIZER

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. An optical device comprising a polarizing-cube including a pair of prisms and a polarizer, wherein each prism has two ends
linked by an inner face and two outer faces and the prisms are attached together at the inner face of each with the polarizer
sandwiched between the prisms; and three Fresnel rhombs, each attached to an outer face of one of the prisms, and each attached
to a different outer face than the others.

US Pat. No. 9,683,953

XRF ANALYZER COMMUNICATION

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. An x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer, comprising:
a. a housing;
b. an x-ray source and an x-ray detector attached to the housing, wherein:
i. the x-ray source is located and oriented to emit x-rays towards a sample; and
ii. the x-ray detector is located and oriented to receive fluoresced x-rays emitted from the sample;
c. a microphone and an electronic-processor attached to the housing, wherein:
i. the microphone is configured to receive a verbal command from a user and to transmit an initial signal, based on the verbal
command, to the electronic-processor;

ii. the electronic-processor is configured to select or obtain a program based on the initial signal;
iii. the electronic-processor is configured to operate the XRF analyzer based on the program selected;
d. the electronic-processor is configured to wirelessly-transmit the initial signal to a remote-processor attached to a handheld
electronic device;

e. the handheld electronic device is physically separate from and independently movable from the XRF analyzer;
f. the electronic-processor is configured to receive a wirelessly-transmitted return signal from the remote-processor, the
return signal including a program, selected by the remote-processor, and based on the initial signal;

g. the electronic-processor is configured to operate the XRF analyzer based on the program.

US Pat. No. 9,689,815

XRF ANALYZER ROTATIONAL FILTER

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. An x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer comprising:
a. an x-ray source having an x-ray emission end, and an x-ray detector having an x-ray receiving end, both carried by a housing;
b. the x-ray source positioned and oriented to emit x-rays from the x-ray emission end towards a focal point;
c. the x-ray detector positioned and oriented to face the focal point, and configured to receive, through the x-ray receiving
end, fluoresced x-rays emitted from a sample disposed at the focal point;

d. a rotatable filter cup disposed between the x-ray emission end and the focal point and disposed between the x-ray receiving
end and the focal point;

e. the filter cup being rotatable to separately position:
i. at least two different x-ray source modification regions (defining source modification regions) between the x-ray emission
end and the focal point; and

ii. at least two different x-ray detector modification regions (defining detector modification regions) between the x-ray
receiving end and the focal point.

US Pat. No. 9,684,203

WIRE GRID POLARIZER WITH DUAL ABSORPTIVE REGIONS

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. An image projection system comprising:
a) an incoming wire grid polarizer disposed between a light source and a liquid crystal display (LCD);
b) the incoming wire grid polarizer including an array of parallel, elongated rods disposed over a surface of a transparent
substrate with gaps between adjacent rods, each of the rods including a reflective wire sandwiched between two absorptive
ribs;

c) the incoming wire grid polarizer disposed in a location to receive light from the light source and capable of substantially
transmitting one polarization and substantially absorbing an opposite polarization of the light from the light source; and

d) the incoming wire grid polarizer disposed in a location to receive reflected light from the LCD and capable of substantially
absorbing the reflected light from the LCD;

e) the polarizer, in a light wavelength range of 450 nanometers through 700 nanometers, is capable of absorbing at least 80%
of one polarization of light from both sides of the polarizer and transmitting at least 80% of an opposite polarization of
light.

US Pat. No. 9,348,076

POLARIZER WITH VARIABLE INTER-WIRE DISTANCE

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A wire grid polarizer comprising:
an array of parallel, elongated nano-structures disposed over a surface of a transmissive substrate, each of the nano-structures
including:

a pair of parallel, elongated wires, each oriented laterally with respect to one another;
each wire of the pair of wires includes a top rib disposed over a bottom rib; and
a first gap disposed between the pair of wires, the first gap extending between adjacent top ribs and adjacent bottom ribs;
each of the nano-structures separated from an adjacent nano-structure by a second gap disposed between adjacent nanostructures,
and thus between adjacent pairs of wires; and

a first gap width of the first gap being different than a second gap width of the second gap.

US Pat. No. 9,632,224

BROADBAND, SELECTIVELY-ABSORPTIVE WIRE GRID POLARIZER

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A broadband, selectively-absorptive wire grid polarizer (WGP) comprising an array of parallel, elongated rods located over
a surface of a transparent substrate with gaps between adjacent rods, each of the rods including a reflective wire and two
absorptive ribs, wherein:
a. the reflective wire is sandwiched between the two absorptive ribs and the substrate or the two absorptive ribs are sandwiched
between the reflective wire and the substrate;

b. each of the two absorptive ribs comprises a different material;
c. the two absorptive ribs include a first absorptive rib having a first material with a first thickness and a second absorptive
rib having a second material with a second thickness;

d. the first material with the first thickness has a wavelength (?1) with a minimum reflectivity of light;

e. the second material with the second thickness has a wavelength (?2) with a minimum reflectivity of light; and

f. 50 nanometers<|?1??2|.

US Pat. No. 9,798,058

WIRE GRID POLARIZER WITH SIDE REGION

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A wire grid polarizer comprising:
a) a substrate being substantially transmissive to incoming light;
b) an array of parallel, elongated first lower ribs disposed over the substrate, the first lower ribs having a bottom attached
to the substrate, a top surface opposite the bottom, and two opposite sides;

c) an array of parallel, elongated, first upper ribs disposed over the top surface of the first lower ribs such that each
first lower rib is paired with a corresponding first upper rib to define an array of center ribs;

d) an array of elongated side bars including a side bar disposed along each side of each of the center ribs;
e) a gap between each side bar and corresponding center rib and an adjacent side bar and corresponding center rib;
f) at least one of the first lower ribs and first upper ribs is substantially reflective of the incoming light;
g) the side bars are substantially absorptive of the incoming light; and
h) the side bars extend along each side of the center ribs substantially from the bottom of the first lower ribs to a top
of the first upper ribs.

