US Pat. No. 9,751,465

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM WITH REDUCED IMAGE COLOR DATA PROCESSING BY USE OF DITHERING

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a camera disposed at a vehicle and having a field of view exterior of the vehicle;
wherein said camera comprises an RGB photosensor array comprising multiple rows of photosensing elements and multiple columns
of photosensing elements;

wherein an in-line dithering algorithm is applied to individual lines of photosensing elements of said photosensor array in
order to reduce at least one of (i) color data transmission and (ii) color data processing;

wherein said in-line dithering algorithm comprises at least one of (i) an in-row dithering algorithm that is applied to individual
rows of photosensing elements of said photosensor array and (ii) an in-column dithering algorithm that is applied to individual
columns of photosensing elements of said photosensor array;

wherein said in-line dithering algorithm is operable to determine most significant bits and least significant bits of color
data captured by a photosensing element of said photosensor array; and

wherein said in-line dithering algorithm determines the most significant bits and the least significant bits of first color
data captured by a first photosensing element and wherein the least significant bits of the first color data are added to
second color data captured by a second photosensing element to generate second adjusted color data, and wherein said in-line
dithering algorithm determines the most significant bits and the least significant bits of the second adjusted color data.

US Pat. No. 9,318,020

VEHICULAR COLLISION MITIGATION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A collision mitigation system for a vehicle, said collision mitigation system comprising:
a plurality of cameras configured to be disposed at a vehicle equipped with said collision mitigation system, wherein, when
disposed at the equipped vehicle, said cameras have respective exterior fields of view;

wherein at least one of said cameras comprises a forward viewing camera that is configured to be disposed behind a windshield
of the equipped vehicle so as to view at least generally forwardly of the equipped vehicle through the windshield;

wherein at least one of said cameras comprises a rearward viewing camera that is configured to be disposed at a rear portion
of the equipped vehicle so as to view at least generally rearwardly of the equipped vehicle;

a control comprising an image processor operable to process image data captured by said cameras;
wherein, when the equipped vehicle is moving and responsive at least in part to a determination, via image processing by said
image processor of image data captured by said forward viewing camera, that the moving equipped vehicle is approaching an
object present forwardly of the equipped vehicle, said control is operable to apply a vehicle brake of the equipped vehicle
to mitigate a collision with the object; and

wherein, when the equipped vehicle is moving and said control is applying the vehicle brake, and responsive at least in part
to a determination, via image processing by said image processor of image data captured by said rearward viewing camera, that
a following vehicle is following the equipped vehicle and may collide with the equipped vehicle, said control adjusts control
of the vehicle brakes to mitigate a rear collision by the following vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,376,060

DRIVER ASSIST SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A driver assist system suitable for use in a vehicle, said driver assist system comprising:
a plurality of video sensors disposed at a vehicle equipped with said vehicular driver assist system;
said plurality of video sensors comprising at least four vehicular cameras;
said at least four vehicular cameras comprising a first vehicular camera disposed at a driver side of the equipped vehicle;
said at least four vehicular cameras comprising a second vehicular camera disposed at a passenger side of the equipped vehicle;
said at least four vehicular cameras comprising a third vehicular camera disposed at a rear portion of the equipped vehicle;
said at least four vehicular cameras comprising a fourth vehicular camera disposed at a front portion of the equipped vehicle;
wherein said first vehicular camera has a first field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture
first image data;

wherein said second vehicular camera has a second field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture
second image data;

wherein said third vehicular camera has a third field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture
third image data;

wherein said fourth vehicular camera has a fourth field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture
fourth image data;

wherein said first vehicular camera comprises a CMOS imaging sensor and wherein said second vehicular camera comprises a CMOS
imaging sensor and wherein said third vehicular camera comprises a CMOS imaging sensor and wherein said fourth vehicular camera
comprises a CMOS imaging sensor;

a plurality of non-video sensors disposed at the equipped vehicle;
said plurality of non-video sensors comprising at least one non-video sensor selected from the group consisting of a radar
sensor, a near-infrared sensor, a far-infrared sensor, a thermal sensor and a sonar sensor;

wherein said at least one non-video sensor is operable to capture sensor data;
a video processor module;
wherein said video processor module receives first image data captured by said first vehicular camera;
wherein said video processor module receives second image data captured by said second vehicular camera;
wherein said video processor module receives third image data captured by said third vehicular camera;
wherein said video processor module receives fourth image data captured by said fourth vehicular camera;
wherein said video processor module receives sensor data captured by said at least one non-video sensor;
wherein received image data is fused with received sensor data at said video processor module;
wherein said video processor module communicates with other vehicle systems via a vehicle bus of the equipped vehicle;
wherein received image data is processed at said video processor module to generate a synthesized image;
wherein said synthesized image is output from said video processor module for display by a single display screen of a display
device of the equipped vehicle that is viewable by a driver of the equipped vehicle when normally operating the equipped vehicle;

wherein said synthesized image displayed by said display screen approximates a substantially seamless view as would be viewed
from a single virtual camera located exterior the equipped vehicle; and

wherein, responsive at least in part to fusing of image data and sensor data at said video processor module, a driver assistance
system of the equipped vehicle is controlled.

US Pat. No. 9,174,574

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM FOR CONTROLLING A VEHICLE SAFETY FEATURE RESPONSIVE TO AN IMAGING SENSOR HAVING AN EXTERIOR REARWARD FIELD OF VIEW AND BEFORE A COLLISION OCCURS

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A safety system for a vehicle, said safety system comprising:
an imaging sensor having an exterior rearward field of view, said imaging sensor capturing image data;
an image processor operable to process image data captured by said imaging sensor to detect an object approaching the subject
vehicle from rearward of the subject vehicle;

wherein said safety system is operable to determine if the detected object is likely to collide with the subject vehicle and
is operable to adjust a safety feature of the subject vehicle before the collision occurs; and

wherein said safety system is deactivated when a reverse gear of the subject vehicle is engaged so that said safety system
does not adjust the safety feature when the reverse gear of the subject vehicle is engaged.

US Pat. No. 9,319,637

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM WITH LENS POLLUTION DETECTION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a camera disposed at a vehicle and having a field of view exterior of the vehicle;
wherein said camera comprises a lens and an imaging array comprising an array of photosensing elements;
a processor operable to process image data captured by said camera;
wherein, when the vehicle is moving in a forward or rearward direction, said processor is operable to at least one of (a)
read a selected set of imager register values and compare a contrast of auto exposure control zones, and wherein, responsive
to a determination that a range of contrast levels is less than a threshold level, said processor determines that there are
contaminants at said lens of said camera, and (b) monitor outputs of photosensing elements of said imaging array and wherein,
when said photosensing element outputs fit a Gaussian distribution, said processor classifies said photosensing elements as
blocked photosensing elements and, responsive to a determination that a number of said blocked photosensing elements is greater
than a threshold level, said processor determines that there are contaminants at said lens of said camera; and

wherein, when said processor determines that there are contaminants at said lens of said camera, said system at least one
of (i) generates an alert, (ii) adapts processing of image data to at least partially accommodate for the presence of the
determined contaminants and (iii) cleans said lens.

US Pat. No. 9,296,339

CAMERA MODULE FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A camera module for a vision system of a vehicle, said camera module comprising:
a housing comprising a base portion and a lens portion, wherein said lens portion of said housing and said base portion of
said housing comprise plastic material, and wherein said base portion is formed as a first injection molded part and said
lens portion is formed as a second injection molded part separate from said base portion;

wherein said base portion of said housing comprises a first mating portion and wherein said lens portion of said housing comprises
a second mating portion;

a circuit element including an imaging sensor and associated circuitry, wherein said imaging sensor comprises a CMOS imaging
sensor having a dynamic range of greater than approximately 100 dB and less than approximately 120 dB, and wherein said dynamic
range of said imaging sensor follows, at least in part, a non-linear response curve;

a lens;
wherein said first mating portion of said base portion and said second mating portion of said lens portion are welded together
to substantially limit water intrusion into said camera module and wherein said camera module comprises shielding to limit
or reduce electronic noise; and

wherein said camera module is configured for mounting at a rear portion of a vehicle equipped with said camera module, and
wherein, when said camera module is mounted at the rear portion of the equipped vehicle, said imaging sensor has a rearward
field of view, and wherein said camera module, when mounted at the rear portion of the equipped vehicle, is associated with
a backup assist system of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,193,302

VISION SYSTEM FOR A VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a mirror mounting button attached at a first location at an in-cabin surface of a windshield of a vehicle equipped with said
vision system;

an attachment member attached at a second location at the in-cabin surface of the vehicle windshield;
wherein a light absorbing layer disposed at the vehicle windshield at least partially masks the presence of said attachment
member from view by a viewer who is viewing through the vehicle windshield from outside the equipped vehicle;

wherein said first location is spaced from and is separate from said second location;
an accessory module releasably attached to said attachment member;
wherein said accessory module accommodates a forward facing camera;
wherein said forward facing camera comprises a CMOS imaging device;
wherein, with said accessory module releasably attached to said attachment member at the vehicle windshield, said forward
facing camera views through the vehicle windshield; and

wherein said forward facing camera comprises a component of a camera-based driver assistance system of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,380,219

ANGULAR FILTER FOR VEHICLE MOUNTED CAMERAS

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a camera disposed at a windshield of a vehicle and having a field of view forward of the vehicle and through the windshield
of the vehicle;

wherein said camera comprises a lens;
an angular filter disposed at or near the windshield forward of said camera, wherein said angular filter comprises a substantially
transparent film that limits reflection of light through an angular range that generally corresponds to the stray light that
reflects off of the vehicle and would otherwise impinge said lens of said camera;

wherein said camera is electrically connected to circuitry established at a circuit board that is mounted generally at the
windshield behind said camera;

wherein said camera is electrically connected to said circuitry via a flexible electrical connector; and
wherein said flexible electrical connector flexes to allow a viewing angle of said camera to be adjusted relative to a mounting
angle of said circuit board.

US Pat. No. 9,365,162

METHOD OF OBTAINING DATA RELATING TO A DRIVER ASSISTANCE SYSTEM OF A VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A method of obtaining data relating to a driver assistance system installed on a vehicle, the driver assistance system
comprising a sensor for sensing external to the vehicle, the method comprising:
capturing sensory data external to the vehicle using the sensor of the driver assistance system;
buffering a first group of vehicle signals and storing a pre-event value for a signal of the first group in a pre-event buffer;
analyzing the sensory data to detect one or more types of probability events, and after a probability event is detected:
monitoring a second group of vehicle signals for a post-event time period after the occurrence of the detected probability
event, and during the post event time period, processing a signal of the second group with a predetermined function to generate
a post-event signal value, and

recording data in a memory, wherein the recorded data comprises the type of detected probability event, a pre-event signal
value and a post-event signal value.

US Pat. No. 9,194,943

STEP FILTER FOR ESTIMATING DISTANCE IN A TIME-OF-FLIGHT RANGING SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A method of estimating a distance between a mobile node and a base station, said method comprising:
providing a display on the mobile node;
providing a time of flight subsystem including circuitry incorporated in the mobile node and the base station and generating
a time of flight distance signal by periodically transmitting a time of flight signal between the mobile node and the base
station and measuring the time taken for transmission of the time of flight signal therebetween;

providing an accelerometer on the mobile node and generating an accelerometer signal therewith;
initializing the value of a distance estimate signal based on the time of flight distance signal;
detecting a human step based on variances in the accelerometer signal;
changing the value of the distance estimate signal by a predetermined quantum only upon detection of a human step, wherein
the value of the distance estimate signal is increased by the predetermined quantum responsive to the time of flight distance
signal being greater than the distance estimate signal and wherein the value is decreased by the predetermined quantum responsive
to the time of flight distance signal being less than the distance estimate signal; and

periodically displaying the value of the distance estimate signal on the display.

US Pat. No. 9,383,445

OBJECT DETECTION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. An object detection system for a host vehicle, said object detection system comprising:
an imaging device having a field of view exterior of the host vehicle and operable to capture image data representative of
a scene exterior the host vehicle;

said imaging device comprising a two-dimensional pixelated imaging array having a plurality of photo-sensing pixels arranged
on a semiconductor substrate;

an image processor processing captured image data to detect an object present in the field of view of said imaging device;
a ranging device;
said ranging device tracking the detected object;
said ranging device determining distance to the detected object;
wherein the detected object is assigned a priority score that represents the potential danger of the detected object to the
host vehicle;

wherein the priority score is at least in part established responsive to image processing by said image processor of captured
image data and to distance determined by said ranging unit;

wherein the detected object is assigned its priority score based on one of (i) the detected object being a vehicle that is
closing with the host vehicle and (ii) the detected object being a pedestrian who is present in the field of view of said
imaging device; and

wherein a beam emitted by said ranging device at least one of (a) tracks the detected object while the detected object moves
in the field of view of said imaging device and (b) stays on the detected object while the detected object moves in the field
of view of said imaging device.

US Pat. No. 9,327,693

REAR COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A collision avoidance system of a vehicle, said collision avoidance system comprising:
a camera disposed at a vehicle equipped with said collision avoidance system, said camera having a field of view exterior
of and rearward of the equipped vehicle;

a plurality of other sensors disposed at the equipped vehicle so as to sense forwardly and sidewardly of the equipped vehicle,
said plurality of other sensors capturing sensor data;

an image processor operable to process image data captured by said camera;
wherein, responsive to image processing of captured image data, said collision avoidance system is operable to determine an
approach of a vehicle rearward of the equipped vehicle and to determine an excitation level depending on (i) a difference
between the speed of the approaching vehicle and the speed of the equipped vehicle and (ii) a distance between the approaching
vehicle and the equipped vehicle;

wherein, responsive to a determined excitation level, said collision avoidance system is operable to at least one of (a) provide
an alert to the driver of the equipped vehicle, (b) provide a visual alert to the driver of the approaching vehicle, (c) prepare
the equipped vehicle for impact, (d) control a braking system of the equipped vehicle and (e) control an acceleration system
of the equipped vehicle;

wherein, responsive to a determined excitation level, said collision avoidance system is operable to at least one of (i) transmit
an alert to the driver of the approaching vehicle via a telematics system and (ii) communicate information to the approaching
vehicle via a telematics system; and

wherein said collision avoidance system is operable to process sensor data captured by said plurality of other sensors to
determine at least one avoidance path of travel for the equipped vehicle to follow, and wherein, responsive to the determined
excitation level being greater than a threshold level, said collision avoidance system controls a steering system of the equipped
vehicle to follow the determined avoidance path of travel.

US Pat. No. 9,307,640

PCB PAD FOR IMAGER OF VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A circuit board for a surface mount device to be attached thereto, wherein said circuit board is for an image processing
chip of a vision system of a vehicle, said circuit board comprising:
at least one mounting location having a plurality of solder pads established thereat, said solder pads corresponding to a
plurality of solder points of an image processing chip;

wherein said solder pads are arranged and shaped in a manner that enhances soldering of the image processing chip to said
solder pads and circuit board;

wherein said solder pads each comprise an elongated solder pad having a longitudinal axis, and wherein said solder pads are
arranged such that the longitudinal axes of some of said solder pads are generally orthogonal to the longitudinal axes of
others of said solder pads;

wherein said mounting location comprises first, second, third and fourth quadrants with each of said first, second, third
and fourth quadrants comprising a respective corner region of said mounting location;

wherein said solder pads of said first quadrant of said mounting location are generally orthogonal to said solder pads of
said second quadrant of said mounting location;

wherein said solder pads of said first quadrant are generally parallel to said solder pads of said third quadrant of said
mounting location and wherein said solder pads of said second quadrant are generally parallel to said solder pads of said
fourth quadrant of said mounting location; and

wherein said first and third quadrants are at opposite corner regions of said mounting location and wherein said second and
fourth quadrants are at opposite corner regions of said mounting location.

US Pat. No. 9,077,098

ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR WITH SEALED PINS

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. An electrical accessory for a vehicle, said electrical accessory comprising:
a housing having a connector portion having a connector cavity therein;
a plurality of terminals that electrically connect at a circuit element in said housing and that protrude at least partially
into said connector cavity;

wherein said housing comprises at least one fill port and at least one channel for receiving a sealant material through said
fill port, whereby said sealant material is dispensed at said at least one fill port and flows along said at least one channel
and at and around individual terminals of said plurality of terminals to substantially seal said individual terminals relative
to one another and relative to said housing; and

wherein said fill port is accessible from outside of said housing after said electrical accessory is assembled.

US Pat. No. 9,346,468

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM WITH YAW RATE DETERMINATION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a camera comprising a lens and a photosensor array;
said photosensor array comprising a plurality of photosensor elements arranged in a matrix that comprises multiple columns
of photosensor elements and multiple rows of photosensor elements;

wherein said camera is disposed at or proximate to an in-cabin portion of a windshield of a vehicle equipped with said vision
system;

wherein said camera has a forward field of view to the exterior of the equipped vehicle through the windshield of the equipped
vehicle;

wherein said camera is operable to capture image data;
a control comprising an image processor;
wherein said image processor is operable to process captured image data to determine lane delimiters present in the field
of view of said camera;

said control connecting to a vehicle communication bus of the equipped vehicle;
said control receiving vehicle data via said vehicle communication bus;
wherein said vehicle data is provided by at least one of (i) an accelerometer of the equipped vehicle, (ii) a transmission
sensor of the equipped vehicle, (iii) a steering angle sensor of the equipped vehicle, (iv) a speed sensor of the equipped
vehicle and (v) a brake sensor of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said vehicle data comprises a yaw rate sensed by a yaw rate sensor of the equipped vehicle;
wherein, responsive at least in part to processing of captured image data by said image processor and to vehicle data received
via said vehicle communication bus, said control determines a corrected yaw rate at least one of (i) when the equipped vehicle
is stationary and (ii) when the equipped vehicle is moving straight; and

wherein said control provides the corrected yaw rate to a driver assistance system of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,346,415

CAMERA FOR MOUNTING ON A VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A camera for mounting on a vehicle, comprising:
a front housing member;
a lens member mounted to the front housing member;
an imaging element that is positioned to receive images from the lens member;
a circuit board mounted to the front housing member, wherein the circuit board is configured to send to another component
signals relating to images received by the imaging element, wherein the circuit board has at least one front electrical connector
thereon; and

a rear housing member configured to mate with the front housing member, wherein the rear housing member has at least one rear
electrical connector extending therefrom, and wherein, as the rear housing member is mated with the front housing member,
the at least one rear electrical connector aligns with and electrically connects to the at least one front electrical connector,
and wherein the rear housing member has a rear alignment structure that aligns the at least one rear electrical connector
with respect to the at least one front electrical connector as the rear housing member is mated with the front housing member,
and wherein the rear housing member mates with the front housing member to define a camera interior, wherein the imaging element,
the circuit board, the at least one front electrical connector and the at least one rear electrical connector are positioned
in the camera interior.

