US Pat. No. 9,288,909

BALL GRID ARRAY PACKAGE SUBSTRATE WITH THROUGH HOLES AND METHOD OF FORMING SAME

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A substrate of a ball grid array package, the substrate comprising:
a first layer including reinforcement fibers, wherein the first layer has (i) a first surface and (ii) a second surface substantially
parallel to the first surface, and wherein the reinforcement fibers reinforce the first layer such that the first layer has
a higher tensile strength relative to a layer in the ball grid array package that is free of reinforcement fibers;

a second layer disposed adjacent to the first surface of the first layer, wherein the second layer is free of reinforcement
fibers;

a third layer disposed adjacent to the second surface of the first layer, wherein the third layer is free of reinforcement
fibers; and

a through hole penetrating each of the first layer, the second layer, and the third layer.

US Pat. No. 9,128,920

INTERRUPT HANDLING SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR PCIE BRIDGES WITH MULTIPLE BUSES

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A bridge comprising:
a plurality of buses;
a memory;
a component module configured to transfer data between a host control module and a network device via the memory and the plurality
of buses;

an interface connected between the memory and the network device and configured to transmit status information to the memory
via one of the plurality of buses, wherein the status information indicates completion of a last data transfer between the
network device and the host control module; and

an interrupt module configured to (i) subsequent to the status information being transmitted to the memory, detect a first
interrupt generated by the network device, and (ii) in response to the first interrupt, transmit an interrupt message to the
component module via the memory and the one of the plurality of buses,

wherein the component module is configured to, based on the interrupt message, generate a second interrupt detectable by the
interrupt module, and wherein the second interrupt indicates completion of data transfer between the network device and the
host control module.

US Pat. No. 9,119,020

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DISCOVERING WIRELESS DEVICES

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method for performing wireless discovery between two or more wireless stations, the method comprising:
prior to a connection having been established between a first wireless station and a second wireless station, transmitting
a data string from the first wireless station to the second wireless station,

wherein the data string includes interoperability information necessary for a service or an application to run on the second
wireless station, the interoperability information indicating mutual compatibility between the first wireless station and
the second wireless station regarding the service or the application, and the data string further includes supplementary information
about the service or application not essential to identifying and running the service or application by the second wireless
station receiving the data string; and

establishing a wireless connection between the first wireless station and the second wireless station if the second wireless
station receiving the data string contains the necessary interoperability hardware and/or software to run the service or application
described by the data string.

US Pat. No. 9,098,308

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CODE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS BASED ON EXECUTION TRACE INFORMATION

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

15. A non-transitory computer readable medium storing program instructions for causing a processor to execute operations,
the operations comprising:
collecting symbol information to map traces of codes in a program to memory addresses storing corresponding native codes that
are dynamically compiled from the traces of codes during an execution of the program; and

making the symbol information available after the execution of the program to analyze profiling data sampled during the execution
of the program.

US Pat. No. 9,197,998

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR POSITIONING WIRELESS DEVICE

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method, comprising:
providing a database of positioning data, each positioning data associating position information of a location with an identifier
of a wireless station for providing wireless connection at the location and a strength of a signal received at the location;

receiving a position request from a wireless device that receives an identifier and a signal strength from a specific wireless
station;

identifying the specific wireless station using the identifier to retrieve a group of positioning data from the database;
selecting a subset in the group of positioning data using the received signal strength;
determining position information of the wireless device using the selected subset of positioning data; and
calculating an estimated uncertainty value associated with the determined position information of the wireless device using
circular error probable (CEP) theory to calculate a threshold percentage of radius of the determined position information
of the wireless device.

US Pat. No. 9,195,472

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR BOOTING UP A COMPUTER BASED ON DATA CAPTURED IN A NON-VOLATILE SEMICONDUCTOR MEMORY DURING A LEARN MODE

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A system comprising:
a first interface configured to access a hard disk drive;
a second interface configured to access a non-volatile semiconductor memory, wherein the non-volatile semiconductor memory
is separate from the hard disk drive;

a timer configured to indicate an end of a period during which a computer is booted up; and
a control module comprising a first circuit, a first processor, or a second memory, the control module configured to
in response to a first request for first data, determine whether the first data is stored in the non-volatile semiconductor
memory,

in response to the first data not being stored in the non-volatile semiconductor memory, (i) loading the first data from the
hard disk drive and booting up the computer a first time based on the first data loaded from the hard disk drive, and (ii)
while operating in a learn mode and while loading the first data from the hard disk drive, capturing a first portion of the
first data in the non-volatile semiconductor memory,

in response to the timer indicating the end of the period during which the computer is booted up the first time, ceasing the
capturing of the first data in the non-volatile semiconductor memory,

based on the first portion of the first data captured in the non-volatile semiconductor memory during the learn mode, booting
up the computer a second time,

in response to the first request and prior to accessing the first data from the hard disk drive, attempt to access the first
data from the non-volatile semiconductor memory,

while attempting to access the first data from the non-volatile semiconductor memory, record a number of cache misses and
a number of cache hits, and

in response to a ratio of the number of cache misses to the number of cache hits being greater than a threshold, store the
first portion of the first data captured during the learn mode in the non-volatile semiconductor memory.

US Pat. No. 9,385,666

POWER AMPLIFIER WITH WIDE BAND AM-AM FEEDBACK AND DIGITAL PRE-DISTORTION

Marvell World Trade LTD.,...

1. A system comprising:
an amplifier circuit configured to amplify an input and generate a first output;
a bias circuit configured to bias the amplifier circuit;
a feedback circuit configured to
generate feedback based on the input and the first output, and
adjust a bias of the amplifier circuit based on the feedback to reduce amplitude nonlinearity in the first output,
wherein the feedback circuit comprises:
an operational transconductance amplifier configured to receive the input and the first output and generate a second output;
and

a transimpedance amplifier configured to receive the second output and generate a third output to adjust the bias of the amplifier
circuit; and

a digital pre-distortion circuit configured to reduce phase nonlinearity in the first output.

US Pat. No. 9,397,218

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MITIGATING EFFECTS OF PARASITIC CAPACITANCE IN SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A semiconductor device comprising:
a gate layer comprising (i) a first section and (ii) a second section, wherein the gate layer is non-linear such that the
first section of the gate layer is offset with respect to the second section of the gate layer, and wherein the first section
of the gate layer and the second section of the gate layer form a continuous section of the gate layer; and

a first contact, a second contact, a third contact, and a fourth contact,
wherein the first section of the gate layer is at (i) a first distance from the first contact and (ii) a second distance from
the second contact, wherein the first distance is different from the second distance,

wherein the second section of the gate layer is substantially at a third distance from each of the third contact and the fourth
contact,

wherein at least a part of the first section of the gate layer is included in a first transistor,
wherein at least a part of the second section of the gate layer is included in a second transistor, and
wherein the second transistor is different from and adjacent to the first transistor.

US Pat. No. 9,218,284

STORAGE DEVICE COMMAND INTERVAL CONTROLLER

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. An apparatus comprising:
a first programmable hardware timer that specifies an initial wait time before issuing two or more commands to a storage device;
and

a second programmable hardware timer that specifies an interval time between at least two commands of the two or more commands,
wherein the interval time defines a time period between the at least two commands of the two or more commands and applies
after the initial wait time.

US Pat. No. 9,123,369

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DETERMINING POSITION OF MULTIPLE DRIVE HEADS

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method of determining radial position of a first read head of a storage device, where the first read head is one of at
least two read heads carried by a common actuator relative to a storage media platter surface of the storage device, there
being a known positional offset between the first read head and each other one of the at least two read heads, the method
comprising:
reading servo data from the storage media platter surface using the first read head;
deriving, from the servo data read from the storage media platter surface using the first read head, a first position error
signal representing a first estimate of the radial position of the first read head;

reading the servo data from the storage media platter surface using a different one of the at least two read heads;
deriving, from the servo data read from the storage media platter surface using the different one of the at least two read
heads, a second position error signal representing an estimate of the radial position of the different one of the at least
two read heads; and

combining the first estimate of the radial position of the first read head and the estimate of the radial position of the
different one of the at least two read heads to obtain a revised estimate of the radial position of the first read head.

US Pat. No. 9,178,651

STREAM PARSING IN A COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method for parsing data in a data unit into a number of spatial streams, the method comprising:
selecting a modulation and coding scheme (MCS) from a plurality of MCSs;
encoding information bits to generate coded bits using a plurality of encoders, wherein
a number of encoders in the plurality of encoders corresponds to the selected MCS,
each encoder generates a number of consecutive blocks of s bits,
s is an integer the value of which depends on a constellation size corresponding to the selected MCS, and
a parsing constraint corresponds to the number of consecutive blocks of s bits being an integer multiple of the number of
encoders;

parsing the coded bits into the number of spatial streams according to a first set of parsing rules if the coded bits satisfy
the parsing constraint; and

parsing the coded bits into the number of spatial streams according to a second set of parsing rules if the coded bits do
not satisfy the parsing constraint, wherein parsing the coded bits according to the second set of parsing rules comprises

assigning consecutive blocks of s bits from each encoder in a round robin fashion to the spatial streams, wherein a consecutive
block of s bits from one encoder is assigned to each of the spatial streams in a cycle until M×s residue bits remain at the
output of each encoder at a completion of a cycle, wherein M is an integer less than the number of spatial streams,

assigning the M×s residue bits from a first encoder to a first set of M spatial streams, wherein a consecutive block of s
bits from the first encoder is assigned to each spatial stream in the first set of M spatial streams, and

assigning the M×s residue bits from a second encoder to a second set of M spatial streams, wherein a consecutive block of
s bits from the second encoder is assigned to each spatial stream in the second set of M spatial streams.

US Pat. No. 9,220,114

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR RESTRICTING CHANNEL ACCESS TO A WIRELESS STATION OPERATING IN ACCORDANCE WITH A POWER SAVING SCHEME

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A wireless device comprising:
a transceiver configured to wirelessly receive networking frames over a wireless medium; and
a channel access counter configured to (i) track a time period and (ii) signal that the time period has expired, wherein
the transceiver is configured to wait to access the wireless medium until after the channel access counter signals that the
time period has expired,

the channel access counter is configured to begin the time period in response to a first networking frame of the networking
frames being received by the transceiver,

the first networking frame is addressed to a receiver,
the channel access counter is configured to set a length of the time period based on a first length value in response to a
type of the first networking frame being an acknowledgment frame type,

the first length value is a predetermined value that is equal to a sum of a short interframe space (SIFS) and a transmission
time of a maximum length physical layer convergence procedure protocol data unit frame,

the channel access counter is configured to set the length of the time period based on a second length value in response to
the type of the first networking frame being a data frame type,

the second length value is a predetermined value that is equal to a sum of the SIFS and a predetermined transmission time
for an acknowledgement frame, and

the channel access counter is configured to selectively signal that the time period has expired in response to the transceiver
receiving, during the time period, a second networking frame of the networking frames.

US Pat. No. 9,485,767

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FACILITATING THE COEXISTENCE OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS OF DIFFERENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A first wireless communication device, comprising:
a first transceiver configured to transmit first signals according to a first wireless communication technology;
a second transceiver configured to transmit second signals according to a second wireless communication technology;
a memory configured to store a schedule, wherein the schedule identifies (i) first intervals for allowing communication using
the first signals, and (ii) second intervals for allowing communication using the second signals; and

a coexistence circuit configured to (i) allow the first transceiver to transmit the first signals only during the first intervals,
(ii) allow the second transceiver to transmit the second signals only during the second intervals, and (iii) cause the first
transceiver to transmit, prior to each of the first intervals ending and each of the second intervals beginning, a message
to a second wireless communication device, the message indicating a duration of a respective one of the second intervals,
wherein, in response to the message, transmission by the second wireless communication device according to the first wireless
communication technology is not allowed during the respective one of the second intervals,

wherein the message includes a vendor-specific action frame including a duration parameter, and wherein the duration parameter
indicates one of the duration of the respective one of the second intervals and a duration of a period between adjacent ones
of the first intervals and the second intervals.

US Pat. No. 9,210,655

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR REDUCING POWER CONSUMPTION IN WIRELESS DEVICES

Marvell World Trade LTD.,...

1. A system including a first device and a second device configured to communicate using one or more of (i) a short-range
wireless protocol and (ii) a wireless protocol specified by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, the system
comprising:
a controller configured to
generate a communication schedule based on a profile,
wherein the profile indicates (i) a start time, (ii) a duration, and (iii) a periodicity of communication between the first
device and the second device, and

wherein, consistent with (i) the start time, (ii) the duration, and (iii) the periodicity indicated in the profile, the communication
schedule specifies (i) a first duration to transfer data between the first device and the second device, and (ii) a second
duration in which not to transfer data between the first device and the second device; and

a transmitter configured to
transmit the communication schedule in a message from the first device to the second device,
wherein the message is a pre-defined message specified by the one or more of (i) the short-range wireless protocol and (ii)
the wireless protocol specified by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and

wherein the pre-defined message is dedicated to communicate information about interference present in an operating environment
of the first device and the second device.

US Pat. No. 9,402,270

SECURE DEVICE BOOTSTRAP IDENTITY

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. An apparatus, comprising:
a memory device that stores a primary identifier that is unique to the apparatus, wherein the primary identifier correlates
with a displayed identifier of the apparatus that is used by a remote device to initiate communications with the apparatus;

identifier logic stored on a non-transitory computer-readable medium and including instructions that when executed by one
or more processors of the apparatus cause the apparatus to at least generate a secondary identifier in response to receiving
an association request that includes the displayed identifier when the apparatus is in a bootstrap mode, wherein the bootstrap
mode is a state of the apparatus when the apparatus is initializing and will accept a new association with the remote device,
wherein the association request is a wireless communication that initiates establishing secure communications between the
remote device and the apparatus, and

wherein the identifier logic is configured to generate the secondary identifier by (i) disabling a previously generated secondary
identifier and (ii) generating the secondary identifier again as a different identifier in response to receiving the association
request when in the bootstrap mode; and

communication logic stored on a non-transitory computer-readable medium and including instructions that when executed by the
one or more processors of the apparatus cause the apparatus to at least establish secure wireless communications with the
remote device by causing the remote device to identify the apparatus using the secondary identifier instead of using the primary
identifier.

US Pat. No. 9,220,136

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CONTROLLING A LIGHTING DEVICE

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method, comprising:
detecting a dimming characteristic in an energy source that provides energy to be transferred to a load via a magnetic component;
receiving a dimming control signal;
entering a control mode to control a switch in connection with the magnetic component; and
determining control parameters for the control mode to transfer energy to the load via the magnetic component, wherein determining
the control parameters further comprises:

detecting whether the dimming control signal is compatible with the dimming characteristic;
ignoring the dimming control signal when the dimming control signal is not compatible with the dimming characteristic; and
adjusting values of the control parameters based on the dimming control signal when the dimming control signal is compatible
with the dimming characteristic.

US Pat. No. 9,485,816

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DIMMABLE LED DRIVER

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method, comprising:
transferring energy by a magnetic component from an energy source to a load;
controlling the magnetic component by a switch;
detecting, by control circuit, a dimming characteristic in the energy source from which the load draws a first energy according
to the dimming characteristic, the dimming characteristic requiring a second energy in addition to the first energy to be
drawn from the energy source to sustain an operation of the energy source; and

biasing the switch to consume the second energy, the second energy and the first energy being drawn from the energy source
to sustain the operation of the energy source.

US Pat. No. 9,214,923

WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM INCLUDING DUAL-PURPOSE CLOCK REFERENCE FOR GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM AND BASEBAND

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A wireless communications system comprising:
a clock module configured to generate a first clock reference that is not corrected using automatic frequency correction (AFC);
a global positioning system (GPS) module configured to operate in response to the first clock reference;
an integrated circuit for a cellular transceiver, wherein the integrated circuit comprises a system phase lock loop (PLL)
configured to (i) operate in response to the first clock reference, and (ii) generate a corrected clock reference by performing
AFC on the first clock reference in response to an AFC signal; and

a baseband module configured to (i) operate in response to the first clock reference from the clock module, and (ii) generate
the AFC signal.

US Pat. No. 9,100,136

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR MITIGATING KNOWN INTERFERENCE

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method for mitigating known interference at a receiving device, the method comprising:
receiving a signal from a transmission source that is affected by an interference source;
determining at least one of i) a first pilot signal associated with the transmission source, and ii) a second pilot signal
associated with the interfering source, wherein the first pilot signal includes information broadcast from the transmission
source and the second pilot signal includes information broadcast from the interference source; and

mitigating interference caused by the interference source from the received signal using at least one of i) the first pilot
signal and ii) the second pilot signal, wherein mitigating the interference caused by the interference source comprises generating
an interference whitened received signal based on an interference correlation matrix.

US Pat. No. 9,237,067

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PERMITTING A DEVICE TO AUTOMATICALLY SELECT A NETWORK ADDRESS FOR USE IN A WIRELESS NETWORK

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method for assigning a network address to a first wireless device in a wireless network, wherein the wireless network
includes a predetermined set of network addresses that are allocatable to wireless devices in the wireless network, the method
comprising:
receiving, at the first wireless device, a first message transmitted by a second wireless device in the wireless network,
wherein the first message transmitted by the second wireless device indicates which network addresses within the predetermined
set of network addresses that have not already been allocated to other wireless devices in the wireless network;

the first wireless device assigning, to itself, a first network address, wherein the first network address is among the network
addresses within the predetermined set of network addresses that have not already been allocated to other wireless devices
in the wireless network; and

transmitting, from the first wireless device, a second message to the other wireless devices in the wireless network, wherein
the second message indicates the first network address is no longer being among the network addresses within the predetermined
set of network addresses that have not already been allocated to other wireless devices in the wireless network;

wherein the first message transmitted by the second wireless device comprises a bitmap that indicates which network addresses
within the predetermined set of network addresses that have not already been allocated to other wireless devices in the wireless
network.

US Pat. No. 9,298,628

SHARED OP-SYMMETRIC UPDATE-SENSITIVE VARIABLES

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A multi-core processor system comprising:
a plurality of mutually communicatively inter-coupled processor cores, at least one processor core of the plurality of mutually
communicatively inter-coupled processor cores being configured to:

receive a first instruction directing the at least one processor core to read a first variable associated with a first memory
address;

receive a second instruction directing the at least one processor core to read a second variable associated with a second
memory address;

in response to determining that the first memory address is in a predetermined set of memory addresses, and before execution
of the first instruction, cause ones of the plurality of mutually communicatively inter-coupled processor cores to provide
a plurality of locally stored values of the first variable, the plurality of the locally stored values usable to determine
a first global value of the first variable, the plurality of locally stored values of the first variable being stored individually
in the ones of the processor cores and associated with the first memory address; and

in response to determining that the second memory address is not in the predetermined set of memory addresses, and before
execution of the second instruction, issue a read command to a shared memory for a second global value of the second variable
associated with the second memory address, the second global value being stored in the shared memory.

US Pat. No. 9,184,903

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR PROCESSING TIME-DIVISION SIGNALS AND FREQUENCY-DIVISION SIGNALS

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A system for transmitting signals in a mobile network, the system comprising:
a transceiver configured to
(a) transmit (i) time-division (TD) output signals in a TD transmission/reception band, and (ii) frequency-division (FD) output
signals in a FD transmission band, and

(b) receive (i) TD input signals in the TD transmission/reception band, and (ii) FD input signals in a FD reception band;
a single power amplifier configured to amplify both the TD output signals and the FD output signals received from the transceiver,
wherein the power amplifier is operable with a bandwidth that covers both the TD transmission/reception band and the FD transmission
band; and

an output terminal having a duplexer, wherein the output terminal is configured to respectively generate transmission signals
based on (i) the TD output signals amplified by the power amplifier, and (ii) the FD output signals as amplified by the power
amplifier, and wherein the duplexer is configured to receive the amplified FD output signals and output corresponding FD transmission
signals to an antenna, and wherein the duplexer is further configured to not receive the amplified TD output signals;

a switch configured to route the amplified FD output signals to the duplexer and to route the amplified TD output signals
to bypass the duplexer,

wherein the FD transmission band and the FD reception band are different from each other and from the TD transmission/reception
band, and

wherein the TD transmission/reception band is adjacent to the FD transmission band.