US Pat. No. 9,779,847

SPARK GAP X-RAY SOURCE

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. An x-ray source comprising:
a. an enclosure including an internal cavity;
b. a gas disposed in the cavity and having a pressure of at least 0.0001 Torr;
c. an anode and a cathode attached to the enclosure;
d. the anode and the cathode being electrically-conductive;
e. the cathode and the anode being spaced apart from each other and electrically insulated from each other;
f. the cathode having a pointed end disposed within the cavity and pointed towards the anode with a gap between the pointed
end and the anode; and

g. an electrically-conductive window:
i. associated with and connected to the anode;
ii. being substantially transmissive to x-rays;
iii. forming at least part of a wall of the enclosure; and
iv. separating at least a portion of the cavity from an exterior of the enclosure.

US Pat. No. 9,632,223

WIRE GRID POLARIZER WITH SIDE REGION

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A wire grid polarizer comprising:
a) a substrate being substantially transmissive to incoming light;
b) an array of parallel, elongated first lower ribs disposed over the substrate, the first lower ribs having a bottom attached
to the substrate, a top surface opposite the bottom, and two opposite sides;

c) an array of parallel, elongated, first upper ribs disposed over the top surface of the first lower ribs such that each
first lower rib is paired with a corresponding first upper rib to define an array of center ribs;

d) an array of elongated side bars including a side bar disposed along each side of each of the center ribs;
e) a gap between each side bar and corresponding center rib and an adjacent side bar and corresponding center rib, each side
bar is discontinuous with respect to adjacent side bars, and each side bar is not connected to adjacent side bars by material
of the side bar; and

f) at least one of the first lower ribs, first upper ribs, and side bars is substantially reflective of incoming light.

US Pat. No. 9,523,805

FINE PITCH WIRE GRID POLARIZER

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A polarizer, comprising:
a. a substrate;
b. a repeated pattern of groups of parallel, elongated, polarizing wires disposed over the substrate;
c. each group of wires comprising at least three wires;
d. a wire at an interior of each group is taller by more than 10 nanometers (nm) than outermost wires of each group; and
e. a distance between the outermost wires in each group is less than 1 micrometer.

US Pat. No. 10,054,717

OXIDATION AND MOISTURE BARRIER LAYERS FOR WIRE GRID POLARIZER

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A wire grid polarizer (WGP) comprising:ribs located over a surface of a transparent substrate, wherein the ribs are elongated and arranged in a substantially parallel array;
gaps between at least a portion of the ribs; and
a conformal-coating located over the ribs, wherein:
the conformal-coating comprises two layers of different materials, including an oxidation-barrier and a moisture-barrier;
the oxidation-barrier includes aluminum oxide, silicon oxide, silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, silicon carbide, a rare earth oxide, or combinations thereof;
the moisture-barrier includes hafnium oxide, zirconium oxide, a rare earth oxide, or combinations thereof;
the oxidation-barrier is located between the moisture-barrier and the ribs; and
the oxidation-barrier is distinct from the ribs.

US Pat. No. 9,775,574

XRF ANALYZER

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer comprising
a. an engine component having an x-ray emission end and a power component spaced-apart from each other;
b. a handle and a hand shield:
i. extending in parallel between the engine component and the power component;
ii. attaching the engine component to the power component; and
iii. defining a finger gap therebetween;
c. the hand shield disposed closer to the x-ray emission end than the handle;
d. a hand shield casing and an engine component casing comprising a material for blocking x-rays;
e. an x-ray source and an x-ray detector disposed in and substantially enclosed by the engine component casing;
f. the x-ray source disposed in a location and oriented to emit x-rays outward from the x-ray emission end towards a sample;
g. the x-ray detector disposed in a location and oriented to receive fluoresced x-rays emitted from the sample;
h. the power component including electrical connections configured for electrical connection to a portable, electric power-source;
i. hollow formed in the hand shield, the hand shield casing forming a perimeter around at least a majority of the hollow;
j. an electronic component disposed the hollow of the hand shield; and
k. the electronic component configured for operation of the x-ray source, the x-ray detector, or both.

US Pat. No. 9,689,816

XRF ANALYZER ACTIVATION SWITCH

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. An x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer comprising:
a. an x-ray source configured to emit x-rays towards a sample and an x-ray detector configured to receive fluoresced x-rays
emitted from the sample;

b. an activation switch electrically coupled to an electronic processor and operable to activate an XRF analysis, the XRF
analysis including:

i. the electronic processor causing the x-ray source to emit x-rays towards the sample;
ii. the x-ray detector to receive the fluoresced x-rays emitted from the sample; and
iii. analysis of the fluoresced x-rays; and
c. the activation switch including a finger sensor;
d. the finger sensor comprising a temperature sensor, a photo sensor, a pressure sensor, a capacitive sensor, a radio-frequency
identification (RFID) reader configured to receive a signal from an RFID tag on a user of the XRF analyzer, or combinations
thereof; and

e. the finger sensor configured to activate the XRF analysis by a finger of the user approaching or touching the activation
switch.