US Pat. No. 9,171,217

VISION SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a single forward facing camera disposed at a vehicle equipped with said vision system;
said camera comprising a CMOS imaging sensor and a lens;
said imaging sensor comprising a plurality of photo-sensing pixels arranged in a matrix of multiple horizontal rows of photo-sensing
pixels and multiple vertical rows of photo-sensing pixels;

wherein said camera has a field of view exteriorly of the equipped vehicle;
wherein said imaging sensor is operable to capture image data representative of a scene exterior of the equipped vehicle and
in the exterior field of view of said camera;

a control comprising a processor;
wherein said camera and said processor are disposed in a unitary module installed in the equipped vehicle;
wherein said processor, responsive to processing of captured image data, detects headlights of oncoming vehicles within the
exterior field of view of said camera when the equipped vehicle is operated under nighttime conditions, and wherein said control,
responsive to said headlight detection, provides an output for a headlamp control system of the equipped vehicle that controls
at least one headlamp of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said processor, responsive to processing of captured image data, detects lane marks within the exterior field of view
of said camera on a road being traveled by the equipped vehicle, and wherein said control, responsive to said lane mark detection,
provides an output for a lane departure warning system of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said processor processes captured image data via an edge detection algorithm to detect edges of objects present exteriorly
of the equipped vehicle and within the exterior field of view of said camera;

wherein said processor processes captured image data to estimate distance from the equipped vehicle to a vehicle present exteriorly
of the equipped vehicle and within the exterior field of view of said camera; and

wherein said unitary module is supplied by an automotive supplier to the manufacturer of the equipped vehicle with software
included that is operable by said processor for a plurality of driver assistance systems of the equipped vehicle, said plurality
of driver assistance systems including said lane departure warning system of the equipped vehicle and at least one other driver
assistance system of the equipped vehicle and wherein said at least one other driver assistance system of the equipped vehicle
is selected from the group consisting of (i) said headlamp control system of the equipped vehicle, (ii) a traffic sign recognition
system of the equipped system, (iii) a stop light recognition system of the equipped vehicle, (iv) a passive steering system
of the equipped vehicle, (v) an object detection system of the equipped vehicle and (vi) an adaptive speed control system
of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,296,337

METHOD OF CALIBRATING A VEHICULAR CAMERA

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A method of calibrating a vehicular camera installed in a vehicle, wherein the camera has an imager and a camera microcontroller,
said method comprising:
(a) determining whether the contrast in images received by the imager is beyond a selected threshold value;
(b) searching for a reference point in the images depending on the result of step (a) using the camera microcontroller; and
(c) adjusting the position of an overlay applied by the microcontroller to the images depending on the result of step (b).

US Pat. No. 9,245,448

DRIVER ASSISTANCE SYSTEM FOR A VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A driver assistance system for a vehicle, said driver assistance system comprising:
a forward facing camera having a field of view that encompasses the road ahead of the equipped vehicle;
said forward facing camera comprising a CMOS imaging sensor;
a control disposed at or in the equipped vehicle and comprising an image processor;
wherein image data captured by said forward facing camera is processed by said image processor;
wherein said image processor processes data at a processing speed of at least about 5 MIPS;
wherein said control, responsive to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward facing camera,
determines a surface condition of the road being traveled by the equipped vehicle;

wherein said control, responsive to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward facing camera,
detects at least one of solid lines, dashed lines and double lines on the road being traveled by the equipped vehicle;

wherein, at least in part responsive to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward facing camera,
said control is operable to determine a potential inappropriate lane change maneuver of the equipped vehicle;

wherein, at least in part responsive to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward facing camera,
said control is operable to determine a potential impact with another vehicle;

wherein said control receives vehicle data relating to the equipped vehicle via a vehicle bus of the equipped vehicle, said
vehicle data including vehicle speed and vehicle steering angle;

wherein said image processor processes image data captured by said forward facing camera to detect a traffic control device
present within the field of view of said forward facing camera;

wherein, responsive at least in part to processing of captured image data by said image processor, said control determines
a traffic control status of the detected traffic control device; and

wherein, responsive at least in part to processing of captured image data by said image processor to determine the surface
condition of the road being traveled by the equipped vehicle, said control determines when the determined traffic control
status of the detected traffic control device requires at least one of (i) a reduction of speed of the equipped vehicle and
(ii) that the equipped vehicle come to a stop.

US Pat. No. 9,317,742

REARVIEW MIRROR SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A rearview mirror system for a vehicle, said rearview mirror system comprising:
an interior rearview mirror assembly;
said interior rearview mirror assembly mounted at the interior surface of a windshield of a vehicle equipped with said rearview
mirror system;

a camera incorporated into said interior rearview mirror assembly;
said camera incorporated into said interior rearview mirror assembly having a field of view toward a front seat of the equipped
vehicle so as to capture images of an occupant of the equipped vehicle;

said camera capturing image data;
an image processor;
said image processor provided with image data captured by said camera;
said image processor image processing image data captured by said camera;
said image processor, responsive at least in part to image processing of image data captured by said camera, recognizing movement;
and

wherein said movement comprises a hand gesture made by said occupant of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,260,095

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM WITH COLLISION MITIGATION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system of a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a camera disposed at a vehicle equipped with said vision system and having a field of view forward of the equipped vehicle;
an image processor operable to process image data captured by said camera;
wherein said image processor is operable, via image processing of captured image data, to determine the presence of a leading
vehicle ahead of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said image processor is operable, via image processing of captured image data, to determine illumination of a brake
light of the determined leading vehicle;

wherein, responsive to a determination of at least one of (a) a relative speed of the determined leading vehicle relative
to the equipped vehicle and (b) a relative acceleration of the determined leading vehicle relative to the equipped vehicle,
said vision system is operable to determine at least one of (i) a degree of warning to provide to the driver of the equipped
vehicle and (ii) a braking level of the equipped vehicle to mitigate collision with the determined leading vehicle; and

wherein, responsive to the determination of illumination of the brake light of the determined leading vehicle, said vision
system is operable to at least one of (i) adjust the determined degree of warning and (ii) adjust the determined braking level
of the equipped vehicle; and

wherein said vision system is operable to at least one of (i) provide a warning in accordance with the determined degree of
warning and (ii) apply the brakes of the equipped vehicle in accordance with the determined braking level.

US Pat. No. 9,244,165

FORWARD FACING SENSING SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A forward facing sensing system for a vehicle, said forward facing sensing system comprising:
a windshield electronics module configured to be attached at and behind a windshield of a vehicle equipped with said forward
facing sensing system and to be removable therefrom as a self-contained unit for service or replacement;

a radar sensor device disposed in said windshield electronics module so as to have a sensing direction forward of the equipped
vehicle with said windshield electronics module attached at and behind the vehicle windshield;

an image sensor disposed in said windshield electronics module so as to have a viewing direction forward of the equipped vehicle
with said windshield electronics module attached at and behind the vehicle windshield;

wherein said image sensor comprises a pixelated image array sensor having a two dimensional array of photosensing elements;
a control comprising an image processor;
wherein said image processor processes image data captured by said image sensor utilizing object detection software;
wherein said image processor is operable to analyze image data captured by said image sensor in order to detect an object
present forward of the equipped vehicle in its direction of forward travel;

wherein the detected object is also sensed by a beam of said radar sensor device;
wherein said beam sweeps forward of the equipped vehicle utilizing digital beam steering; and
wherein said control, responsive at least in part to algorithmic processing by said image processor of captured image data
to detect the object and to sensing by said radar sensor device of the detected object, determines that a potentially hazardous
condition may exist in the path of forward travel of the equipped vehicle, and wherein said potentially hazardous condition
comprises another vehicle in the path of forward travel of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,365,160

CAMERA FOR VEHICULAR APPLICATIONS

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A camera module for a vision system of a vehicle, said camera module comprising:
a circuit element, said circuit element including an imaging sensor and associated circuitry, said circuit element including
a circuitry connector;

a cable having a cable portion and a cable connector for connecting to said circuitry connector;
a housing portion comprising a lens receiving portion and a cable receiving portion, said lens receiving portion and said
cable receiving portion mating together to substantially house said circuit element;

wherein said lens receiving portion includes a lens assembly;
wherein said cable receiving portion includes a connector receiving portion and a wire receiving portion, and wherein said
connector receiving portion is configured to receive and retain said cable connector therein and said wire receiving portion
is configured to receive and retain said cable portion therein;

a tube having an appropriate form for a given cable shape, wherein said tube encompasses at least a portion of said wire receiving
portion and said cable portion; and

wherein said tube substantially seals around said at least a portion of said wire receiving portion and said cable portion.

US Pat. No. 9,315,151

DRIVER ASSIST SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A driver assist system for a vehicle, said driver assist system comprising:
a color video camera disposed at a vehicle equipped with said driver assist system;
said color video camera having a field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle;
wherein said color video camera comprises a rear backup camera disposed at a rear portion of the equipped vehicle and having
a field of view rearward of the equipped vehicle;

wherein the field of view of said color video camera encompasses a ground area to the rear of the equipped vehicle having
a width at least substantially an entire rear fender width of the equipped vehicle;

said color video camera comprising a lens and a two-dimensional array of photosensing elements arranged in rows of photosensing
elements and columns of photosensing elements;

wherein an image processor processes image data captured by said color video camera;
at least one non-visual sensor;
a video display screen viewable by a driver of the equipped vehicle when the driver is normally operating the equipped vehicle;
wherein, during at least one of (i) a reversing maneuver of the equipped vehicle and (ii) a parking maneuver of the equipped
vehicle, images derived, at least in part, from image data captured by said color video camera are displayed by said video
display screen to assist the driver in operating the equipped vehicle;

wherein said video display screen is operable to display images derived, at least in part, from image data captured by said
color video camera with a display intensity greater than 200 candelas/sq. meter for viewing by the driver of the equipped
vehicle;

wherein at least one indication is provided to a driver of the equipped vehicle who is at least one of (i) executing a reversing
maneuver of the equipped vehicle and (ii) parking the equipped vehicle;

wherein said at least one indication comprises an indication provided, at least in part, responsive to detection by said non-visual
sensor of at least one object external of the equipped vehicle; and

wherein distortion of images derived, at least in part, from image data captured by said color video camera, and displayed
by said video display screen, is electronically corrected.

US Pat. No. 9,191,634

VISION SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a forward facing camera disposed at a windshield of a vehicle equipped with said vision system, said forward facing camera
having a forward field of view through the windshield of the equipped vehicle;

said forward facing camera comprising an imaging array sensor and a lens;
wherein said forward facing camera is operable to capture image data for a plurality of driver assistance systems of the equipped
vehicle;

an image processor operable to process captured image data;
wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of captured image data, a lane of a road along
which the equipped vehicle is traveling is determined;

wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of captured image data, an oncoming vehicle approaching
the equipped vehicle is detected;

wherein said plurality of driver assistance systems of the equipped vehicle comprises a lane departure warning system of the
equipped vehicle;

wherein said plurality of driver assistance systems comprises at least two other driver assistance systems;
wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of captured image data, lane markers of the road
lane along which the equipped vehicle is traveling are detected;

wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of captured image data, road curvature information
is extracted;

wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of captured image data, a surface property of the
road being travelled by the equipped vehicle is detected; and

wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of captured image data, a light beam emanating
from a headlamp of the equipped vehicle is adjusted in a manner that limits directing beam light towards the eyes of a driver
of the detected oncoming vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,090,213

ACCESSORY MOUNTING SYSTEM FOR A VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. An accessory mounting system suitable for use in a vehicle, said accessory mounting system comprising:
a vehicle windshield;
a plurality of individual fixing elements adhesively attached at a surface of said vehicle windshield;
wherein said fixing elements are spaced apart from one another at said surface of said vehicle windshield;
wherein each of said fixing elements comprises a base portion that is directly adhesively attached by an adhesive at said
surface of said vehicle windshield and an elongated portion that extends from said base portion in a direction away from said
vehicle windshield;

a frame comprising a plurality of individual receiving portions;
wherein said receiving portions are spaced apart from one another in a manner that corresponds with the spacing apart of said
fixing elements;

wherein each one of said receiving portions is configured to receive the elongated portion of a respective and corresponding
one of said fixing elements;

wherein said elongated portions of said fixing elements are at least partially received in respective and corresponding ones
of said receiving portions of said frame and cooperate with said receiving portions to attach said frame at said vehicle windshield;

wherein said frame comprises structure for receiving an accessory thereat;
said accessory comprising a camera;
wherein, when said accessory is received at said structure of said frame, the line of vision of said camera passes through
an aperture existing in said frame; and

wherein, with said frame attached at said vehicle windshield, the line of vision of said camera passes through said vehicle
windshield.

US Pat. No. 9,233,645

ACCESSORY MOUNTING SYSTEM FOR A VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. An accessory mounting system for a vehicle, said accessory mounting system comprising:
a mirror mounting button adhesively attached at an in-cabin surface of a windshield of a vehicle equipped with said accessory
mounting system;

a mounting element attached at the in-cabin surface of the vehicle windshield separate from said mirror mounting button;
an interior rearview mirror assembly comprising a mirror head and a mirror support;
wherein said mirror head comprises a mirror reflective element and a mirror casing;
wherein said mirror support comprises a mirror mount that is configured to mount said interior rearview mirror assembly to
said mirror mounting button;

a module configured to be received at and be supported by said mounting element attached at the in-cabin surface of the vehicle
windshield;

wherein said module accommodates a forward facing camera;
wherein, with said module received by and supported by said mounting element, said forward facing camera views through the
vehicle windshield;

wherein said forward facing camera comprises (i) a CMOS image sensor and (ii) a lens;
wherein said forward facing camera comprises part of a driver assistance system of the equipped vehicle;
wherein, with said module received by and supported by said mounting element, said mirror mount can be mounted to said mirror
mounting button and can be demounted from said mirror mounting button without demounting said module from said mounting element;
and

wherein a light absorbing layer disposed at the vehicle windshield at least partially masks the presence of said mounting
element from view by a viewer who is viewing from outside the equipped vehicle through the vehicle windshield.

US Pat. No. 9,092,986

VEHICULAR VISION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a forward viewing camera disposed at a vehicle equipped with said vision system, said camera viewing generally forwardly of
the equipped vehicle;

an image processor operable to process image data captured by said camera;
a control responsive to said image processor;
wherein, responsive to image processing of captured image data, said control is operable to detect a traffic light viewed
by said camera and is operable to determine when the detected traffic light is exhibiting an illuminated red traffic light
signal or an illuminated green traffic light signal;

wherein, responsive to image processing of captured image data, said control is operable to detect a vehicle stopped in front
of and in the same lane as the equipped vehicle;

wherein, responsive at least in part to a determination that (i) the equipped vehicle is not moving when the detected traffic
light is exhibiting an illuminated red traffic light signal, (ii) the traffic light signal of the detected traffic light changes
to an illuminated green traffic light signal, and (iii) the detected vehicle in front of and in the same lane as the equipped
vehicle moves forwardly away from the non-moving equipped vehicle, said vision system at least one of (a) generates an alert
to a driver of the equipped vehicle and (b) autonomously controls forward movement of the equipped vehicle;

wherein, when the equipped vehicle is moving and responsive at least in part to a determination that the moving equipped vehicle
is approaching an object determined to be present forwardly of the equipped vehicle, said vision system is operable to apply
a vehicle brake of the equipped vehicle to mitigate a collision with the determined object; and

wherein said vision system comprises a rearward viewing camera viewing generally rearwardly of the equipped vehicle, and wherein
said image processor is operable to process image data captured by said rearward viewing camera, and wherein, responsive at
least in part to a determination via said image processing that another vehicle is following the moving equipped vehicle and
(i) within a threshold distance from the equipped vehicle and (ii) approaching the equipped vehicle beyond a threshold rate
of approach, said vision system adjusts application of the vehicle brakes to mitigate a rear collision by the determined following
vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,180,908

LANE KEEPING SYSTEM AND LANE CENTERING SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A lane keeping system for use in a vehicle driving in a lane on a road, said lane keeping system comprising:
a controller;
a lane delimiter detection device;
said lane delimiter detection device comprising a camera disposed behind a windshield of the vehicle and having a field of
view through the windshield and forward of the vehicle;

wherein the controller is responsive to an output of the lane delimiter detection device that is indicative of a sensed position
of a left lane delimiter on the road on a left side of the vehicle and a sensed position of a right lane delimiter on the
road on a right side of the vehicle,

wherein, responsive to the output of the lane delimiter detection device, the controller is operable to:
a) establish a safe zone having a left safe zone delimiter based on the sensed position of the left lane delimiter and a right
safe zone delimiter based on the sensed position of the right lane delimiter, wherein the safe zone has a width between the
left and right safe zone delimiters,

b) take a corrective action responsive to the controller determining that the vehicle is at risk of unintentionally leaving
the safe zone, wherein the corrective action is at least one action selected from the group of actions consisting of (i) notifying
the driver that the vehicle is at risk of leaving the safe zone and (ii) applying a steering correction to the vehicle, and

c) adjust the positions of the left safe zone delimiter and the right safe zone delimiter so as to adjust the width of the
safe zone, wherein the controller adjusts the positions responsive to the vehicle remaining within the safe zone for a selected
period of time and without any corrective action being taken during that selected period of time.