US Pat. No. 9,320,048

WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS WITH PRIMARY AND SECONDARY ACCESS CATEGORIES

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method, comprising:
determining a primary access category for a transmission opportunity (TXOP) to transmit data to a primary wireless communication
device, the primary access category being an access category included in a group of access categories that are associated
with different transmission priorities, respectively, wherein determining the primary access category comprises determining
the TXOP based on a first back-off timer associated with the primary access category;

retrieving one or more primary data units belonging to the primary access category to transmit to the primary wireless communication
device during the TXOP;

determining a secondary access category for the TXOP, the secondary access category being an access category included in the
group of access categories, the secondary access category having a transmission priority different from the primary access
category, wherein determining the secondary access category comprises (i) determining whether there is an access category
having a higher transmission priority than the primary access category and having data ready to send, and (ii) selecting as
the secondary access category, the access category with the higher transmission priority;

retrieving one or more secondary data units belonging to the secondary access category to transmit to a secondary wireless
communication device during the TXOP;

transmitting, via two or more antennas, spatially steered streams during the TXOP, the steered streams embodying (i) the one
or more primary data units and (ii) the one or more secondary data units, wherein the steered streams concurrently provide
separate data to respective devices comprising the primary wireless communication device and the secondary wireless communication
device;

controlling a second back-off timer associated with the secondary access category, wherein the second back-off timer is not
penalized for a communication failure associated with the primary access category during the TXOP; and

controlling a contention window associated with the secondary access category, wherein the contention window is not penalized
in response to a communication failure associated with the secondary access category during the TXOP, wherein the second back-off
timer is not penalized for the communication failure associated with the secondary access category during the TXOP.

US Pat. No. 9,306,645

INTERFERENCE AVOIDANCE FOR BEAMFORMING TRANSMISSIONS IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATION DEVICES AND SYSTEMS

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method comprising:
accessing, at a first device, data for transmission to a second device;
performing, at the first device, a channel sounding process with the second device to obtain first channel feedback regarding
a wireless channel between the first device and the second device;

performing, at the first device, a channel sounding process with a third device to obtain second channel feedback regarding
a wireless channel between the first device and the third device;

determining a steering matrix based on the first channel feedback and the second channel feedback to reduce interference leakage
received by the third device during a beamforming transmission from the first device to the second device, wherein determining
the steering matrix comprises: (i) determining a first matrix responsive to the first channel feedback to improve a performance
of the beamforming transmission with respect to the second device and (ii) determining, responsive to the second channel feedback,
a second matrix based on a null space of a wireless channel matrix associated with the wireless channel between the first
device and the third device to reduce interference leakage received by the third device during the beamforming transmission,
the steering matrix being based on the first matrix and the second matrix; and

performing, at the first device, the beamforming transmission to the second device based on (i) the data and (ii) the steering
matrix.

US Pat. No. 9,298,627

SHARED OP-SYMMETRIC UPDATE-SENSITIVE VARIABLES

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A multi-core processor system comprising:
a plurality of mutually communicatively inter-coupled processor cores, at least one processor core of the plurality of mutually
communicatively inter-coupled processor cores being configured to:

receive an instruction directing the at least one processor core to read a variable associated with a memory address; and
in response to receiving the instruction and before execution of the instruction, cause ones of the plurality of mutually
communicatively inter-coupled processor cores to provide a plurality of locally stored values of the variable, the plurality
of locally stored values usable to determine a global value of the variable, the locally stored values being stored individually
in the ones of the plurality of mutually communicatively inter-coupled processor cores and being associated with the memory
address.

US Pat. No. 9,307,482

NETWORK ACCESS MECHANISM BASED ON POWER

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method comprising:
receiving, by a first node connected to a network, a signal from a second node that does not have access to the network and
is seeking to gain access to the network;

measuring, by the first node, a power of the signal received from the second node;
selecting, by the first node, a group of communication channel slots based on the measured power of the received signal, wherein
the group of communication channel slots is selected from a plurality of groups of communication channel slots that are respectively
assigned to different power levels;

opening, by the first node, the selected group of communication channel slots for the second node to choose from;
receiving, by the first node, from the second node, a selection of one or more of the communication channel slots from the
selected group of communication channel slots; and

determining, by the first node, whether to permit the second node to gain access to the network based on (i) the measured
power of the received signal, and (ii) which one or more communication channel slots the second node selected from the group
of communication channel slots.

US Pat. No. 9,101,058

IC PACKAGE AND ASSEMBLY

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A circuit, comprising:
an integrated circuit (IC) package that includes an interposer having an outline portion that is notched with each notch at
least partially plated to form conductive components within the notches;

a printed circuit board (PCB) substrate formed with an opening portion that is dimensioned to accommodate the IC package;
and

wherein when the IC package is disposed in the opening portion and is electrically coupled to the PCB substrate for PCB assembling,
a thickness of the assembled PCB is less than a thickness sum of the IC package and the PCB substrate.

US Pat. No. 9,554,441

CURRENT BALANCING FOR LIGHT-EMITTING-DIODE-BASED ILLUMINATION SYSTEMS

Marvell World Trade LTD.,...

10. A method comprising:
generating ultraviolet light from a first set of light emitting diodes;
converting, using a phosphor coated on the first set of light emitting diodes, the ultraviolet light to blue light;
generating blue light from a second set of light emitting diodes;
converting, using phosphors coated on the second set of light emitting diodes, the blue light generated by the second set
of light emitting diodes to output (i) green light, (ii) yellow light, and (iii) red light;

outputting, using the second set of light emitting diodes, less red light than green light;
generating blue light from a third set of light emitting diodes light;
converting, using phosphors coated on the third set of light emitting diodes, the blue light generated by the third set of
light emitting diodes to output (i) green light, (ii) yellow light, and (iii) red light;

outputting, using the third set of light emitting diodes, less green light than red light; and
producing white light by combining the blue, green, yellow, and red light output by the first, second, and third sets of light
emitting diodes.

US Pat. No. 9,209,163

PACKAGE-ON-PACKAGE STRUCTURES

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A package on package arrangement comprising:
a first package including
a substrate layer including (i) a top side, and (ii) a bottom side that is opposite to the top side, wherein the top side
of the substrate layer defines a substantially flat surface;

a die coupled to the bottom side of the substrate layer;
an encapsulant covering the die;
a ball grid array (BGA) of first solder balls in recesses of the encapsulant; and
second solder balls melted by a non-weld process to the first solder balls in the recesses of the encapsulant, wherein the
second solder balls (i) are partially in the recesses of the encapsulant and (ii) partially protrude beyond the encapsulant,
wherein the portion of the second solder balls that protrudes beyond the encapsulant is substantially spherical, smooth, and
void of any sharp features; and

a second package including
a plurality of rows of third solder balls that extend (i) across the substantially flat surface of the top side of the substrate
layer of the first package and (ii) over the die coupled to the bottom side of the substrate layer of the first package, wherein
the second package is attached, via the plurality of rows of third solder balls, to the substantially flat surface of the
top side of the substrate layer of the first package.

US Pat. No. 9,119,186

FREQUENCY DOMAIN DUPLICATION IN A LONG-RANGE WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method, in a communication device operating according to a communication protocol, for generating orthogonal frequency
division multiplexing (OFDM) signals to be transmitted in a basic service set (BSS) channel, wherein a set of two or more
component channels is collectively coextensive with the BSS channel, wherein the communication protocol defines (i) a non-duplicate
mode data unit corresponding to a single component channel within the set of two or more component channels and (ii) a non-duplicate
mode data unit corresponding to a first set of adjacent component channels within the set of two or more component channels,
wherein the non-duplicate mode data unit corresponding to the single component channel has (i) a first number of lower-edge
guard tones and (ii) a first number of upper-edge guard tones, wherein the non-duplicate mode data unit corresponding to the
first set of adjacent component channels has (i) a second number of lower-edge guard tones and (ii) a second number of upper-edge
guard tones, and wherein at least one of (i) the second number of lower-edge guard tones is greater than the first number
of lower-edge guard tones or (ii) the second number of upper-edge guard tones is greater than the first number of upper-edge
guard tones, the method comprising:
determining, at the communication device, that a duplicate mode will be utilized for a first OFDM transmission in the first
set of adjacent component channels; and

in response to determining that the duplicate mode will be utilized for the first OFDM transmission,
generating, at the communication device, a first duplicate mode data unit corresponding to the first set of adjacent component
channels, such that the first duplicate mode data unit has one or both of (i) less than the second number of lower-edge guard
tones and (ii) less than the second number of upper-edge guard tones,

wherein the first duplicate mode data unit includes, for each component channel in the first set of adjacent component channels,
one duplicate, in frequency, of the non-duplicate mode data unit corresponding to the single component channel.

US Pat. No. 9,232,389

MIXED MODE SECURITY FOR MESH NETWORKS

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method for providing mixed mode security for a mesh network comprising (i) a plurality of open mesh points that are configured
to send and receive unencrypted traffic, and (ii) a plurality of secure mesh points that are configured to send and receive
encrypted traffic, the method comprising:
configuring a first secure mesh point in the plurality of secure mesh points to operate in a mixed mode in which the first
secure mesh point is configured to (i) exchange encrypted traffic with other secure mesh points and (ii) exchange unencrypted
traffic with open mesh points; and

while the first secure mesh point is operating in the mixed mode:
receiving, at the first secure mesh point, traffic from either one of the open mesh points or a second secure mesh point with
which the first secure mesh point has already exchanged encrypted traffic,

if the traffic is unencrypted traffic, one of
(i) forwarding, with the first secure mesh point, the unencrypted traffic to an open mesh point in the plurality of open mesh
points, or

(ii) if the unencrypted traffic is destined for the first secure mesh point, accepting and processing the unencrypted traffic
at the first secure mesh point, and

if the traffic is encrypted traffic, processing the encrypted traffic.

US Pat. No. 9,218,234

MEMORY DUMP AND ANALYSIS IN A COMPUTER SYSTEM

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method for executing a memory dump in a computer system, the method comprising:
detecting a trigger event in the computer system, the computer system being configured to detect both a kernel panic and a
system hang and to execute the memory dump if either of the kernel panic or the system hang is detected; and

executing the memory dump in the computer system in response to the detecting of the trigger event, the execution of the memory
dump including:

storing a current context of the computer system in a portion of a memory device, wherein the portion of the memory device
is a static random access memory (SRAM), wherein prior to the detecting of the triggering event the portion is reserved for
use as a video memory, and wherein the current context is stored without reserving the portion for use in the memory dump
prior to the detecting of the trigger event,

writing of a signature at a specific position in the memory device,
restarting the computer system and executing a bootstrap program, wherein a running space of the bootstrap program is restricted
to the portion of the memory device, and wherein the execution of the bootstrap program includes detecting the signature at
the specific position of the memory device,

downloading, from a host device, instructions indicating a start address and a size of data, containing the stored current
context, to be uploaded to the host device,

compressing a memory interval of the portion of the SRAM memory device based on the instructions, and
using the bootstrap program to upload the compressed memory interval to the host device in response to the signature being
detected.

US Pat. No. 9,281,877

TRAINING SEQUENCE INDICATION FOR WLAN

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method for generating a data unit for transmission via a multiple input, multiple output (MIMO) communication channel,
the method comprising:
generating, at a communication device, a plurality of training sequences to be included in a preamble of the data unit;
when the data unit is to be transmitted in a single user mode in which the data unit is intended for a single receiver,
generating, at the communication device, a first field of the preamble to include an indicator that the data unit is being
transmitted in the single user mode, and

generating, at the communication device, a second field of the preamble to include bits of an identifier of the single receiver;
when the data unit is being transmitted in a multi-user mode in which the data unit is intended for multiple receivers,
generating, at the communication device, the first field of the preamble to include an indicator that the data unit is being
transmitted in the multi-user mode, and

generating, at the communication device, the second field of the preamble to include one or more indications of one or more
sets of training signals in the preamble, the one or more sets of training signals corresponding to transmission of the data
unit to one or more receivers;

generating, at the communication device, the preamble such that the first field of the preamble and the second field of the
preamble will be transmitted prior to the plurality of training sequences being transmitted; and

generating, at the communication device, the data unit to include the preamble such that,
when the data unit is transmitted in the single user mode, the preamble includes i) the indicator that the data unit is being
transmitted in the single user mode in the first field, and ii) bits of the identifier of the single receiver in the second
field, and

when the data unit is transmitted in the multi-user mode, the preamble includes i) the indicator that the data unit is being
transmitted in the multi-user mode in the first field, and ii) the one or more indications of one or more sets of training
signals in the second field.

US Pat. No. 9,226,233

REDUCING POWER CONSUMPTION IN A WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method, comprising:
organizing, at an access point device, a first wireless local area network (WLAN) corresponding to a first basic service set
(BSS) and a second WLAN corresponding to a second BSS, including

setting a value of a first parameter of the first WLAN that indicates a time duration during which the access point device
will not dissociate first client stations in the first WLAN due to lack of communications from the first client stations,
and

setting a value of a second parameter of the second WLAN that indicates a time duration during which the access point device
will not dissociate second client stations in the second WLAN due to lack of communications from the second client stations,

wherein the value of the first parameter is at least an order of magnitude larger than the value of the second parameter;
transmitting, with the access point device, to one or more first client stations in the first WLAN the value of the first
parameter; and

transmitting, with the access point device, to one or more second client stations in the second WLAN the value of the second
parameter.

US Pat. No. 9,153,337

FATIGUE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR HYBRID NONVOLATILE SOLID STATE MEMORY SYSTEM

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A solid state memory system, comprising:
a first nonvolatile semiconductor memory having a first write cycle lifetime and a first set of physical addresses;
a second nonvolatile semiconductor memory having a second write cycle lifetime and a second set of physical addresses, wherein
the first write cycle lifetime is greater than the second write cycle lifetime; and

a fatigue management module configured to
generate write frequency rankings for a plurality of logical addresses, wherein each of the write frequency rankings is based
on an elapsed time since a last write cycle of a respective one of the plurality of logical addresses,

based on the write frequency rankings, map each of the plurality of logical addresses to a physical address of the first set
of physical addresses or the second set of physical addresses, and

wherein the write frequency ranking for one of the plurality of logical addresses is based on a weighted time-decay average
of write counts for the one of the plurality of logical addresses.

US Pat. No. 9,304,749

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR INSTRUCTION SCHEDULING

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method for instruction scheduling, comprising:
receiving a sequence of instructions;
identifying data dependencies between instructions;
identifying a pattern of redundant flag-register read and/or write accesses based on dependency of the instructions; and
re-ordering the instructions, based on data dependencies and ignoring the identified redundant flag-register access dependencies
to reduce execution latency, by:

constructing a directed graph with vertexes and edges between the vertexes, the vertexes corresponding to the instructions
and the edges being latency labelled and corresponding to data dependencies and non-redundant flag dependencies, and

topology-sorting the directed graph according to a critical latency-oriented model to reduce the execution latency.

US Pat. No. 9,250,935

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR LOOP SUSPENSION IN JAVA PROGRAMMING

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method comprising:
loading loop instructions, associated with a loop process, into a code cache;
identifying a branch instruction of the loop process in the code cache;
detecting a suspension event;
in response to detecting the suspension event, replacing the branch instruction in the code cache with a jump instruction
for jumping to an interpreter configured to execute one or more suspension instructions associated with the suspension event;

continuing program execution until the jump instruction is reached;
when the jump instruction is reached, executing the jump instruction by jumping to the interpreter;
in response to the executing of the jump instruction, restoring the branch instructions in the code cache, and
executing, by the interpreter, the one or more suspension instructions, wherein the restoring of the branch instruction in
the code cache is performed before completion of the executing of the one or more suspension instructions; and

returning to execution of the loop process after the executing of the one or more suspension instructions.

US Pat. No. 9,219,484

REFERENCE CLOCK COMPENSATION FOR FRACTIONAL-N PHASE LOCK LOOPS (PLLS)

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method comprising:
estimating a first parameter based on a phase difference between a first clock and a second clock in a plurality of cycles;
and

adjusting a second parameter used to generate the second clock during the plurality of cycles based on a polarity of the first
parameter.

US Pat. No. 9,218,856

CIRCUITS, ARCHITECTURES, APPARATUSES, SYSTEMS, ALGORITHMS, AND METHODS FOR MEMORY WITH MULTIPLE POWER SUPPLIES AND/OR MULTIPLE LOW POWER MODES

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A memory comprising:
a memory array having a memory array ground terminal at a memory array ground potential, wherein the memory array is configured
to function in a higher power mode and a lower power mode;

a supply ground terminal located external to the memory array, wherein the supply ground terminal is at a supply ground potential;
a voltage bias source connected from the memory array ground terminal to the supply ground terminal to raise the memory array
ground potential above the supply ground potential by a voltage differential;

a switching device connected in parallel with the voltage bias source, wherein the switching device is configured to (i) conduct
during the higher power mode and thereby bypass the voltage bias source to reduce the voltage differential and (ii) refrain
from conducting during the lower power mode and thereby not bypass the voltage differential device and not reduce the voltage
differential;

a power supply configured to provide a supply voltage at a higher level to power the memory array; and
a processor configured to
control the switching device to, in the higher power mode, conduct and thereby bypass the voltage bias source without the
voltage bias source being deactivated and without the voltage bias source being disconnected from the memory array ground
terminal and without the voltage bias source being disconnected from the supply ground terminal;

in at least one period of the lower power mode, control the power supply to lower the supply voltage to a lower level, wherein
the lower level is sufficiently high for the memory array to function to retain data; and

in another period of the lower power mode, control the power supply to keep the supply voltage at the higher level.

US Pat. No. 9,135,684

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR IMAGE ENHANCEMENT BY LOCAL TONE CURVE MAPPING

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method of adjusting a digital image, comprising:
performing a low pass filtering on a digital image to generate filtered image data;
dividing the digital image into a plurality of pixel regions, wherein each pixel region is one or more pixels in size and
at a different location in the digital image;

identifying a brightness level of a particular pixel region of the digital image using the filtered image data;
selecting transformation curve for the particular pixel region based on the brightness level;
applying the transformation curve to the particular pixel region to generate adjusted image data for the particular pixel
region having an adjusted brightness; and

storing the adjusted image data in a computer-readable medium.

US Pat. No. 9,307,523

REFERENCE SIGNAL DESIGN FOR COORDINATED MULTIPOINT TRANSMISSION

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method, comprising:
controlling a plurality of transmission points, which are configured to operate in accordance with a Coordinated Multipoint
(CoMP) transmission scheme, to transmit from the plurality of transmission points a same composite Reference Signal (RS) simultaneously
with one another, coherently with one another and in the same time-frequency resource elements (REs) to a mobile communication
terminal;

receiving from the terminal feedback, which is estimated in the terminal based on the composite RS that originated simultaneously
and coherently from the plurality of the transmission points, the feedback being calculated in the terminal assuming a single-transmission-point
transmission, but is indicative of a response of a composite communication channel between the plurality of the transmission
points and the terminal; and

configuring subsequent transmission from the plurality of the transmission points based on the received feedback that was
calculated in the terminal assuming the single-transmission-point transmission.

US Pat. No. 9,277,425

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A mobile communication system comprising:
a first communication device configured to
generate a reference clock signal,
receive a wireless first received signal,
determine a first frequency deviation between the first received signal and the reference clock signal, and
adjust the reference clock signal to reduce the first frequency deviation; and
a second communication device configured to
generate a frequency-indicative signal that (i) is indicative of a receiving frequency of the second communication device
and (ii) is based on the reference clock signal such that adjustment of the reference clock signal by the first communication
device would cause a corresponding adjustment to the second clock signal,

receive a wireless second received signal,
determine a second frequency deviation between the second received signal and the frequency-indicative signal, and
adjust the frequency-indicative clock signal to reduce the second frequency deviation; and
wherein the first communication device is further configured to, after the adjusting of the reference clock signal,
start receiving a wireless third received signal,
end receiving the third received signal during the receiving of the second received signal,
after waiting until the receiving of the second received signal is completed, determine a third frequency deviation between
the third received signal and the reference clock signal, and

adjust the reference clock signal to reduce the third frequency deviation.

US Pat. No. 9,288,159

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR DEEP PACKET INSPECTION WITH A VIRTUAL MACHINE

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A system for performing deep packet inspection of data packets, the system comprising at least one processor configured
to:
receive a plurality of data packets to be forwarded; and
select one or more of the plurality of data packets based at least in part on a first set of rules for deep packet inspection,
by inspecting a predetermined sequence of bits at a predetermined offset of each of the plurality of data packets;

perform deep packet inspection on the selected one or more data packets to determine whether the selected one or more data
packets are allowed for forwarding, according to a second set of rules that are based on

(i) characters in the selected one or more data packets matching a predetermined pattern,
(ii) strings in the selected one or more data packets matching a predetermined pattern,
(iii) cardinality of a group consisting of the selected one or more data packets, wherein the cardinality represents how many
packets are in the group,

(iv) behavioral and statistical analyses of the selected one or more data packets to identify a virus or analyze network traffic,
and

(v) existence, from among the selected one or more data packets, a plurality of consecutive data packets that together contain
a particular sequence of actions that indicates a particular application or network entity;

discard the selected one or more data packets in response to determining, based on the deep packet inspection, that the selected
one or more data packets are not allowed for forwarding;

forward the selected one or more data packets in response to determining, based on the deep packet inspection, that the selected
data packets are allowed for forwarding; and

wherein the receiving, the selecting, the discarding and the forwarding are performed by a packet forwarding component; and
wherein the deep packet inspection is performed by a virtual machine component.

US Pat. No. 9,275,196

IMPLEMENTING SECURITY FUNCTIONS USING ROM

MARVELL WORLD TRADE Ltd.,...