US Pat. No. 9,824,787

SPARK GAP X-RAY SOURCE

Moxtek, Inc.

1. An x-ray source comprising:
a) an enclosure including an internal cavity;
b) an anode and a cathode attached to the enclosure, the anode and the cathode:
i) being electrically-conductive;
ii) spaced apart from each other; and
iii) electrically insulated from each other;
c) an axis of the enclosure extending from the cathode to a target material of the anode, the target material, configured
to emit x-rays in response to impinging electrons from the cathode;

d) a distal free-end of the cathode having an elongated blade, the elongated blade:
i) having a length of at least 10 centimeters;
ii) oriented substantially transverse with respect to the axis of the enclosure;
iii) the elongated blade disposed within the cavity and directed towards the anode with a gap between the blade and the anode;
and

e) an electrically-conductive window:
i) associated with and connected to the anode;
ii) being substantially transmissive to x-rays;
iii) forming at least part of a wall of the enclosure; and
iv) separating at least a portion of the cavity from an exterior of the enclosure.

US Pat. No. 9,816,950

XRF ANALYZER COMMUNICATION

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. An x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer comprising:
a) a housing;
b) an x-ray source and an x-ray detector attached to the housing, the x-ray source being located and oriented to emit x-rays
towards a sample and the x-ray detector being located and oriented to receive fluoresced x-rays emitted from the sample; and

c) an electronic-processor, attached to the housing, and configured to:
i) obtain an initial signal from a user;
ii) wirelessly-transmit the initial signal to a remote-processor;
iii) receive a wirelessly-transmitted return signal from the remote-processor, the return signal based on the initial signal;
and

iv) operate the XRF analyzer based on the return signal.

US Pat. No. 10,219,363

XRF ANALYZER WITH SEPARATE SOURCE AND DETECTOR HEAT SINKS

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer comprising:an x-ray source and an x-ray detector;
an x-ray source heat-sink adjacent a side of the x-ray source;
an x-ray detector heat-sink adjacent a side of the x-ray detector;
the x-ray source heat-sink separated from the x-ray detector heat sink by a material having a thermal conductivity of less than 20 W/(m*K).

US Pat. No. 9,703,028

WIRE GRID POLARIZER WITH PHOSPHONATE PROTECTIVE COATING

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A wire grid polarizer (WGP) comprising:
a. ribs located over a surface of a transparent substrate, wherein the ribs are elongated and arranged in a substantially
parallel array;

b. gaps between at least a portion of the ribs;
c. a conformal-coating located over the ribs, wherein the conformal-coating includes a phosphonate chemical;

wherein:
i. each R1 independently includes a hydrophobic group;

ii. Z is a bond to the ribs;
iii. R5 is a phosphonate-reactive-group, R1, R6, or Z;

iv. the phosphonate-reactive-group is —Cl, —OR6, —OCOR6, or —OH;

v. each R6 is independently an alkyl group, an aryl group, or combinations thereof.

US Pat. No. 9,839,106

FLAT-PANEL-DISPLAY, BOTTOM-SIDE, ELECTROSTATIC-DISSIPATION

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A flat-panel-display (FPD) manufacturing machine comprising a table, a lift-pin, an actuator, and an x-ray tube, wherein:
a. the table has a hole;
b. the lift-pin is movably located in the hole;
c. the actuator is configured to exert a force on the lift-pin to at least assist in causing the lift-pin to lift the FPD
off of the table; and

d. the x-ray tube forms at least a vertical segment of and is movable along with the lift pin.

US Pat. No. 10,139,538

WIRE GRID POLARIZER WITH HIGH REFLECTIVITY ON BOTH SIDES

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A wire grid polarizer (WGP) comprising:a transparent substrate having a first side, and a second side opposite of the first side;
an array of wires located over the first side of the transparent substrate, with channels between adjacent wires;
each of the wires including a stack of layers comprising the following layers in the following order: a first transparent layer located closest to the transparent substrate, a second transparent layer, a reflective layer, a third transparent layer, and a fourth transparent layer located farthest from the transparent substrate;
a material composition of the first transparent layer being the same as a material composition of the fourth transparent layer; and
a material composition of the second transparent layer being the same as a material composition of the third transparent layer, but different from the material composition of the first transparent layer and the fourth transparent layer.

US Pat. No. 9,869,898

WIRE GRID POLARIZER WITH DUAL ABSORPTIVE REGIONS

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. An image projection system comprising:
a) an incoming wire grid polarizer disposed between a light source and a liquid crystal display (LCD);
b) the incoming wire grid polarizer including an array of parallel, elongated rods disposed over a surface of a transparent
substrate with gaps between adjacent rods, each of the rods including a reflective wire sandwiched between two absorptive
ribs;

c) the incoming wire grid polarizer disposed in a location to receive light from the light source and capable of substantially
transmitting one polarization and substantially absorbing an opposite polarization of the light from the light source; and

d) the incoming wire grid polarizer disposed in a location to receive reflected light from the LCD and capable of substantially
absorbing the reflected light from the LCD.

US Pat. No. 10,139,537

MULTIPLE-STACK WIRE GRID POLARIZER

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A wire grid polarizer (WGP) comprising:a substrate having a first side, having a second side opposite of the first side, and being transparent;
a first array of wires, defining a first array, located over the first side of the substrate with a proximal end closer to the substrate and a distal end farther from the substrate, the first array being parallel and elongated, with channels between adjacent wires;
a first thin film located at the distal end of the first array and being transparent;
a second array of wires, defining a second array, located over the first thin film with a proximal end closer to the first thin film and a distal end farther from the first thin film, the second array being parallel and elongated, with channels between adjacent wires;
a second thin film located at the distal end of the second array and being transparent; and
an aspect ratio being greater than 5, where aspect ratio=T/W, T is a sum of a thickness of wires of the first array plus a thickness of wires of the second array, and W is a maximum width of wires of the first array and of the second array.