US Pat. No. 9,233,641

VEHICULAR CAMERA WITH ALIGNED HOUSING MEMBERS AND ELECTRICAL CONNECTION BETWEEN ALIGNED HOUSING MEMBERS

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A camera for mounting on a vehicle, the camera comprising:
a front housing portion;
a lens mounted to the front housing portion;
an imager that is positioned to capture image data derived from light received through the lens;
a circuit board mounted to the front housing portion, wherein the circuit board comprises circuitry that is configured to
receive signals from the imager and to send signals to another component, wherein the circuit board has a plurality of front
electrical connectors;

a rear housing member portion, wherein the rear housing portion has a rear housing alignment structure that mates with a front
housing alignment structure of the front housing portion to align the rear housing portion with respect to the front housing
portion along a first axis;

wherein the rear housing portion has a plurality of rear electrical connectors extending therefrom, wherein the rear electrical
connectors are electrically connected to the front electrical connectors;

wherein at least one of (i) the front electrical connectors comprise female electrical connectors and the rear electrical
connectors comprise male electrical connectors and (ii) the front electrical connectors comprise male electrical connectors
and the rear electrical connectors comprise female electrical connectors;

wherein at least one of the female electrical connectors has a jaw structure including first and second jaws, wherein the
first and second jaws together define a second axis along which the first and second jaws engage one of the male electrical
connectors, wherein the second axis is generally perpendicular to the first axis, and wherein the first and second jaws are
sized so that the male electrical connector is positionable therebetween over a range of positions along the second axis;
and

wherein the female electrical connector has a jaw structure biasing member that biases the jaw structure towards a home position
but permits movement of the jaw structure along a third axis that is generally perpendicular to the second axis.

US Pat. No. 9,191,574

VEHICULAR VISION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system suitable for use in a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
at least three vehicular cameras disposed at a vehicle equipped with said vehicular vision system;
said at least three vehicular cameras comprising a first vehicular camera disposed at a driver-side exterior mirror assembly
of the equipped vehicle;

said at least three vehicular cameras comprising a second vehicular camera disposed at a passenger-side exterior mirror assembly
of the equipped vehicle;

said at least three vehicular cameras comprising a third vehicular camera disposed at one of (a) a front portion of the equipped
vehicle and (b) a rear portion of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said first vehicular camera has a first field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture
first image data;

wherein said second vehicular camera has a second field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture
second image data;

wherein said third vehicular camera has a third field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture
third image data;

wherein at least one of said first vehicular camera, said second vehicular camera and said third vehicular camera comprises
a wide-angle lens;

at least one non-imaging sensor disposed at the equipped vehicle, wherein said at least one non-imaging sensor comprises one
of (i) an infrared sensor, (ii) a radar sensor, (iii) a sonar sensor and (iv) a thermal sensor;

wherein said at least one non-imaging sensor has a field of sensing exterior of the equipped vehicle and wherein said at least
one non-imaging sensor captures sensor data;

a video processor module;
wherein said video processor module receives first image data captured by said first vehicular camera;
wherein said video processor module receives second image data captured by said second vehicular camera;
wherein said video processor module receives third image data captured by said third vehicular camera;
wherein said video processor module receives sensor data captured by said at least one non-imaging sensor;
wherein image data and sensor data received at said video processor module is processed by a video processor of said video
processor module;

wherein said video processor processes captured image data and captured sensor data for at least one of (i) object tracking,
(ii) object identification and (iii) object classification;

wherein image data received by said video processor is processed by said video processor to generate a synthesized image;
wherein said synthesized image is output from said video processor module for display by a single display screen of a display
device that is viewable by a driver of the equipped vehicle when normally operating the equipped vehicle;

wherein said video processor is operable for least one of (i) diagnostics, (ii) camera selection, (iii) camera control, (iv)
on-screen display generation, (v) data storage and (vi) data exchange; and

wherein image data captured by said first, second and third vehicular cameras is processed by said video processor (i) for
displaying merged images by said single display screen for viewing and use by the driver of the equipped vehicle when the
equipped vehicle is driven by the driver of the equipped vehicle and (ii) to reduce distortion created by said wide-angle
lens for displaying images with reduced distortion by said single display screen for viewing and use by the driver of the
equipped vehicle when the equipped vehicle is driven by the driver of the equipped vehicle; and

wherein a graphical overlay is superimposed on images displayed by said single display screen for viewing and use by the driver
of the equipped vehicle when the equipped vehicle is driven by the driver of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,352,623

TRAILER HITCHING AID SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A tow hitching aid system for a vehicle, said tow hitching aid system comprising:
a camera having a field of view rearward of a vehicle equipped with said tow hitching aid system, the equipped vehicle having
a vehicle hitching element at a rear portion of the equipped vehicle for connecting to a trailer hitching element of a trailer;

wherein said field of view of said camera encompasses the vehicle hitching element;
at least one ultrasonic sensor disposed at the equipped vehicle;
a display screen disposed in the equipped vehicle and viewable by a driver of the equipped vehicle when the driver is normally
operating the equipped vehicle;

a control, wherein said control receives input from said camera and input from said at least one ultrasonic sensor;
wherein, responsive to inputs from said camera and from said at least one ultrasonic sensor and during a tow hitching maneuver
when the equipped vehicle is reversing towards the trailer hitching element of the trailer to establish a hitch connection,
said control determines at least one of (i) distance to the trailer and (ii) orientation of the equipped vehicle relative
to the trailer; and

wherein, during a tow hitching maneuver of the equipped vehicle, said control (a) provides video images captured by said camera
for display by said display screen and (b) provides, for display by said display screen, at least one graphic overlay that
indicates to the driver of the equipped vehicle at least one of (i) distance to the trailer and (ii) orientation of the equipped
vehicle relative to the trailer.

US Pat. No. 9,335,411

FORWARD FACING SENSING SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A forward facing sensing system for a vehicle, the vehicle having a windshield, said forward facing sensing system comprising:
a radar sensor device disposed within an interior cabin of a vehicle equipped with said forward facing sensing system, and
wherein said radar sensor device has a sensing direction forward of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said radar sensor device comprises an array antenna;
wherein said radar sensor device transmits at a frequency of at least 20 GHz;
an image sensor disposed within the interior cabin of the equipped vehicle behind the vehicle windshield and wherein said
image sensor views forward of the equipped vehicle through the vehicle windshield;

wherein said image sensor comprises a pixelated imaging array sensor comprising a plurality of photo-sensing pixels;
a control comprising an image processor, said image processor operable to analyze image data captured by said image sensor
in order to, at least in part, detect an object present forward of the equipped vehicle in its direction of forward travel;

wherein said image processor comprises an image processing chip that processes image data captured by said image sensor utilizing
object detection software;

wherein said control, responsive at least in part to processing of captured image data by said image processor and to sensing
by said radar sensor, determines that a potentially hazardous condition may exist in the path of forward travel of the equipped
vehicle, and wherein said potentially hazardous condition comprises at least one of (i) a pedestrian in the path of forward
travel of the equipped vehicle and (ii) a deer in the path of forward travel of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said radar sensor device and said image sensor collaborate in a way that enhances determination of existence of the
potentially hazardous condition in the path of forward travel of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said radar sensor device and said image sensor share, at least in part, common circuitry;
wherein said radar sensor device and said image sensor are housed in a self-contained unit disposed behind and attached at
the vehicle windshield of the equipped vehicle, and wherein said self-contained unit mounts at the vehicle windshield of the
equipped vehicle and is removable therefrom as a unit for at least one of service and replacement; and

wherein said control at least in part controls an adaptive cruise control system of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,193,303

DRIVER ASSISTANCE SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A driver assistance system for a vehicle, said driver assistance system comprising:
an imaging device comprising an array of photosensing pixels, wherein said imaging device is disposed at least partially within
an exterior rearview mirror assembly that attaches at a side of a vehicle equipped with said driver assistance system;

wherein, with said exterior rearview mirror assembly attached at the side of the equipped vehicle, said imaging device has
a field of view forward of said exterior rearview mirror assembly in a direction towards the front of the equipped vehicle
and has a field of view rearward of said exterior rearview mirror assembly in a direction towards the rear of the equipped
vehicle and has a field of view sideward of said exterior rearview mirror assembly in a direction away from the side of the
equipped vehicle at which said exterior rearview mirror assembly is attached;

a control for processing image data captured by said imaging device;
wherein said control is operable to determine that said imaging device is misaligned when said imaging device is disposed
at least partially within the exterior rearview mirror assembly at the side of the equipped vehicle; and

wherein said control, responsive to a determination of misalignment of said imaging device, is operable to at least partially
compensate for misalignment of said imaging device by at least one of (i) adjusting processing of captured image data and
(ii) adjusting said captured image data.

US Pat. No. 9,068,390

VEHICLE HATCH CONTROL SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vehicle hatch control system, said vehicle hatch control system comprising:
a camera disposed at a rear portion of a vehicle equipped with said vehicle hatch control system, said camera having a rearward
field of view that encompasses a region at the rear of the equipped vehicle that is swept by a hatch of the equipped vehicle
as the hatch is opened and closed via a powered hatch opening/closing system of the equipped vehicle;

an image processor operable to process image data captured by said camera to determine if an object is present in the region
that is swept by the hatch to determine if the hatch may collide with the detected object when the hatch is being opened or
closed;

wherein said hatch comprises one of a liftgate of the equipped vehicle, a deck lid of the equipped vehicle and a rear door
of the equipped vehicle;

wherein, during opening or closing of the hatch and responsive to determination, via said image processing, of a potential
collision of the opening or closing hatch with a detected object, said vehicle hatch control system is operable to position
the hatch at a partially open position whereby a gap is established between the hatch and the detected object; and

wherein said vehicle hatch control system is operable to adjust the degree of opening or closing of the hatch to generally
maintain the gap between the hatch and the detected object when the vehicle's body height changes.

US Pat. No. 9,187,028

DRIVER ASSISTANCE SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

30. A driver assistance system for a vehicle, said driver assistance system comprising:
a camera disposed at a vehicle equipped with said driver assistance system, wherein said camera views forward of the equipped
vehicle through the windshield of the equipped vehicle and wherein said camera is operable to capture image data;

a control device comprising an image processor;
wherein said image processor is operable to process image data captured by said camera;
wherein, responsive to processing of captured image data by said image processor, said driver assistance system is operable
to adjust a light beam emitted by a headlamp of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said control device, responsive at least in part to image data processing by said image processor, is operable to
determine when the equipped vehicle is at least one of (i) approaching a construction zone, (ii) entering a construction zone
and (iii) driving along a construction zone;

wherein said image processor processes image data captured by said camera for at least one of (a) a traffic sign recognition
system of the equipped vehicle, (b) a lane departure warning system of the equipped vehicle, (c) a forward collision warning
system of the equipped vehicle and (d) an object detection system of the equipped vehicle;

wherein determination that the equipped vehicle is at least one of (i) approaching a construction zone, (ii) entering a construction
zone and (iii) driving along a construction zone comprises spectral recognition of an orange construction sign;

wherein, responsive to determination that the equipped vehicle is at least one of (i) approaching a construction zone, (ii)
entering a construction zone and (iii) driving along a construction zone, said control device enters an enhanced mode that
enhances image processing of captured image data by said image processor to discriminate orange construction zone signs from
taillights of leading vehicles so as to adjust the light beam emitted by the headlamp of the equipped vehicle to a higher
beam state when no taillights of leading vehicles are present; and

wherein, responsive to determination of the equipped vehicle exiting the construction zone, said control device returns to
a normal mode to adjust the light beam emitted by the headlamp of the equipped vehicle responsive to determination of headlamps
of approaching vehicles and taillights of leading vehicles.

US Pat. No. 9,357,208

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR DYNAMICALLY CALIBRATING VEHICULAR CAMERAS

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A method for dynamically ascertaining the position of a vehicular camera relative to a vehicle to which the camera is attached,
the method comprising:
(a) establishing a plurality of vehicular steering angle ranges;
(b) acquiring a set of image frames in a video stream provided by the camera whilst the vehicle is in motion, the image frames
defining an image plane;

(c) measuring the steering angle of the vehicle and, for each steering angle range:
(i) selecting a plurality of feature points in the image frames;
(ii) tracking a motion trajectory of each selected feature point in the set of image frames, and
(iii) determining a vanishing point in the image plane for the plurality of tracked motion trajectories;
(d) determining a vanishing line in the image plane provided by the camera based on a locus of said vanishing points;
(e) determining the position or alignment of the camera based on the position of the vanishing line and the position of a
central vanishing point, the central vanishing point being the vanishing point that is determined for the steering angle range
that encompasses zero degrees;

removing distortion in the motion trajectories caused by use of a wide angle camera lens;
linearly fitting the undistorted motion trajectories to generate straight lines;
wherein determining a vanishing point comprises determining the vanishing point in a given steering range by finding a substantial
intersection point for the distortion free, straight line tracked motion trajectories in the given steering range;

wherein the camera is a front facing camera and rotational angles ? and ? of the camera are determined as a function of d1 and d2, where:

? is the rotation of the camera around an X-axis in a camera coordinate system,
? is the rotation of the camera around a Y-axis in the camera coordinate system,
d1 is a distance in the image plane from a principal point of the camera to a right angled projection point on the vanishing
line, and

d2 is a distance in the image plane along the vanishing line from the projection point to the central vanishing point; and

wherein a rotational angle ? of the camera is determined by solving for ? as follows:
A cos ?+B sin ?=C
where,
A?f sin ? sin ?
B=f cos ?
C?(cvpX?axisX) sin ? cos ?
where ? is the rotation angle around the Z-axis of a vehicle coordinate system, f is the focal length of the camera, cvpX
is an image row coordinate of the central vanishing point in the image plane, and axisX is an image column location of the
principal point.

US Pat. No. 9,205,776

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM USING KINEMATIC MODEL OF VEHICLE MOTION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system of a vehicle comprising:
a camera disposed at a vehicle and having a field of view exterior of the vehicle;
wherein said camera comprises a two dimensional array of a plurality of photosensing elements;
wherein said camera is operable to capture frames of image data;
a control, said control comprising an image processor operable to process image data captured by said camera;
wherein, responsive to image processing of captured image data, said control is operable to determine objects present in the
field of view of said camera;

wherein, responsive to vehicle data, said control determines a vehicle motion vector during driving of the vehicle by a driver
of the vehicle;

wherein the vehicle data includes at least two of (i) steering information of the vehicle, (ii) speed of the vehicle and (iii)
distance traveled by the vehicle;

wherein said control determines movement of an object relative to the vehicle via image processing of at least two frames
of captured image data during driving of the vehicle by the driver of the vehicle;

wherein said control compares the determined relative movement of the object to the determined vehicle motion vector; and
wherein, responsive to a difference between the determined relative movement of the object and the determined vehicle motion
vector, said control determines a misalignment of said camera.

US Pat. No. 9,150,155

VEHICULAR CAMERA AND METHOD FOR PERIODIC CALIBRATION OF VEHICULAR CAMERA

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A camera for a vehicle, said camera comprising:
a lens positioned to capture a view behind a vehicle, wherein the view includes a portion of the bumper of the vehicle;
an imager including an image sensor and an imager microcontroller, wherein the image sensor is positioned to receive images
from the lens;

a camera microcontroller configured to control the application of an overlay to the images, wherein the camera microcontroller
is operable to receive data from the imager microcontroller relating to bars of pixels on the image sensor, wherein the camera
microcontroller is further operable to detect a reference point in the images using the data and is operable to determine
an offset amount with which to shift the overlay on the images; and

wherein the camera microcontroller is operable to detect the reference point iteratively using data from the imager microcontroller
relating to successively smaller bars of pixels on the image sensor.

US Pat. No. 9,280,202

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system of a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a monitoring system operable to determine a gaze direction of a driver of a vehicle equipped with said vision system, said
monitoring system comprising an interior viewing camera having a field of view interior of the equipped vehicle and directed
generally towards the head of the driver of the equipped vehicle, wherein, responsive to processing of image data captured
by said interior viewing camera, said monitoring system determines the gaze direction of the driver of the equipped vehicle;

a plurality of exterior viewing cameras disposed at the equipped vehicle and having respective fields of view exterior of
the equipped vehicle;

a heads up display system operable to display virtual images for viewing by the driver of the equipped vehicle; and
wherein, responsive at least in part to determination by said monitoring system that the driver's gaze direction is towards
a non-transparent portion of the equipped vehicle, said heads up display system displays an image derived from image data
captured by at least one of said plurality of exterior viewing cameras to display a virtual image representative of the driver's
view in the determined driver's gaze direction as it would be through the non-transparent portion of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,277,104

VEHICULAR CAMERA AND LENS ASSEMBLY AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURING SAME

Magna Electronics Inc., ...

1. A method of assembling a vehicular camera, said method comprising:
providing a lens assembly comprising a base portion, a lens barrel and a plurality of optical elements in said lens barrel;
providing a circuit element comprising a circuit board and an imaging array established at said circuit board;
dispensing at least one adhesive bead at one of (i) said base portion of said lens assembly and (ii) said circuit element;
placing said circuit element at said base portion of said lens assembly with said at least one adhesive bead between said
circuit element and said base portion;

aligning said lens assembly with said imaging array when said circuit element is placed at said base portion and in contact
with said at least one adhesive bead;

wherein aligning said lens assembly with said imaging array comprises aligning said lens assembly with said imaging array
via a multi-axis robotic device;

curing said at least one adhesive bead to a first cure level via exposure of said at least one adhesive bead to ultraviolet
light;

moving said lens assembly and said circuit element to a second curing stage and curing said at least one adhesive bead to
a second cure level via heating said at least one adhesive bead to an elevated temperature for at least a selected period
of time; and

attaching a housing portion to said base portion of said lens assembly to encase said circuit element and substantially sealing
said housing portion and said base portion together.

US Pat. No. 9,266,474

ACCESSORY SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. An accessory system for a vehicle, said accessory system comprising: a windshield, said windshield having an outer surface
that, when said windshield is mounted to a vehicle equipped with said accessory system, is exterior of the equipped vehicle
and said windshield having an inner surface that is interior of the equipped vehicle when said windshield is mounted to the
equipped vehicle; wherein said windshield has a mounting element attached at said inner surface; wherein said mounting element
is positioned at an area of said windshield that is wiped by a windshield wiper of the equipped vehicle when the windshield
wiper is activated; wherein said mounting element is configured for mounting of an accessory module thereto and demounting
of said accessory module therefrom; wherein said accessory module is configured for mounting to said mounting element via
snap attachment; said accessory module accommodating a camera comprising a CMOS photosensor array and a lens; wherein said
CMOS photosensor array is disposed on a first circuit board; wherein said accessory module is configured so that, when mounted
to said mounting element attached at said windshield, said lens has a field of view through said windshield; wherein said
camera is operable to capture image data for use by a driver assistance system of the equipped vehicle; wherein said accessory
module comprises an electrical connector; wherein said electrical connector comprises a plurality of electrically conducting
members; wherein said electrical connector electrically connects with circuitry disposed in said accessory module; and wherein
said electrical connector is configured for electrical connection to at least a power source of the equipped vehicle and a
communication bus of the equipped vehicle, wherein said driver assistance system comprises a lane departure warning system
of the equipped vehicle and at least one of (i) a traffic sign recognition system of the equipped vehicle, (ii) an adaptive
cruise control system of the equipped vehicle, (iii) a headlamp control system of the equipped vehicle and (iv) a collision
avoidance system of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,609,757

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM CAMERA ASSEMBLY WITH COAXIAL CONNECTOR

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A method for assembling a camera for a vision system of a vehicle, said system comprising:
providing a circuit board having an imaging array sensor disposed thereat, said circuit board having connector circuitry at
a side thereof;

providing a lens barrel;
aligning a lens of said lens barrel with said imaging array sensor and attaching said circuit board at said lens barrel;
providing solder pads at said connector circuitry;
providing a coaxial connector;
aligning said coaxial connector with said connector circuitry at said circuit board;
determining when said coaxial connector is aligned with said connector circuitry at said circuit board;
when said coaxial connector is determined to be aligned with said connector circuitry, attaching said coaxial connector at
said connector circuitry; and

wherein attaching said coaxial connector at said connector circuitry comprises soldering said coaxial connector at said connector
circuitry via said solder pads.