1. An apparatus, comprising:
a read-only memory (ROM) that stores (i) boot functions for initiating the apparatus, (ii) a plurality of security functions
and (iii) a mapping of locations of the plurality of security functions in the ROM;

a processor configured to:
generate a callback to a security function of the plurality of security functions, wherein the callback is a function call
for the security function to execute,

in response to the callback, determine a location in the ROM of the security function using the mapping, and
execute the security function upon branching to the location of the security function in the ROM according to the mapping,
wherein the processor is configured to use the mapping to select security functions of the plurality of security functions
to execute when operating after booting.

US Pat. No. 9,118,530

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR WLAN TRANSMISSION

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method, implemented in a communication device, for generating a physical layer (PHY) data unit for transmission via a
communication channel, the method comprising:
selecting, in the communication device, a modulation scheme from a plurality of modulation schemes;
encoding, in the communication device, information bits to generate encoded data using one or more encoders;
selecting, in the communication device, a number of spatial streams NSS;

parsing, in the communication device, the encoded data into the number of spatial streams NSS;

selecting, in the communication device, a first interleaving parameter NCOL ;

selecting, in the communication device, a second interleaving parameter NROT using the selected number of spatial streams NSS, wherein NROT varies for different numbers of spatial streams;

interleaving, in the communication device, the encoded data, including entering the encoded data into a matrix having an integer
number of rows equal to NROW and an integer number of columns equal to NCOL , reading the encoded data out in the NCOL columns, and applying a frequency rotation r according to

r=(j?f*NROT*NBPSCS(iSS)) mod NCBPSS(iSS)

where iSS is a spatial stream index, NCBPSS(iSS) is a number of coded bits per symbol for an iSS-th spatial stream, NBPSCS(iSS) is a number of coded bits per subcarrier for the iSS-th spatial stream, j=0, 1, . . . , NCBPSS(iSS)?1, and f is an integer that varies based on the spatial stream index iSS;

modulating, in the communication device, payload information of the PHY data unit according to the modulation scheme, wherein
the payload information includes the interleaved encoded data; and

forming, in the communication device, a plurality of orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM) symbols based on the modulated
payload information.

US Pat. No. 9,289,422

INITIAL ACQUISITION USING CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method, comprising:
holding in a memory of a receiver, for multiple temperatures, (i) respective first parameters indicative of frequency errors
of a crystal oscillator in the receiver at the respective temperatures, and (ii) respective second parameters that specify
whether the corresponding first parameters were most-recently updated during successful operation of the receiver at the respective
temperatures or only during initial characterization of the crystal oscillator;

measuring an operating temperature of the crystal oscillator;
selecting a center frequency based on one of the first parameters corresponding to the measured operating temperature;
selecting, based on one of the second parameters corresponding to the measured operating temperature, a size of a frequency
uncertainty range around the center frequency, over which to attempt initial acquisition of signals from a transmitter; and

tuning the receiver to acquire the signals from the transmitter over the selected frequency uncertainty range around the center
frequency.

US Pat. No. 9,294,164

NUMBER OF STREAMS INDICATION FOR WLAN

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method for generating a preamble of a data unit for transmission via a communication channel, the method comprising:
including a first indication of a first number of spatial or space-time streams in a first sub-field of a first field of the
preamble, wherein the first number of spatial or space-time streams corresponds to transmission of the data unit to a first
receiver;

including one or more training sequences in a second field of the preamble;
including in a second sub-field of the first field an indication of whether space-time block coding is to be used in transmitting
the data unit via the communication channel;

when the data unit corresponds to only one receiver,
including in a third sub-field of the first field an indication that the data unit corresponds to only one receiver, and
including in a fourth sub-field of the first field of the preamble an indicator of the one receiver so that other receivers
can determine that the data unit is not addressed to the other receivers;

when the data unit corresponds to a group of multiple receivers,
including in the third sub-field an indication that the data unit corresponds to multiple receivers, and
including in the fourth sub-field of the first field of the preamble a second indication of a second number of spatial or
space-time streams, wherein the second number of spatial or space-time streams corresponds to transmission of the data unit
to the second receiver; and

formatting the preamble such that the first field of the preamble will be transmitted prior to the second field of the preamble
being transmitted.

US Pat. No. 9,232,385

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DISCOVERING A WIRELESS DEVICE IN A WIRELESS NETWORK

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. An apparatus for synchronizing discovery of wireless services or applications in a wireless network during a recurring
time interval T in which wireless nodes within the wireless network can be active in one of a predetermined plurality of time
states, the apparatus comprising circuitry configured to
(i) select a time state from the plurality of time states;
(ii) perform discovery once during the recurring time interval T at the selected time state; and
repeat the above operations (i), (ii) in successive ones of the recurring time interval T until all of the predetermined plurality
of time states have been selected exactly once within the successive ones of the recurring time interval T by the apparatus
and each of the wireless nodes.

US Pat. No. 9,077,364

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CONVERTING AN ANALOG SIGNAL TO A DIGITAL SIGNAL BASED ON REFERENCE VOLTAGES PROVIDED BY REFERENCE LADDERS

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A circuit comprising:
a first reference ladder configured to provide a plurality of first reference voltages via a plurality of first taps;
a selection circuit connected to the plurality of first taps, wherein the selection circuit is configured to select one of
the plurality of first reference voltages;

a second reference ladder configured to, based on the selected one of the plurality of first reference voltages, provide a
plurality of second reference voltages via a plurality of second taps;

a first analog to digital converter configured to (i) receive a first version of an analog input signal, and (ii) convert
the first version of the analog input signal to a first digital signal; wherein the first reference ladder is separate from
the first analog to digital converter;

a second analog to digital converter connected to the plurality of second taps, wherein the second analog to digital converter
is configured to (i) receive a second version of the analog input signal, and (ii) based on the plurality of second reference
voltages, convert the second version of the analog input signal to a second digital signal; and

a summer configured to generate a digital output signal based on (i) the first digital signal, and (ii) the second digital
signal.

US Pat. No. 9,306,586

METHODS AND DEVICES FOR IMPLEMENTING ALL-DIGITAL PHASE LOCKED LOOP

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method comprising:
detecting a first edge of an oscillator signal in a digital phase lock loop;
detecting an edge of a reference clock;
detecting a second edge of the oscillator signal, the second edge of the oscillator signal having a different transition type
from the first edge of the oscillator signal;

generating a detection signal indicative of the edge of the reference clock being near the first edge of the oscillator signal,
based on the first and second edges of the oscillator signal and the edge of the reference clock;

detecting a fractional phase of a time to digital convertor of the digital phase lock loop based on the edge of the reference
clock and the first edge of the oscillator signal;

adding a correction to a phase signal based on the detected fractional phase and the detection signal; and
outputting the phase signal to control a digital processor.

US Pat. No. 9,288,149

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TRANSMITTING PACKETS IN ACCORDANCE WITH IEEE 802.1 QBV

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A network device, comprising:
a plurality of queues, each of the plurality of queues configured to store respective frames of data having a priority level
associated with a corresponding one of the plurality of queues; and

a shaper configured to
transmit, during a first portion of a transmission interval, frames of data from a first one of the plurality of queues having
a highest priority level,

block frames of data from a second one of the plurality of queues during a blocking band extending from a first time prior
to a start of the transmission interval to a second time indicating the start of the transmission interval,

determine, based on the second time and a maximum frame size to be transmitted during the transmission interval, the first
time, and

selectively transmit, subsequent to the first time and prior to the second time, frames of data from the second one of the
plurality of queues based on the second time,

wherein the shaper is configured to i) determine a size of a next one of the frames of data from the second one of the plurality
of queues, ii) determine, based on the first time and the second time, a number of clock cycles available prior to the second
time, and iii) selectively transmit the next one of the frames of data based on the size of the next one of the frames of
data and the number of clock cycles available.

US Pat. No. 9,213,401

ZERO POWER HIBERNATION MODE WITH INSTANT ON

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A processor, comprising:
power management logic configured to:
receive a control signal requesting the processor to transition into a power saving mode that reduces power to the processor
while retaining a current state of the processor;

store, in response to the control signal, a current state of components of the processor in a non-volatile memory;
adjust power to the processor to a zero power mode to place the processor into the power saving mode, wherein during the
zero power mode the processor is receiving no power, wherein the power management logic is configured to control a
volatile memory to initiate a self-refresh mode prior to adjusting the power in order to maintain data stored in the volatile
memory while the processor is in the power saving mode; and restore the processor to an on mode if in the power saving mode
by adjusting the stored current state of the components in the non-volatile memory to, generate an updated state which is
different from the stored current state, and updating one or more resisters in the processor with the updated state.

US Pat. No. 9,357,517

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR WIRELESS BASEBAND PROCESSING

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. An apparatus for receiving signals associated with one or more wireless communication protocols, the apparatus comprising:
single carrier receiver circuitry for demodulating a received single carrier signal, the single carrier receiver circuitry
including,

a first digital interpolator comprising a linear interpolator operating at a first clock sampling frequency, wherein the first
digital interpolator has an input data rate at the first clock sampling frequency and an output data rate at a second clock
sampling frequency,

a decoding core for decoding the received single carrier signal using a third clock sampling frequency that is an integer
multiple of the second clock sampling frequency,

a numerically controlled oscillator configured to adjust the interpolation phase of the first digital interpolator, and
a clock generation control module configured to receive a clock signal to generate the second a the third clock sampling frequencies
based on a control signal;

multi-carrier receiver circuitry for demodulating a received multi-carrier signal, the multi-carrier receiver circuitry including
a second digital interpolator, wherein symbol timing recovery is executed in the apparatus by adjusting an interpolation phase
of the first digital interpolator or the second digital interpolator; and

a clock coupled to the single carrier receiver circuitry and coupled to the multi-carrier receiver circuitry, the clock being
configured to supply the clock signal that is processed to generate a plurality of clock sampling frequencies for demodulating
the received single carrier signal and the received multi-carrier signal.

US Pat. No. 9,306,786

SHORT GUARD INTERVAL WITH GREEN FIELD PREAMBLE

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A wireless communication device, comprising:
a transmitter configured to generate an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signal that comprises (i) a preamble
and (ii) a data segment, wherein the data segment follows the preamble, and wherein the data segment includes a plurality
of data symbols that are each respectively preceded by a corresponding guard interval,

wherein (i) a first guard interval preceding a first data symbol in the data segment has a first duration of time, and (ii)
each of the corresponding guard intervals that precede the remaining data symbols subsequent to the first data symbol in the
data segment have a second duration of time, wherein the second duration of time is shorter than the first duration of time,
wherein the preamble is a greenfield preamble,

wherein the transmitter is configured to generate the OFDM signal with a signal (SIG) field as a last field of the preamble
to indicate (i) that the data segment is arranged with the first guard interval having the first duration and the second guard
interval having the second duration of time that is shorter than the first duration of time and (ii) that the OFDM signal
is a single stream communication.

US Pat. No. 9,264,269

ELECTRO-MAGNETIC INTERFERENCE REDUCTION FOR SWITCHED SIGNAL SYSTEMS

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method comprising:
receiving a pulse width modulation signal;
determining an Nth-order derivative of the pulse width modulation signal based on a difference between two values at two consecutive
indexes of an (N?1)th-order derivative of the pulse width modulation signal, wherein N is greater than one;

determining a value that is based on the Nth-order derivative; and
applying the value to modulate a switching frequency of the pulse width modulation signal to generate a modulated pulse width
modulation signal, wherein the applied value reduces electro-magnetic interference in the modulated pulse width modulation
signal.

US Pat. No. 9,294,649

POSITION CORRECTION IN HANDHELD IMAGE TRANSLATION DEVICE

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. An apparatus comprising:
a memory configured to store an image to be translated onto a medium;
a position module configured to control one or more navigation sensors to determine a first position of the apparatus relative
to the medium;

a print module comprising a print head, the print module configured to cause a printing substance to be deposited on the medium
based at least in part on the determined first position of the apparatus relative to the medium;

an image capture module configured to control an optical imaging sensor to capture a surface image of a section of the medium
having the deposited printing substance;

wherein the position module is further configured to
compare the captured surface image of the section of the medium with a portion of an image stored in the memory, and
determine a second position of the apparatus relative to the medium based at least in part on the comparison,
wherein the print head comprises one or more nozzle rows, and
wherein the optical imaging sensor includes a linear array of optical elements having a linear dimension that is similar to
a linear dimension of the print head.

US Pat. No. 9,288,269

NETWORK PRESENCE OFFLOAD

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A social media client device configured to operate in a social media system, the social media client device comprising:
a host processor located on the social media client device, wherein the host processor is configured to execute a host social
media client while the device is in an awake mode, wherein the host social media client maintains a network connection with
a social media server for the social media client device while executing the host social media client, wherein the host social
media client executed by the host processor provides social media services to a user of the social media client device, and
wherein the host processor is configured to store, in a first memory, wake criteria indicative of events that cause the social
media client device to transition from a sleep mode to the awake mode; and

a network interface controller comprising an embedded processor, separate from the host processor and located on the same
social media client device as the host processor, wherein the embedded processor is configured to i) execute an embedded social
media client while the social media client device is in the sleep mode, wherein the embedded social media client is configured
to maintain the network connection for the social media client device while executing the embedded social media client, ii)
store, in a second memory separate from the first memory, the wake criteria in response to the social media client device
transitioning from the awake mode to the sleep mode, and iii) transition the social media client device from the sleep mode
to the awake mode in response to a comparison between an event received via the network connection and the wake criteria.

US Pat. No. 9,294,323

EXTENDED GUARD INTERVAL FOR OUTDOOR WLAN

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method for generating a data unit for transmission via a communication channel, the method comprising:
generating a data portion of the data unit, including generating orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) symbols
of the data portion using a guard interval selected from a set of guard intervals that includes (i) a normal guard interval,
(ii) a short guard interval, and (iii) a long guard interval;

generating a preamble of the data unit, including generating the preamble to indicate whether at least OFDM symbols of the
data portion are generated using the normal guard interval, the short guard interval, or the long guard interval, wherein,
when the at least OFDM symbols of the data portion are generated using the long guard interval, generating the preamble includes
(i) generating two or more repetitions of a legacy signal field, and (ii) including the two or more repetitions of the legacy
signal field in the preamble, wherein presence of the two or more repetitions of the legacy signal field in the preamble serves
as an indication that the at least OFDM symbols of the data portion are generated using the long guard interval; and

generating the data unit to include the preamble and the data portion.

US Pat. No. 9,281,852

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CALIBRATING TIME ALIGNMENT

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method comprising:
setting a circuit to a mode;
providing a test tone having a first frequency to the circuit for use in calibrating the circuit;
generating an envelope signal according to the test tone;
generating, using an amplifier, an output signal corresponding to the test tone, wherein a power supply voltage of the amplifier
is controlled according to the envelope signal;

generating a received signal based on the output signal of the circuit, wherein the received signal includes a component having
a second frequency that is a harmonic of the first frequency;

determining a magnitude of the component having the second frequency in the received signal; and
adjusting a delay of the circuit corresponding to the mode according to the magnitude of the component.

US Pat. No. 9,129,678

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR REFORMING A MEMORY CELL OF A MEMORY

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A memory comprising:
a memory cell having a first state and a second state, wherein the second state is different than the first state;
a first module configured to, subsequent to an initial forming of the memory cell to activate the memory cell and subsequent
to a read cycle or a write cycle of the memory cell, determine (i) a first difference between the first state and a first
predetermined threshold, or (ii) a second difference between the first state and the second state; and

a second module configured to, subsequent to the first module determining the first difference or the second difference, reform
the memory cell to reset and increase the first difference or the second difference, wherein the second module is configured
to, during the reforming of the memory cell, apply a first voltage to the memory cell, and wherein the first voltage is greater
than a voltage applied to the memory cell during the read cycle or the write cycle.

US Pat. No. 9,264,938

ENHANCED BUFFERING OF SOFT DECODING METRICS

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method, comprising:
in a receiver, computing soft decoding metrics for decoding a received signal;
storing the soft decoding metrics in a compressed form in a memory buffer by defining pointers that point to start and end
addresses of respective unoccupied regions in the memory buffer; and

retrieving the soft decoding metrics in the compressed form from the memory buffer by skipping the unoccupied regions whose
start and end addresses are pointed to by the pointers, decompressing the retrieved soft decoding metrics and decoding the
received signal using the decompressed soft decoding metrics.

US Pat. No. 9,232,431

SELECTIVE LAYER-2 FLUSHING IN MOBILE COMMUNICATION TERMINALS

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method, comprising:
classifying signaling messages to be transmitted from a mobile communication terminal into one or more classes, including
at least a given class that specifies the signaling messages that become irrelevant when the mobile communication terminal
transitions between base stations;

queuing the signaling messages for transmission in a queue; and
when an event occurs in which the mobile communication terminal transitions from a first base station to a second base station,
removing from the queue one or more of the pending signaling messages that relate to the first base station and belong to
the given class.

US Pat. No. 9,337,772

IMPULSE-ASSISTED LC TANK OSCILLATOR

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. An impulse generation circuit for a voltage controlled oscillator, the impulse generation circuit comprising:
a zero-crossing detector configured to detect a zero-crossing time of an output signal of the voltage controlled oscillator,
wherein the zero-crossing time corresponds to a time that the output signal crosses from a first polarity to a second polarity;

a delay circuit configured to wait for a delay period based on the zero-crossing time and a voltage peak of the output signal;
an impulse generation module configured to generate an impulse subsequent to the delay period; and
an energy injector configured to, in response to the impulse, connect a supply voltage to the output signal of the voltage
controlled oscillator for a duration of the impulse.

US Pat. No. 9,287,707

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR PROVIDING POWER TO CIRCUITS UNTIL POWER SUPPLY TURNS ON AND SUPPLIES POWER

Marvell World Trade LTD.,...

1. A system for a power supply, wherein the power supply is configured to (i) receive an alternating current voltage and (ii)
supply an output voltage, the system comprising:
a switch configured to
receive the alternating current voltage; and
charge, in response to the power supply (i) receiving the alternating current voltage and (ii) not supplying the output voltage,
a capacitance to a first voltage;

wherein the first voltage is output to a first circuit controlling the power supply; and
wherein the first voltage is output to the first circuit while the power supply is (i) receiving the alternating current voltage
and (ii) not supplying the output voltage; and

a control circuit configured to deactivate the switch in response to the power supply (i) receiving the alternating current
voltage and (ii) supplying the output voltage,

wherein, in response to the control circuit deactivating the switch, (i) the switch stops charging the capacitance, and (ii)
the first circuit receives the output voltage of the power supply.

US Pat. No. 9,257,410

PACKAGE ASSEMBLY INCLUDING A SEMICONDUCTOR SUBSTRATE IN WHICH A FIRST PORTION OF A SURFACE OF THE SEMICONDUCTOR SUBSTRATE IS RECESSED RELATIVE TO A SECOND PORTION OF THE SURFACE OF THE SEMICONDUCTOR SUBSTRATE TO FORM A RECESSED RE

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. An apparatus comprising:
a semiconductor substrate having
a first surface,
a second surface that is disposed opposite to the first surface, wherein (i) at least a first portion of the first surface
is recessed relative to a second portion of the first surface to form a first recessed region of the semiconductor substrate
and (ii) a second recessed region is formed from at least a portion of the second surface of the semiconductor substrate,
and

one or more vias formed in the first recessed region of the semiconductor substrate, the one or more vias to provide an electrical
or thermal pathway between the first surface and the second surface of the semiconductor substrate;

a first die coupled to the semiconductor substrate, the first die being electrically coupled to the one or more vias formed
in the first recessed region of the semiconductor substrate;

a first redistribution layer formed on the first surface of the semiconductor substrate, wherein (i) the first die is coupled
to the first surface of the semiconductor substrate via the first redistribution layer, and (ii) the first die is coupled
to the first redistribution layer via one or more first bumps;

a second redistribution layer formed on the second surface of the semiconductor substrate; and
a second die (i) coupled to the second surface of the semiconductor substrate via the second redistribution layer, and (ii)
coupled to the second redistribution layer via one or more second bumps.

US Pat. No. 9,337,985

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DIFFERENTIAL ENCODING OF CQI IN COOPERATIVE MULTIPOINT COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A computer software product, the product comprising a tangible non-transitory computer-readable medium in which program
instructions are stored, which instructions, when read by a processor, cause the processor to:
calculate, based on signals received by a receiver from multiple cells that coordinate transmission of the signals with one
another in a Cooperative Multipoint (CoMP) scheme, at least a first Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) and a second CQI for respective
communication channels over which the signals are received, wherein the first CQI or the second CQI is calculated for a communication
channel from one of the cells that is designated for fallback to single-transmission-point transmission to the receiver;

differentially encode the second CQI relative to the first CQI; and
provide the first CQI and the differentially-encoded second CQI to a transmitter for transmitting feedback information comprising
the first CQI and the differentially-encoded second CQI.