US Pat. No. 10,114,161

MULTI-LAYER ABSORPTIVE WIRE GRID POLARIZER

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A wire grid polarizer comprising:a. a transmissive substrate;
b. an array of parallel, elongated first rib groups disposed over the substrate, each first rib group comprising:
i. a central first transmissive rib; and
ii. a pair of first wires including a first wire disposed along each side of the first transmissive rib;
c. a first dielectric material substantially filling first gaps between each rib group and an adjacent rib group;
d. an array of parallel, elongated second wires disposed over the first rib groups and the first dielectric material, on a same side of the substrate as the first rib groups, and farther from the substrate than the first rib groups;
e. the first wires are absorptive and the second wires are reflective; and
f. a pitch of the first wires is less than a pitch of the second wires.

US Pat. No. 10,025,015

WIRE GRID POLARIZER WITH PHOSPHONATE PROTECTIVE COATING

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A wire grid polarizer (WGP) comprising:a) ribs located over a surface of a transparent substrate, wherein the ribs are elongated and arranged in a substantially parallel array;
b) gaps between at least a portion of the ribs;
c) a conformal-coating located over the ribs, wherein the conformal-coating includes a phosphonate chemical:

where:
i) each R1 independently includes a hydrophobic group;
ii) Z includes a bond to the ribs;
iii) R5 includes a phosphonate-reactive-group, R1, R6, or Z;
iv) the phosphonate-reactive-group is —Cl, —OR6, —OCOR6, —N(R6)2, or —OH; and
v) each R6 independently includes an alkyl group, an aryl group, or combinations thereof.

US Pat. No. 9,939,351

SOLID PHASE COATINGS FOR MICROEXTRACTION

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A method for extracting analytes from a gas or liquid phase comprising exposing the phase to an extractive adsorptive phase wherein:the extractive adsorptive phase comprises a porous coating on a substrate;
the porous coating includes:
columnar nanostructures which are close to perpendicular to a surface plane of the substrate and mutually supporting; and
nanospaces at boundaries between adjacent columnar nanostructures; and
the porous coating is tapered with length of columnar nanostructures decreasing in length along a line over the substrate.

US Pat. No. 10,178,748

X-RAY SPOT STABILITY

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. An x-ray tube comprising:a. an anode that is electrically-conductive and that includes a target material configured for production and emission of x-rays in response to impinging electrons;
b. an x-ray window, spaced apart from the target material of the anode and located to allow transmission of the x-rays through the x-ray window and out of the x-ray tube;
c. a cathode, electrically insulated from the anode, and having an electron-emitter capable of emitting electrons towards the target material on the anode;
d. the target material having a target displacement less than 60 micrometers, where the target displacement is a displacement of the target material, towards the electron-emitter, along a longitudinal-axis of the anode, from x-ray powered-off state to stable operation at 40 watts, based on elongation of the anode;
e. an electrical-insulator encircling the anode and electrically insulating the cathode from the anode;
f. a heatsink attached to the electrical-insulator; and
g. a straight-line path from an inside of the electrical-insulator, proximate the anode, through the electrical-insulator, through the heatsink to an outer-surface of the heatsink, passes only through materials having a coefficient of thermal conductivity of at least 2.0 W/m*K.

US Pat. No. 9,995,864

WIRE GRID POLARIZER WITH SILANE PROTECTIVE COATING

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A wire grid polarizer (WGP) comprising:ribs located over a surface of a transparent substrate, wherein the ribs are elongated and arranged in a substantially parallel array;
gaps between at least a portion of the ribs; and
a silane conformal-coating and a phosphonate conformal-coating located over the ribs, wherein the silane conformal-coating includes chemical formula (1), chemical formula (2), or combinations thereof, and the phosphonate conformal-coating includes chemical formula (3):

where: r is a positive integer; each R1 independently is a hydrophobic group; each X and Z is a bond to the ribs; and each R3 and R5 are independently a chemical element or a group.

US Pat. No. 10,139,536

EMBEDDED WIRE GRID POLARIZER WITH HIGH REFLECTIVITY ON BOTH SIDES

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A wire grid polarizer (WGP) comprising:a transparent substrate having a first side, and a second side opposite of the first side;
an array of wires located over the first side of the transparent substrate with channels between adjacent wires;
a first pair of thin-film layers: located between the array of wires and the transparent substrate; being continuous and spanning the channels; and including a first transparent layer located closer to the transparent substrate and a second transparent layer located closer to the array of wires;
a second pair of thin-film layers: located at an opposite side of the array of wires from the transparent substrate; being continuous and spanning the channels; and including a third transparent layer located closer to the array of wires and a fourth transparent layer located farther from the array of wires; and
for a wavelength range of at least 100 nm in a visible spectrum of light: an index of refraction of the first transparent layer (n1) is greater than an index of refraction of the second transparent layer (n2); and an index of refraction of the fourth transparent layer (n4) is greater than an index of refraction of the third transparent layer (n3).