US Pat. No. 9,340,227

VEHICLE LANE KEEP ASSIST SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A lane keep assist system for a vehicle, said lane keep assist system comprising:
a forward facing camera disposed at a vehicle and having a forward field of view exterior of the vehicle;
an image processor operable to process image data captured by said forward facing camera;
wherein said lane keep assist system is operable to process image data to determine lane markers in said field of view and
to determine at least one time to lane crossing value;

wherein said lane keep assist system is operable to determine a first time to lane crossing value via a first algorithm and
a second time to lane crossing value via a second algorithm;

wherein said first algorithm determines the first time to lane crossing value responsive to image processing of captured image
data by said image processor;

wherein said second algorithm determines the second time to lane crossing value responsive to signals from at least one other
vehicle sensor;

wherein said lane keep assist system is operable to apply a steering signal to adjust the steering of the vehicle at least
in part responsive to the determined first and second time to lane crossing values; and

wherein said lane keep assist system is operable to at least one of (i) combine said first and second time to lane crossing
values to provide a more accurate estimation of the time to lane crossing and (ii) average said first and second time to lane
crossing values to provide a more accurate estimation of the time to lane crossing.

US Pat. No. 9,269,263

VEHICLE TOP CLEARANCE ALERT SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vehicle clearance alert system comprising:
at least one camera disposed at a vehicle and having an exterior field of view in a direction of travel of the vehicle, wherein
said at least one camera is operable to capture image data;

a control having an image processor operable to process image data captured by said at least one camera;
wherein, responsive to image processing of image data captured by said at least one camera, said control is operable to determine
a height dimension of a structure in the path of travel of the vehicle;

wherein said control is operable, responsive to (i) the determined height dimension of the structure in the path of travel
of the vehicle and (ii) a height dimension of the vehicle, to determine if there is sufficient clearance between the structure
and the vehicle for the vehicle to pass under the structure;

wherein, responsive to a determination that there is not sufficient clearance between the structure and the vehicle for the
vehicle to pass under the structure, said vehicle clearance alert system is operable to generate an alert to the driver of
the vehicle; and

wherein said control is operable to determine a height dimension of the vehicle via processing of captured image data that
is representative of at least one of (i) a reflected image of the vehicle and (ii) a shadow of the vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,183,749

REAR VISION SYSTEM FOR A VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A camera vision system for a vehicle, said camera vision system comprising:
a rear backup video camera at a rear portion of a vehicle equipped with said camera vision system;
said rear backup video camera having a rearward field of view external of the equipped vehicle;
said rear backup video camera operable to capture video images rearward of the equipped vehicle during a rear backup maneuver
of the equipped vehicle;

a display device comprising a video screen operable to display video images captured by said rear backup video camera for
viewing by a driver of the equipped vehicle who is maneuvering the equipped vehicle;

wherein video images captured by said rear backup video camera are displayed by said display device when a transmission of
the equipped vehicle is shifted into reverse gear by the driver;

wherein an overlay is displayed with video images captured by said rear backup video camera to assist the driver during the
rear backup maneuver;

a control comprising an image processor that image processes video images captured by said rear backup video camera in order
to detect objects that are within the rearward field of view of said rear backup video camera;

wherein image processing by said image processor of captured video images comprises use of an edge detection algorithm;
wherein the equipped vehicle is further equipped with a sensor system selected from the group consisting of (i) a radar sensor
system and (ii) an ultrasonic sensor system; and

wherein said sensor system monitors a region external to the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,146,898

DRIVER ASSIST SYSTEM WITH ALGORITHM SWITCHING

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A driver assist system for a vehicle, said driver assist system comprising:
an object detection sensor disposed at the subject vehicle and having an exterior field of view;
a receiver disposed at the subject vehicle and operable to receive a wireless communication, said wireless communication associated
with at least one of (i) a driving condition of another vehicle and (ii) a road condition of interest to a driver of the subject
vehicle;

wherein said wireless communication comprises at least one of (a) a car-to-car communication and (b) a communication from
a communication system associated with a roadway or infrastructure;

a control disposed at the subject vehicle and operable to process data captured by said object detection sensor to detect
an object exterior of the subject vehicle;

wherein said driver assist system is operable to adjust said processing of said data responsive at least in part to said wireless
communication received by said receiver;

wherein said control is operable to adjust said processing of said data to a distant mode responsive to said wireless communication
being indicative of the subject vehicle traveling along a highway, and wherein, when processing said data in said distant
mode, said driver assist system is operable to detect an object approaching the subject vehicle from a first distance from
the subject vehicle near the effective range of said object detection sensor;

wherein said control is operable to adjust said processing of said data to a nearby mode responsive to said wireless communication
being indicative of the subject vehicle traveling along a city road, and wherein, when processing said data in said nearby
mode, said object detection sensor is operable to detect an object of interest at a second distance from the subject vehicle;

wherein said first distance is greater than said second distance and wherein, when processing said data in said nearby mode,
said control does not process data to detect objects at the first distance from the subject vehicle;

wherein, responsive to said processing of said data, at least one of (a) an alert is operable to alert the driver of the subject
vehicle of a potential hazard and (b) a system of the subject vehicle is operable to control a vehicle function to mitigate
or avoid a potential hazard condition; and

wherein said driver assist system is operable to alert the driver of the subject vehicle to not open a vehicle door when the
subject vehicle is parked and when said system detects another vehicle approaching the subject vehicle in a side lane adjacent
to the subject vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,338,334

VEHICULAR CAMERA AND LENS ASSEMBLY

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vehicular camera suitable for use on a vehicle, said vehicular camera comprising:
a lens assembly comprising a lens barrel and an attaching portion, said lens barrel including lens optics comprising a plurality
of optical elements;

a front camera housing having an imager disposed thereat;
said front camera housing comprising a cylindrical opening;
wherein said lens barrel is partially received in said cylindrical opening of said front camera housing;
a printed circuit board attached at said front camera housing;
wherein said imager is disposed on said printed circuit board;
wherein, with an adhesive disposed in its uncured state between said attaching portion of said lens assembly and said front
camera housing, said lens assembly is adjusted relative to said front camera housing to achieve optical center-alignment and
focusing of said lens optics relative to said imager;

wherein optical center-alignment and focusing of said lens optics relative to said imager is achieved via a multi-axis positioning
device;

wherein the adhesive is initially curable from its uncured state to an initially-cured state in an initial radiation curing
process that comprises exposure to UV light for a first time period, and wherein the adhesive is further curable from the
initially-cured state to a further more cured state in a secondary curing process undertaken for a second time period;

wherein said second time period is longer than said first time period;
wherein the adhesive is initially cured from its uncured state to the initially-cured state via the initial radiation curing
process after said lens optics is brought into focus with said imager and is optically center-aligned therewith;

wherein the adhesive, as cured to the initially-cured state via the initial radiation curing process, (i) attaches said lens
assembly to said front camera housing and (ii) holds said lens optics optically center-aligned and in focus with said imager;

wherein, after the initial radiation curing process is completed, said lens assembly, adhesively attached to said front camera
housing, is moved to the secondary curing process to further cure the adhesive to the further more cured state; and

wherein, when more cured via the secondary curing process, the adhesive, in the further more cured state, maintains focus
and optical center-alignment of said lens optics with said imager for use of said vehicular camera on a vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,090,234

BRAKING CONTROL SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A braking control system for a vehicle, said braking control system comprising:
at least one sensor disposed at a subject vehicle and having a field of view exterior of the vehicle;
a control operable to control a brake system of the subject vehicle;
wherein, after actuation of the brake system by an automatic emergency braking system of the subject vehicle, said control,
at least in part responsive to said at least one sensor, determines the speed of the subject vehicle and relative speed of
the subject vehicle to another vehicle or object, and, responsive to the determined speed of the subject vehicle and the determined
relative speed, said control controls the brake system of the subject vehicle;

wherein, after actuation of the brake system of the subject vehicle, and responsive to a determination that at least one of
(i) a collision has occurred, (ii) the speed of the subject vehicle is greater than a threshold speed and (iii) the relative
speed is greater than a threshold value, said braking control system is operable to determine if the driver of the subject
vehicle is impaired; and

wherein, responsive to a determination that the driver is impaired, said control controls the brake system of the subject
vehicle and does not allow the driver to override said braking control system, and wherein, responsive to a determination
that the driver is not impaired, said control allows the driver to override said braking control system.

US Pat. No. 9,131,120

MULTI-CAMERA VISION SYSTEM FOR A VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A multi-camera vision system for a vehicle, said multi-camera vision system comprising:
at least three image capture devices disposed at a vehicle equipped with said multi-camera vision system;
said at least three image capture devices comprising a first image capture device disposed at a driver-side portion of the
equipped vehicle at a first location;

said at least three image capture devices comprising a second image capture device disposed at a passenger-side portion of
the equipped vehicle at a second location;

said at least three image capture devices comprising a third image capture device disposed at a rear portion of the equipped
vehicle at a third location;

wherein said first image capture device has a first field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle;
wherein said second image capture device has a second field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle;
wherein said third image capture device has a third field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle;
wherein said first field of view of said first image capture device overlaps with said third field of view of said third image
capture device defining a first overlap zone;

wherein said second field of view of said second image capture device overlaps with said third field of view of said third
image capture device defining a second overlap zone;

wherein said first image capture device captures first image data;
wherein said second image capture device captures second image data;
wherein said third image capture device captures third image data;
an image processor;
wherein first image data captured by said first image capture device is received at said image processor;
wherein second image data captured by said second image capture device is received at said image processor;
wherein third image data captured by said third image capture device is received at said image processor;
wherein, responsive to processing by said image processor of received image data, a synthesized image is generated without
duplication of objects present in said first overlap zone and in said second overlap zone and wherein said synthesized image
approximates a view as would be seen by a virtual camera at a single location exterior of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said synthesized image is displayed by a single display screen of a display device that is viewable by a driver of
the equipped vehicle when normally operating the equipped vehicle;

wherein a trailer is attached at the rear of the equipped vehicle; and
wherein said synthesized image assists the driver of the equipped vehicle in executing a maneuver of the equipped vehicle
with the trailer attached thereto.

US Pat. No. 9,117,123

VEHICULAR REAR VIEW CAMERA DISPLAY SYSTEM WITH LIFECHECK FUNCTION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vehicular display system, comprising:
a display monitor;
a camera mounted at a rear of a vehicle equipped with the vehicular display system, wherein the camera has a field of view
rearward of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture image data and to generate a video signal indicative of the captured
image data;

a controller receiving an input indicative of the video signal and, responsive thereto, providing video information for displaying
video images on the display monitor;

wherein, responsive to the input and responsive to vehicle speed data of the equipped vehicle being indicative of the equipped
vehicle moving rearwardly at a speed greater than zero, the controller is operable to perform an integrity check to ensure
that video information provided to the display monitor is not compromised;

wherein the integrity check determines that video information provided to the display monitor is compromised via a determination,
when the equipped vehicle is moving in reverse, that video information provided to the display monitor comprises a frozen
image;

wherein, responsive to the controller determining that video information provided to the display monitor comprises a frozen
image, the controller generates an alert to a driver of the equipped vehicle; and

wherein a threshold level of change in captured image data at which the video information is determined to comprise a frozen
image varies with the vehicle speed.

US Pat. No. 9,126,525

ALERT SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

16. An alert system for a vehicle having a rear vision system, said alert system comprising:
a video display screen for displaying video images that are captured by a rearward-facing camera, wherein said video display
screen is viewable by the driver of a vehicle equipped with said alert system;

an interior visual alert device disposed at an interior rearview mirror assembly of the equipped vehicle, wherein said interior
visual alert device is operable independently of said video display screen;

a driver-side visual alert device disposed at a driver-side exterior rearview mirror assembly of the equipped vehicle;
a passenger-side visual alert device disposed at a passenger-side exterior rearview mirror assembly of the equipped vehicle;
a control responsive to a rearward-directed object detection system of the equipped vehicle, wherein said rearward-directed
object detection system is operable to detect an object rearward of the equipped vehicle during a reversing maneuver of the
equipped vehicle;

wherein said interior visual alert device comprises an iconistic display disposed behind a reflective element of the interior
rearview mirror assembly and viewed through the reflective element of the interior rearview mirror assembly;

wherein said driver-side visual alert device comprises an iconistic display disposed behind a reflective element of the driver-side
exterior rearview mirror assembly and viewed through the reflective element of the driver-side exterior rearview mirror assembly;

wherein said passenger-side visual alert device comprises an iconistic display disposed behind a reflective element of the
passenger-side exterior rearview mirror assembly and viewed through the reflective element of the passenger-side exterior
rearview mirror assembly;

wherein said video display screen is disposed in the equipped vehicle separate from said interior visual alert device disposed
at the interior rearview mirror;

wherein, during a reversing maneuver of the equipped vehicle and responsive to detection of an object rearward of the equipped
vehicle by said rearward-directed object detection system, said control is operable to activate (i) said interior visual alert
device, (ii) said driver-side visual alert device and (iii) said passenger-side visual alert device, and wherein said interior
visual alert device, said driver-side visual alert device and said passenger-side visual alert device are viewable by the
driver of the equipped vehicle when activated and are operable to guide or prompt the driver to check video images that are
captured by said at least one rearward-facing camera and displayed in the interior cabin of the equipped vehicle by said video
display screen during the reversing maneuver of the equipped vehicle so that the driver can verify the nature and type of
a potential hazard rearward of the vehicle as being detected by said rearward-directed object detection system;

wherein said rearward-directed object detection system comprises an image processor for processing image data captured by
said at least one rearward-facing camera; and

wherein said control, responsive at least in part to image processing of said image data by said image processor, activates
said interior visual alert device, said driver-side visual alert device and said passenger-side visual alert device responsive
to a detection of an object rearward of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,463,744

DRIVER ASSISTANCE SYSTEM FOR A VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A driver assistance system for a vehicle, said driver assistance system comprising:
a forward facing camera disposed at or in a vehicle equipped with said driver assistance system, said forward facing camera
having a field of view that, when the equipped vehicle is traveling on a road, encompasses the road ahead of and to the left
of the equipped vehicle;

wherein the equipped vehicle is a left-hand drive vehicle;
a control disposed at or in the equipped vehicle and comprising an image processor;
wherein image data captured by said forward facing camera is processed by said image processor;
wherein said image processor processes data at a processing speed of at least about 30 MIPS;
wherein said control receives vehicle data relating to the equipped vehicle via a vehicle bus of the equipped vehicle, said
vehicle data including vehicle speed and vehicle steering angle;

wherein, via processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward facing camera, said control is operable
to detect a road marking on the road being traveled by the equipped vehicle and to the left of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said image processor utilizes a lane marker type recognition algorithm to classify the detected road marking to be
one of (i) a single solid line, (ii) a single dashed line and (iii) double lines;

wherein, responsive to classification by the lane marker type recognition algorithm of the detected road marking to be double
lines and not to be either a single solid line or a single dashed line, (a) said control determines ability to pass safely
to the left of the equipped vehicle when the double lines are determined to be a solid line and an adjacent dashed line with
the adjacent dashed line being closer to the equipped vehicle than the solid line, and (b) said control determines a non-encroachment/no-passing
zone to exist to the left of the equipped vehicle when the double lines are determined to be two solid lines, and (c) said
control determines a non-encroachment zone to exist to the left of the equipped vehicle when the double lines are determined
to be a solid line and an adjacent dashed line with the adjacent dashed line being farther from the equipped vehicle than
the solid line.

US Pat. No. 9,283,900

ACCESSORY MOUNTING SYSTEM FOR A VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. An accessory mounting system for a vehicle, said Accessory mounting system comprising:
a first attachment element adhesively attached to an in-cabin surface of a windshield of a vehicle equipped with said accessory
mounting system;

wherein said first attachment element comprises a mirror mounting button;
an interior rearview mirror assembly attached at said mirror mounting button;
a second attachment element adhesively attached to the in-cabin surface of the windshield of the equipped vehicle at a position
spaced from where said mirror mounting button is attached to the in-cabin surface of the vehicle windshield;

wherein said second attachment element comprises a bracket;
said bracket comprising a windshield-facing side;
said bracket comprising a cabin-facing side;
the cabin-facing side of said bracket comprising first structure;
an accessory module comprising a housing;
wherein said accessory module is configured to mount to said bracket;
wherein an electronic device and circuitry are housed in said housing;
wherein said electronic device comprises a camera and wherein said camera comprises a Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor
(CMOS) imaging array;

wherein said circuitry is in communication with a vehicle bus system of the equipped vehicle;
said housing comprising second structure; and
wherein said second structure of said housing engages said first structure of said bracket when mounting said accessory module
to said bracket.

US Pat. No. 9,085,261

REAR VISION SYSTEM WITH TRAILER ANGLE DETECTION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A rear vision system for a vehicle, said rear vision system comprising:
at least a rearward facing camera disposed at a rearward portion of a vehicle equipped with said rear vision system;
wherein said rearward facing camera is operable to capture images rearward of the equipped vehicle;
wherein, when a trailer is attached to the equipped vehicle and is rearward of the equipped vehicle, a processor is operable
to process the captured images and, responsive at least in part to said processing, is operable to determine a trailer angle
of the trailer relative to a longitudinal axis of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said processor determines a location of a target at or of the trailer relative to the equipped vehicle and determines
the trailer angle of the trailer responsive to the determined location; and

wherein the target comprises at least one of (a) an icon or shape or indicia disposed at a forward portion of the trailer,
(b) an icon or shape or indicia established on a sheet attached at a forward portion of the trailer, (c) an icon or shape
or indicia established at a forward portion of the trailer, (d) a target pattern established at a surface of the trailer or
trailer tongue, (e) a colored pattern established at a surface of the trailer or trailer tongue and (f) a forward portion
of the trailer.