US Pat. No. 9,178,561

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CORRELATING SIGNALS RECEIVED FROM A NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method, comprising:
storing a plurality of samples of a signal in a buffer implemented in a memory device, the signal corresponding to a navigation
system;

determining, with one or more integrated circuit devices, a plurality of starting locations in the buffer, the plurality of
starting locations corresponding to a plurality of correlations to be calculated, wherein ones of at least some of the starting
locations are determined based on respective code phases with which the corresponding correlations are to be performed;

calculating, with one or more integrated circuit devices, a plurality of correlations using i) a plurality of local replica
signals, and ii) data read from the buffer using the plurality of starting locations, wherein the local replica signals correspond
to pseudo random number (PRN) codes utilized by transmitting devices in the navigation system; and

using, with one or more integrated circuit devices, the plurality of correlations to one or more of i) detect PRN codes in
the signal, ii) detect one or more phase shifts associated with PRN codes, or iii) detect one or more frequency shifts associated
with PRN codes.

US Pat. No. 9,124,327

CHANNEL FEEDBACK FOR COOPERATIVE MULTIPOINT TRANSMISSION

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

7. Apparatus, comprising:
a receiver, which is configured to receive downlink signals from at least first and second cells that coordinate transmission
of the downlink signals with one another;

control circuitry, which is configured to calculate channel feedback that is configured, based on the received downlink signals,
to be used by the first and second cells in precoding a joint downlink transmission, which is transmitted jointly to the apparatus
from the first and second cells, such that the first cell is enabled to precode a first signal destined for the apparatus
using a first precoding vector, the second cell is enabled to precode a second signal that is also destined for the apparatus
using a second precoding vector that differs in magnitude from the first precoding vector, and the first and second signals
convey same data; and

a transmitter, which is configured to transmit the channel feedback,
wherein the control circuitry is configured to calculate the channel feedback by calculating different first and second recommended
magnitudes for the first and second precoding vectors, respectively, and calculating one or more of:

a single-user Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) calculated under a first constraint that no additional downlink signals to other
receivers are scheduled simultaneously with the joint downlink transmission addressed to the receiver;

a multi-user CQI calculated under a second constraint that additional downlink signals to one or more other receivers are
scheduled simultaneously with the joint downlink transmission addressed to the receiver; and

a non-cooperative-transmission CQI calculated under a third constraint that the first and second cells do not coordinate the
transmission with one another.

US Pat. No. 9,717,086

ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS FOR WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method, comprising:
assigning a plurality of different orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM) tone blocks for a wireless local area network
(WLAN) communication channel to a plurality of devices including a first device and second device, wherein

the plurality of different OFDM tone blocks includes at least a first OFDM tone block assigned to the first device and a second
OFDM tone block assigned to the second device, and

the first OFDM tone block and the second OFDM tone block together span a bandwidth equal to a smallest channel bandwidth of
a legacy WLAN communication protocol; and

generating an orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) data unit for the WLAN communication channel, the OFDMA
unit including a preamble portion and a data portion, the preamble portion having i) at least a legacy portion that spans
the entire WLAN communication channel, ii) a first non-legacy portion that spans the first OFDM tone block, and iii) a second
non-legacy portion that spans the second OFDM tone block.

US Pat. No. 9,264,287

ENCODING PARAMETERS FOR A WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

13. A method for generating a physical layer (PHY) data unit for transmission via a communication channel, the method comprising:
receiving a plurality of information bits to be included in the PHY data unit;
determining a number of encoders to be used to encode the information bits, wherein the number of encoders is determined (i)
according to a first scheme when a first system configuration is utilized and (ii) according to a second scheme when a second
system configuration is utilized, wherein

(i) when the first system configuration is utilized, the number of encoders is determined based on a first maximum encoding
rate, and

(ii) when the second configuration is utilized, the number of encoders is determined based on a second maximum encoding rate,
wherein the second maximum encoding rate is greater than the first maximum encoding rate, such that the number of encoders
does not result in a non-integer number of data bits per orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM) symbol per encoder;

parsing the information bits to-the number of encoders;
encoding the information bits using the number of encoders to generate coded bits; and
generating the PHY data unit to include the coded bits.

US Pat. No. 9,699,853

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DIMMABLE LED DRIVER

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. An apparatus, comprising:
an energy transfer circuitry configured to transfer energy from an energy source to a load;
control circuitry configured to detect a dimming characteristic in the energy source;
a first switch configured to be biased by the control circuitry to consume an energy from the energy source based on the dimming
characteristic; and

a second switch coupled with the first switch in series together forming a current path to bleed the energy.

US Pat. No. 9,232,493

FREQUENCY OFFSET COMPENSATION FOR WIFI RANGING

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method for clock compensation with respect to i) a first communication device utilizing a first clock having a first
clock frequency, and ii) a second communication device utilizing a second clock having a second clock frequency, the method
comprising:
determining, at the first communication device, a first timestamp corresponding to when a first transmission is transmitted
by the second communication device;

determining, at the first communication device, a second timestamp corresponding to when a second transmission is received
at the second communication device; and

determining, at the first communication device, whether a compensation indicator has been received from the second communication
device; and

compensating, at the first communication device, for a difference between the first clock frequency and the second clock frequency
to provide a compensated first timestamp and a compensated second timestamp when it is determined that the compensation indicator
has not been received from the second communication device,

wherein a presence of the compensation indicator indicates that the first timestamp and second timestamps are received in
terms of the first clock frequency and do not need to be compensated.

US Pat. No. 9,629,202

IN-DEVICE COEXISTENCE OF MULTIPLE WIRELESS COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method of operating a communication device configured to communicate according to at least a first communication protocol
and a second communication protocol, the method comprising:
obtaining, at the communication device, a time division multiplexing (TDM) pattern defined for communication in a first network
according to the first communication protocol, wherein the TDM pattern defines communication periodicity that includes a scheduled
period and an unscheduled period of the first network;

reserving, by the communication device, a guard interval within the unscheduled period, the guard interval for completing
frame exchanges, in a second network according to the second communication protocol, so that no frame exchanges with the communication
device in the second network occur during a next scheduled period in the TDM pattern;

using, at the communication device, the unscheduled period for communication in the second network according to the second
communication protocol, including using the guard interval to complete one or more frame exchanges in the second network prior
to the next scheduled period in the TDM pattern of the first network; and

transmitting, by the communication device, a management frame during the guard interval, wherein:
the management frame is configured to cause one or more other devices operating in the second network according to the second
communication protocol to refrain from transmitting until a next unscheduled period in the TDM pattern, and

the management frame includes an indication of a time duration for which the one or more other devices are to refrain from
transmitting, the time duration corresponding to a mathematical sum of (i) a remaining time duration of a current unscheduled
period at a time of transmission of the management frame and (ii) a duration of the scheduled period.

US Pat. No. 9,563,226

DYNAMIC CLOCK REGULATION BASED ON DUTY CYCLE THRESHOLDS

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A computer-implemented method for controlling a clock frequency, the computer-implemented method comprising:
determining a cumulative duty cycle (DC) according to a ratio of a cumulative time, during an interval, that the clock frequency
has a frequency greater than or equal to a design frequency threshold value to a duration of the interval;

controlling a frequency of the clock frequency to be a first frequency value when the cumulative DC is less than a first duty
cycle threshold (DCT); and

controlling the frequency of the clock frequency to be a second frequency value less than the first frequency value when the
cumulative DC is greater than a second DCT,

wherein the second DCT is greater than or equal to the first DCT, and
wherein the design frequency threshold value is a maximum design frequency of a circuit operated using a signal having the
clock frequency or a predetermined fraction of the maximum design frequency.

US Pat. No. 9,313,825

MULTI-MODE HANDHELD APPARATUS

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. An apparatus comprising:
a radio frequency (RF) component;
a first media access controller (MAC) and a first baseband (BB) configured to allow the radio frequency (RF) component to
communicate in accordance with a first wireless communication standard, wherein the first media access controller is further
configured to generate predictive data that predicts when transmission is expected by the first MAC as required by the first
baseband;

a second media access controller (MAC) and a second baseband (BB) configured to allow the radio frequency (RF) component to
communicate in accordance with a second wireless communication standard, wherein the second wireless communication standard
is different from the first wireless communication standard;

a lookup table configured to generate a baseband control signal to regulate access to the RF component by using at least the
predictive data as an input into the lookup table; and

a coexistence engine configured to arbitrate, based at least in part on the baseband control signal from the lookup table,
access of the radio frequency (RF) component to (i) the first media access controller (MAC) and the first baseband (BB) or
(ii) the second media access controller (MAC) and the second baseband (BB), wherein the first MAC is configured to provide
the predictive data to the coexistence engine.

US Pat. No. 9,285,824

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR DQS GATING

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A system for timing read operations in which a memory controller sends a read request to a memory device and receives,
from the memory device, data and a timing signal, and in which the timing signal includes a series of timing pulses that include
a first timing pulse and a last timing pulse, the system comprising:
a timing control circuit configured to, in response to the read request, generate a control signal pulse that has (i) a leading
edge at a predetermined delay past receipt of the read request and (ii) a trailing edge at a trailing edge of the first timing
pulse;

a gating circuit configured to pass the timing signal to the memory controller only during a gating window and to generate
the gating window by:

opening the gating window during the control signal pulse, and
closing the gating window upon lapse of a predetermined delay after a trailing edge of the last timing pulse, the last timing
pulse being determined based on a counter that is triggered to begin counting by the control signal pulse.

US Pat. No. 9,210,445

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PERIODIC STRUCTURE HANDLING FOR MOTION COMPENSATION

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method for video processing, the method comprising:
determining a pitch of a repeating pattern within a first frame;
determining, for a particular block of pixels within the first frame, a candidate motion vector defining object motion between
the first frame and a second frame, wherein the candidate motion vector is determined as an average of motion vectors from
all blocks that neighbor the particular block;

determining, for the particular block of pixels within the first frame, a first estimated motion vector defining object motion
between the first frame and the second frame, wherein the first estimated motion vector is determined based on data that is
derived from the first frame and the second frame;

calculating a first difference between the candidate motion vector and the estimated motion vector;
comparing the first difference to the pitch;
eliminating the estimated motion vector based on the difference being within a threshold value from a positive integer multiple
of the pitch;

determining, for the particular block of pixels within the first frame, a second estimated motion vector defining object motion
between the first frame and the second frame;

calculating a second difference between the candidate motion vector and the second estimated motion vector;
comparing the second difference to the pitch; and
determining that the second estimated motion vector is a correct motion vector based on the difference being beyond the threshold
value from the pitch; and

applying the second estimated motion vector to the first frame to generate an intermediate frame between the first frame and
the second frame.

US Pat. No. 9,204,371

802.11 RESTRICTED ACCESS WINDOWS

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. An access point comprising:
a restricted access window module configured to define a restricted access window during which stations that belong to a same
infrastructure basic service set as the access point are not allowed to transmit data frames;

a beacon creation module configured to generate a beacon announcing the restricted access window, wherein the restricted access
window is contained within a following beacon interval;

a transmitter module configured to transmit the beacon to the stations that belong to the same infrastructure basic service
set as the access point, wherein the following beacon interval begins upon transmission of the beacon and ends upon transmission
of a second beacon, wherein the transmitter module is configured to transmit the second beacon subsequent to the beacon without
transmitting any intervening beacons;

a downlink tracking module configured to, during the restricted access window, receive a poll frame from a first station of
the stations that belong to the same infrastructure basic service set as the access point; and

a data transmission module configured to, subsequent to the poll frame, transmit a data frame to the first station, wherein
the beacon includes a delivery traffic indication map and includes an indication that the data frame is queued for transmission
to the first station,

wherein during the restricted access window, the stations that belong to the same infrastructure basic service set as the
access point are permitted to transmit frames having a first value of a transmission characteristic, and

wherein during a second restricted access window, the stations that belong to the same infrastructure basic service set as
the access point are permitted to transmit frames having a second value of the transmission characteristic.

US Pat. No. 9,219,576

SHORT PACKET FOR USE IN BEAMFORMING

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method for generating a beamforming training (BFT) unit, the method comprising:
generating a physical layer (PHY) preamble of the BFT unit; and
generating a first encoding block and a second encoding block using PHY data and media access control layer (MAC) data, including
at least one of:

i) using a number of padding bits in a PHY layer of the BFT unit such that the PHY data and the MAC data are encoded into
only the first encoding block and the second encoding block, and/or

ii) generating a MAC protocol data unit (MPDU) having a length such that the PHY data and the MAC data are encoded into only
the first encoding block and the second encoding block;

wherein the MAC data includes a sector sweep (SS) field having a direction field, a countdown field, and a sector identifier
field; and

wherein the MAC data omits
an information element identifier that identifies the SS field, and
a length identifier that specifies a length of the SS field.

US Pat. No. 9,113,469

CELL DEPLOYMENT WITH DIFFERENT CHANNEL BANDWIDTH FOR CARRIER AGGREGATION

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A system for transmitting information to user equipment (UE) in a communications network, the system comprising:
modulation circuitry configured to generate data in (i) a first frequency range associated with a first set of carriers and
(ii) a second frequency range associated with a second set of carriers, wherein the first frequency range specifies a first
communications cell, wherein the second frequency range specifies a second communications cell, and wherein the first communications
cell is assigned as a primary cell to a first set of UEs in the communications network; and

transmission circuitry configured to transmit control data to both the first set of UEs and a second set of UEs using at least
a portion of the first set of carriers, wherein the control data comprises (i) first control signals shared by the first set
of UEs and the second set of UEs and transmitted in a first subregion of the first frequency range, and (ii) second control
signals for the second set of UEs transmitted in a second subregion and a third subregion of the first frequency range.

US Pat. No. 9,386,475

COEXISTENCE SUPPORT FOR MULTI-CHANNEL WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method comprising:
monitoring, at a first wireless communication device, a group of wireless channels for signals from one or more second wireless
communication devices;

identifying, within the group of wireless channels, one or more primary channels on which one or more signals are received
from the one or more second wireless communication devices;

calculating one or more busy-to-idle ratios of the one or more identified primary channels based on one or more channel conditions
of the one or more identified primary channels; and

selecting, from the group of wireless channels, a primary channel for the first wireless communication device based on an
estimated traffic load associated with at least a portion of the group of wireless channels, wherein the estimated traffic
load is based on the one or more busy-to-idle ratios, and wherein selecting the primary channel for the first wireless communication
device comprises:

using, within the group of wireless channels, a secondary channel as the selected primary channel when the estimated traffic
load exceeds a threshold, and

using at least one of the one or more identified primary channels as the selected primary channel when the estimated traffic
load does not exceed the threshold.

US Pat. No. 9,244,107

HEAT SINK BLADE PACK FOR DEVICE UNDER TEST TESTING

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. An apparatus configured to engage a device for testing the device via automatic test equipment, the apparatus comprising:
a heat sink, wherein the heat sink comprises a plurality of fins extending from the heat sink, and wherein the heat sink is
configured to engage the device; a heat conduction layer coupled to the heat sink; a first leg coupled to the heat conduction
layer; and a second leg coupled to the heat conduction layer, wherein the second leg is spaced apart from the first leg, wherein
a first vacuum path passes through the heat sink, wherein a second vacuum path passes through the first leg, wherein a third
vacuum path passes through the second leg, and wherein the first vacuum path is different from each of the second vacuum path
and the third vacuum path, and wherein the first vacuum path, the second vacuum path and the third vacuum path permit the
apparatus to engage the device to be tested by the automatic test equipment.

US Pat. No. 9,093,907

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR STARTING UP

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

15. An apparatus comprising:
an energy transfer module configured to transfer electric energy from an alternating current (AC) power supply to an output
device;

a detector configured to receive an input voltage rectified from the AC power supply, and detect a time duration that the
input voltage is between a first threshold voltage and a second threshold voltage; and

a controller configured to determine a line voltage of the AC power supply as a function of a comparison between a threshold
value and a ratio of the detected time duration to an AC cycle and regulate a time for turning on a switch of the energy transfer
module to transfer energy via a transformer based on the determined line voltage.

US Pat. No. 9,246,962

CONFERENCE MIXING USING TURBO-VAD

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. An electronic apparatus, comprising:
a receiver configured to receive frames of data packets, the frames of data packets corresponding to voice data from a plurality
of speakers; and

a detector configured to, for each of the frames, generate a first decision estimating whether a given frame comprises voice
data of a specific speaker among the plurality of speakers based on spectral properties indicating power and spectral frequency
of data packets in the given frame, generate a second decision indicating whether an instantaneous power level of the given
frame exceeds a power threshold, generate a third decision indicating whether the given frame comprises the voice data of
the specific speaker based on the first decision and the second decision, and output the third decision.

US Pat. No. 9,088,756

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR CAMERA IMAGE CORRECTION AND WHITE BALANCING

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method, comprising:
capturing, by an image capture device, first pixel values of a first calibration image illuminated by first color temperature
light, wherein the first calibration image has first known pixel values;

determining a color sensor adjustment matrix that, when multiplied by the captured first pixel values, yields the first known
pixel values;

capturing, by the image capture device, second pixel values of a second calibration image illuminated by a a second color
temperature light different than the first color temperature light, wherein the first calibration image has second known pixel
values;

multiplying the second pixel values by the color sensor adjustment matrix to yield adjusted second pixel values; and
determining a color temperature balance factor that, when multiplied by the adjusted second pixel values, yields the second
known pixel values.

US Pat. No. 9,088,908

EFFICIENT TRANSMISSION FOR LOW DATA RATE WLAN

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method, comprising:
generating, at a network interface, a signal field that includes (i) a field to indicate that a physical layer (PHY) data
unit is a control frame, and (ii) one or more of a frame control field, a receiver address (RA) field, and a cyclic redundancy
check (CRC) field;

generating, at the network interface, a PHY data payload (i) that includes one or more of a service field, a transmitter address
(TA) field, a network ID field, and a CRC field, and (ii) that does not include a media access control (MAC) layer RA field;

generating, at the network interface, the PHY data unit to include (i) a preamble, (ii) a PHY header having the SIG field,
and (iii) the PHY data payload; and

transmitting, with the network interface, the PHY data unit.

US Pat. No. 9,467,965

POSITIONING DATA DISTRIBUTION APPLIED TO SERVER-BASED POSITIONING SYSTEM

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method, comprising:
clustering entries of positioning data into subsets, each subset defined by a lower boundary of signal strength value and
an upper boundary of signal strength value of a plurality of boundaries of signal strength values, each signal strength value
indicating a strength of a signal received by a wireless device from a wireless station at a location; and

checking a reset condition that is used to trigger a reset of the boundaries of signal strength values for clustering the
entries of positioning data into the subsets, each entry of positioning data associating position information of a location
with at least an identifier of a wireless station for providing wireless connection at the location and a signal strength
received at the location.

US Pat. No. 9,325,541

MODULAR FREQUENCY DIVIDER WITH SWITCH CONFIGURATION TO REDUCE PARASITIC CAPACITANCE

Marvell World Trade LTD.,...

1. A system comprising:
a first frequency divider configured to divide an input frequency of an input signal to generate a first signal having a first
frequency and a first phase;

a plurality of second frequency dividers each configured to divide the input frequency of the input signal to generate a second
signal having the first frequency and a second phase;

a first switch including a first end connected to a first node of the first frequency divider, and a second end connected
to a second node of a first one of the plurality of second frequency dividers; and

a plurality of second switches including first ends connected to the second end of the first switch, and second ends respectively
connected to the second nodes of the plurality of second frequency dividers other than the first one of the plurality of second
frequency dividers,

wherein in response to the first switch being open, a capacitance at the first node of the first frequency divider is a capacitance
associated with the first switch.

US Pat. No. 9,292,716

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DETECTING AN OUTPUT POWER OF A RADIO FREQUENCY TRANSMITTER USING A MULTIPLIER CIRCUIT

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A power detection circuit configured to detect an output power of a radio frequency transmitter, the power detection circuit
comprising:
a multiplier circuit configured to multiply a first differential input signal and a second differential input signal, wherein
(i) the first differential input signal corresponds to a radio frequency signal to be amplified by the radio frequency transmitter,
and (ii) the second differential signal corresponds to an output signal as amplified by an amplifier of the radio frequency
transmitter;

a bias circuit configured to generate a bias signal; and
a differential amplifier configured to generate, based on (i) the bias signal and (ii) the first differential signal and the
second differential signal as multiplied by the multiplier circuit, an indication of the output power of the amplifier of
the radio frequency transmitter.