US Pat. No. 10,182,490

X-RAY TUBE INTEGRAL HEATSINK

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. An x-ray source comprising:a. an x-ray tube including a cathode, an anode, and an enclosure, wherein:
i. the enclosure is electrically-insulative;
ii. the cathode and the anode are electrically insulated from each other;
iii. the cathode and the anode are attached to the enclosure;
iv. the cathode includes an electron-emitter capable of emitting electrons towards the anode; and
v. the anode is capable of emitting x-rays in response to impinging electrons from the electron-emitter;
b. a heatsink, wherein the heatsink:
i. is electrically conductive;
ii. is electrically-coupled to the anode and electrically-insulated from the cathode; and
iii. includes a plurality of protrusions extending radially outward from the x-ray tube, the protrusions configured to increase heat transfer away from the x-ray tube; and
c. electrically-insulative material encircling and adjoining an outer-surface of the enclosure and adjoining an inner-surface of the heatsink.

US Pat. No. 10,175,401

DUAL-PURPOSE, ABSORPTIVE, REFLECTIVE WIRE GRID POLARIZER

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A wire grid polarizer (WGP) comprising an array of parallel, elongated rods located over a surface of a transparent substrate with gaps between adjacent rods, wherein:a. each of the rods includes a reflective wire sandwiched between a transparent rib and an absorptive rib;
b. material of the transparent rib is different from material of the transparent substrate;
c. an index of refraction (n) of the transparent rib is greater than 1.9; and
d. an extinction coefficient (k) of the transparent rib is less than 0.01.

US Pat. No. 10,175,184

XRF ANALYZER FOR LIGHT ELEMENT DETECTION

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. An x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer comprising:an enclosure including an interior capable of having a single vacuum therein;
a window, for transmission of x-rays, hermetically sealed to the enclosure;
a source located within the interior of the enclosure, the source including an electron emitter and a target electrically insulated from each other, the electron emitter capable of emitting electrons towards the target and the target capable of emitting x-rays towards the window in response to impinging electrons;
a detector, located within the interior of the enclosure, facing the window and capable of receiving and detecting x-rays emitted through the window;
a barrier located between the detector and the source and positioned to block x-rays, emitted from the source, from hitting the detector, the barrier comprising tungsten; and
an analyzer electrically-coupled to the detector, the analyzer capable of receiving a signal from the detector, the signal based on x-rays impinging on the detector, and analyzing the signal to determine a material composition of a sample.

US Pat. No. 10,310,155

MULTIPLE-STACK WIRE GRID POLARIZER

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A wire grid polarizer (WGP) comprising:a substrate having a first side, having a second side opposite of the first side, and being transparent;
a first array of wires, defining a first array, located over the first side of the substrate with a proximal end closer to the substrate and a distal end farther from the substrate, the first array being parallel and elongated, with channels between adjacent wires, each wire of the first array comprising a first absorptive rib and a first reflective rib;
a first thin film located at the distal end of the first array and being transparent;
a second array of wires, defining a second array, located over the first thin film with a proximal end closer to the first thin film and a distal end farther from the first thin film, the second array being parallel and elongated, with channels between adjacent wires, each wire of the second array comprising a second absorptive rib and a second reflective rib; and
a second thin film located at the distal end of the second array and being transparent.

US Pat. No. 10,234,613

HIGH CONTRAST INVERSE POLARIZER

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. An embedded, inverse wire-grid polarizer (WGP) comprising:ribs located over a surface of a transparent substrate, gaps between the ribs, and a fill-layer substantially filling the gaps, the ribs being elongated and formed into an array;
at a wavelength of light incident upon the WGP in a range?175 nm, E? transmission>E? transmission, where E? is a polarization of the light with an electric field oscillation parallel to a length of the ribs and E? is a polarization of the light with an electric field oscillation perpendicular to a length of the ribs;
the fill-layer having an index of refraction greater than 1.7 at the wavelength of the light; and
the fill-layer substantially fills the gaps and extends from the gaps over the ribs such that the fill-layer in each gap extends continuously over adjacent ribs to the fill-layer in each adjacent gap, the fill-layer extending over the ribs for a thickness of between 25 and 150 nanometers.

US Pat. No. 10,302,831

WIRE GRID POLARIZER WITH HIGH REFLECTIVITY ON BOTH SIDES

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A wire grid polarizer (WGP) comprising:a transparent substrate having a first side, and a second side opposite of the first side;
an array of wires located over the first side of the transparent substrate, with channels between adjacent wires;
each of the wires including a stack of layers comprising the following layers in the following order: a first transparent layer located closest to the transparent substrate, a second transparent layer, a reflective layer, a third transparent layer, and a fourth transparent layer located farthest from the transparent substrate; and
for a wavelength range of at least 100 nm in the visible spectrum of light, an index of refraction of the first transparent layer (n1) is greater than an index of refraction of the second transparent layer (n2) and an index of refraction of the fourth transparent layer (n4) is greater than an index of refraction of the third transparent layer (n3).

US Pat. No. 10,268,046

CUBE POLARIZER

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A cube polarizer comprising:a) a first prism including two triangular faces linked by an inner face, an outer face, and an outer side;
b) a second prism including two triangular faces linked by an inner face, an outer face, and an outer side;
c) a wire grid polarizer including an array of parallel, elongated, separated wires sandwiched between a first substrate and a second substrate, a thickness of the first substrate and a thickness of the second substrate are both greater than 0.4 millimeters; and
d) the wire grid polarizer, the first substrate, and the second substrate being sandwiched between the inner faces of the prisms.