US Pat. No. 9,140,789

FORWARD FACING SENSING SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A forward facing sensing system for a vehicle, the vehicle having a windshield, said forward facing sensing system comprising:
a radar sensor device disposed within an interior cabin of a vehicle equipped with said forward facing sensing system, and
wherein said radar sensor device has a sensing direction forward of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said radar sensor device comprises an array antenna and wherein said radar sensor device utilizes digital beam forming;
an image sensor disposed within the interior cabin of the equipped vehicle and wherein said image sensor has a viewing direction
forward of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said image sensor comprises a pixelated image array sensor having a two dimensional array of photosensing elements;
wherein said image sensor is at least one of (a) proximate to a windshield of the equipped vehicle and (b) optically coupled
at a windshield of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said radar sensor device and said image sensor are disposed behind the vehicle windshield in a windshield electronics
module;

a control comprising an image processor;
wherein said image processor processes image data captured by said image sensor utilizing object detection software;
wherein processing by said image processor of image data captured by said image sensor utilizing object detection software
comprises processing of pixel outputs within a sub-array of said image sensor;

wherein said image processor is operable to analyze image data captured by said image sensor in order to, at least in part,
detect an object present forward of the equipped vehicle in its direction of forward travel;

wherein said control, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of captured image data and to an output
of said radar sensor device, determines that a potentially hazardous condition may exist in the path of forward travel of
the equipped vehicle, and wherein said potentially hazardous condition comprises another vehicle in the path of forward travel
of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said radar sensor device and said image sensor collaborate in a way that enhances the sensing capability of said sensing
system for determining the potentially hazardous condition in the path of forward travel of the equipped vehicle;

wherein, responsive to said control determining that a potentially hazardous condition exists in the path of forward travel
of the equipped vehicle, said control generates an alert, and wherein said alert comprises at least one of (i) a visual indication
and (ii) an audible indication;

wherein said image sensor comprises part of an automatic headlamp control system of the equipped vehicle and wherein said
image sensor comprises part of a lane departure warning system of the equipped vehicle; and

wherein said control, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of captured image data and to an output
of said radar sensor device, at least in part controls an adaptive cruise control system of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 10,033,934

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM WITH EXTERIOR VIEWING CAMERA

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vehicular vision system suitable for use in a vehicle, said vehicular vision system comprising:a camera module;
said camera module comprising a camera;
said camera comprising (i) an imager disposed on an imager circuit board and (ii) a lens assembly comprising a lens barrel accommodating at least one lens;
wherein said camera, when mounted at a vehicle equipped with said vehicular vision system, is operable to capture image data representative of a scene exterior of the equipped vehicle;
a flexible ribbon cable connecting to and extending from the imager circuit board;
said flexible ribbon cable comprising electrical conductors that connect electrical circuitry of the imager circuit board to a terminator portion of said flexible ribbon cable, wherein said terminator portion comprises a first electrical connector;
wherein the electrical circuitry of the imager circuit board comprises the imager;
said camera module comprising a main circuit board, said main circuit board including a digital image processor for processing image data captured by the imager;
wherein said main circuit board comprises a multilayered printed circuit board (PCB) having a first planar side and an opposing second planar side separated from the first planar side by a thickness dimension of the multilayered PCB;
wherein first circuitry is disposed at the first planar side of the multilayered PCB, and wherein second circuitry is disposed at the second planar side of the multilayered PCB;
wherein said camera is disposed at the first planar side of the multilayered PCB;
wherein said second circuitry disposed at the second planar side of the multilayered PCB comprises said digital image processor;
wherein the multilayered PCB at its second planar side comprises a second electrical connector, and wherein said second electrical connector at the second planar side of the multilayered PCB is configured for mating with said first electrical connector at the terminator portion of said flexible ribbon cable;
wherein, with said camera module disposed at an equipped vehicle and with said camera operated to capture image data and with said first electrical connector at the terminator portion of said flexible ribbon cable mated with said second electrical connector at the second planar side of the multilayered PCB and with said flexible ribbon cable connecting to and extending from the imager circuit board, image data captured by the imager of said camera is provided via said flexible ribbon cable at least to said second circuitry disposed at the second planar side of the multilayered PCB;
wherein image data provided via said flexible ribbon cable at least to said second circuitry disposed at the second planar side of the multilayered PCB is processed by said digital image processor for at least one driving assist system of the equipped vehicle;
wherein said camera module comprises a housing;
wherein said main circuit board is disposed within said housing;
wherein said camera is at least partially disposed within said housing;
wherein said housing encloses said main circuit board and the imager circuit board;
wherein said housing comprises a front portion that is in front of a rear portion of said housing;
wherein said main circuit board is enclosed within said front and rear portions of said housing;
wherein said camera is at least partially housed within said rear portion of said housing;
wherein said rear portion of said housing has an aperture;
wherein at least a portion of said lens barrel of said camera extends through said aperture of said rear portion; and
wherein said lens barrel of said camera protrudes outside said housing at an acute angle relative to said front portion of said housing.

US Pat. No. 9,436,880

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
an imaging sensor having a forward field of view in a forward direction of travel of a vehicle equipped with said vision system;
wherein said imaging sensor comprises a lens and a CMOS imaging array comprising a two-dimensional array of photosensing elements;
wherein said two-dimensional array of photosensing elements comprises at least 262,144 photosensing elements arranged in a
matrix array of rows and columns;

wherein said matrix array comprises at least 512 rows of photosensing elements;
wherein said imaging sensor captures frames of image data within said forward field of view of said imaging sensor;
wherein said array of photosensing elements comprises groupings of photosensing elements, each grouping having at least three
neighboring photosensing elements;

wherein at least one photosensing element of each grouping comprises a red light sensitive photosensing element and at least
one other photosensing element of each grouping comprises a white light sensitive photosensing element;

a control, wherein said control comprises an image processor that processes captured image data to determine a taillight of
a leading vehicle present in said forward field of view and traveling ahead of the equipped vehicle in the same direction
as that of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said control, at least in part responsive to processing by said image processor of captured image data, determines
distance between the leading vehicle and the equipped vehicle based, at least in part, on size of the determined taillight
in captured frames of image data;

wherein said control, at least in part responsive to processing by said image processor of captured image data, determines
an angle between the equipped vehicle and the leading vehicle;

wherein said control, at least in part responsive to processing by said image processor of captured image data, determines
a lateral position of the leading vehicle relative to the equipped vehicle;

wherein said control, at least in part responsive to the determined distance to the leading vehicle and the determined angle
between the equipped vehicle and the leading vehicle and the determined lateral position of the leading vehicle relative to
the equipped vehicle, determines the leading vehicle to be closest to the equipped vehicle as compared to other vehicles present
in said forward field of view of said imaging sensor; and

wherein said control, at least in part responsive to said determination of the leading vehicle being closest to the equipped
vehicle, is operable to at least in part control a braking system of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,509,962

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM WITH ENHANCED FUNCTIONALITY

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
at least one camera disposed at a vehicle equipped with said vision system, wherein said at least one camera has a field of
view exterior of the equipped vehicle;

control circuitry comprising an image processor for processing image data captured by said at least one camera;
wherein said image processor processes image data captured by said at least one camera for a pedestrian detection system of
the equipped vehicle;

wherein said control circuitry, responsive at least in part to image processing of captured image data by said image processor,
is operable to cause adjustment of the pedestrian detection system of the equipped vehicle from regular sensitivity to higher
sensitivity; and

wherein adjustment from regular sensitivity to higher sensitivity is at least in part responsive to image processing of captured
image data by said image processor determining that the equipped vehicle is in the vicinity of children that a driver of the
equipped vehicle should watch out for.

US Pat. No. 9,491,342

CAMERA MODULE FOR VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A camera module for use in a vision system for a vehicle, said camera module comprising:
a housing portion for at least partially housing circuitry of said camera module, said housing portion comprising a first
mating surface and a first perimeter flange at least partially around said first mating surface, said housing portion comprising
plastic and said first perimeter flange comprising plastic, said first perimeter flange having a first securing surface opposite
said first mating surface;

a lens holding portion for at least partially housing a lens assembly of said camera module, said lens holding portion comprising
a second mating surface and a second perimeter flange at least partially around said second mating surface, said lens holding
portion comprising plastic and said second perimeter flange comprising plastic, said second perimeter flange having a second
securing surface opposite said second mating surface; and

a securing element having first and second tabs that extend from a center portion, wherein said securing element is disposed
along said first and second perimeter flanges and said first and second tabs are bent to overlap and engage said first and
second securing surfaces of said first and second perimeter flanges, respectively, to urge said first mating surface against
said second mating surface to secure said housing portion relative to said lens holding portion, and wherein said center portion
spans an interface where said first and second mating surfaces are mated together.

US Pat. No. 9,507,021

FORWARD FACING SENSING SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A forward facing sensing system for a vehicle, the vehicle having a windshield, said forward facing sensing system comprising:
a radar sensor device disposed within an interior cabin of a vehicle equipped with said forward facing sensing system, and
wherein said radar sensor device has a sensing direction forward of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said radar sensor device transmits at a frequency of at least 20 GHz;
an image sensor disposed within the interior cabin of the equipped vehicle behind the vehicle windshield and wherein said
image sensor views forward of the equipped vehicle through the vehicle windshield;

wherein said image sensor comprises a pixelated imaging array sensor comprising a plurality of photo-sensing pixels;
a control comprising an image processor, said image processor operable to analyze image data captured by said image sensor
in order to, at least in part, detect a pedestrian present exterior of the equipped vehicle in its direction of forward travel;

wherein said image processor comprises an image processing chip that processes image data captured by said image sensor utilizing
object detection software;

wherein said control, responsive at least in part to processing of captured image data by said image processor and to sensing
by said radar sensor, determines that a potentially hazardous condition may exist in the path of forward travel of the equipped
vehicle, and wherein said potentially hazardous condition comprises a pedestrian in the path of forward travel of the equipped
vehicle;

wherein said radar sensor device and said image sensor collaborate in a way that enhances determination of existence of the
potentially hazardous condition in the path of forward travel of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said radar sensor device and said image sensor collaborate in a way that enhances sensing capability of said sensing
system for the pedestrian in the path of forward travel of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said radar sensor device and said image sensor share, at least in part, common circuitry;
wherein said radar sensor device and said image sensor are housed in a self-contained unit disposed behind and attached at
the vehicle windshield of the equipped vehicle, and wherein said self-contained unit mounts at the vehicle windshield of the
equipped vehicle and is removable therefrom as a unit for at least one of service and replacement; and

wherein said control at least in part controls an adaptive cruise control system of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,948,904

VISION SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:a forward viewing camera disposed at a windshield of a vehicle equipped with said vision system;
wherein said forward viewing camera views forward through the windshield of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture image data;
said forward viewing camera comprising an imaging array sensor and a lens;
an image processor operable to process image data captured by said forward viewing camera;
wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward viewing camera, at least one road characteristic of a road along which the equipped vehicle is travelling is detected;
wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward viewing camera, other vehicles exterior the equipped vehicle are detected;
wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward viewing camera, road curvature of the road along which the equipped vehicle is traveling is determined;
wherein data derived from image data captured by said forward viewing camera is wirelessly communicated from the equipped vehicle to a remote data receiver located remote from the equipped vehicle; and
wherein the road along which the equipped vehicle is traveling comprises a freeway, and wherein, responsive at least in pert to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward viewing camera detecting an exit sign announcing an exit ramp ahead off the freeway the equipped vehicle is traveling on, at least one of (i) speed of the equipped vehicle and (i) acceleration of the equipped vehicle is adjusted so that the equipped vehicle enters the exit ramp at a safe speed.

US Pat. No. 9,446,715

VISION SYSTEM FOR A VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
an attachment element adhered using an adhesive to the in-cabin surface of a vehicle windshield of a vehicle equipped with
said vision system, said attachment element adhered to the inner surface of the windshield at a windshield first location;

an attachment member adhered using an adhesive to the in-cabin surface of the vehicle windshield, said attachment member adhered
to the inner surface of the windshield at a windshield second location;

wherein said windshield second location is separate from and is spaced from said windshield first location;
said attachment element comprising a mirror mounting button;
wherein said mirror mounting button is configured for mounting thereto an interior rearview mirror assembly;
an accessory module configured to attach to and be supported by said attachment member adhered to the in-cabin surface of
the vehicle windshield;

wherein said accessory module comprises a forward facing camera;
wherein, with said accessory module attached to and supported by said attachment member, said forward facing camera of said
accessory module has a field of view through the vehicle windshield;

wherein said forward facing camera comprises a component of a collision avoidance system of the equipped vehicle;
wherein a light absorbing layer disposed at the vehicle windshield at least partially masks the presence of said attachment
element from view through the vehicle windshield from outside the equipped vehicle; and

wherein said light absorbing layer disposed at the vehicle windshield at least partially masks the presence of said accessory
module from view through the vehicle windshield from outside the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,565,342

VEHICLE CAMERA WITH TOLERANCE COMPENSATING CONNECTOR

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A camera assembly for a vehicle vision system, said camera assembly comprising:
a housing comprising a connector portion configured for connecting to a vehicle wiring when said camera assembly is installed
at a vehicle;

a circuit element disposed within said housing;
a plurality of electrical connector elements disposed at said connector portion of said second housing portion, wherein each
of said electrical connector elements comprises a first end that is configured for electrically connecting to circuitry of
said circuit element and a second end that is configured for electrically connecting to the vehicle wiring;

wherein said electrical connector elements self-adjust so that said first ends engage said circuitry and make electrical connection
therewith during assembly of said camera assembly; and

wherein said electrical connector elements maintain electrical connection with said circuitry after self-adjustment of said
electrical connector elements.

US Pat. No. 9,481,301

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM UTILIZING CAMERA SYNCHRONIZATION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vehicular vision system, said vehicular vision system comprising:
an image sensor disposed at a vehicle and having an exterior field of view, wherein said image sensor is operable to capture
image data;

an image processor operable to process captured image data;
an electronic control unit (ECU);
wherein said vision system is operable to automatically synchronize said image sensor to reference timing of said ECU;
wherein said vision system regulates said image sensor between a fast mode and a slow mode, and wherein said vision system
regulates said image sensor between said fast mode and said slow mode depending on whether a maximum buffer level achieved
during processing of captured image data by said image processor exceeds a selected maximum buffer threshold; and

wherein said vision system switches the timing of said image sensor to the slow mode when the maximum buffer level is greater
than the selected maximum buffer threshold, and wherein said vision system switches the timing of said image sensor to the
fast mode when the minimum buffer level is below the selected minimum buffer threshold.

US Pat. No. 9,481,344

BRAKING CONTROL SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A braking control system for a vehicle, said braking control system comprising:
at least one camera configured to be disposed at a subject vehicle so as to have at least one field of view exterior of the
subject vehicle;

wherein said at least one camera comprises at least a forward viewing camera that is configured to be disposed behind a windshield
of the subject vehicle so as to view forwardly through the windshield;

an image processor operable to process image data captured by said at least one camera;
a control operable to control a brake system of the subject vehicle;
wherein, at least in part responsive to processing by said image processor of captured image data, said braking control system
determines the presence of another vehicle present in the field of view of said camera;

wherein, after actuation of the brake system by an automatic emergency braking system of the subject vehicle, said braking
control system, at least in part responsive to processing by said image processor of captured image data, determines a relative
speed of the subject vehicle relative to the other vehicle, and, responsive at least in part to a speed of the subject vehicle
and the determined relative speed, said control controls the brake system of the subject vehicle;

wherein, while said control is controlling the brake system of the subject vehicle, and responsive to at least one of (i)
a collision having occurred, (ii) the speed of the subject vehicle being greater than a threshold speed and (iii) the determined
relative speed being greater than a threshold value, said braking control system determines if the driver of the subject vehicle
is impaired;

wherein said braking control system determines if the driver of the subject vehicle is impaired at least in part responsive
to one of (i) a cabin monitoring system of the subject vehicle, (ii) an airbag system of the subject vehicle and (iii) a driving
characteristic of the driver of the subject vehicle; and

wherein, responsive to a determination that the driver of the subject vehicle is impaired, said braking control system does
not allow the driver to override said control's control of the brake system of the subject vehicle, and wherein, responsive
to a determination that the driver of the subject vehicle is not impaired, said braking control system allows the driver to
override said control's control of the brake system of the subject vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,499,139

VEHICLE MONITORING SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vehicle monitoring system, said vehicle monitoring system comprising:
a central processor operable to receive vehicle inputs from multiple vehicles, wherein the vehicle inputs are indicative of
driving conditions of the vehicles;

wherein said central processor is located remote from each of the multiple vehicles and receives the vehicle inputs from each
of the multiple vehicles via wireless communication;

wherein said central processor is operable to receive, for each vehicle of the multiple vehicles, an environment input indicative
of the environment at the geographical location of that vehicle;

wherein, responsive to processing by said central processor of the vehicle inputs and the environment inputs, said central
processor determines if one or more of the multiple vehicles is at or approaching a potentially hazardous condition; and

responsive to a determination that one or more of the multiple vehicles is a threatened vehicle at or approaching the potentially
hazardous condition, said vehicle monitoring system, via wireless communication to the one or more threatened vehicles, at
least one of (i) causes actuation of an alert of each of the one or more threatened vehicles to alert a driver of each of
the one or more threatened vehicles of the potentially hazardous condition and (ii) controls a vehicle system of each of the
one or more threatened vehicles to mitigate the potentially hazardous condition.