US Pat. No. 9,246,451

POWER AMPLIFIERS WITH PUSH-PULL TRANSISTORS, CAPACITIVE COUPLING FOR HARMONIC CANCELLATION, AND INDUCTIVE COUPLING TO PROVIDE DIFFERENTIAL OUTPUT SIGNALS

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A differential power amplifier comprising:
a first push-pull pair of transistors including
a first transistor comprising a control terminal and an output terminal, and
a second transistor comprising an input terminal and a control terminal, wherein the control terminal of the first transistor
and the control terminal of the second transistor are configured to collectively receive a differential input signal, wherein
the output terminal of the first transistor and the input terminal of the second transistor are configured to collectively
provide a differential output signal;

a first capacitance connected to (i) the output terminal of the first transistor, and (ii) the input terminal of the second
transistor, wherein harmonics at the output terminal of the first transistor combine with harmonics at the input terminal
of the second transistor via the first capacitance such that the harmonics at the output terminal of the first transistor
and the harmonics at the input terminal of the second transistor cancel;

a first inductance, wherein the first transistor and the first inductance are connected in series between a voltage source
and a reference terminal;

a second inductance, wherein the second transistor and the second inductance are connected in series between the voltage source
and the reference terminal; and

a second capacitance connected in parallel with the first inductance or the second inductance.

US Pat. No. 9,100,257

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR COMPOSITE ADAPTIVE FILTERING

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method for adaptively filtering a signal, comprising:
receiving a signal;
filtering the received signal to generate an output signal;
generating a difference signal based on a difference between the output signal and a reference signal;
evaluating, using a smoothing parameter, a correlation of the received signal and the difference signal;
selecting, based at least in part on the correlation, between a first adaptive filtering mode having a first value for the
smoothing parameter and a second adaptive filtering mode having a second value for the smoothing parameter that is different
from the first value, wherein the second value for the smoothing parameter is smaller than the first value for the smoothing
parameter, such that the first adaptive filtering mode is selected when there is a transient change in the received signal
or in the reference signal; and

filtering the received signal using the selected adaptive filtering mode.

US Pat. No. 9,420,635

IN-DEVICE COEXISTENCE OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method of operating a communication device that includes at least (i) a first network interface configured to communicate
in a first network according to a first communication protocol with a serving base station, and (ii) a second network interface
configured to communicate in a second network according to a second communication protocol, the method comprising:
operating the first network interface according to the first communication protocol, wherein the first communication protocol
defines a periodically repeating frame including a set of time intervals;

predicting, at the communication device, one or more time intervals, among the set of time intervals, in which the serving
base station will not transmit to the communication device because of interference caused by transmissions by other communication
devices in one or more third networks, when the communication device does not yet know whether the serving base station will
transmit data to the communication device during any of the one or more time intervals, wherein predicting the one or more
time intervals includes at least one of i) measuring channel quality in the one or more time intervals to determine whether
interference caused by transmissions by other communication devices in the one or more third networks is occurring, and ii)
analyzing instructions from the serving base station regarding channel quality measurements that are to be reported by the
communication device, wherein the analyzing the instructions includes determining particular time intervals in the frame for
which the serving base station is requesting channel quality measurements; and

in response to predicting, at the communication device, the one or more time intervals when the communication device does
not yet know whether the serving base station will transmit data to the communication device during any of the one or more
time intervals,

suspending operation of the first network interface according to the first communication protocol during the one or more time
intervals, and

enabling operation of the second network interface according to the second communication protocol during the one or more time
intervals.

US Pat. No. 9,246,835

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DEBLOCKING AND BLOCKING TRANSMISSION OF FRAMES FROM A NETWORK DEVICE

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A network device comprising:
a first queue configured to store a first frame;
a second queue configured to store a second frame;
a timing module configured to generate a first priority timing signal and a second priority timing signal, wherein the first
priority timing signal indicates when transmission of the first frame is permitted, and wherein the second priority timing
signal indicates when transmission of the second frame is not permitted;

a deblocking shaper configured to, based on the first priority timing signal, permit transmission of the first frame during
a predetermined window; and

a blocking shaper comprising a counter, wherein a value of the counter indicates an amount of time until a start of the predetermined
window, and wherein the blocking shaper is configured to, based on the second priority timing signal, the value of the counter
and a size of the second frame, determine whether to (i) permit transmission of the second frame prior to the predetermined
window, or (ii) block forwarding of the second frame from the second queue until after the predetermined window.

US Pat. No. 9,178,591

CODEBOOK SUBSAMPLING FOR PUCCH FEEDBACK

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method, comprising:
in a mobile communication terminal, holding a definition of a sub-sampled codebook identifying precoding matrices to be used
for providing precoding feedback by the terminal, wherein the precoding matrices in the sub-sampled codebook are selected
from a master codebook that is made-up of a first sub-codebook and a second sub-codebook, wherein the first sub-codebook represents
a first precoding component and the second sub-codebook represents a second precoding component that varies more rapidly than
the first precoding component, and wherein the definition defines a first subset of the first sub-codebook and a second subset
of the second sub-codebook;

receiving in the terminal a Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) signal via multiple receive antennas; and
based on the received MIMO signal, selecting from the sub-sampled codebook a precoding matrix for precoding subsequent MIMO
signals transmitted to the terminal, by combining a first matrix selected from the first sub-codebook and a second matrix
selected from the second sub-codebook, and calculating the precoding feedback indicating the selected precoding matrix.

US Pat. No. 9,473,341

SOUNDING AND TONE BLOCK ALLOCATION FOR ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY MULTIPLE ACCESS (OFDMA) IN WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORKS

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method for simultaneously communicating with multiple communication devices in a communication network, the method comprising:
receiving, at a first communication device, sounding feedback packets from a plurality of second communication devices, wherein
each sounding feedback packet includes (i) beamforming feedback to be used by the first communication device for beamforming
to the corresponding second communication device and (ii) one or more quality indicators corresponding to one or more sub-channel
blocks of an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communication channel associated with the corresponding second
communication device;

selecting, at the first communication device based on the one or more quality indicators received from each of at least some
of the second communication devices, a group of second communication devices for orthogonal frequency division multiple access
(OFDMA) communication, wherein the group includes two or more second communication devices of the plurality of second communication
devices; and

transmitting, from the first communication device to the group of second communication devices, at least one OFDMA data unit
that includes respective OFDM data units directed to the two or more second communication devices of the group, wherein the
respective OFDM data units are transmitted in respective sub-channel blocks allocated to the two or more second communication
devices of the group.

US Pat. No. 9,357,521

DETERMINING AN ESTIMATED LOCATION OF A BASE STATION

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method performed by a server system, the method comprising:
receiving a set of identifiers of base stations within a communication range of a mobile device, each identifier of the set
of identifiers of the base stations associated with a set of locations of the mobile device, each location of the set of locations
of the mobile device associated with a received signal strength indication from each of the base stations;

accessing a base station information table based on the set of identifiers, wherein the base station information table stores
previously determined location data associated with each of the base stations, the previously determined location data associated
with each of the base stations including an estimated geographic location of the base station, an uncertainty value of the
estimated geographic location, a coverage area length of the base station, and a transmission signal range of the base station;

excluding at least one location of the mobile device from the set of locations using at least one of the previously determined
coverage area length stored in the base station information table and at least one of the previously determined transmission
signal range stored in the base station information table;

determining, by processing circuitry of the server system, updated location data of each of the base stations using non-excluded
locations of the set of locations of the mobile device; and

updating the base station information table with the updated location data of each of the base stations.

US Pat. No. 9,357,623

PROTECTION CIRCUIT IN TRIAC APPLICATIONS

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A circuit, comprising:
a transistor configured to control energy entering the circuit from a power supply;
a capacitor coupled with the transistor to store the energy that enters the circuit;
a protection circuit configured to counteract a gate voltage change on a gate terminal of the transistor that is caused by
a step voltage change in the power supply, wherein the protection circuit is configured to operate independent of the energy
stored on the capacitor; and

a control circuit configured to control the transistor based on the energy stored on the capacitor,
wherein the protection circuit is configured to counteract the gate voltage change on the gate terminal of the transistor
that is caused by the step voltage change in the power supply before the control circuit is able to react to the gate voltage
change on the gate terminal of the transistor that is caused by the step voltage change in the power supply.

US Pat. No. 9,301,247

WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK (WLAN) TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXED (TDM) INTERFRAME SPACE (IFS) TIME SELECTION PROTOCOL

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A wireless network, comprising:
a first client station assigned to a first group of client stations, wherein the first client station is configured to i)
receive a first data packet from a second client station assigned to a second group of client stations, ii) select, based
on a determination of whether the first data packet was received from the second client station, between a first default interframe
space (IFS) time and a second default IFS time, wherein the first default IFS time corresponds to a default IFS time assigned
to the first client station and the second default IFS time corresponds to a default IFS time assigned to the second client
station, wherein the first client station selects the first default IFS time if it is determined that the first data packet
was not received within a first predetermined period and selects the second default IFS time if it is determined that the
first data packet was received within the first predetermined period, and wherein the first default IFS time is different
from the second default IFS time, and iii) transmit data subsequent to the selected one of the first default IFS time and
the second default IFS time; and

a third client station assigned to the second group of client stations, wherein the third client station is configured to
i) receive a second data packet from a fourth client station assigned to the first group of client stations, ii) select, based
on a determination of whether the second data packet was received from the fourth client station, between a third default
IFS time and a fourth default IFS time, wherein the third default IFS time corresponds to a default IFS time assigned to the
third client station and the fourth default IFS time corresponds to a default IFS time assigned to the fourth client station,
wherein the third client station selects the third default IFS time if it is determined that the second data packet was not
received within a second predetermined period and selects the fourth default IFS time if it is determined that the first data
packet was received within the second predetermined period, and wherein the third default IFS time is different from the fourth
default IFS time, and iii) transmit data subsequent to the selected one of the third default IFS time and the fourth default
IFS time.

US Pat. No. 9,167,396

METHOD AND APPARATUS TO TRANSMIT DATA THROUGH TONES

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method for transmitting data, comprising:
encoding data, by a first device, symbol-by-symbol into a first electrical signal of frequencies in a specific range;
mixing, by the first device, the first electrical signal with a second electrical signal corresponding to captured voices;
and

transmitting, by the first device, the mixed electrical signal to a second device via a channel being configured for transmitting
the captured voices.

US Pat. No. 9,407,323

DEVICES AND METHODS FOR POWER CONSUMPTION CONTROL IN POWERLINE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS AND APPARATUS

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method comprising:
determining information regarding a potential data rate to be used with a powerline communications (PLC) channel;
reducing a bias current or voltage of an analog front end of a PLC transceiver based on the determined information to reduce
power consumption of the analog front end of the PLC transceiver; and

transmitting or receiving data over the PLC channel with the reduced bias current or voltage of the analog front end of the
PLC transceiver.

US Pat. No. 9,398,455

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR GENERATING AN IDENTIFICATION BASED ON A PUBLIC KEY OF AN ASYMMETRIC KEY PAIR

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method comprising:
generating an identification based on a public key of an asymmetric key pair for a first device by using a hash function with
a variable parameter that varies over time;

varying a value of the parameter;
performing the hash function on the public key with the varied parameter to generate another identification;
including the identification into information unit to identify the first device as a source of the information unit;
including a specific service that the first device is requesting or providing in the information unit;
transmitting the information unit from the first device;
receiving the information unit at a second device;
authenticating the first device based on the identification included in the received information unit; and
generating another identification based on the public key for the device when a collision of the identification is detected.

US Pat. No. 9,203,683

DATA UNIT FORMAT FOR SINGLE USER BEAMFORMING IN LONG-RANGE WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORKS (WLANS)

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method comprising:
receiving a plurality of data units each having a preamble, wherein the preamble of each data unit of the plurality of data
units includes (i) a first preamble portion, and (ii) a second preamble portion following the first preamble portion;

detecting a symbol constellation rotation of one or more orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) symbols in the
first preamble portion of each data unit;

determining, based on each detected symbol constellation rotation, whether the preamble of the respective data unit conforms
to a first format;

when it is determined that the preamble of the respective data unit conforms to the first format, processing the second preamble
portion of the respective data unit according to the first format; and

when it is determined that the preamble of the respective data unit does not conform to the first format,
(i) determining whether one or more information bits in the first preamble portion of the respective data unit indicate a
single-user data unit or a multi-user data unit,

(ii) when it is determined that the one or more information bits in the first preamble portion of the respective data unit
indicate a single-user data unit, processing the second preamble portion of the respective data unit according to a second
format different than the first format, and

(iii) when it is determined that the one or more information bits in the first preamble portion of the respective data unit
indicate a multi-user data unit, processing the second preamble portion of the respective data unit according to a third format
different than the first format and the second format.

US Pat. No. 9,166,660

UPLINK MULTI-USER MULTIPLE INPUT MULTIPLE OUTPUT BEAMFORMING

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method, comprising:
transmitting, from a first communication device, a beamforming training packet as part of a beamforming training procedure
for developing a transmit beamforming matrix for use by the first communication device;

receiving, at the first communication device, a plurality of respective beamforming feedback packets from a plurality of second
communication devices, the plurality of beamforming feedback packets being part of the beamforming training procedure for
developing the transmit beamforming matrix for use by the first communication device;

using, at the first communication device, the plurality of beamforming feedback packets to select a group of multiple communication
devices from among the plurality of second communication devices, the group selected for simultaneous transmissions to the
first communication device;

transmitting, with the first communication device, a synchronization signal to the group to prompt second communication devices
in the group to simultaneously transmit to the first communication device at a particular time; and

receiving, with the first communication device, simultaneous transmissions from the group responsive to the synchronization
signal.

US Pat. No. 9,391,679

VARIABLE SIZE CODEBOOK FOR MIMO SYSTEM

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A tangible, non-transitory, computer-readable medium storing instructions that, when executed by one or more processors
in a first communication device, cause the one or more processors to:
calculate an expected throughput for each of a plurality of different codebook sizes given a measured characteristic of a
wireless communication channel between the first communication device and a second communication device, wherein each of the
plurality of different codebook sizes corresponds to a different number of precoding matrices;

select a size of a codebook from the plurality of different codebook sizes using the expected throughput for each of the plurality
of different codebook sizes given the measured characteristic of the wireless communication channel, wherein the codebook
of the selected codebook size includes precoding matrices for precoding signals that are to be wirelessly transmitted;

select, based on matrix selection criteria, a best matrix from a codebook of the selected codebook size; and
cause a transmitter to transmit an indicator of the selected matrix to the second communication device.

US Pat. No. 9,264,028

ZERO CROSSING DETECTOR USING CURRENT MODE APPROACH

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method comprising:
converting a voltage signal into a current signal, the voltage signal being based on a mains voltage signal;
converting the current signal into a digital signal; and
processing the digital signal to generate an output signal, the output signal indicating a zero crossing point of the mains
voltage signal,

wherein an input stage receives the converted current signal, and
wherein an impedance value of the input stage is substantially smaller than that of a parasitic resistor coupled to the input
stage in parallel, so that a phase shift of the converted current signal due to the parasitic resistor is minimized.

US Pat. No. 9,244,644

METHODS FOR OPERATING A CIRCUIT BOARD AND AN APPARATUS EACH HAVING CORRESPONDING SYSTEMS ON CHIPS FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATION AND PRINTING

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method for operating a circuit board, wherein the circuit board is mounted within a printer, wherein a first system on
a first chip and a second system on a second chip are mounted on the circuit board, wherein the first system on the first
chip comprises a wireless transceiver, wherein the wireless transceiver includes a receiver and a transmitter, wherein the
second system on the second chip comprises a control module, a first processing module and a second processing module, and
wherein the control module comprises a processor, the method comprising:
receiving a first radio frequency signal from a network device at low noise amplifier, wherein the network device is separate
from the printer;

transmitting the first radio frequency signal from the low noise amplifier to a system in a package, wherein the system in
a package comprises the first chip and the second chip;

receiving the first radio frequency signal at the receiver from the low noise amplifier;
receiving, at the control module, the first radio frequency signal transmitted within the printer and from the wireless transceiver
to the second system on the second chip;

receiving the first radio frequency signal from the wireless transceiver at the first processing module;
generating the first baseband signal based on the first radio frequency signal via the processor;
generating a second baseband signal based on the first baseband signal via the processor;
generating a second radio frequency signal based on the second baseband signal;
based on the second baseband signal, transmitting, via the control module, the second radio frequency from the second system
on the second chip to the wireless transceiver;

transmitting the second radio frequency signal from the transmitter and the system in a package to a power amplifier, wherein
the wireless transceiver comprises the low noise amplifier and the power amplifier;

transmitting the second radio frequency signal to the network device via the power amplifier;
generating an image signal based on the first radio frequency signal via the first processing module and the second processing
module;

via the second processing module, controlling a print mechanism to print based on the image signal including implementing
a printing process based on the image signal;

receiving the image signal at the print mechanism; and
printing in response to the image signal via the print mechanism.

US Pat. No. 9,191,031

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR READING A DISC

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

7. A method, comprising:
receiving first codewords and second codewords;
decoding the first codewords the second codewords based on an error correcting code;
error-checking first portions using a first error detecting code in first portions, each first portion or being formed of
a plurality of decoded first codewords;

error-checking second portions using second error detecting code in second portions, each second portion being formed of a
plurality of decoded second codewords;

storing in a memory the decoded codewords when the error checking fails for at least one portion; and
combining the decoded second codewords in the memory with the decoded first codewords when the error checking of the second
portions fails for at least one second portion.

US Pat. No. 9,105,319

MULTIPORT MEMORY ARCHITECTURE

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method comprising:
receiving, at one of a plurality of port buffers, serial data directly from one of a plurality of data ports;
converting, via the port buffer and at a first frequency, the serial data received directly from the data port to n-bit-wide
words of parallel data;

buffering a k-word-long block of the n-bit-wide words of parallel data into a line of the port buffer as k*n bits of data
by sequentially writing k words of the n-bit-wide words of parallel data into k data storage elements of the line of the port
buffer; and

transmitting, from the port buffer and at a second frequency, the k*n bits of data directly to the multi-port memory array
via a first write bus of the multi-port memory array effective to write the k*n bits of data to the memory array, the multi-port
memory array having a second write bus through which the multi-port memory is configured to receive another k*n bits of data
from another of the plurality of port buffers, the first frequency of the converting being different from the second frequency
of the transmitting by at least 10 percent of the second frequency.

US Pat. No. 9,092,323

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR RECOVERING ADDRESSING DATA

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A memory module, comprising:
a first memory configured to store (i) first data including (a) a first lookup table storing first relationships between logical
addresses and respective physical addresses and (b) a second lookup table storing second relationships between the physical
addresses and respective ones of the logical addresses, wherein the physical addresses are arranged in a plurality of different
groups, and wherein the plurality of groups correspond to respective wide erase block units, (ii) respective statuses of each
of the plurality of different groups, wherein the respective statuses include identifiers of the respective wide erase block
units that identify respective bin types of the wide erase block units, and (iii) an activity log indicating when any of the
respective statuses of the plurality of different groups has changed, and wherein a status changing corresponds to an identifier
of a respective wide erase block unit changing from a first bin type to a second bin type;

a second memory configured to (i) store second data in memory locations corresponding to the physical addresses, and (ii)
in response to a respective status of one of the plurality of groups changing, store a portion of the first data corresponding
to the one of the plurality of groups; and

a recovery module configured to update, in response to the activity log indicating that the respective status of the one of
the plurality of groups has changed, the first data with the portion of the first data corresponding to the one of the plurality
of groups.

US Pat. No. 9,252,991

SUB-BAND FEEDBACK FOR BEAMFORMING ON DOWNLINK MULTIPLE USER MIMO CONFIGURATIONS

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method in a communication network, the method comprising:
(i) receiving, at a client device, a sounding packet from an access point device over a wireless downlink communication channel
having a plurality of 20 MHz-wide subchannels, the sounding packet having a packet bandwidth that spans the plurality of 20
MHz-wide subchannels;

(ii) at the client device, identifying a subchannel block of the sounding packet, wherein the subchannel block spans only
a subset of the plurality of 20 MHz-wide subchannels, and the subchannel block has a subchannel block contiguous bandwidth
that is a) at least 20 MHz and b) smaller than the packet bandwidth of the sounding packet;

(iii) performing a channel estimation (a) on the subchannel block, but (b) not on any other 20 MHz-wide subchannels of the
plurality of 20 MHz-wide subchannels, to determine a partial channel estimation of the downlink communication channel; and

(iv) communicating, to the access point in a feedback frame, the partial channel estimation of the downlink communication
channel so that the access point can determine a steering matrix from the partial channel estimation for application to only
a portion, in frequency, of an information carrying data packet, transmitted by the access point, when the information carrying
data packet has a bandwidth larger than the subchannel block, wherein the feedback frame includes an indication of a bandwidth
of the subchannel block to which the partial channel estimation corresponds, wherein the portion of the information carrying
data packet corresponds in frequency to the subchannel block.

US Pat. No. 9,367,385

HIGH SPEED SERIAL DATA RECEIVER ARCHITECTURE WITH DUAL ERROR COMPARATORS

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A receiver path for processing a received signal including first data and second data, the receiver path comprising:
a first comparator module configured to (i) receive only the first data in the received signal and (ii) generate, based on
a first clock signal, a first digital output signal, wherein the first digital output signal is indicative of a sum of the
first data in the received signal and a first error associated with the first comparator module, and wherein the first data
and the first error correspond to odd data and an odd error, respectively;

a second comparator module configured to (i) receive only the second data in the received signal and (ii) generate, based
on a second clock signal, a second digital output signal, wherein the second digital output signal is indicative of a sum
of the second data in the received signal and a second error associated with the second comparator module, and wherein the
second data and the second error correspond to even data and an even error, respectively;

a third comparator module configured to (i) receive only the first data in the received signal and (ii) generate, based on
the first clock signal, a third digital output signal, wherein the third digital output signal is indicative of the first
data in the received signal; and

a fourth comparator module configured to (i) receive only the second data in the received signal and (ii) generate, based
on the second clock signal, a fourth digital output signal, wherein the fourth digital output signal is indicative of the
second data in the received signal.