US Pat. No. 10,264,659

X-RAY TUBE INTEGRAL HEATSINK

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. An x-ray source comprising:an x-ray tube including a cathode, an anode, and an enclosure; the enclosure being electrically-insulative; the cathode and the anode being electrically insulated from each other and attached to the enclosure; the cathode located at one end of a longitudinal axis extending through a hollow core of the enclosure and the anode located at an opposite end of the longitudinal axis; the cathode having an electron-emitter capable of emitting electrons towards the anode; and the anode capable of emitting x-rays in response to impinging electrons from the electron-emitter;
a heatsink encircling the longitudinal axis and the x-ray tube about the longitudinal axis; being electrically conductive and electrically-coupled to the anode and electrically-insulated from the cathode; including a plurality of protrusions extending radially outward from the x-ray tube, the protrusions configured to increase heat transfer away from the x-ray tube; and having at least a portion of an outer surface with an electrical volume resistivity of at least 108 ohm*cm; and
an electrically-insulative material encircling and adjoining an outer-surface of the enclosure and adjoining an inner-surface of the heatsink, including a region with a thermal conductivity of at least 0.8 W/(m*K), including a region with an electrical volume resistivity of at least 1×1016 ohm*cm, filling an annular portion of an annular gap between the heatsink and the enclosure, and at least partially separating the heatsink from the enclosure; and
a radial path from the outer-surface of the enclosure to the inner-surface of the heatsink passing only through the electrically-insulative material.

US Pat. No. 10,302,832

EMBEDDED WIRE GRID POLARIZER WITH HIGH REFLECTIVITY ON BOTH SIDES

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A wire grid polarizer (WGP) comprising:a transparent substrate having a first side, and a second side opposite of the first side;
an array of wires located over the first side of the transparent substrate with channels between adjacent wires;
a first pair of thin-film layers: located between the array of wires and the transparent substrate; being continuous and spanning the channels; and including a first transparent layer located closer to the transparent substrate and a second transparent layer located closer to the array of wires;
a second pair of thin-film layers: located at an opposite side of the array of wires from the transparent substrate; being continuous and spanning the channels; and including a third transparent layer located closer to the array of wires and a fourth transparent layer located farther from the array of wires;
a material composition of the first transparent layer being the same as a material composition of the fourth transparent layer; and
a material composition of the second transparent layer being the same as a material composition of the third transparent layer, but different from the material composition of the first transparent layer and the fourth transparent layer.

US Pat. No. 10,330,946

SYMMETRIC CUBE POLARIZING BEAM SPLITTER

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A cube polarizing beam splitter (PBS) comprising:a pair of prisms including a first prism and a second prism;
a pair of wire-grid polarizers, including a first wire-grid polarizer comprising an array of elongated wires, defining a first array, on a first substrate; and a second wire-grid polarizer comprising an array of elongated wires, defining a second array, on a second substrate;
the first and second wire-grid polarizers sandwiched between the first prism and the second prism;
a boundary layer between the first wire-grid polarizer and the second wire-grid polarizer;
the first substrate and the second substrate are sandwiched between the first array and the second array and the boundary layer is located between and adjacent to the first substrate and the second substrate.

US Pat. No. 10,499,484

X-RAY SOURCE WITH NON-PLANAR VOLTAGE MULTIPLIER

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. An x-ray source comprising:a voltage multiplier configured to multiply an input electrical voltage to produce an output bias voltage having an absolute value of ?2 kV, the voltage multiplier comprising:
a low voltage section located in a first plane and a high voltage section located in a second plane;
the first plane and the second plane forming a V-shape with an angle of a channel of the V-shape being ?60° and ?170°;
the low voltage section configured to produce ?1 kV absolute value of bias voltage and providing input electrical power to the high voltage section; and
the high voltage section configured to produce ?1 kV absolute value of bias voltage and provide output electrical power to a high voltage apparatus at the output bias voltage;
an x-ray tube located in the channel of the V-shape; and
the voltage multiplier electrically coupled to the x-ray tube and configured to provide the output bias voltage to the x-ray tube.

US Pat. No. 10,422,725

SOLID PHASE COATINGS FOR MICROEXTRACTION

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A method for manufacturing an extractive apparatus in which analytes are adsorbed onto an extractive phase and subsequently desorbed, the method for manufacturing comprising:providing a substrate with a surface including obtaining a polyimide-coated silica fiber; cutting the polyimide-coated silica fiber; and burning the polyimide coating off of the silica fiber;
producing vapor of a coating precursor material by sputtering a target with plasma; and
coating the substrate surface with an adsorptive porous phase to create the extractive phase on the surface.

US Pat. No. 10,418,221

X-RAY SOURCE WITH TUBE-SHAPED FIELD-EMITTER

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. An x-ray tube comprising:an electron-emitter, an anode, an x-ray window, an evacuated-region between the electron-emitter and the anode, the electron-emitter electrically insulated from the anode, and the anode including a material for generation of x-rays in response to impinging electrons from the electron-emitter; and
the electron-emitter capable of field-emission of electrons; having an open-end facing the anode with at least a portion of the evacuated-region located between the open-end and the anode; including an electrically-conductive path from an electron-emission region to an electrical connection for a power-supply; and
the open-end of the electron-emitter having a pointed-edge with an exterior bevel.

US Pat. No. 10,408,772

ANALYZER COMMUNICATION

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A tool, the tool being a LIBS spectrometer, an XRD analyzer, or Raman spectroscopy equipment, the tool comprising:a housing;
an x-ray source and an x-ray detector attached to the housing, the x-ray source being located and oriented to emit x-rays towards a sample and the x-ray detector being located and oriented to receive fluoresced x-rays emitted from the sample; and
an electronic-processor, attached to the housing, and configured to: obtain an initial signal from a user; wirelessly-transmit the initial signal to a remote-processor; receive a wirelessly-transmitted return signal from the remote-processor, the return signal based on the initial signal; and operate the tool based on the return signal.