US Pat. No. 9,563,951

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM WITH TARGETLESS CAMERA CALIBRATION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A camera calibration system of a vehicle, said camera calibration system comprising:
a camera disposed at a vehicle and having a field of view exterior of the vehicle;
wherein said camera comprises a two dimensional array having a plurality of photosensing elements;
wherein said camera is operable to capture image data;
an image processor operable to process image data captured by said camera;
wherein said camera calibration system is operable to generate camera calibration parameters utilizing a bundle adjustment
algorithm;

wherein said bundle adjustment algorithm uses a kinematic model of vehicle motion derived from image processing by said image
processor of multiple frames of captured image data;

wherein said bundle adjustment algorithm generates calibration parameters utilizing the equation:
Ximage=P*Xw,

where Ximage is a selection of image points in captured image data, P is a projective matrix representing motion between frames of captured
image data, and Xw is a vector of world coordinates of image points in captured image data;

wherein, responsive to image processing by said image processor of multiple frames of captured image data, said camera calibration
system extracts and matches features determined in multiple frames of captured image data;

wherein, responsive to image processing by said image processor of captured image data during movement of the vehicle along
an arbitrary path, and responsive to generation of camera calibration parameters utilizing said bundle adjustment algorithm,
said camera calibration system is operable to calibrate said camera; and

wherein said camera calibration system calibrates said camera as the vehicle navigates the arbitrary path, and wherein calibration
of said camera includes correction for misalignment in yaw, pitch and roll angles of said camera.

US Pat. No. 9,495,876

VEHICULAR CAMERA WITH ON-BOARD MICROCONTROLLER

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vehicular camera system, comprising:
a rear backup camera comprising a lens and having a field of view that encompasses a rear bumper of a vehicle equipped with
said vehicular camera system;

wherein said rear backup camera comprises an image sensor and a housing;
wherein the lens and the image sensor are mounted within the housing at a selected position relative to each other, and wherein
the image sensor receives raw images from the lens and captures image data;

a controller, wherein for at least one raw image, the controller is operable to (i) compare captured image data of the rear
bumper present in the field of view of said rear backup camera to a known shape of the rear bumper of the vehicle, (ii) responsive
to the comparison, determine a distortion correction that is indicative of distortion of the rear bumper in the raw image
relative to the known shape of the rear bumper and (iii) apply the distortion correction to the raw image to generate a dewarped
image by stretching and compressing portions of the raw image so that the rear bumper in the dewarped image corresponds to
the known shape of the rear bumper;

a display screen disposed in the vehicle and operable to display dewarped images for viewing by a driver of the vehicle while
the driver is operating the vehicle;

wherein the controller is operable to identify a portion of a trailer in the captured image data and, responsive at least
in part to identifying the portion of the trailer, is further operable to determine the position of the portion of a trailer
in the field of view of the rear backup camera and rearward of the vehicle, and wherein the controller, responsive to the
determined position of the portion of the trailer, is operable to apply a first overlay at the portion of the trailer in a
first displayed dewarped image to produce an initial displayed dewarped image, and wherein the controller is operable to thereafter
maintain the first overlay in a fixed position in subsequent displayed dewarped images, and wherein the portion of the trailer
in subsequent displayed dewarped images is movable relative to the first overlay; and

wherein the controller, responsive at least in part to processing of captured image data, is operable to display a second
overlay in displayed dewarped images, and wherein the controller is operable to thereafter move the second overlay in subsequent
displayed dewarped images relative to the fixed first overlay as the vehicle is driven to assist the driver of the vehicle
in reversing the vehicle towards the trailer.

US Pat. No. 9,440,535

VISION SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a camera having a field of view in a forward direction of travel of a vehicle equipped with said vision system;
wherein said camera comprises a lens and a CMOS imaging array comprising a two-dimensional array of photosensing elements;
wherein said two-dimensional array of photosensing elements comprises at least 307,200 photosensing elements arranged in a
matrix array of rows and columns;

a control comprising an image processor;
wherein said image processor processes image data captured by said camera to detect objects of interest located within the
field of view of said camera;

wherein said image processor processes image data captured by said camera to detect lane markers on the road being driven
by the equipped vehicle and located within the field of view of said camera;

wherein said vision system, responsive to processing of captured image data by said image processor, automatically recognizes
whether the equipped vehicle is being driven on a road of a left hand drive road system or on a road of a right hand drive
road system; and

wherein an image plane of said imaging array is at a distance from said lens that establishes a circle of confusion.

US Pat. No. 9,946,940

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM WITH ADAPTIVE LANE MARKER DETECTION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system of a vehicle, said vision system comprising:a camera configured to be disposed at a vehicle so as to have a field of view exterior of the vehicle;
wherein said camera comprises a pixelated imaging array having a plurality of photosensing elements;
an image processor operable to process frames of image data captured by said camera;
wherein, with said camera disposed at the vehicle, said image processor is operable to determine lane markers on a road on which the vehicle is traveling;
wherein said image processor processes intensity gradient information of captured image data to determine lane markers, and wherein, responsive to processing of intensity gradient information of captured image data, said image processor is operable to detect straight or curved lane markers;
wherein said image processor processes intensity gradient information of captured image data to determine contrast values at both sides of a center region of a determined lane marker;
wherein said image processor determines an angle of the determined lane marker relative to the vehicle responsive at least in part to the determined contrast values; and
wherein said image processor is operable to adapt the processing of lane marker image data in subsequent frames of captured image data responsive to image processing of lane marker image data in previous frames of captured image data.

US Pat. No. 9,834,216

VEHICULAR CONTROL SYSTEM USING CAMERAS AND RADAR SENSOR

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vehicular control system, said vehicular control system comprising:
a plurality of cameras disposed at a vehicle equipped with said vehicular control system, wherein said plurality of cameras
comprises at least three cameras;

said plurality of cameras at least comprising (i) a forward-viewing camera mounted at a front portion of the equipped vehicle
and having a field of view at least forward of the equipped vehicle, said forward-viewing camera operable to capture image
data, (ii) a driver side-viewing camera mounted at a driver-side portion of the equipped vehicle and having a field of view
at least sideward and rearward of the equipped vehicle at the driver side of the equipped vehicle, said driver side-viewing
camera operable to capture image data, and (iii) a passenger side-viewing camera mounted at a passenger-side portion of the
equipped vehicle and having a field of view at least sideward and rearward of the equipped vehicle at the passenger side of
the equipped vehicle, said passenger side-viewing camera operable to capture image data;

at least one radar sensor having a field of sensing exterior of the equipped vehicle and operable to sense radar data;
a control comprising a processor;
wherein image data captured by at least said forward-viewing camera, said driver side-viewing camera and said passenger side-viewing
camera is provided to said control;

wherein radar data sensed by said at least one radar sensor is provided to said control;
wherein said control, responsive to processing of image data captured at least by said forward-viewing camera, detects at
least one of (a) lane markers within the exterior field of view of at least said forward-viewing camera on a road being traveled
by the equipped vehicle and (b) road edges within the exterior field of view of at least said forward-viewing camera on a
road being traveled by the equipped vehicle;

wherein said control, based at least in part on detection of at least one of (a) lane markers via processing of captured image
data and (b) road edges via processing of captured image data, determines curvature of the road being traveled by the equipped
vehicle;

wherein said control processes captured image data provided thereto via an edge detection algorithm to detect vehicles present
exteriorly of the equipped vehicle and within the exterior field of view of at least one of said forward-viewing camera, said
driver side-viewing camera and said passenger side-viewing camera;

wherein said control processes sensed radar data provided thereto to detect vehicles present exteriorly of the equipped vehicle
and within the exterior field of sensing of said at least one radar sensor;

wherein said control, based on processing of at least one of (i) captured image data and (ii) sensed radar data, detects another
vehicle that is present exterior of the equipped vehicle and determines distance from the equipped vehicle to the detected
other vehicle that is present exterior of the equipped vehicle; and

wherein said control, based at least in part on said detection of another vehicle and said determination of distance from
the equipped vehicle to the detected other vehicle, determines whether it is safe for the equipped vehicle to execute a lane
change maneuver.

US Pat. No. 9,487,235

VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM WITH ADAPTIVE WHEEL ANGLE CORRECTION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A control system of a vehicle, said control system comprising:
an image sensor disposed at a vehicle and having a field of view exterior and forward of the vehicle;
a control comprising an image processor operable to process image data captured by said image sensor to determine a curvature
of a road being traveled by the vehicle;

wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of captured image data, said control is operable
to determine tangents at locations along the determined curvature;

wherein, responsive to determination of the tangents, said control is operable generate an output to adjust a vehicle steering
to guide the vehicle in a direction that generally corresponds to determined tangents at respective locations of the vehicle's
path of travel along the curvature of the road; and

wherein said control compares the determined curvature and a vehicle heading estimation with a vehicle position estimation
to determine a lateral error and a vehicle wheel angle estimation to steer the vehicle along the curvature of the road.

US Pat. No. 9,470,034

VEHICLE HATCH CONTROL SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vehicle hatch control system, said vehicle hatch control system comprising:
a camera disposed at a rear portion of a vehicle equipped with said vehicle hatch control system, said camera having a rearward
field of view that encompasses a region at the rear of the equipped vehicle that is swept by a hatch of the equipped vehicle
as the hatch is opened and closed via a powered hatch opening/closing system of the equipped vehicle;

an image processor operable to process image data captured by said camera to determine if an object is present in the region
that is swept by the hatch to determine if the hatch may collide with the detected object when the hatch is being opened or
closed;

wherein said hatch comprises one of a liftgate of the equipped vehicle, a deck lid of the equipped vehicle and a rear door
of the equipped vehicle;

wherein, during opening or closing of the hatch and responsive to determination, via said image processing, of a potential
collision of the opening or closing hatch with a detected object, said vehicle hatch control system is operable to position
the hatch at a partially open position whereby a gap is established between the hatch and the detected object;

wherein said vehicle hatch control system is operable to adjust the degree of opening or closing of the hatch to generally
maintain the gap between the hatch and the detected object when the vehicle's body height changes;

wherein said vehicle hatch control system is operable in response to actuation of the powered hatch opening/closing system
of the equipped vehicle; and

wherein, responsive to determination, via said image processing, of a potential collision of the hatch with a detected object,
said vehicle hatch control system is operable to generate an audible or visual alert to alert the user that a collision or
impact is imminent.

US Pat. No. 9,445,057

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM WITH DIRT DETECTION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a first camera disposed at a vehicle equipped with said vision system, said first camera comprising an image sensor and a
lens, wherein, when said first camera is disposed at the equipped vehicle, said lens is exposed to the environment exterior
the equipped vehicle;

wherein said first camera has an exterior field of view exterior the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture image data
representative of a scene occurring in the field of view of said first camera;

an image processor operable to process multiple frames of image data captured by said first camera;
wherein said image processor is operable to process captured image data to detect blobs in captured image data;
wherein, responsive to processing detected blob data over multiple frames of captured image data, said image processor determines
if detected blobs are representative of contaminants at said lens of said first camera;

wherein, responsive to processing a first frame of captured image data, and responsive to said image processor determining
a first threshold likelihood that a detected blob is indicative of a contaminant, said image processor adjusts processing
of detected blob data when processing a subsequent frame of captured image data;

wherein, responsive to said image processor determining a second threshold likelihood that the detected blob is indicative
of a contaminant when processing detected blob data of said subsequent frame of captured image data, said image processor
determines that the detected blob is representative of a contaminant at said lens of said first camera;

wherein, responsive to said image processor determining that the detected blob is representative of a contaminant at said
lens, said vision system generates an alert;

a second camera disposed at the equipped vehicle and having a field of view that at least partially overlaps the field of
view of said first camera, wherein said second camera is operable to capture image data representative of a scene occurring
in the field of view of said second camera; and

wherein said image processor is operable to process image data captured by said second camera, and wherein, responsive to
processing of captured image data of the overlapping portion of the fields of view of said first camera and said second camera,
said image processor is operable to determine the presence of a contaminant at said lens of said first camera.

US Pat. No. 9,428,192

VISION SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a forward facing camera configured to be disposed at a windshield of a vehicle equipped with said vision system, wherein,
when disposed at the windshield of the equipped vehicle, said forward facing camera has a forward field of view through the
windshield of the equipped vehicle;

said forward facing camera comprising an imaging array sensor and a lens;
wherein said forward facing camera is operable to capture image data for an adaptive speed control system of the equipped
vehicle;

an image processor operable to process captured image data;
wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of captured image data, lane markers of the road
along which the equipped vehicle is traveling are detected;

wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of captured image data, other vehicles exterior
the equipped vehicle are detected;

wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of captured image data, road curvature of the road
along which the equipped vehicle is traveling is determined;

wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of captured image data, entering of the equipped
vehicle into a road construction zone is determined; and

wherein, responsive to the determination, at least in part by processing by said image processor of captured image data, that
the equipped vehicle is entering into the road construction zone, speed of the equipped vehicle is automatically reduced without
the driver having to manually deactivate the adaptive speed control system of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,487,159

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM WITH CAMERA MODULE MOUNTING BRACKET

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vehicle vision system comprising:
a bracket, wherein said bracket comprises a base portion configured to attach at an in-cabin surface of a windshield of a
vehicle equipped with said vision system;

wherein said bracket includes a camera module attachment portion and at least one of (i) a rain sensor attachment portion
and (ii) an interior rearview mirror assembly attachment portion;

wherein said camera module attachment portion of said bracket comprises a generally U-shaped construction having a pair of
spaced apart legs extending from said base portion, and wherein each of said legs has at least one camera attaching element;

wherein, with said bracket attached at the in-cabin surface of the windshield, said spaced apart legs of said camera module
attachment portion of said bracket extend downwardly from said base portion and along the in-cabin surface of the windshield;

wherein, with said bracket attached at the in-cabin surface of the windshield, a camera module is mountable to said camera
module attachment portion of said bracket, and wherein said camera module comprises a camera having an image sensor array
and a lens;

wherein, with said camera module mounted to said camera module attachment portion, said camera module is disposed at least
partially between said legs of said camera module attachment portion of said bracket, and wherein said camera module comprises
a pair of bracket attaching elements that engage said camera attaching elements of said legs of said camera module attachment
portion of said bracket when said camera module is mounted to said camera module attachment portion of said bracket;

a stray light shield configured to attach at one of said camera module and said bracket, wherein, when said camera module
is mounted at said camera module attachment portion of said bracket attached at the in-cabin surface of the windshield, said
stray light shield shields said image sensor array from light emanating from within the cabin of the equipped vehicle; and

wherein, at least when said camera module is mounted at said camera module attachment portion of said bracket attached at
the in-cabin surface of the windshield, said stray light shield is disposed at said camera module and said lens views through
the windshield of the equipped vehicle via a pocket of said stray light shield.

US Pat. No. 9,457,717

PARKING ASSIST SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A parking assist system for a vehicle, the parking assist system comprising:
a camera mounted at the vehicle and operable to capture image data representative of an exterior scene in a field of view
of the camera;

a display in the vehicle operable to display video images of the exterior scene derived from captured image data;
a controller operable in a first mode and a second mode;
wherein the controller, when operating in the first mode, adds a first overlay to the displayed video images of the exterior
scene;

wherein the first mode comprises a parking space locator mode;
wherein the first overlay includes (i) a polygonal representation of a target parking position for the vehicle and (ii) a
linear overlay;

wherein the polygonal representation is offset a selected distance behind the vehicle and a selected distance laterally from
the vehicle;

wherein the controller is operable in the first mode while the vehicle is being driven by a driver of the vehicle;
wherein, with the first overlay added to displayed video images, the driver maneuvers the vehicle to position the polygonal
representation at a displayed target parking location;

wherein the linear overlay extends along an outboard side of the polygonal representation and forward of the polygonal representation
of a target parking position for the vehicle and rearward of the polygonal representation of a target parking position for
the vehicle to assist the driver in parking the vehicle at the target parking location and to assist the driver of the vehicle
in lining UP the vehicle to be parallel to the target parking location;

wherein, when the vehicle is in a reverse gear, the controller is operable in the second mode, and wherein, when operating
in the second mode, the controller adds a second overlay to the displayed image of the rearward scene;

wherein the second overlay includes (i) a representation of a projected rearward path of the vehicle that is based on a steering
angle of the vehicle and (ii) a representation of a target path for the vehicle; and

said second overlay guiding the driver when maneuvering the vehicle towards and into the target parking location.

US Pat. No. 10,072,453

VEHICLE DOOR CONTROL SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vehicle door control system, said vehicle door control system comprising:a camera disposed at a portion of a vehicle equipped with said vehicle door control system, said camera having a field of view that encompasses a region exterior of the equipped vehicle that is swept by a door of the equipped vehicle as the door is opened and closed via a powered door opening/closing system of the equipped vehicle;
an image processor operable to process image data captured by said camera to detect an object present in the region that is swept by the door when the door is opening and to determine if the door may collide with the detected object when the door is being opened;
wherein, during opening of the door and responsive to determination, via image processing by said image processor of image data captured by said camera, of a potential collision of the opening door with the detected object, said vehicle door control system positions the door at a partially open position whereby a gap having a predetermined gap dimension between the door and the detected object is established and maintained between the door and the detected object; and
wherein said vehicle door control system, at least via image processing by said image processor of image data captured by said camera, maintains the gap having the predetermined gap dimension between the door and the detected object when movement of the vehicle relative to the detected object occurs.