US Pat. No. 9,232,429

COMPRESSED FEEDBACK FORMAT FOR WLAN

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method comprising:
transmitting, from a first communication device, a sounding packet using one or more spatial or space-time streams and modulated
using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM);

receiving, at the first communication device, a feedback packet that was transmitted by a second communication device, the
feedback packet including a feedback report corresponding to the sounding packet, the feedback report including

i) a plurality of angle values associated with the one or more spatial or space-time streams and one or more OFDM tones corresponding
to the sounding packet,

ii) deltas corresponding to per-tone signal to noise ratio (PT-SNRs) associated with the one or more spatial or space-time
streams and at least some of the one or more OFDM tones, wherein each delta corresponds to a difference between the respective
PT-SNR and the an average signal to noise ratio (avg-SNR) associated with the one or more spatial or space-time streams, and

iii) the avg-SNR associated with the one or more spatial or space-time streams; and
using, at the first communication device, the feedback report to beamform transmissions to the second communication device.

US Pat. No. 9,197,124

METHOD AND APPARATUS TO REDUCE OVERCURRENT DURING THE STARTUP OF A SWITCHING REGULATOR

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A power supply apparatus, comprising:
an inductor configured to store and discharge energy;
a pulse generator configured to generate a plurality of pulses; and
a circuit configured to determine a plurality of overcurrent detect signals for the plurality of pulses, respectively, generate
a charging pulse for each of the plurality of pulses when the respective overcurrent detect signal has a first value, skip
generation of the respective charging pulse for each of the plurality of pulses when the respective overcurrent detect signal
has a second value, and charge the inductor using the generated charging pulses,

wherein the second value indicates a detection or prediction of an overcurrent associated with the inductor, and the first
value indicates a detection or prediction of an absence of the overcurrent,

wherein the circuit is configured to skip generation of the respective charging pulse for each of the plurality of pulses
when the circuit is in a startup period, wherein the circuit being in the startup period is determined using an output voltage
of the power supply apparatus, a resistor-capacitor (RC) circuit, or a cycle count of the charging pulses, and

wherein the output voltage is compared to a threshold voltage Vo, and

wherein Vin is a voltage applied to the inductor during charging, Ton is a duration of the skipped charging pulse, N is a
turns ratio of a primary winding of the inductor to a secondary winding of the inductor, and Tcyc is an interval between charging
pulses.

US Pat. No. 9,130,704

MULTI-CLOCK PHYSICAL LAYER [[PHY] PREAMBLE DESIGN AND DETECTION

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method for detecting, at a first communication device, a clock rate of a physical layer (PHY) data unit, the method comprising:
receiving, at the first communication device, the PHY data unit from a second communication device via a communication channel,
wherein the PHY data unit includes (i) a first portion and (ii) a second portion following the first portion;

processing, at the first communication device, the first portion of the PHY data unit, wherein processing the first portion
of the PHY data unit includes performing one or more autocorrelations to generate one or more respective autocorrelation outputs;
and

determining, at the first communication device and based on at least one of the one or more autocorrelation outputs, a clock
rate of the second portion of the PHY data unit.

US Pat. No. 9,117,790

METHODS AND ARRANGEMENTS RELATING TO SEMICONDUCTOR PACKAGES INCLUDING MULTI-MEMORY DIES

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A packaging arrangement comprising:
a substrate;
a multi-memory die disposed on the substrate, wherein the multi-memory die comprises multiple individual memory dies and
each of the multiple individual memory dies is defined as an individual memory die within a wafer of semiconductor material
during production of memory dies, and

the multi-memory die is created by singulating the wafer of semiconductor material into memory dies, where at least one of
the memory dies is the multi-memory die that includes the multiple individual memory dies that are still physically connected
together, wherein the multi-memory die comprises multiple individual memory dies including (i) a first individual memory die
and (ii) a second individual memory die;

a semiconductor die coupled to the multi-memory die and the substrate, wherein the semiconductor die is disposed on the multi-memory
die such that the multi-memory die is disposed between the substrate and the semiconductor die, wherein the semiconductor
die is configured as a system on a chip, wherein at least one of the multi-memory die and the semiconductor die is attached
to the substrate;

a first plurality of bond pads disposed on the first individual memory die;
a second plurality of bond pads disposed on the second individual memory die;
a third plurality of bond pads disposed (i) on the semiconductor die and (ii) near a first edge of the semiconductor die,
wherein one or more of the first plurality of bond pads is coupled to a corresponding one or more of the third plurality of
bond pads;

a fourth plurality of bond pads disposed (i) on the semiconductor die and (ii) near a second edge of the semiconductor die,
wherein the second edge of the semiconductor die is opposite to the first edge of the semiconductor die, and wherein one or
more of the second plurality of bond pads is coupled to a corresponding one or more of the fourth plurality of bond pads;

a fifth plurality of bond pads disposed (i) on the semiconductor die and (ii) near a third edge of the semiconductor die,
wherein the third edge of the semiconductor die is perpendicular to the first edge of the semiconductor die; and

a sixth plurality of bond pads disposed on the substrate, wherein one or more of the fifth plurality of bond pads is coupled
to a corresponding one or more of the sixth plurality of bond pads.

US Pat. No. 9,521,703

MULTIPLE ABSTRACTION LAYERS WITHIN A COMMUNICATION DEVICE

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A communication device, comprising:
a plurality of communication interfaces, each communication interface configured to operate according to a respective communication
protocol; and

a plurality of abstraction layer (AL) processing units, each AL processing unit coupled to a respective communication interface
of the plurality of communication interfaces, wherein each AL processing unit is configured to abstract the corresponding
communication protocol from an upper layer processing unit, and wherein each AL processing unit includes i) a respective first
interface for communicating with the respective communication interface and ii) a respective second interface for communicating
with other AL processing units within the communication device.

US Pat. No. 9,414,432

PHYSICAL LAYER FRAME FORMAT FOR WLAN

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method, comprising:
receiving a data unit, wherein the data unit conforms to a first communication protocol or to a second communication protocol;
decoding, using a tail biting technique, a field of a preamble of the data unit, including decoding a received cyclic redundancy
check (CRC) included in the field;

generating, based on the field, a first CRC using a first CRC generation scheme, the first CRC generation scheme specified
for the first field by the first communication protocol;

generating, based on the field, a second CRC using a second CRC generation scheme, the second CRC generation scheme specified
for the field by the second communication protocol;

comparing (i) the first generated CRC and (ii) the second generated CRC to the received CRC;
determining that the data unit conforms to the first communication protocol when the first generated CRC matches the received
CRC; and

determining that the data unit conforms to the second communication protocol when the second generated CRC matches the received
CRC.

US Pat. No. 9,408,274

LIGHT EMITTING DIODES GENERATING WHITE LIGHT

Marvell World Trade LTD.,...

1. A system comprising:
a first set of light emitting diodes configured to emit blue light having first wavelengths in a first wavelength range in
a spectrum of blue light, wherein the first set of light emitting diodes includes a green phosphor configured to convert the
blue light having the first wavelengths to green light;

a second set of light emitting diodes configured to emit blue light having second wavelengths in a second wavelength range
in the spectrum of blue light, wherein the second set of light emitting diodes includes a red phosphor configured to convert
the blue light having the second wavelengths to red light, and wherein the first wavelength range is less than the second
wavelength range; and

a control module configured to control currents through the first set of light emitting diodes and the second set of light
emitting diodes.

US Pat. No. 9,355,951

INTERCONNECT LAYOUTS FOR ELECTRONIC ASSEMBLIES

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

3. A method comprising:
determining a first layout for a plurality of interconnect structures to be formed on an electronic device, wherein said determining
the first layout is based at least in part on a second layout of a substrate, the substrate to receive the electronic device;
and

forming the plurality of interconnect structures on the electronic device according to the determined first layout,
wherein the plurality of interconnect structures are configured to electrically couple the electronic device to the substrate,
wherein the plurality of interconnect structures comprise a plurality of outer interconnect structures disposed adjacent to
a periphery of the electronic device, the plurality of outer interconnect structures comprising at least two bumps adjacent
to one another and having exactly four traces routed on the substrate between the at least two bumps; and

wherein said determining the first layout comprises calculating a pitch, E, between the at least two bumps according to the
following:

E=P+SR*4+T*4+S*3, if 2*SR?S
or
E=P+T*4+S*5, if 2*SR where P is a size of an interconnect land disposed on the substrate, SR is a registration value for a mask disposed on the
substrate, T is a trace width of one of the four traces routed on the substrate, and S is a trace spacing width.

US Pat. No. 9,137,864

LED LIGHTING DEVICE

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A light emitting diode (LED) lighting device, comprising:
a transformer having a primary winding on a receiving path to receive electric energy from an energy source and a secondary
winding on a driving path, a terminal of the receiving path and a terminal of the driving path having a same voltage level;

a primary switch configured to switch on the receiving path to receive and store the electric energy in the transformer, and
to switch off the receiving path to allow the driving path to deliver the stored electric energy, wherein the stored electric
energy is discharged exclusively to one LED array of a plurality of LED arrays in each clock cycle of a controller before
the primary switch is switched on again, the controller independently controlling each LED array that is connected in parallel
with a capacitor;

a first LED array of the LED arrays coupled to the driving path to emit light in response to the delivered electric energy;
a first driving switch configured to couple the first LED array to the driving path to receive the electric energy from the
driving path; and

a bleed circuit configured to adjust a turn-on time of a bleed switch of the bleed circuit in a clock cycle of a colored light
to adjust a light emitting power of the colored light, the bleed circuit including a resistor and the bleed switch coupled
together in series to the driving path, the resistor coupled to the plurality of LED arrays in parallel, the bleed switch
coupled to a plurality of driving switches in parallel.

US Pat. No. 9,125,235

WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SIGNALING FOR AGGREGATE DATA UNITS

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method, comprising:
obtaining data for transmission to a wireless communication device, wherein the wireless communication device is configured
to process incoming transmissions based on an aggregate data unit format that specifies signaling for aggregating multiple
medium access control (MAC) protocol data units (MPDUs);

generating, based on the data and the aggregate data unit format, an aggregate MPDU (A-MPDU) that comprises a single MPDU
having a length greater than zero, the single MPDU residing in a subframe of the A-MPDU;

setting a delimiter of the subframe to indicate that the single MPDU is the only MPDU within the A-MPDU that has a length
greater than zero, and to cause the wireless communication device to accept the A-MPDU without a corresponding block acknowledgement
agreement;

including, in a physical (PHY) frame, the A-MPDU; and
transmitting the PHY frame to the wireless communication device.

US Pat. No. 9,112,480

MULTI-MODE AUDIO AMPLIFIERS

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. An audio amplifier comprising:
a mode controller configured to generate a control signal based on a bandwidth of an audio input signal, wherein the control
signal has a first state in response to the bandwidth being a first bandwidth value and a second state in response to the
bandwidth being a second bandwidth value, and wherein the second bandwidth value is greater than the first bandwidth value;
and

a variable-length finite impulse response (FIR) filter comprising
a first fixed-length FIR filter configured to generate a first filtered signal based on a first digital audio signal, wherein
the first digital audio signal is based on the audio input signal,

a second fixed-length FIR filter configured to generate a second filtered signal based on the first digital audio signal,
wherein a length of the second fixed-length FIR filter is greater than a length of the first fixed-length FIR filter, and

an output module configured to
select the first filtered signal in response to the control signal having the first state,
select the second filtered signal in response to the control signal having the second state, and
provide the selected one of the first filtered signal or the second filtered signal as an output signal; and
an analog module configured to generate, based on the output signal, an amplified analog signal.

US Pat. No. 9,059,874

SWITCHED CONTINUOUS TIME LINEAR EQUALIZER WITH INTEGRATED SAMPLER

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. An apparatus, comprising:
an input;
an output;
an equalizer configured to receive an input signal at the input and to equalize the input signal to generate an output signal
for the output;

a reset block coupled to the equalizer and the output and configured to pull the output signal at the output toward a bias
voltage level based on a reset signal; and

a sampler block coupled to the reset block and the equalizer,
wherein the sampler block is configured to connect and disconnect the reset block with the equalizer in response to a sample
signal, and

wherein the output is provided between the reset block and the sampler block.

US Pat. No. 9,521,670

SIGNAL DECODING IN THE PRESENCE OF ALMOST-BLANK SUBFRAMES (ABS)

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method, comprising:
in a mobile communication terminal, receiving signals from a base station in a sequence of time frames;
based on the received signals, determining in the terminal a classification of the time frames into first and second types,
such that a level of interference in the time frames of the first type is lower than the level of interference in the time
frames of the second type; and

tracking one or more of a gain, a frequency and a timing of the received signals based on the time frames of the first type
and not on the time frames of the second type.

US Pat. No. 9,256,247

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR COMMUNICATING TIME INFORMATION BETWEEN TIME AWARE DEVICES

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. An apparatus comprising:
a first processing unit operating according to a first clock;
a second processing unit operating according to a second clock running separately from the first clock;
a data interface for exchanging data packets between the first processing unit and the second processing unit;
a generic interface, separate from the data interface, for exchanging signals between the first processing unit and the second
processing unit;

a synchronization controller coupled to the first processing unit and the second processing unit, wherein the synchronization
controller is implemented on an integrated circuit and is configured to

(i) cause the first processing unit to generate a first indication of time at which the first processing unit transmits a
signal to the second processing unit via the generic interface, according to the first clock,

(ii) cause the second processing unit to generate a second indication of time at which the second processing unit receives
the signal, according to the second clock,

(iii) determine an offset between the first clock and the second clock based on the first indication of time and the second
indication of time, and

(iv) determine a propagation delay associated with data packets exchanged via the data interface using the determined offset.

US Pat. No. 9,198,120

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR SCANNING MULTIPLE CHANNELS IN A WIRELESS NETWORK

Marvell World Trade LTD.,...

1. A client station comprising:
a transceiver module configured to transmit and receive data via a frequency band, wherein the frequency band includes a plurality
of channels;

a scanning module configured to
simultaneously scan multiple channels of the frequency band at the same time, and
determine whether one or more access points are available for association in one or more of the multiple channels;
an association module configured to, in response to the scanning module determining that one or more access points are available
for association, determine whether to associate with one of the one or more access points determined to be available for association;

a preamble detection module configured to detect whether a preamble of a frame is received via a first channel of the multiple
channels; and

a decoding module configured to attempt to decode a signal field of the frame in response to the preamble detection module
detecting that the preamble of the frame is received via the first channel of the multiple channels, wherein the signal field
follows the preamble,

wherein the decoding module is configured to stop decoding the signal field in response to the decoding module (i) being unable
to decode the signal field, or (ii) determining, based on the decoding of the signal field, that the frame is neither a beacon
nor a probe response to a probe request; and

wherein the preamble detection module is configured to, in response to the decoding module stopping the decoding of the signal
field, begin detecting whether a second preamble of a second frame is received via a second channel of the multiple channels.

US Pat. No. 9,144,042

METHOD FOR FAST AUTOMATIC POWER CONTROL OF WIRELESS TRANSMITTERS

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A circuit comprising:
a transmit path to receive an input signal and generate an output signal at a transmit power level according to a power target
signal;

a gain corrector to output a signal for adjusting a power level of the output signal to correspond to the transmit power level,
the signal for adjusting being based on the power target signal and a delay for time-aligning a first signal and a second
signal;

a transmit gain controller to provide a gain control signal to cause the power level of the output signal to be adjusted based
on the gain control signal so that the output signal is output at the transmit power level;

a receive path to receive the output signal of the transmit path and generate a received signal; and
a gain estimator to output a measured gain signal associated with the transmit path using a first average signal of the input
signal during a first estimation window and a second average signal of the received signal during a second estimation window.

US Pat. No. 9,099,335

ANALOG CIRCUIT WITH IMPROVED LAYOUT FOR MISMATCH OPTIMIZATION

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A semiconductor device comprising:
a substrate;
a first transistor formed on the substrate;
a second transistor formed on the substrate; and
a third transistor formed on the substrate,
wherein a first common region of the semiconductor device forms (i) a drain region of the first transistor, and (ii) a source
region of the second transistor,

wherein a second common region of the semiconductor device forms (i) a drain region of the second transistor, and (ii) a source
region of the third transistor,

wherein a gate region of the first transistor is electrically coupled to a gate region of the second transistor, and
wherein the gate region of the second transistor is electrically coupled to a gate region of the third transistor.

US Pat. No. 9,092,855

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR REDUCING NOISE INTRODUCED INTO A DIGITAL IMAGE BY A VIDEO COMPRESSION ENCODER

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method, comprising:
filtering a digital image with a plurality of adaptive filters, wherein the plurality of adaptive filters include
a first filter configured to filter noise surrounding one or more edges in the digital image, and
a second filter configured to filter noise caused by a block-based encoding of the digital image; and
reducing a compression artifact from selected pixels in the digital image, wherein the compression artifact is reduced by
(i) combining an output from the first filter and an output from the second filter in response to the digital image being
determined to be blocky, and

(ii) not combining the output from the first filter with the output of the second filter in response to the digital image
not being determined to be blocky;

wherein the first filter is configured to filter noise surrounding one or more edges in the digital image by determining mosquito
noise values for pixels from the digital image by:

determining a flat region of the digital image within the first region;
within the flat region, determining pixels having a mosquito noise magnitude exceeding a mosquito noise threshold; and
generating the mosquito noise values for the pixels in the first region based at least in part on the pixels having the mosquito
noise magnitude exceeding the mosquito noise threshold.

US Pat. No. 9,053,010

CACHE SYSTEM USING SOLID STATE DRIVE

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

8. An apparatus, comprising:
a cache system for a storage device, the cache system including (i) one or more solid state drives (SSDs), (ii) one or more
random access memories (RAMs), and (iii) a cache control device, wherein the cache control device is configured to:

receive first data that is to be written to the storage device, the first data associated with a request to write the first
data to the storage device,

store at least some of the first data in one or both of (i) the one or more SSDs and (ii) the one or more RAMs,
retrieve second data from the storage device in response to a request to read data from the storage device,
store at least some of the second data in one or both of (i) the one or more SSDs and (ii) the one or more RAMs,
when storing first data or second data in one of the one or more RAMs, write to the one RAM non-sequentially with respect
to a memory space of the one RAM, and

when storing first data or second data in one of the one or more SSDs, write to the one SSD sequentially with respect to a
memory space of the one SSD;
wherein the cache control device comprises:
a cache engine configured to
receive a request to overwrite old data already in the storage device with second data, and
in response to the request overwrite old data in the storage device, (i) determine whether the old data is in the one or more
RAMs, and (ii) determine whether the old data is in the one or more SSDs;

a RAM interface device configured to
if the old data is in the one or more RAMs, overwrite the old data in the one or more RAMs with second data, and
if the old data to be overwritten is not in the one or more RAMs, (i) allocate a chunk in the one or more RAMs, and (ii) write
second data to the allocated chunk; and

an SSD interface device configured to, if the old data is in the one or more SSDs, mark the old data in the one or more SSDs
as invalid.

US Pat. No. 9,054,677

CLOCK MULTIPLEXING FOR BASEBAND AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CORRECTION

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method comprising:
generating a first clock reference;
operating a global positioning system (GPS) module in response to the first clock reference;
in response to an automatic frequency correction signal, generating a second clock reference by performing automatic frequency
correction on the first clock reference;

in response to the automatic frequency correction signal, generating a third clock reference by performing automatic frequency
correction on the first clock reference;

receiving radio frequency signals from a wireless medium;
in response to the third clock reference, generating baseband signals based on the received radio frequency signals;
selecting one of the first clock reference and the second clock reference; and
in response to the selected one of the first clock reference and the second clock reference, generating the automatic frequency
correction signal based on the baseband signals.

US Pat. No. 9,048,793

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR OPERATING A POWER AMPLIFIER

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A power amplifier configured to receive an AC input signal and output, based on the AC input signal, an output voltage
via a first output voltage terminal and a second output voltage terminal, the power amplifier comprising:
a first transistor;
a second transistor, wherein the first transistor and the second transistor are connected in a push-pull configuration;
a first inductor, wherein the first inductor and the first transistor are connected in series between a supply voltage and
ground, and wherein the first output voltage terminal outputting the output voltage of the power amplifier is located between
the first inductor and the first transistor;

a second inductor, wherein the second inductor and the second transistor are connected in series between the supply voltage
and ground, and wherein the second output voltage terminal outputting the output voltage of the power amplifier is located
between the second transistor and ground; and

a first capacitor configured to provide a first circuit path between (i) the first output voltage terminal outputting the
output voltage of the power amplifier and (ii) the second output voltage terminal outputting the output voltage of the power
amplifier, wherein the first capacitor has a first capacitance selected such that the first circuit path functions as a short
circuit for even harmonics of a fundamental frequency of the AC input signal but does not function as a short circuit for
the fundamental frequency of the AC input signal.