US Pat. No. 10,602,600

HIGH VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY CASING

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. An x-ray source comprising:an x-ray tube configured to emit x-rays;
a power supply, including a voltage multiplier, electrically coupled to the x-ray tube;
a housing enclosing at least a portion of the x-ray tube and the power supply including the voltage multiplier, the housing comprising a material having an atomic number of ?42 and a thermal conductivity of ?3 W/(m*K).

US Pat. No. 10,459,138

HIGH CONTRAST INVERSE POLARIZER

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. An embedded, inverse wire-grid polarizer (WGP) comprising:ribs located over a surface of a transparent substrate, the ribs being elongated and formed into an array, the ribs are metallic;
at a wavelength of light incident upon the WGP in a range ?175 nm, E? transmission >E? transmission, where E? is a polarization of the light with an electric field oscillation parallel to a length of the ribs and E? is a polarization of the light with an electric field oscillation perpendicular to a length of the ribs;
gaps between the ribs and a fill-layer substantially filling the gaps; and
at the wavelength of the light, the ribs are reflective, the fill-layer is transparent, and the fill-layer has an index of refraction greater than 1.7.

US Pat. No. 10,444,410

OVERCOAT WIRE GRID POLARIZER HAVING CONFORMAL COAT LAYER WITH OXIDATION BARRIER AND MOISTURE BARRIER

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A wire grid polarizer (WGP) comprising:an array of wires located over a face of a transparent substrate, the array of wires being substantially-parallel and elongated, with channels between adjacent wires;
each wire of the array of wires having a cross-sectional profile with a base located closest to the substrate and a distal end located farthest from the substrate; and opposite sides facing the channels on opposite sides of the wire, respectively, and extending from the base to the distal end;
an overcoat layer located at the distal ends of the array of wires and spanning the channels; and
a conformal-coat layer, including an oxidation-barrier and a moisture-barrier layer, that coats the sides of the wires and the distal ends of the wires between the wires and the overcoat layer, and that has a maximum thickness of <50 nm;
the oxidation-barrier including aluminum oxide, silicon oxide, silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, silicon carbide, a rare earth oxide, or combinations thereof;
the moisture-barrier layer including hafnium oxide, zirconium oxide, a rare earth oxide different from the rare earth oxide of the oxidation-barrier, or combinations thereof; and
the oxidation-barrier is located between the moisture-barrier and the wires and the oxidation-barrier is distinct from the wires.

US Pat. No. 10,408,983

DURABLE, HIGH PERFORMANCE WIRE GRID POLARIZER HAVING PERMEABLE JUNCTION BETWEEN TOP PROTECTION LAYER

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A method of manufacturing a wire grid polarizer (WGP), comprising the following steps in the following order:providing an array of wires on a bottom protection layer with channels between adjacent wires, the channels being air filled;
applying a top protection layer at a distal end of the wires, farthest from the bottom protection layer, such that the top protection layer: spans the channels, keeping the channels air filled; forms a continuous layer with the top protection layer on adjacent wires touching; and has permeable junctions, including a permeable junction between the top protection layer on adjacent wires
wherein the bottom protection layer and the top protection layer each have: a coefficient of thermal conductivity ?2 W/(m*K); a melting temperature ?600° C.; an oxygen diffusion coefficient ?10?21 m2/s; water solubility ?0.005 g/L; and refractive index n?2.2 and extinction coefficient k?0.06 across the visible light spectrum; then
applying an upper barrier-layer: through the permeable junctions into the channels and onto surfaces of the channels; and on an outermost surface of the top protection layer.

US Pat. No. 10,453,643

SHIELDED, TRANSMISSION-TARGET, X-RAY TUBE

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A transmission-target x-ray tube comprising:a) a cathode including an electron-emitter capable of emitting electrons towards a target material on an x-ray window;
b) an anode including a window-housing and the x-ray window, with the x-ray window mounted on a window-mount portion of the window-housing;
c) an electrically-insulative enclosure carrying the cathode and the anode and electrically-insulating the cathode from the anode;
d) the x-ray window being configured for transmission of x-rays and including the target material configured for production and emission of x-rays in response to impinging electrons; and
e) the window-housing including:
i) a proximal-end closer to the electron-emitter than an other end of the window-housing;
ii) a distance between the window-mount and the electron-emitter is farther than a distance between the window-mount and the proximal-end of the window housing;
iii) an aperture:
extending through the window-housing from the proximal-end to the window-mount;
including an increasing-inner-diameter region with a smaller diameter closer to the proximal-end and a larger diameter closer to the window-mount; and
having an angle in the increasing-inner-diameter region that is between 15 degrees and 35 degrees with respect to a longitudinal-axis of the x-ray tube, the longitudinal-axis extending from the electron-emitter through the aperture of the window-housing and through the x-ray window;
iv) an average atomic number of at least 45; and
v) an average density of at least 12 g/cm3;
f) 2*De?Dp?4*De, where Dp is a diameter of the aperture of the window-housing at the proximal-end and De is an electron-beam diameter at the proximal-end of the aperture of the window-housing.