US Pat. No. 9,809,168

DRIVER ASSIST SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A driver assist system for a vehicle, said driver assist system comprising:
a forward-viewing color video camera disposed at a vehicle equipped with said driver assist system;
said forward-viewing color video camera having a field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle;
wherein said forward-viewing color video camera is disposed at a front portion of the equipped vehicle and has a field of
view at least forward of the equipped vehicle;

said forward-viewing color video camera comprising a lens and a two-dimensional array of photosensing elements arranged in
rows of photosensing elements and columns of photosensing elements;

wherein said forward-viewing color video camera is part of a multi-camera vision system of the equipped vehicle, said multi-camera
vision system comprising at least three other color video cameras;

wherein each of said three other color video cameras has a field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle;
wherein a first one of said three other color video cameras is mounted at a driver-side of the equipped vehicle and a second
one of said three other color video cameras is mounted at a passenger-side of the equipped vehicle and a third one of said
three other color video cameras comprises a rear backup camera mounted at a rear portion of the equipped vehicle;

wherein the first one of said three other color video cameras mounted at the driver-side has a field of view at the driver-side
of the equipped vehicle and the second one of said three other color video cameras mounted at the passenger-side has a field
of view at the passenger-side of the equipped vehicle;

wherein the field of view of the first one of said three other color video cameras that is mounted at the driver-side overlaps
the field of view of said rear backup camera, and wherein the field of view of the second one of said three other color video
cameras that is mounted at the passenger-side overlaps the field of view of said rear backup camera;

at least one non-visual sensor;
a video display screen viewable by a driver of the equipped vehicle when the driver is normally operating the equipped vehicle;
wherein said video display screen comprises a multi-pixel display screen;
wherein, during a parking maneuver of the equipped vehicle, images derived, at least in part, from image data captured by
at least some cameras of said multi-camera vision system of the equipped vehicle are displayed by said video display screen
to assist the driver in operating the equipped vehicle;

wherein at least one indication is provided to the driver of the equipped vehicle during the parking maneuver;
wherein at least one of (a) said at least one indication comprises an indication provided, at least in part, responsive to
detection by said non-visual sensor of at least one object external of the equipped vehicle and (b) said at least one indication
comprises an indication provided, at least in part, responsive to image processing by an image processor of image data captured
by at least one camera of said multi-camera vision system;

wherein a unitary image is synthesized from image data captured by said multi-camera vision system of the equipped vehicle;
wherein said synthesized image approximates a view as would be seen by a virtual camera at a single location exterior of the
equipped vehicle;

wherein said synthesized image is displayed by said video display screen that is viewable by the driver of the equipped vehicle
when normally operating the equipped vehicle;

wherein distortion of images derived, at least in part, from image data captured by at least some cameras of said multi-camera
vision system of the equipped vehicle, and displayed by said video display screen, is electronically corrected;

wherein the field of view of said rear backup camera encompasses a ground area to the rear of the equipped vehicle having
a width at least substantially an entire rear fender width of the equipped vehicle; and

wherein the field of view of said forward-viewing color video camera encompasses a ground area to the front of the equipped
vehicle having a width at least substantially an entire front fender width of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,609,289

VISION SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a forward viewing camera configured to be disposed at a windshield of a vehicle equipped with said vision system, wherein,
when disposed at the windshield of the equipped vehicle, said forward viewing camera has at least a forward field of view
through the windshield of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture image data;

said forward viewing camera comprising an imaging array sensor and a lens;
an image processor operable to process image data captured by said forward viewing camera;
wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward viewing
camera, lane markers of a road along which the equipped vehicle is traveling are detected;

wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward viewing
camera, other vehicles exterior the equipped vehicle are detected;

wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward viewing
camera, road curvature of the road along which the equipped vehicle is traveling is determined;

wherein the equipped vehicle includes a global positioning system, said global positioning system operable to determine a
current geographic location of the equipped vehicle;

wherein the equipped vehicle comprises a vehicle communication system operable for wireless communication with an external
control located remote from the equipped vehicle;

wherein data derived from image data captured by said forward viewing camera is wirelessly communicated by said vehicle communication
system to said external control located remote from the equipped vehicle;

wherein the current geographic location of the equipped vehicle is communicated by said vehicle communication system to said
external control located remote from the equipped vehicle;

wherein the current geographic location and the data received at said external control are processed at said external control
located remote from the equipped vehicle;

wherein information that is derived, at least in part, from processing at said external control is wirelessly communicated
from said external control located remote from the equipped vehicle to the equipped vehicle;

wherein said external control receives data from another vehicle;
wherein, if the equipped vehicle is approaching a curve in the road being traveled by the equipped vehicle and if the other
vehicle is present at the curve, said external control is operable to wirelessly alert the equipped vehicle of presence at
the curve of the other vehicle; and

wherein, if the other vehicle is approaching the curve in a direction that is opposite the direction of travel of the equipped
vehicle around the curve, said external control is operable to wirelessly alert the equipped vehicle of approach from the
opposite direction of the other vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,596,387

VEHICULAR CAMERA SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vehicular camera system, comprising:
an imager assembly including an imager disposed on an imager circuit board and a lens positioned to direct light to the imager;
a main circuit board operatively connected to the imager circuit board, the main circuit board including at least one processor
for processing images captured by the imager; the main circuit board having a first side and a second side an comprising circuitry
disposed at the first side and circuitry disposed at the second side;

wherein the main circuit board in includes an opening therethrough, and wherein, with the imager assembly disposed at the
main circuit board, at least a portion of the imager assembly extends at least partially through the opening of the main circuit
board;

wherein with the imager assembly disposed at the main circuit board, the imager and the lens are disposed at the first side
of the main circuit board; and

wherein a flexible connector is electrically connected to circuitry of the imager circuit board, and wherein the flexible
connector passes through the opening of the main circuit board to electrically connect to circuitry disposed at the second
side of the main circuit board.

US Pat. No. 9,508,014

VEHICULAR MULTI-CAMERA VISION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system of a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a plurality of cameras disposed at a vehicle and having respective fields of view exterior of the vehicle;
wherein said plurality of cameras comprises a forward viewing camera having at least a forward field of view forward of the
vehicle, a rearward viewing camera having at least a rearward field of view rearward of the vehicle, a driver-side sideward
viewing camera having at least a sideward field of view at the driver side of the vehicle and a passenger-side sideward viewing
camera having at least a sideward field of view at the passenger side of the vehicle;

an image processing system operable to process image data captured by said plurality of cameras;
wherein, responsive to processing of captured image data, said vision system is operable to synthesize a composite image derived
from image data captured by said plurality of cameras;

wherein one of said plurality of cameras functions as a master camera and other cameras of said plurality of cameras function
as slave cameras, and wherein said vision system, responsive to processing of image data captured by the master camera, determines
operating parameters for the master camera;

wherein the determined operating parameters for the master camera are used by the other cameras of said plurality of cameras;
wherein said cameras capture image data for a bird's-eye view display system of the vehicle;
wherein each of said cameras is connected via network connection to a vehicle network, and wherein the vehicle network is
selected from the group consisting of (i) a CAN bus, (ii) a LIN bus, (iii) an Ethernet bus, (iv) a wireless network and (v)
a UART connection;

wherein topology of said network connection comprises star topology or daisy chain topology;
wherein a network hub routes commands from the master camera to the slave cameras;
wherein said network hub is part of one of (i) a multi-camera electronic control unit, (ii) a vehicle electronic control unit
and (iii) the master camera; and

wherein, during a reversing maneuver of the vehicle, said vision system selects the rearward viewing camera as the master
camera, and wherein, during a forward driving maneuver of the vehicle, said vision system selects the forward viewing camera
as the master camera.

US Pat. No. 9,491,451

CALIBRATION SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR VEHICULAR SURROUND VISION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A camera calibration system for calibrating at least one camera of a vehicle, said camera calibration system comprising:
at least one reconfigurable calibration target established at a ground area at or proximate where a vehicle is positioned
for a camera calibrating procedure;

wherein said camera calibration system is operable, responsive to an input indicative of a type or size of the vehicle positioned
at the ground area, to electronically reconfigure said reconfigurable calibration target to adapt said reconfigurable calibration
target for that particular type or size of vehicle positioned thereat; and

wherein, with the vehicle positioned for the camera calibrating procedure and with said reconfigurable calibration target
adapted for that particular type or size of vehicle, at least one camera of the vehicle has a field of view that at least
partially encompasses said at least one adapted reconfigurable calibration target.

US Pat. No. 10,043,082

IMAGE PROCESSING METHOD FOR DETECTING OBJECTS USING RELATIVE MOTION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. An obstacle detection method, comprising:(a) disposing a camera at a vehicle, the camera having a field of view external of the vehicle;
(b) acquiring a series of image frames captured by the camera whilst the vehicle is in motion, the image frames defining an image plane having a vertical aspect and a horizontal aspect;
(c) detecting, via processing of captured image frames by a processor, a first object present in the series of image frames by edge detection;
(d) detecting, via processing of captured image frames by the processor, a second object present in the series of image frames by edge detection;
(e) for the first detected object,
(i) selecting, via a control that comprises the processor, and responsive to processing of captured image frames by the processor, first and second feature points from the first detected object that are spaced apart in a first image frame,
(ii) tracking, via processing of captured image frames by the processor, positions of the first and second feature points over at least a second image frame, and
(iii) determining, via processing of captured image frames by the processor, movement of the first and second feature points when projected to the image plane;
(f) for the second detected object,
(i) selecting, via the control, and responsive to processing of captured image frames by the processor, third and fourth feature points from the second detected object that are spaced apart in a first image frame,
(ii) tracking, via processing of captured image frames by the processor, positions of the third and fourth feature points over at least a second image frame, and
(iii) determining, via processing of captured image frames by the processor, movement of the third and fourth feature points when projected to the image plane;
(g) comparing, via the control, the movement of the first and second feature points when projected to the image plane to the movement of the third and fourth feature points when projected to the image plane;
(h) distinguishing, via the control, between the first detected object being a three dimensional object and the second detected object being a two dimensional object by determining, via the control, that the movement of the first feature point when projected to the image plane is dissimilar to that of the second feature point and by determining, via the control, that the movement of the third feature point when projected to the image plane is similar to that of the fourth feature point; and
(i) making, via the control, and responsive to processing of captured image frames by the processor, a trajectory estimation of the first detected object and, based on the trajectory estimation, determining, via the control, whether the first detected object is in a path of movement of the vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,809,171

VISION SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a first imager located at a front portion of a vehicle equipped with said vision system, said first imager having a field
of view in the direction of forward travel of the equipped vehicle, said first imager operable to capture first image data
exteriorly and forwardly of the equipped vehicle when the equipped vehicle normally travels forwardly;

a second imager located at the rear of the equipped vehicle, said second imager having a field of view rearward of the equipped
vehicle, said second imager operable to capture second image data exteriorly and rearwardly of the equipped vehicle;

a third imager located in a first exterior rearview mirror assembly of the equipped vehicle, said third imager having a field
of view at least partially sideward of the vehicle and operable to capture third image data exteriorly and sidewardly of the
equipped vehicle;

a fourth imager located in a second exterior rearview mirror assembly of the equipped vehicle, said third imager having a
field of view at least partially sideward of the vehicle and operable to capture fourth image data exteriorly and sidewardly
of the equipped vehicle;

a common image processor operable for processing the captured first, second, third and fourth image data, wherein said common
image processor utilizes object detection software during processing of the captured first, second, third and fourth image
data;

a video display screen in the equipped vehicle viewable by a driver of the equipped vehicle when operating the equipped vehicle;
wherein, responsive to the equipped vehicle being shifted into a reverse gear and while the driver of the equipped vehicle
is executing a reversing maneuver, (a) video images derived from image data captured by said second imager are displayed on
said video display screen and (b) responsive at least in part to processing of the captured first, second, third and fourth
image data by said common image processor, the driver of the equipped vehicle is alerted to the presence of an object exterior
the equipped vehicle; and

wherein, when the equipped vehicle travels forward, said common image processor processes first image data captured by said
first imager for a lane departure warning system of the equipped vehicle and for at least one of (i) a headlamp control system
of the equipped vehicle and (ii) a traffic sign recognition system of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,688,199

VEHICLE ALERT SYSTEM UTILIZING COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. An alert system for a vehicle for alerting an occupant of the vehicle that a pedestrian or bicyclist is approaching the
vehicle and may collide with a vehicle door if the door is opened, said alert system comprising:
a communication device carried by a pedestrian or bicyclist and operable to communicate information regarding location and
motion of said communication device;

a receiver at the vehicle that receives a communication from said communication device;
a processor that processes information communicated in the communication;
wherein said processor, responsive to processing communicated information, determines whether or not the location and motion
of said communication device relative to the vehicle is indicative of a hazardous condition;

wherein said alert system, responsive to said processor determining that there is a potential hazardous condition, generates
an alert to the occupant of the vehicle;

wherein said alert system is responsive to a door lock status of the vehicle door, and wherein said alert system, responsive
to the door lock status being indicative of the vehicle door being locked, does not generate an alert irrespective of determination
of a potential hazardous condition; and

a side sensing device disposed at a side of the vehicle and operable to capture data, wherein data captured by said side sensing
device is processed to determine a presence or approach of a pedestrian or bicyclist at the side of the vehicle and rearward
of the vehicle, and wherein data captured by said side sensing device is combined with information communicated in the communication
received from said communication device, and wherein the combined data and information are processed to provide enhanced confidence
of determination of a potential hazardous condition, and wherein said side sensing device comprises one of a side camera capturing
image data and a side radar sensor capturing radar data.

US Pat. No. 9,580,013

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM WITH ASYMMETRIC ANAMORPHIC LENS

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a rear camera disposed at a rear portion of a vehicle and having an exterior field of view rearward of the vehicle, wherein
said rear camera is operable to capture image data;

wherein said rear camera comprises a two dimensional imaging array of photosensing pixels;
wherein said rear camera comprises a lens system for imaging external sources of light at said imaging array;
wherein said lens system comprises at least one asymmetric anamorphic lens optic;
wherein said at least one asymmetric anamorphic lens optic comprises at least one truncated frustoconical lens optic;
wherein said truncated frustoconical lens optic comprises an upper region and a lower region, the upper region having a smaller
cross dimension than the lower region, and a longitudinal axis spanning the upper region and the lower region;

wherein said truncated frustoconical lens optic is truncated about the longitudinal axis creating a single flat facet spanning
the upper and lower regions of the truncated frustoconical lens optic;

wherein said longitudinal axis is vertically oriented with respect to a horizontal surface on which the vehicle is disposed;
and

an image processor operable to process image data captured by said rear camera, wherein said image processor is operable to
detect objects rearward of the vehicle during a reversing maneuver of the vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,555,736

VEHICLE HEADLAMP CONTROL USING SENSING AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A driver assistance system of a vehicle, said driver assistance system comprising:
a forward sensing sensor disposed at a vehicle equipped with said driver assistance system and having a field of sensing forward
of the equipped vehicle, said forward sensing sensor capturing data;

wherein said forward sensing sensor comprises one of (i) a forward viewing camera, (ii) an imaging thermal sensor and (iii)
a 3D point-cloud LIDAR sensor;

a processor operable to process data captured by said forward sensing sensor to determine the presence of another vehicle
ahead of the equipped vehicle and in the field of sensing of said forward sensing sensor;

a receiver disposed at the equipped vehicle and operable to receive a wireless communication of information pertaining to
other traffic participants in the vicinity of the equipped vehicle;

a control responsive to processing of captured data and responsive to received information;
wherein said control, responsive to determination via processing by said processor of captured data that another vehicle is
present ahead of the equipped vehicle, is operable to adjust a headlamp beam setting of the equipped vehicle; and

wherein said control, responsive to determination via received information that another traffic participant is present in
the vicinity of the equipped vehicle, is operable to adjust the headlamp beam setting of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 10,073,261

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM CAMERA WITH ENHANCED WATER REMOVAL

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system of a vehicle, said vision system comprising:a camera configured to be disposed at a vehicle so as to have a field of view exterior of the vehicle;
wherein said camera comprises an imager and a lens;
wherein said imager comprises a pixelated imaging array having a plurality of photosensing elements;
wherein, with said camera disposed at the vehicle, said lens has an outer surface that is exposed to an environment exterior of the vehicle;
wherein said outer surface of said lens comprises a central portion and a lower portion, and wherein said lower portion is below said central portion when said camera is disposed at the vehicle;
a water removal element disposed at said lower portion of said outer surface of said lens;
wherein said water removal element comprises structure configured to pierce a water droplet forming at said lower portion of said outer surface of said lens; and
wherein, with said camera disposed at the vehicle, said structure of said water removal element is disposed at said lower portion of said outer surface of said lens and pierces a water droplet that collects at said lower portion of said outer surface of said lens to cause the water droplet to drain from said outer surface of said lens downward around said structure.

US Pat. No. 9,688,200

CALIBRATION SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR MULTI-CAMERA VISION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A calibration system for a multi-camera vision system of a vehicle, said calibration system comprising:
a first camera disposed at a vehicle and having a first field of view rearward of the vehicle;
a second camera disposed at the vehicle and having a second field of view generally sideward of the vehicle at a driver side
of the vehicle;

a third camera disposed at the vehicle and having a third field of view generally sideward of the vehicle at a passenger side
of the vehicle;

first, second and third calibration targets disposed at an area at which the vehicle is positioned for a calibrating procedure;
wherein said first calibration target is encompassed by said first field of view of said first camera;
wherein said second calibration target is encompassed by said second field of view of said second camera;
wherein said third calibration target is encompassed by said third field of view of said third camera;
wherein each of said calibration targets comprises an irregular patterned array of markings, and wherein the pattern of said
irregular patterned array of markings is irregular at each of said calibration targets;

a control comprising an image processor operable to process image data captured by said first, second and third cameras;
wherein said control stores in memory the respective irregular patterns of said markings of said first, second and third calibration
targets;

wherein said control is operable to process image data captured by said cameras that are being calibrated, and wherein, responsive
to processing of image data captured by said cameras, said control determines a particular local irregular pattern of markings
of the respective calibration target viewed by a respective one of said cameras;

wherein said control determines, via comparing determined particular local irregular patterns of markings of the respective
calibration target to the respective stored in memory irregular patterns of markings of said first, second and third calibration
targets, the position of the respective calibration target relative to the respective camera; and

wherein, responsive to processing of captured image data, said calibration system is operable to calibrate said multi-camera
vision system.

US Pat. No. 9,497,368

METHOD OF ASSEMBLING CAMERA FOR VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A method of assembling a vehicular camera suitable for vehicular use, said method comprising:
providing a lens comprising a plurality of optical elements, wherein said lens is accommodated in a lens barrel;
providing a camera front housing having a front portion and a rear portion;
providing a printed circuit board, wherein an imager is disposed at said printed circuit board;
providing an adhesive in its uncured state;
dispensing the uncured adhesive so as to establish a layer of uncured adhesive having a thickness less than 0.75 mm;
wherein the layer of uncured adhesive is one of (i) between said lens barrel and said front portion of said camera front housing
and (ii) between said printed circuit board and said rear portion of said camera front housing;

bringing said lens into focus with said imager and optically center-aligning said lens with said imager;
with said lens in focus with said imager and optically center-aligned therewith, initially curing the adhesive to an initially-cured
state in an initial radiation curing process that comprises exposure to UV light;

wherein the initially-cured adhesive, as cured via the initial radiation curing process, holds said lens in focus with said
imager and optically center-aligned therewith;

after the initial radiation curing process, further curing the initially-cured adhesive to a further-cured state in a secondary
curing process;

wherein, when further cured via the secondary curing process, the further-cured adhesive maintains focus and optical center-alignment
of said lens with said imager for use of said camera in a vehicle; and

wherein the adhesive, in its further-cured state, limits movement out of focus and optical center-alignment of said lens relative
to said imager to less than +/?18 microns after (i) exposure to 90 degrees C. for 400 hours and (ii) exposure to 85 degrees
C. at 90% relative humidity for 240 hours.