US Pat. No. 9,047,765

GPS-BASED TRAFFIC MONITORING SYSTEM

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A traffic information system for a vehicle, the traffic information system comprising:
a global positioning system (GPS) associated with the vehicle, the GPS configured to selectively generate location and vector
data;

a transmitter;
a control module configured to
i) receive the location and vector data,
ii) wirelessly transmit the location and vector data using the transmitter when the vehicle is traveling on a first set of
predetermined roads, and

iii) not transmit the location and vector data when the vehicle is traveling on a second set of roads; and
a remote traffic monitoring system configured to
i) receive the vector and location data,
ii) compare a speed of the vehicle on a first road to a first nonzero threshold and to an average traffic speed on the first
road,

iii) compare the average traffic speed to a second threshold, and
iv) selectively trigger contact with the vehicle via a service assistance system and a remote service assistance system if
both (a) the speed of the vehicle is less than both the first nonzero threshold and the average traffic speed, and (b) the
average traffic speed is greater than the second threshold.

US Pat. No. 9,407,460

CUT-THROUGH PROCESSING FOR SLOW AND FAST PORTS

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method for processing network packets in a network device, the method comprising:
receiving a network packet at an ingress port of the network device;
after at least a first portion of the network packet has been received at the ingress port, but before the network packet
has been completely received at the ingress port,

generating, at the network device and based on the first portion of the network packet, a first data structure representing
the network packet,

processing the first data structure at a packet processor of the network device, and
selectively beginning to forward the network packet to a first one or more egress ports of the network device, or selectively
not forwarding the network packet to any egress port, responsively to processing the first data structure;

before the network packet has been completely received at the ingress port, generating, at the network device, a second data
structure representing the network packet; and

after the network packet has been completely received at the ingress port,
processing the second data structure at the packet processor, and
selectively forwarding the network packet to a second one or more egress ports of the network device, different from the first
one or more egress ports, responsively to processing the second data structure.

US Pat. No. 9,323,611

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR MULTI-STAGE SOFT INPUT DECODING

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method for decoding data, comprising:
attempting, using a first decoder, to decode the data based on a hard decision input for a symbol;
transmitting a request for reliability information for the symbol when the attempting to decode the data based on the hard
decision input fails and when the data indicates the reliability information exists;

receiving, with receiving circuitry, the reliability information for the symbol; and
decoding, using a second decoder, the data based on the reliability information.

US Pat. No. 9,313,843

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR DRIVING LIGHT EMITTING DIODES

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A system comprising:
a dimming controller configured to generate (i) a first dimming signal having a first dimming frequency, and (ii) a second
dimming signal having a second dimming frequency;

a first LED switch configured to receive the first dimming signal, and to switch on or off a first LED string in response
to the first dimming signal;

a second LED switch configured to receive the second dimming signal, and to switch on or off a second LED string in response
to the second dimming signal, wherein the second LED string is coupled in parallel with the first LED string; and

a detection circuit configured to generate a comparison signal indicating whether a first voltage drop of the first LED string
is larger than a second voltage drop of the second LED string,

wherein the dimming controller is further configured control the first dimming signal and the second dimming signal to
(i) in response to the comparison signal indicating the first voltage drop is larger than the second voltage drop, keep the
first LED string on when the second LED string is on, and

(ii) in response to the comparison signal indicating the first voltage drop is smaller than the second voltage drop in magnitude,
keep the second LED string on when the first LED string is on.

US Pat. No. 9,264,368

CHIP-TO-CHIP COMMUNICATIONS

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A transmitter device comprising:
a hardware replay buffer to store a data packet, wherein the data packet includes an overhead portion and a payload portion;
and

circuitry configured to
transmit the overhead portion, to a receiver device, including one or more overhead bits indicating a total bit count of the
payload portion to be received during transmission of the payload portion;

start the transmission of the payload portion to the receiver device through a physical serial communication link;
receive, from a host device and prior to completion of the transmission of the payload portion, a priority data packet having
a higher priority than the data packet;

perform an interruption, before a transmission of the priority data packet, of the transmission of the payload portion in
response to the receiving of the priority data packet, such that a remainder data of the payload portion in the hardware replay
buffer remains to be transmitted upon resumption of the transmission of the payload portion;

record a memory location within the hardware replay buffer corresponding to the interruption, wherein the memory location
references a first bit of the remainder data of the payload portion of the data packet;

transmit the priority data packet to the receiver device;
after the priority data packet has been transmitted, transmit another overhead portion, to the receiver device, including
one or more overhead bits indicating a bit count of the remainder data of the payload portion to be received during resumed
transmission of the payload portion; and

after transmission of the another overhead portion resume the transmission to the receiver device of the payload portion starting
from the recorded memory location.

US Pat. No. 9,246,738

SINGLE USER AND MULTI-USER DATA UNIT FORMATS IN LONG-RANGE WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORKS (WLANS)

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method for generating data units for transmission via a communication channel below 1 GHz, the method comprising:
generating a preamble of a first data unit according to a first format, wherein generating the preamble of the first data
unit according to the first format includes

(i) generating a first preamble portion of the first data unit, wherein
the first preamble portion of the first data unit includes information indicating to a receiving device that the first data
unit is a multi-user data unit, and

the first preamble portion of the first data unit includes a first data unit signal (SIG) field that i) indicates physical
layer (PHY) parameters associated with the first data unit, ii) includes a group identifier (ID) field, and iii) does not
include a modulation and coding scheme (MCS) field, and

(ii) generating a second preamble portion of the first data unit, wherein the second preamble portion of the first data unit
follows the first preamble portion of the first data unit;

applying one or more beamforming steering matrices to the second preamble portion of the first data unit but not to the first
preamble portion of the first data unit; and

generating a preamble of a second data unit according to a second format different than the first format, wherein generating
the preamble of the second data unit includes

(i) generating a first preamble portion of the second data unit, wherein
the first preamble portion of the second data unit includes information indicating to a receiving device that the second data
unit is a single-user data unit, and

the first preamble portion of the second data unit includes a second data unit SIG field that i) indicates PHY parameters
associated with the second data unit, ii) includes an MCS field, and iii) does not include a group ID field, and

(ii) generating a second preamble portion of the second data unit, wherein the second preamble portion of the second data
unit follows the first preamble portion of the second data unit.

US Pat. No. 9,197,434

NETWORK SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTING PROTECTED CONTENT

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A system for delivering content to a network device, the system comprising:
a content requesting interface configured to allow a user to select desired content from available content;
a queue configured to store identifiers of the desired selected content independent of the desired selected content; and
a remote content provider that is remote from the network device, the remote content provider configured to
communicate with the queue, and
in response to the user selecting the desired selected content, transmit the desired selected content to the network device
based on a sequence of the identifiers of the desired selected content stored in the queue,

wherein the network device includes a hidden section configured to store the desired selected content as first received selected
content, wherein the hidden section and storage of the first received selected content in the hidden section are not visible
to a user of the network device,

wherein the first received selected content is moved from the hidden section to a user accessible section of the network device
based on at least one of usage and storage status data associated with second received selected content, and

wherein the storage status data includes at least one of a hidden status, an erased status, and an amount of the second received
selected content stored on the network device.

US Pat. No. 9,198,072

CALCULATING AND REPORTING CHANNEL CHARACTERISTICS

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method, comprising:
calculating, at a first communication device, a plurality of interference covariances according to a plurality of interference
covariance calculation techniques, the plurality of interference covariances associated with a communication channel between
the first communication device and a second communication device, wherein the plurality of interference covariance calculation
techniques includes i) a first interference covariance calculation technique in which no transmitters in a cluster are considered
as interferers, and ii) a second interference covariance calculation technique in which a set of one or more transmitters
in the cluster are considered as interferers;

selecting, at the first communication device, a subset of one or more interference covariances in the plurality of interference
covariances;

calculating, at the first communication device, a set of one or more respective channel quality indicators (CQIs) using the
subset of one or more interference covariances;

transmitting, from the first communication device to the second communication device, the set of one or more CQIs; and
transmitting, from the first communication device to the second communication device, a set of one or more indicators of one
or more respective interference covariance calculation techniques utilized to calculate the set of one or more CQIs.

US Pat. No. 9,141,394

SWITCHING BETWEEN PROCESSOR CACHE AND RANDOM-ACCESS MEMORY

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A System-on-Chip (SoC) comprising:
a switchable memory configured to switch between a second-level (L2) processor cache configuration and a static random-access
memory (SRAM) configuration; and

a controller configured to:
dynamically switch, responsive to a power-down event or a power-on event, the switchable memory from the L2 cache configuration
to the SRAM configuration by:

disabling the switchable memory as L2 cache by writing to an L2 cache enable bit in a control register;
cleaning the switchable memory;
clearing an SRAM select bit in a configuration register;
invalidating the switchable memory as L2 cache;
waiting for the switchable memory to become idle;
setting the SRAM select bit in the configuration register; and
configuring a bank of the switchable memory for SRAM;
load boot code from a non-volatile memory into the switchable memory while the switchable memory is in the SRAM configuration,
the non-volatile memory being a boot read-only memory (ROM) within the SoC that is configured to store the boot code;

execute the boot code from the switchable memory while the switchable memory is in the SRAM configuration effective to boot
an operating system of the SoC; and

dynamically switch, responsive to booting the operating system of the SoC, the switchable memory from the SRAM configuration
to the L2 cache configuration.

US Pat. No. 9,071,416

GALOIS/COUNTER MODE ENCRYPTION IN A WIRELESS NETWORK

Marvell World Trade LTD.,...

1. A system comprising:
a nonce module configured to
generate a nonce for each packet of a plurality of packets to be encrypted using a first temporal key,
wherein each nonce includes a packet number that is different than packet numbers associated with other nonces generated by
the nonce module for the plurality of packets,

wherein the packet number is greater than N bits in length, and
wherein N is an integer greater than 40; and
an encryption module configured to encrypt, without reusing a value of the packet number, more than 2(N?1) packets of the plurality of packets using (i) the first temporal key and (ii) the nonces corresponding to the more than 2(N?1) packets using Galois/Counter Mode encryption.

US Pat. No. 9,507,543

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TRANSFERRING DATA BETWEEN A HOST AND BOTH A SOLID-STATE MEMORY AND A MAGNETIC STORAGE DEVICE

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A hybrid circuit comprising:
a system-in-a-package comprising
a first solid-state memory, and
a first control module configured to control access to the first solid-state memory based on a first control signal; and
a first integrated circuit separate from the system-in-a-package, wherein the first integrated circuit comprises
a first embedded multi-media card module in communication with the system-in-a-package according to an embedded multi-media
card standard, wherein the first embedded multi-media card module is configured to transfer the first control signal to the
first control module to access the first solid-state memory,

a second control module configured to control access to a magnetic storage device based on a second control signal, and
a management module configured to control both the first embedded multi-media card module and the magnetic storage device
including (i) generating the first control signal to transfer first data between a host and the system-in-a-package via the
first embedded multi-media card module, and (ii) generating the second control signal to transfer the first data or second
data between the host and the magnetic storage device via the second control module, wherein the host is separate from the
first integrated circuit and the system-in-a package.

US Pat. No. 9,368,857

COMBINING SIGNAL POWER USING MAGNETIC COUPLING BETWEEN CONDUCTORS

Marvell World Trade LTD.,...

1. A system comprising:
a plurality of amplifiers;
a plurality of first transmission lines having first ends respectively connected to outputs of the plurality of amplifiers
and second ends connected to a reference potential; and

a plurality of second transmission lines having first ends connected to a conductor and second ends that are unconnected,
wherein each of the plurality of second transmission lines is a single transmission line of length greater than each of the
plurality of first transmission lines,

wherein the conductor is circular with a node at a center of the conductor to connect to an antenna, and
wherein signals output by the plurality of amplifiers to the plurality of first transmission lines are respectively magnetically
coupled to the plurality of second transmission lines.

US Pat. No. 9,294,249

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR AGGREGATING ACKNOWLEDGMENTS TRANSMITTED BY AN ACCESS POINT TO A PLURALITY OF CLIENT STATIONS IN A WIRELESS NETWORK

Marvell World Trade LTD.,...

1. An access point, comprising:
a medium access control module configured to
designate a predetermined time period to communicate via a channel with a plurality of client stations associated with the
access point,

instruct remaining client stations associated with the access point to not transmit data during the predetermined time period,
receive, during the predetermined time period, data transmitted by the plurality of client stations without sensing the channel,
and

receive, at a time other than the predetermined time period, data transmitted by the remaining client stations by sensing
the channel; and

an acknowledgment generating module configured to respectively generate a plurality of acknowledgements in response to receiving
data from the plurality of client stations,

wherein the medium access control module is configured to
aggregate the plurality of acknowledgements in a single aggregated frame, wherein the single aggregated frame includes a plurality
of sub-frames, and wherein each sub-frame of the single aggregated frame respectively includes one of the plurality of acknowledgements,
and

transmit the single aggregated frame to the plurality of client stations during the predetermined time period.

US Pat. No. 9,258,863

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TRIAC APPLICATIONS

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A circuit, comprising:
a dimmer receiving an Alternating Current (AC) power signal from an AC power supply, the dimmer configured to conduct during
(i) a first conduction angle ranging from a dimming angle ? to an end of a half cycle of the AC power signal and (ii) a second
conduction angle ranging from a beginning of the half cycle of the AC power signal to an angle ?, wherein ?>?;

a control circuit configured to operate to provide power to a first device when the dimmer coupled to the control circuit
operates at the first conduction angle, the first conduction angle being adjusted to control an output power to the first
device; and

a return path circuit configured to provide a return path to provide power to a second device when the dimmer operates at
the second conduction angle and the control circuit is not in operation, wherein the control circuit disables the return path
when the control circuit is in operation.

US Pat. No. 9,153,323

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR GENERATING SOFT INFORMATION IN NAND FLASH

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

11. A system for generating soft information for a memory cell, the system comprising:
circuitry configured to:
identify a range of threshold voltages for the memory cell;
apply a reference signal to the memory cell;
measure an output of the memory cell in response to applying the reference signal; and
segment the range of threshold voltages based on the output of the memory cell and the reference signal.

US Pat. No. 9,131,528

PHYSICAL LAYER FRAME FORMAT FOR WLAN

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method, comprising:
receiving a data unit, wherein the data unit conforms to a first communication protocol or to a second communication protocol;
decoding a field of a preamble of the data unit, including decoding a received cyclic redundancy check (CRC) included in the
field;

generating, based on the field, a first CRC using a first CRC generation scheme, the first CRC generation scheme specified
for the first field by the first communication protocol;

generating, based on the field, a second CRC using a second CRC generation scheme, the second CRC generation scheme specified
for the field by the second communication protocol;

comparing (i) the first generated CRC and (ii) the second generated CRC to the received CRC;
determining that the data unit conforms to the first communication protocol when the first generated CRC matches the received
CRC; and

determining that the data unit conforms to the second communication protocol when the second generated CRC matches the received
CRC.

US Pat. No. 9,055,296

PROCESSING RASTERIZED DATA

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. An apparatus, comprising:
translation logic configured to store pixel data of a compressed image as a plurality of two-dimensional data blocks,
wherein the translation logic is configured to re-organize the pixel data for each of the plurality of two dimensional data
blocks into a series of back-to-back adjacent pixels that proceeds around a data block of the plurality of two-dimensional
data blocks, and wherein the translation logic is configured to re-organize by converting addresses of the series of back-to-back
adjacent pixels into a sequential string of continuous addresses in memory that are consecutive; and

decompression logic configured to, at least partially, decompress the compressed image based, at least in part, on the plurality
of two-dimensional data blocks.

US Pat. No. 9,384,767

GENERATING POSITION ERROR SIGNAL BASED ON DATA TRACKS FOR ROTATING MAGNETIC DATA STORAGE

Marvell World Trade LTD.,...

1. A system comprising:
an inter-track interference detection module configured to
determine a first inter-track interference value based on a first signal from a first sensor positioned over a first track
of a rotating storage medium, wherein the first inter-track interference value indicates energy contributed by tracks adjacent
to the first track compared to energy contributed by the first track; and

determine a second inter-track interference value based on a second signal from a second sensor positioned over a second track
of the rotating storage medium, wherein the second inter-track interference value indicates energy contributed by tracks adjacent
to the second track compared to energy contributed by the second track; and

a position error signal generation module configured to generate a position error signal based on the first inter-track interference
value and the second inter-track interference value.

US Pat. No. 9,135,168

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR GENERATING DESCRIPTORS TO REACCESS A NON-VOLATILE SEMICONDUCTOR MEMORY OF A STORAGE DRIVE DUE TO AN ERROR

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A storage drive comprising:
a first module configured to, based on an instruction signal of a first descriptor, transfer a block of data to or from a
non-volatile semiconductor memory in the storage drive; and

a second module configured to
monitor a status of the transfer of the block of data,
determine whether an error exists with respect to the transfer of the block of data, and
independent of communication with a host device, initiate generation of a second descriptor if the error exists,
wherein the second module is configured to, according to the second descriptor, perform a reaccess event including reaccessing
the non-volatile semiconductor memory to again transfer the block of data to or from the non-volatile semiconductor memory.

US Pat. No. 9,069,553

SWITCHING TASKS BETWEEN HETEROGENEOUS CORES

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method comprising:
determining that a task being executed by a first core of a processor can be executed by a second core of the processor, the
first core executing a first operating system that is different from a second operating system executed by the second core,
the first core implementing a 64-bit or 32-bit instruction set and being configured to operate at a frequency of at least
100 MHz, the second core implementing a 16-bit or 8-bit instruction set and being configured to operate at a frequency of
less than 100 MHz;

switching execution of the task from the first core to the second core effective to decrease an amount of energy consumed
by the processor, the switching execution comprising:

determining, while the task is executing on the first core, respective switch points for execution of the task at an application
level, a framework level, and a hardware level;

generating, for the respective switch points, state information useful to switch execution of the task at the application
level, the framework level, and the hardware level; and

switching, at the respective switch points and via the state information, execution of the task from the first core to the
second core at the application level, the framework level, and the hardware level.

US Pat. No. 9,516,667

SDMA MULTI-DEVICE WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method, comprising:
transmitting a multi-user frame, in a frequency band, that concurrently provides data via spatially steered streams to a group
of wireless communication devices;

monitoring for acknowledgements, in the frequency band, to respective portions of the multi-user frame;
detecting, after the transmitting of the multi-user frame, a lack of reception of an expected acknowledgement from a first
device of the wireless communication devices based on a first protection period after the multi-user frame; and

transmitting, based on the lack of reception of the expected acknowledgement, a signal in the frequency band to (i) create
a second protection period to prevent a wireless communication device that is separate from the group of wireless communication
devices from interrupting a sequence of acknowledgements associated with the multi-user frame, and (ii) control transmission
of an acknowledgement from a second device of the wireless communication devices during the second protection period, the
signal being addressed to the second device, wherein the second protection period extends protection of a wireless medium
from the first protection period.

US Pat. No. 9,507,742

VARIABLE LENGTH ARBITRATION

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method comprising:
determining a plurality of categories for requests for a shared resource being shared by a plurality of entities;
receiving a plurality of requests for the resource from the plurality of entities;
determining a category in the plurality of categories for each of the plurality of requests;
providing a first set of requests and a second set of requests from among the plurality of requests, wherein the first set
of requests is determined to be in a first category and the second set of requests is determined to be in a second category;

dispatching the first set of requests to a first arbitration scheme, wherein the first arbitration scheme implements a first
arbitration algorithm configured to use a first number of clock cycles to determine a first arbitration decision, wherein
the first number of clock cycles corresponds to a first amount of time used by the first arbitration scheme to determine the
first arbitration decision, and wherein the first arbitration decision identifies a first request to be granted from among
the first set of requests; and

dispatching the second set of requests to a second arbitration scheme, wherein the second arbitration scheme implements a
second arbitration algorithm configured to use a second number of clock cycles to determine a second arbitration decision,
wherein the first number of clock cycles and the second number of clock cycles are different, wherein the second number of
clock cycles corresponds to a second amount of time, different from the first amount of time, used by the second arbitration
scheme to determine the second arbitration decision, and wherein the second arbitration decision identifies a second request
to be granted from among the second set of requests.