US Pat. No. 10,534,120

WIRE GRID POLARIZER WITH PROTECTED WIRES

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A method of protecting wires of a wire grid polarizer, the method comprising the following steps in the following order:a) providing a wire grid polarizer wafer with:
i) an array of wires located on a surface of a substrate, the array of wires being substantially-parallel and elongated, each wire of the array of wires having a length parallel to the surface of the substrate and a height that is perpendicular to the length and less than 10% of the length, the array of wires including a proximal end of the height closer to the substrate and a distal end of the height farther from the substrate;
ii) a plurality of air-filled channels, including an air-filled channel between adjacent wires of the array of wires; and
iii) a protective-layer located at the distal end of the array of wires and spanning the air-filled channels, the protective-layer providing structural-support for the array of wires and capping the air-filled channels;
b) cutting the wire grid polarizer wafer into multiple wire grid polarizer parts;
c) protecting the array of wires of the wire grid polarizer parts by coating an inside surface of the air-filled channels with a conformal coating having a thickness that is at least 0.1 nm and less than 20 nm and including vapor deposition of a silane chemical including Si(R1)d(R2)e(R3)g and vapor deposition of a phosphonate chemical including (R1)iPO(R4)j(R5)k where d is 1, 2, or 3, e is 1, 2, or 3, g is 0, 1, or 2, and d+e+g=4; i is 1 or 2, j is 1 or 2, k is 0 or 1, and i+j+k=3; each R1 is independently a hydrophobic group; R2 is a silane-reactive-group; each silane-reactive-group is independently selected from: —Cl, —OR6, —OCOR6, —N(R6)2, and —OH; R4 is a phosphonate-reactive-group; each phosphonate-reactive-group is independently selected from: —Cl, —OR6, —OCOR6, and —OH; each R6 is independently an alkyl group, an aryl group, or combinations thereof; each R3, if any, is independently any chemical element or group; and each R5, if any, is independently any chemical element or group; and
d) applying multiple thin-film layers on the protective-layer, the thin-film layers extending continuously across the protective-layer and capable of reducing reflection of incident light on the protective-layer.

US Pat. No. 10,529,529

ELECTRON-BEAM SPOT OPTIMIZATION

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A method of tuning an electron-beam spot on a target material in an x-ray tube, the method comprising the following steps performed in the following order:a) energizing the x-ray tube to cause:
i) electrical current to flow through a filament, causing emission of electrons from the filament to the target material;
ii) creation of the electron-beam spot where the electrons impinge on the target material; and
iii) emission of x-rays from the target material;
b) evaluating the electron-beam spot with respect to a predetermined characteristic by receiving the x-rays into a detector, determining an actual characteristic of the electron-beam spot, comparing the actual characteristic to the predetermined characteristic;
c) moving a focusing-ring along a longitudinal-axis of the x-ray tube to tune the electron-beam spot to the predetermined characteristic, the longitudinal-axis extending from the filament inside the x-ray tube to the target material; and
d) immovably fastening the focusing-ring with respect to the filament.

US Pat. No. 10,353,127

SMALL-PITCH WIRE GRID POLARIZER

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. A method of making a wire grid polarizer (WGP), the method comprising the following steps:providing an array of parallel, elongated support ribs located over a transparent substrate and spaces between the support ribs, the spaces being solid-material-free;
conformal coating the substrate and the support ribs with a first-layer while maintaining solid-material-free at least a portion of the spaces between the support ribs;
etching the first-layer to remove horizontal segments and leaving an array of inner-pairs of parallel, elongated wires along sides of the support ribs, each wire of each inner-pair being separate from the other wire of the inner-pair;
conformal coating the substrate and the support ribs with a second-layer while maintaining solid-material-free at least a portion of the spaces between the support ribs;
etching the second-layer to remove horizontal segments and leaving middle-pairs, the middle-pairs being an array of parallel, elongated wires, each wire of each middle-pair being separated from the other wire of the middle-pair by wires of the inner-pair;
conformal coating the substrate and the support ribs with a third-layer while maintaining solid-material-free at least a portion of the spaces between the support ribs;
etching the third-layer to remove horizontal segments and leaving outer-pairs, the outer-pairs being an array of parallel, elongated wires along sides of the support ribs, each wire of each outer-pair being: spaced apart with respect to the other wire of the outer-pair; and spaced apart with respect to wires of the inner-pair by wires of a middle-pair, the wires of the middle-pair being formed of material of the second-layer;
filling spaces between the support ribs with a solid material; and
etching the solid material, the support ribs, and the middle-pair to form: lateral-solid-material-free-regions between at least a portion of each wire of each outer-pair and at least a portion of an adjacent wire of the inner-pair; and center-solid-material-free-regions between at least a portion of the two wires of each inner-pair.

US Pat. No. 10,524,341

FLOWING-FLUID X-RAY INDUCED IONIC ELECTROSTATIC DISSIPATION

Moxtek, Inc., Orem, UT (...

1. An electrostatic dissipation device comprising:an elongated enclosure with a longitudinal axis;
a first x-ray source oriented to emit x-rays inside of and along the longitudinal axis of the elongated enclosure;
a second x-ray source oriented to emit x-rays inside of and along the longitudinal axis of the elongated enclosure towards the first x-ray source;
an outlet opening in the elongated enclosure between the first x-ray source and the second x-ray source;
a fluid-flow device oriented to cause fluid to flow: across the first x-ray source; then inside of and along the longitudinal axis of the elongated enclosure, the fluid being ionized by the x-rays, forming ionized fluid; then out of the elongated enclosure through the outlet opening; and
a material at an inside surface of the elongated enclosure, that fluoresces x-rays in response to impinging x-rays, producing a fluoresced x-ray flux that is at least 30% of a received x-ray flux.