US Pat. No. 9,497,807

DIMMER CIRCUIT FOR ELECTRONIC LOADS

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. An apparatus comprising:
a dimmer circuit coupled to an electronic load and configured to receive an alternating current (AC) signal from an AC source;
a phase control circuit configured to turn the dimmer circuit on for a first portion of the AC signal to transfer energy from
the AC source to the electronic load, wherein the dimmer circuit turns off during a second portion of the AC signal to stop
transferring the energy from the AC source to the electronic load;

a sensing circuit configured to detect a conduction state of the dimmer circuit;
a switch coupled to the phase control circuit; and
a driver circuit coupled to the sensing circuit and the switch, wherein
the switch is part of a power supply supplying power to the electronic load,
when the sensing circuit detects that the dimmer circuit is in a non-conduction state, the driver circuit controls the switch
to couple the dimmer circuit and the phase control circuit to ground, and

the driver circuit includes:
a first transistor coupled to a first resistor, a second resistor, a third resistor, and a fourth resistor,
a second transistor coupled to the second resistor, the third resistor, a fifth resistor, and a sixth resistor, and
a diode coupled to the fifth resistor.

US Pat. No. 9,391,045

RECESSED SEMICONDUCTOR SUBSTRATES AND ASSOCIATED TECHNIQUES

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. An apparatus comprising:
a semiconductor substrate having (i) a first surface, and (ii) a second surface that is opposite to the first surface;
a first redistribution layer deposited on the first surface of the semiconductor substrate;
a second redistribution layer deposited on the second surface of the semiconductor substrate;
a first die having (i) an active side and (ii) an inactive side that is disposed opposite to the active side of the first
die, wherein the active side of the first die is coupled to the first redistribution layer deposited on the first surface
of the semiconductor substrate;

a second die having (i) an active side and (ii) an inactive side that is disposed opposite to the active side of the second
die, wherein the active side of the second die is coupled to the second redistribution layer deposited on the second surface
of the semiconductor substrate;

a first package interconnect structure that is (i) deposited on the first surface of the semiconductor substrate and (ii)
in contact with a first external device, wherein the first package interconnect structure is configured to couple the first
redistribution layer to the first external device, and wherein the inactive side of the first die is physically attached to
the first external device; and

a second package interconnect structure deposited on the second surface of the semiconductor substrate, wherein the second
package interconnect structure is configured to couple the second redistribution layer to a second external device.

US Pat. No. 9,350,234

VOLTAGE REGULATOR AND METHOD FOR REGULATING DUAL OUTPUT VOLTAGES BY SELECTIVE CONNECTION BETWEEN A VOLTAGE SUPPLY AND MULTIPLE CAPACITANCES

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A voltage regulator comprising:
a first capacitance comprising a first terminal, wherein the first terminal is connected to a first output of the voltage
regulator, and wherein the first output is at a first output voltage;

a second capacitance comprising a first terminal, wherein the first terminal of the second capacitance is connected to a second
output of the voltage regulator, and wherein the second output is at a second output voltage;

a third capacitance comprising a first terminal and a second terminal;
a plurality of first switches configured to connect the first terminal of the third capacitance to a voltage supply, the first
output, or the second output; and

a plurality of second switches configured to connect the second terminal of the third capacitance to a first reference terminal,
the first output, or the second output,

wherein the plurality of first switches and the plurality of second switches are controlled, based on the first output voltage
and the second output voltage, to (i) adjust voltages across the first capacitance, the second capacitance, and the third
capacitance, (ii) maintain the first output at a first predetermined voltage, and (iii) maintain the second output at a second
predetermined voltage.

US Pat. No. 9,201,731

ERROR CORRECTION FOR STORAGE DEVICES

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method comprising:
receiving, at a storage controller, a data request for a storage device;
reading, in response to the data request, data from discrete units of storage in the storage device, the data comprising stored
data read from two or more of the discrete units of storage and parity data read from at least one of the discrete units of
storage;

detecting an error in the stored data from the reading; and
recovering stored data for at least one of the discrete units of storage using the parity data and the stored data read from
one or more remaining ones of the two or more of the discrete units of storage.

US Pat. No. 9,114,635

DUAL PRINT HEAD ARRANGEMENT

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. An apparatus comprising:
a body, wherein the body includes a printing cavity defined within the body;
a first print path defined within the printing cavity;
a second print path defined within the printing cavity and being substantially parallel to the first print path;
a first print head arranged adjacent the first print path;
a second print head arranged adjacent the second print path;
an arrangement to move a printing surface from the first print path to the second print path, wherein
(i) the first print head is configured to deposit a printing substance onto a first side of the printing surface as the printing
surface moves past the first print head along the first print path, and

(ii) subsequent to the arrangement moving the printing surface from the first print path to the second print path, the second
print head is configured to deposit the printing substance onto a second side of the printing surface as the printing surface
moves past the first print head along the first print path, wherein the second side of the printing surface is opposite to
the first side of the printing surface;

a first transport carriage coupled to the first print head; and
a second transport carriage coupled to the second print head, wherein the first transport carriage and the second transport
carriage are coupled to each other such that the first transport carriage and the second transport carriage are configured
to move in unison relative to the printing surface as each of the first print head and the second print head respectively
deposits the printing substance onto the first side and the second side of the printing surface.

US Pat. No. 9,063,670

HARD DISK DRIVE WITH INTEGRATED ETHERNET NETWORK INTERFACE

Marvell World Trade LTD.,...

1. A system comprising:
an Ethernet network interface module configured to transmit and receive packets via an Ethernet connection;
a processor configured to
process the packets transmitted and received by the Ethernet network interface module via the Ethernet connection,
wherein the processor is configured to support processing of the packets transmitted and received using (i) a hyper-text transfer
protocol, (ii) a peer-to-peer sharing protocol, and (iii) an Internet small computer system interface (SCSI) protocol; and

a hard disk control module configured to control, based on the packets transmitted and received, writing and reading of data
to a hard disk drive,

wherein the hard disk control module, the processor, and the network interface module are located in an integrated circuit
included in the hard disk drive.

US Pat. No. 9,389,317

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DETERMINING POSITION IN A GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM

Marvell World Trade LTD.,...

1. A system for determining a position of a device, the system comprising:
a receiver module configured to respectively acquire signals from a plurality of satellites totaling in number less than five;
a communication module configured to obtain, from a server, ephemeris data corresponding to one or more of the plurality of
satellites totaling in number less than five, wherein the ephemeris data corresponding to the one or more of the plurality
of satellites totaling in number less than five is obtained by the communication module from the server via (i) a cellular
network or (ii) a wireless network;

a location determining module configured to generate estimates of an approximate position of the device relative to each of
the plurality of satellites totaling in number less than five, without using prior position data of the device, based on

(i) the signals acquired from the plurality of satellites totaling in number less than five, and
(ii) the ephemeris data corresponding to the one or more of the plurality of satellites totaling in number less than five
obtained from the server;

a signal strength module configured to respectively determine a signal strength of each of the signals acquired from the plurality
of satellites totaling in number less than five; and

an averaging module configured to generate a weighted average of the estimates based on the signal strength of each of the
signals acquired from the plurality of satellites totaling in number less than five, wherein the weighted average represents
the position of the device.

US Pat. No. 9,392,654

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CONTROLLING A POWER ADJUSTMENT TO A LIGHTING DEVICE

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method, comprising:
determining a power adjustment to a load;
determining whether a switching frequency of a pulse width modulation (PWM) signal is within specific range;
adjusting the switching frequency of the PWM signal based on the power adjustment to control power transfer to the load, the
switching frequency being adjusted to remain in the specific range; and

adjusting a pulse width of the PWM signal to maintain a constant peak current,
wherein determining the power adjustment in the load further includes receiving a dimming characteristic of a power supply,
determining a reference power corresponding to the dimming characteristic, estimating a transferred power that is controlled
by the PWM signal, and determining the power adjustment based on the reference power and the transferred power.

US Pat. No. 9,319,939

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR HANDLING CALL DEGRADATION DURING CALL SETUP

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method, comprising:
in a mobile communication terminal, detecting a degradation in communication quality between the mobile communication terminal
and a serving base station during a call-setup procedure in which the terminal attempts to establish a call via the serving
base station, wherein the call-setup procedure begins with the mobile communication terminal sending a “Radio Resource Control
(RRC) connection request” message to the serving base station and ends with the mobile communication terminal sending an “RRC
connection setup complete” message to the serving base station, and wherein the call-setup procedure specifies that the mobile
communication terminal is to dedicate all time resources for establishing the call with the serving base station;

responsive to detecting the degradation in the communication quality, searching by the mobile communication terminal, during
the call-setup procedure with the serving base station, for an alternative base station that is suitable for establishing
the call, even though the call-setup procedure specifies that all time resources of the mobile communication terminal are
to be dedicated for establishing the call with the serving base station; and

upon finding the alternative base station, switching to establish the call via the alternative base station.

US Pat. No. 9,300,767

MAC HEADER COMPRESSION IN LONG-RANGE WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORKS

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method of wireless communication comprising:
receiving, at a first communication device, a plurality of packets, wherein
each packet of the plurality of packets includes (i) a set of one or more flag bits, and (ii) a medium access control (MAC)
header,

each respective MAC header of a first subset of the plurality of packets contains only two address fields including (i) a
first address field specifying a receiver address, and (ii) a second address field specifying a transmitter address, and

each respective MAC header of a second subset of the plurality of packets includes a third address field in addition to and
separate from the first address field and the second address field, the second subset different from the first subset;

for a respective packet among the plurality of packets, determining, at the first communication device, whether a respective
set of one or more flag bits of the respective packet indicates that a station (STA), being either an original source or a
final destination of the respective packet, has any association identifier (AID) assigned by an access point (AP); and

processing, at the first communication device, a respective MAC header of the respective packet, wherein processing, the MAC
header includes:

(i) perceiving the respective packet as belonging to the second subset and processing the third address field when said determining
indicates that the STA, being either the original source or the final destination of the respective packet, was not assigned
any AID by the AP, wherein the third address field contains a MAC address of the original source or the final destination
of the respective packet, and

(ii) perceiving the respective packet as belonging to the first subset and processing an AID in the first address field or
in the second address field and an address of the AP when said determining indicates that the STA, being either the original
source or the final destination of the respective packet, was assigned an AID by the AP.

US Pat. No. 9,166,729

ENHANCED DEMODULATION REFERENCE SIGNAL (DM-RS) DESIGN

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method, comprising:
in a mobile communication terminal, receiving a Multi-User Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MU-MIMO) signal, which comprises
at least a precoded transmission that is addressed to the terminal and which comprises one or more Demodulation Reference
Signals (DM-RS);

receiving, in the mobile communication terminal, control information, wherein the control information indicates one or more
scrambling sequences and one or more orthogonalization sequences used in producing the DM-RS, and wherein the control information
is provided in a compressed format that does not permit signaling of all possible choices of scrambling sequence and orthogonalization
sequence;

interpreting the control information in the mobile communication terminal based on the compressed format so as to identify,
from among all possible choices of scrambling sequence and orthogonalization sequence, the scrambling sequences and orthogonalization
sequences used in producing the DM-RS; and

demodulating the DM-RS using the identified scrambling sequences and orthogonalization sequences.

US Pat. No. 9,137,255

VERIFYING SERVER IDENTITY

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method comprising:
receiving, at a wireless device, via a publically accessible wireless network provided by an access point, from an enrollment
server associated with an internet service provider that administers the publically accessible wireless network, and during
an enrollment process with the internet service provider, one or more known domain name system (DNS) addresses for a granting
authority of internet services associated with the internet service provider, the wireless device capable of accessing multiple
wireless networks including the publically accessible wireless network;

receiving, at the wireless device, from an authentication server associated with the internet service provider, and via the
publically accessible wireless network, a grant from the internet service provider to access internet services via the publically
accessible wireless network, the grant including a domain name system (DNS) address of the authentication server, the DNS
address of the authentication server being undeterminable through the publically accessible wireless network; and

verifying, by the wireless device and based on the DNS address of the authentication server matching the one of one or more
known DNS addresses for a granting authority of the internet services, that the authentication server is the granting authority
for the internet services.

US Pat. No. 9,136,853

ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER WITH NOISE REDUCING FEEDBACK PATH

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

7. An analog to digital converter, comprising:
a low pass filter element configured to filter an analog input signal;
a quantizer configured to (i) receive an analog output signal that is based on the filtered analog input signal, and (ii)
convert the analog output signal to a digital output signal; and

a digital to analog converter configured to generate an analog feedback signal based on the digital output signal, wherein
(i) the digital to analog converter is provided in a feedback path between an output of the quantizer and an input of the
quantizer, (ii) the digital to analog converter is configured to selectively inject or absorb current associated with the
feedback path to reduce noise associated with the digital to analog converter, and (iii) the analog feedback signal is combined
with the analog input signal at an input of the low pass filter element,

wherein a transconductance of the quantizer and the digital to analog converter corresponds to a ratio of (i) a maximum current
input to the digital to analog converter to (ii) a maximum voltage swing at an input of the quantizer.

US Pat. No. 9,237,418

POSITIONING DATABASE MANAGEMENT APPLIED TO SERVER-BASED POSITIONING SYSTEM

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A system for positioning database management, the system comprising:
a database configured to store positioning data, the positioning data associating position information of a location with
an identifier of a wireless station for providing wireless connection at the location and a signal characteristic received
at the location; and

an apparatus configured to:
determine whether an update condition for triggering an update for a group of the positioning data associated with a wireless
station is satisfied;

apply, when the update condition is satisfied, one or more cluster calculations to select one or more clusters that contain
junk data to be removed from the group of the positioning data in order to increase the accuracy of positioning data; and

store the updated positioning data;
wherein the apparatus is configured to, when the update condition is satisfied:
assign the positioning data in the group to multiple clusters according to Euclidean distances between the position information
of the location in positioning data and initial reference points of multiple clusters;

determine a new reference point of each cluster by an average, or a weighted average of the position information of the location
in positioning data of each cluster, to update an initial reference point of each cluster;

compare the distances between the initial reference points and the new reference points to a distance threshold;
repeat the assignment, determination, and comparison until the distances between the initial reference points and the new
reference points are all less than a distance threshold; and

terminate the assignment of positioning data; and
wherein the group of the updated positioning data is used for a server-based positioning system to determine the position
information of a wireless device.

US Pat. No. 10,003,432

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR WLAN TRANSMISSION

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method for generating a physical layer (PHY) data unit for transmission via a communication channel, the method comprising:selecting, at a communication device, a modulation coding scheme (MCS) i) from a first set of MCSs when the PHY data unit is to be transmitted using a channel having a first channel bandwidth, and ii) from a second set of MCSs when the PHY data unit is to be transmitted using a channel having a second channel bandwidth, wherein
the first set of MCSs corresponds to i) a number of spatial streams, and ii) the first channel bandwidth,
the second set of MCSs corresponds to i) the number of spatial streams, and ii) the second channel bandwidth,
the first set of MCSs is different than the second set of MCSs, and
the second set of MCSs excludes one or more MCSs in the first set of MCSs that will result in a padding-related constraint not being met when the second channel bandwidth is to be used;
encoding, at the communication device, information bits using one or more encoders and according to the selected MCS;
parsing, at the communication device, the encoded information bits into the number of spatial streams;
modulating, at the communication device, the encoded information bits according to the selected MCS; and
generating, at the communication device, a plurality of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) symbols based on the modulated encoded information bits.

US Pat. No. 9,661,647

TRANSMISSION PROTECTION FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method comprising:
transmitting, from a first device, a request to send (RTS) to second devices to protect a wireless communication neighborhood
of the first device and wireless communication neighborhoods of the second devices for a transmission of a multi-user frame;

receiving clear to send (CTS) responses from the second devices;
determining a bandwidth width for the multi-user frame based on bandwidth indications included in the CTS responses, wherein
determining the bandwidth width comprises determining a common bandwidth width availability of two or more channels among
the second devices as indicated by the CTS responses, and wherein the multi-user frame comprises spatially steered data frames
that are respectively intended for the second devices and are in accordance with the determined bandwidth width; and

transmitting the multi-user frame to the second devices in accordance with the determined bandwidth width.

US Pat. No. 9,215,708

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MULTI-NETWORK COMMUNICATION

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method comprising:
transmitting, via a wireless interface of a first device, the wireless interface configured in a first mode for communication
via a first wireless network, a first packet effective to prevent a second device associated with the first wireless network
from attempting to transmit data packets to the first device;

reconfiguring the wireless interface of the first device to a second mode for communication via a second wireless network
for a first duration of time, the second wireless network being a type of network different from the first wireless network;

transmitting, via the wireless interface, a second packet effective to cause a peer device associated with the second wireless
network to transmit data packets to the first device during the first duration of time; and

reconfiguring, responsive to the first duration of time ending, the wireless interface of the first device to the first mode
for communication via the first wireless network for a second duration of time effective to enable reception of the data packets
that were previously prevented from being transmitted from the second device to the first device.

US Pat. No. 9,210,107

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR ADJUSTING A RATE AT WHICH DATA IS TRANSFERRED, WITHIN A NETWORK DEVICE, FROM A MEDIA ACCESS CONTROLLER TO A MEMORY CONNECTED BETWEEN THE MEDIA ACCESS CONTROLLER AND A PHYSICAL-LAYER DEVICE

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A first network device comprising:
a host;
a memory;
a media access controller configured to (i) receive data from the host, and (ii) store the data in the memory at a first rate;
a physical-layer device configured to (i) receive the data from the memory, and (ii) transmit the data from the first network
device to a second network device,

wherein the memory is connected between the media access controller and the physical-layer device, and wherein an amount of
the data stored in the memory is based on (i) the first rate at which the media access controller stores the data from the
host in the memory, and (ii) a second rate at which the physical-layer device transfers the data from the memory to the second
network device, and wherein the first rate is greater than the second rate; and

a control circuit configured to (i) monitor the amount of the data stored in the memory, and (ii) based on the amount of the
data stored in the memory, transmit a first frame to the media access controller, wherein the control circuit is connected
between the media access controller and the physical-layer device, and

wherein the media access controller is configured to, in response to the first frame, decrease the first rate at which the
media access controller transfers the data received from the host to the memory.

US Pat. No. 9,161,201

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DISCOVERING A WIRELESS DEVICE IN A WIRELESS NETWORK

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method for synchronizing the discovery of wireless services or applications in a wireless network using a recurring time
interval T in which wireless devices within the wireless network can be in one of a predetermined plurality of time states,
the method comprising:
(i) selecting a time state from amongst the plurality of time states;
(ii) performing discovery, by a first wireless device supporting a given service or application, once during the recurring
time interval T at the selected time state; and

repeating the above steps (i), (ii) in successive ones of the recurring time interval T until all of the predetermined plurality
of time states have been selected exactly once by each of the wireless devices, wherein all of the predetermined plurality
of time states must be selected exactly once by each of the wireless device within the successive ones of the recurring time
interval T.

US Pat. No. 9,143,951

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR COORDINATED MULTIPOINT (COMP) COMMUNICATION BETWEEN BASE-STATIONS AND MOBILE COMMUNICATION TERMINALS

MARVELL WORLD TRADE LTD.,...

1. A method, comprising:
receiving, at a communication terminal, signals from a group of cells that cooperate in a Coordinated Multipoint (COMP) transmission
scheme; and

performing in the communication terminal a two-stage process of reporting Channel State Information (CSI) for one or more
of the cells in the group, by:

in a first stage, receiving first signaling that specifies a first subset of the cells in the group for which the communication
terminal is to perform signal measurements, wherein a size of the first subset is restricted to a first maximum size, performing
the signal measurements on the signals received from one or more of the cells in the first subset, and reporting the signal
measurements; and

in a second stage, receiving second signaling that specifies a second subset of the cells in the group for which the communication
terminal is to report the CSI, wherein the cells in the second subset have been selected from among the cells in the first
subset based on the signal measurements reported in the first stage, and wherein the size of the second subset is restricted
to a second maximum size, and measuring and reporting the CSI for at least one of the cells in the second subset.

US Pat. No. 10,009,894

ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS FOR WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK

Marvell World Trade Ltd.,...

1. A method, comprising:assigning a plurality of different orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM) tone blocks for a wireless local area network (WLAN) communication channel to a plurality of devices including a first device and second device, wherein the plurality of different OFDM tone blocks includes at least a first OFDM tone block and a second OFDM tone block assigned to the first device and a third OFDM tone block assigned to the second device, wherein the first OFDM tone block and the second OFDM tone block are separated in frequency by at least the third OFDM tone block; and
generating an orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) data unit for the WLAN communication channel, the OFDMA data unit including a preamble portion and a data portion, the preamble portion having at least i) a first legacy portion that corresponds to at least the first OFDM tone block, ii) a second legacy portion that corresponds to the second OFDM tone block, iii) a first non-legacy portion that corresponds to the first OFDM tone block, iv) a second non-legacy portion that corresponds to the second OFDM tone block, and v) a third non-legacy portion that corresponds to the third OFDM tone block, wherein
the first legacy portion is modulated on at least the first OFDM tone block,
the first non-legacy portion is modulated on the first OFDM tone block,
the second legacy portion is modulated on at least the second OFDM tone block,
the second non-legacy portion is modulated on the second OFDM tone block, and
the third non-legacy portion is modulated on the third OFDM tone block.