US Pat. No. 9,469,250

VISION DISPLAY SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision display system for a vehicle, said vision display system comprising:
a plurality of cameras disposed at a vehicle equipped with said vision display system;
said plurality of cameras each having respective fields of view exterior of the equipped vehicle;
said plurality of cameras comprising a rear camera disposed at a rear portion of the equipped vehicle, a front camera disposed
at a front portion of the equipped vehicle, a driver side camera disposed at a driver side portion of the equipped vehicle
and a passenger side camera disposed at a passenger side portion of the equipped vehicle;

said rear camera comprising a backup camera;
a display system of the equipped vehicle comprising a display screen disposed in the interior cabin of the equipped vehicle
and viewable by a driver of the equipped vehicle, said display screen having a diagonal dimension greater than 3.5 inches;

wherein said display screen is operable to display a surround view composite image derived from image data captured by said
front, rear, driver side and passenger side cameras of the equipped vehicle;

a tow check function comprising a video zoom feature for use when reversing the equipped vehicle towards a trailer so the
driver of the equipped vehicle can more readily align a trailer hitch of the equipped vehicle with a tongue of the trailer
the driver of the equipped vehicle desires to hitch the equipped vehicle to;

wherein the trailer hitch of the equipped vehicle comprises a ball and wherein, during a trailer hitch maneuver of the equipped
vehicle, the video zoom feature zooms to show on said display screen the region immediately behind the equipped vehicle where
the ball of the trailer hitch of the equipped vehicle is located so that the driver can view the ball in video images shown
on said display screen and also see the tongue of the trailer as the equipped vehicle approaches the trailer;

wherein said tow check function is actuatable by the driver of the equipped vehicle prior to or during a reversing maneuver;
wherein actuation of said tow check function zooms what is shown on said display screen from a broad view of where the ball
of the trailer hitch of the equipped vehicle is located to a narrower view of where the ball of the trailer hitch of the equipped
vehicle is located;

wherein said vision display system allows for first shifting of a vehicle transmission into reverse gear to commence a reversing
maneuver and then prohibiting switching to a tow check or zoomed view for a threshold or minimum period of time;

wherein, after said threshold or minimum period of time has elapsed after said first shifting of the vehicle transmission
into reverse gear to commence that reversing maneuver, the tow check or zoomed view remains available during that reversing
maneuver even if the equipped vehicle is again shifted back into reverse gear in order to allow for the driver to make multiple
attempts to align the trailer hitch of the equipped vehicle with the tongue of the trailer via shifting of the vehicle transmission
in and out of reverse gear multiple times during that reversing maneuver; and

wherein said threshold or minimum period of time is at least about three seconds.

US Pat. No. 9,446,713

TRAILER ANGLE DETECTION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a rearward facing camera disposed at a rearward portion of a vehicle equipped with said vision system and having at least
a rearward field of view;

wherein said rearward facing camera captures image data representative of a scene at least rearward of the equipped vehicle;
a driver side camera disposed at a driver side portion of the equipped vehicle and having at least a sideward and rearward
field of view;

wherein said driver side camera captures image data representative of a scene at least sideward and rearward of the equipped
vehicle;

a passenger side camera disposed at a passenger side portion of the equipped vehicle and having at least a sideward and rearward
field of view;

wherein said passenger camera captures image data representative of a scene at least sideward and rearward of the equipped
vehicle;

wherein said rearward facing camera, said driver side camera and said passenger side camera are part of a surround view system,
said surround view system comprising a processor that processes image data captured by said rearward facing camera, said driver
side camera and said passenger side camera to generate bird's eye view video images for display at a video display of the
equipped vehicle;

wherein, with a trailer attached to the equipped vehicle and rearward of the equipped vehicle, said processor processes captured
image data captured as the equipped vehicle is driven forwardly or rearwardly and, responsive at least in part to said processing,
said processor determines a plurality of trailer parameters and vehicle-trailer interface parameters; and

wherein the displayed bird's eye view video images include a dynamic vehicle icon and trailer icon overlaying a portion of
the displayed video images, and wherein the displayed dynamic vehicle icon and trailer icon represent a top down representation
of the equipped vehicle and the towed trailer, and wherein the displayed trailer icon is at the rear of the displayed vehicle
icon and at a trailer angle relative to a longitudinal axis of the displayed vehicle icon; and

wherein the trailer angle of the displayed trailer icon relative to the displayed vehicle icon is at least in part derived
from at least one of (i) processing of image data captured by said cameras, (ii) a steering angle of the equipped vehicle
and (iii) the determined trailer parameters and vehicle-trailer interface parameters.

US Pat. No. 9,451,138

CAMERA FOR VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vehicular camera suitable for use on a vehicle, said vehicular camera comprising:
a lens comprising a plurality of optical elements;
wherein said lens is disposed at a lens holder;
a printed circuit board;
an imager disposed at said printed circuit board;
wherein one of (i) said printed circuit board is held by a holding element and said lens holder is attached at said holding
element by a cured adhesive and (ii) said lens holder is attached at said printed circuit board by a cured adhesive;

wherein the adhesive is initially curable in an initial radiation curing process that comprises exposure to UV light, and
wherein initially-cured adhesive is further curable to a further cured strength in a secondary thermal curing process;

wherein the adhesive is initially cured via the initial radiation curing process after said lens is brought into focus with
said imager and is optically center-aligned therewith;

wherein the initially-cured adhesive, as cured via the initial radiation curing process, holds said lens optically center-aligned
and in focus with said imager;

wherein, after the initial radiation curing process, said lens holder, adhesively attached to one of said printed circuit
board and said holding element, is moved to the secondary thermal curing process;

wherein, when further cured via the secondary thermal curing process, the further-cured adhesive maintains focus and optical
center-alignment of said lens with said imager for use of said camera in a vehicle; and

wherein the adhesive comprises a UV curable and heat curable one-part filled adhesive having a viscosity at 23 degrees C.
from about 5,000 mPa to about 150,000 mPa and comprising an epoxy resin.

US Pat. No. 10,089,537

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM WITH FRONT AND REAR CAMERA INTEGRATION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:a forward facing camera module disposed at a vehicle equipped with said vision system, said forward facing camera module comprising a forward facing camera having a forward field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle, said forward facing camera capturing image data, wherein said forward facing camera module comprises an image processor, a decoder and an encoder;
a rearward facing camera disposed at the equipped vehicle and having a rearward field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle, said rearward facing camera capturing video images:
a display operable to display images for viewing by a driver of the equipped vehicle:
wherein video images captured by said rearward facing camera is are fed to said decoder of said forward facing camera module and an output of said decoder is fed to said image processor;
wherein said image processor of said forward facing camera module is operable to process image data captured by said forward facing camera to at least detect objects present in the forward field of view of said forward facing camera;
wherein said image processor of said forward facing camera module is operable to process the output of said decoder to at least detect objects present in the rearward field of view of said rearward facing camera; and
wherein an output of said image processor is fed to said encoder of said forward facing camera module and wherein an output of said encoder is fed to said display; and
wherein, responsive to said output of said encoder, said display is operable to display video images representative of video images captured by said rearward facing camera for viewing by the driver of the equipped vehicle during a reversing maneuver of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,912,841

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM UTILIZING CAMERA SYNCHRONIZATION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vehicular vision system, said vehicular vision system comprising:
a plurality of cameras disposed at a vehicle equipped with said vision system;
wherein said plurality of cameras comprises at least a first camera, a second camera, a third camera and a fourth camera;
each of said first camera, said second camera, said third camera and said fourth camera having a respective field of view
exterior of the equipped vehicle;

each of said first camera, said second camera, said third camera and said fourth camera being operable to capture frames of
image data;

an electronics control unit (ECU);
wherein image data captured by said first camera is provided to the ECU via a first ETHERNET link from said first camera to
the ECU;

wherein image data captured by said second camera is provided to the ECU via a second ETHERNET link from said second camera
to the ECU;

wherein image data captured by said third camera is provided to the ECU via a third ETHERNET link from said third camera to
the ECU;

wherein image data captured by said fourth camera is provided to the ECU via a fourth ETHERNET link from said fourth camera
to the ECU;

wherein control signals controlling operation of said first camera are provided from the ECU to said first camera via said
first ETHERNET link;

wherein control signals controlling operation of said second camera are provided from the ECU to said second camera via said
second ETHERNET link;

wherein control signals controlling operation of said third camera are provided from the ECU to said third camera via said
third ETHERNET link;

wherein control signals controlling operation of said fourth camera are provided from the ECU to said fourth camera via said
second fourth ETHERNET link;

wherein said first camera receives from the ECU via said first ETHERNET link a first camera control signal that regulates
timing of said first camera to be synchronous with reference timing of the ECU;

wherein regulation of timing of said first camera comprises starting said first camera synchronous to the ECU reference timing
and holding said first camera synchronous to the ECU reference timing;

wherein said second camera receives from the ECU via said second ETHERNET link a second camera control signal that regulates
timing of said second camera to be synchronous with reference timing of the ECU;

wherein regulation of timing of said second camera comprises starting said second camera synchronous to the ECU reference
timing and holding said second camera synchronous to the ECU reference timing;

wherein said third camera receives from the ECU via said third ETHERNET link a third camera control signal that regulates
timing of said third camera to be synchronous with reference timing of the ECU;

wherein regulation of timing of said third camera comprises starting said third camera synchronous to the ECU reference timing
and holding said third camera synchronous to the ECU reference timing;

wherein said fourth camera receives from the ECU via said fourth ETHERNET link a fourth camera control signal that regulates
timing of said fourth camera to be synchronous with reference timing of the ECU; and

wherein regulation of timing of said fourth camera comprises starting said fourth camera synchronous to the ECU reference
timing and holding said fourth camera synchronous to the ECU reference timing.

US Pat. No. 9,630,570

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM WITH WINDSHIELD MOUNTED CAMERA

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a camera module disposed at a windshield of a vehicle;
wherein said camera module comprises a camera and a circuit board;
wherein, with said camera module disposed at the windshield, said camera is disposed so as to have a field of view forward
of the vehicle and through the windshield of the vehicle;

wherein said camera comprises an imager and a lens;
wherein said camera is electrically connected to circuitry established at said circuit board;
wherein said camera is electrically connected to said circuitry via a flexible electrical connector;
wherein, with said camera module disposed at the windshield, said circuit board is at a mounting angle relative to the windshield;
wherein said flexible electrical connector is flexible so as to allow an orientation of said camera to be adjusted relative
to said circuit board; and

wherein, with said camera module disposed at the windshield, said circuit board is angled relative to a principal axis of
the field of view of said camera.

US Pat. No. 9,604,581

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM WITH COLOR CORRECTION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a color camera disposed at a vehicle and having a field of view exterior of the vehicle, wherein said color camera comprises
an imaging array having a plurality of photosensing pixels and at least one color filter disposed in front of at least some
of said photosensing pixels;

an image processor operable to process image data captured by said color camera, wherein processing of captured image data
by said image processor comprises utilization of a color correction algorithm that includes a color correction matrix;

wherein said color correction algorithm comprises a color correction matrix algorithm and a histogram algorithm to determine
a color correction for the captured image data; and

wherein an output of said color correction matrix algorithm is used as an input to said histogram algorithm and an output
of said histogram algorithm is used as an input to said color correction matrix algorithm.

US Pat. No. 9,555,803

DRIVER ASSISTANCE SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A driver assistance system for a vehicle, said driver assistance system comprising:
a forward-viewing camera comprising an imaging sensor and a lens;
said imaging sensor comprising a plurality of photo-sensing pixels arranged in a matrix of multiple horizontal rows of photo-sensing
pixels and multiple vertical columns of photo-sensing pixels;

wherein said forward-viewing camera is disposed in a windshield electronics module attached at a windshield of a vehicle equipped
with said driver assistance system, said forward-viewing camera, when disposed in said windshield electronics module attached
at the windshield, viewing through the windshield exteriorly of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said imaging sensor is operable to capture image data representative of a scene exterior of the equipped vehicle and
in the field of view of said forward-viewing camera;

a control comprising a processor;
wherein said processor, responsive to processing of captured image data, detects lane markers within the exterior field of
view of said forward-viewing camera on a road being traveled by the equipped vehicle;

wherein said processor, based at least in part on detection of lane markers via processing of captured image data, determines
curvature of the road being traveled by the equipped vehicle;

wherein said processor processes captured image data via an edge detection algorithm to detect edges of vehicles present exteriorly
of the equipped vehicle and within the exterior field of view of said forward-viewing camera;

wherein said processor, based on processing of captured image data, detects another vehicle that is present exterior of the
equipped vehicle and determines that the detected other vehicle is in the same traffic lane as the equipped vehicle or is
in an adjacent traffic lane;

wherein said processor processes captured image data to determine distance from the equipped vehicle to the detected other
vehicle that is present exterior of the equipped vehicle and within the exterior field of view of said forward-viewing camera;
and

wherein said processor processes captured image data for vehicle speed control.

US Pat. No. 9,558,409

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM WITH TRAILER ANGLE DETECTION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

13. A vehicular vision system, said vehicular vision system comprising:
a camera disposed at a vehicle and having an exterior field of view rearward of the vehicle, wherein said camera is operable
to capture image data;

an image processor operable to process captured image data;
wherein, when the vehicle is towing a trailer, and based at least in part on image processing of image data captured by said
camera during maneuvering of the vehicle and the trailer, said image processor (i) estimates a distance between a hitching
point of the trailer and an axle of the trailer, and (ii) estimates a length of the trailer that includes the estimated distance
between the hitching point of the trailer and the axle of the trailer and an estimated distance between the axle of the trailer
and a rear end portion of the trailer;

wherein image data captured by said camera during maneuvering of the vehicle and the trailer includes image data captured
by said camera when the vehicle is maneuvered with the trailer at an angle relative to the vehicle;

wherein said vision system, responsive at least in part to image processing of captured image data, is operable to determine
a trailer angle of the trailer that is towed by the vehicle;

wherein said vision system is operable to determine a path of the trailer responsive to a steering angle of the vehicle and
the determined trailer angle of the trailer and the estimated length of the trailer, and wherein said vision system is operable
to display information for viewing by a driver of the equipped vehicle to assist the driver in driving the vehicle with the
trailer;

wherein said vision system is operable to display images of a road in the direction of travel of the vehicle and the trailer
and wherein said vision system is operable to display an overlay to indicate to the driver of the vehicle a steering path
for the vehicle;

wherein said overlay comprises markers that indicate a determined path of travel of the front wheels of the vehicle and a
path of travel that the wheels of the trailer will follow if the driver of the vehicle steers the front wheels of the vehicle
along the determined path of travel of the front wheels; and

wherein at least one of (i) said vision system displays images of a road in the forward direction of travel of the vehicle
and the trailer and wherein said overlay indicates a steering path for the vehicle that tows the trailer around an obstacle
and (ii) said vision system displays images of a road in the rearward direction of travel of the vehicle and the trailer and
wherein said overlay indicates a steering path for the vehicle to drive the trailer into a selected location.

US Pat. No. 9,509,957

VEHICLE IMAGING SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vehicle vision system comprising:
an image sensor and image processor, wherein said image sensor is disposed at a vehicle equipped with said vehicle vision
system, said image sensor having a field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle for capturing image data of a scene forward
of the equipped vehicle, said field of view encompassing at least a portion of a road surface ahead of and in the direction
of travel of the equipped vehicle, said image processor processing captured image data;

wherein, responsive to image processing of captured image data by said image processor, said vehicle vision system detects
the presence of an animal on the road surface within said field of view;

wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of captured image data, said vehicle vision system
determines whether the detected animal present on the road surface within said field of view is a live animal or a dead animal;

wherein said vehicle vision system reacts differently depending on whether the detected animal present on the road surface
within said field of view is determined to be a live animal or a dead animal;

wherein, at least in part responsive to determination that the detected animal present on the road surface is a dead animal,
said vehicle vision system determines a location of the dead animal relative to a path of the equipped vehicle;

wherein, at least in part responsive to determination that the detected animal present on the road surface is a dead animal
on the road surface within said field of view and that the dead animal is in the path of the equipped vehicle, said vehicle
vision system at least one of (a) generates an alert to alert a driver of the equipped vehicle of the presence of the dead
animal and (b) controls the equipped vehicle to avoid hitting the dead animal with the equipped vehicle; and

wherein, at least in part responsive to determination that the detected animal present on the road surface is a live animal,
said vehicle vision system controls the equipped vehicle to avoid hitting the determined live animal with the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,487,141

VEHICULAR VISION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vehicular vision system, said vehicular vision system comprising:
a plurality of cameras mounted at a vehicle equipped with said vehicular vision system;
each camera of said plurality of cameras including a respective image sensor;
each camera of said plurality of cameras having a respective field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle;
a control comprising a microcontroller;
a video output configured for transmitting a stream of video captured by the image sensor of the camera of said plurality
of cameras;

a serial data interface permitting said microcontroller to communicate with at least one electronic device of the equipped
vehicle;

a switch openable by said microcontroller to deactivate said video output and closable by said microcontroller to activate
said video output;

wherein said microcontroller complies with messages received via a serial data bus;
wherein said control sends instructions to the camera of said plurality of cameras of the equipped vehicle via said serial
data bus; and

wherein said control receives messages from the electronic device of the equipped vehicle via said serial data bus.

US Pat. No. 9,476,398

CONTROL DEVICE FOR A VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A control device suitable for use in a vehicle, said control device comprising:
a circuit board having a circuit element electrically connected thereat;
a spring element engaged with said circuit element and biased to exert a force at said circuit element in a direction generally
parallel to a surface of said circuit board;

wherein said circuit element is electrically connected at said circuit board via a solder joint; and
wherein, when a temperature at said solder joint exceeds a threshold temperature, said spring element moves said circuit element
along the surface of said circuit board to break the electrical connection at said solder joint;

wherein said spring element is biased during assembly of said control device; and
wherein said spring element includes an engaging tab that engages said circuit element and at least one biasing tab that engages
a portion of a housing of said control device during assembly of said control device, and wherein, when said at least one
biasing tab engages the portion of said housing during assembly of said control device, said spring element flexes so that
said engaging tab exerts a force at said circuit element.

US Pat. No. 9,440,586

MULTI-CAMERA VISION SYSTEM FOR A VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A multi-camera vision system for a vehicle, said multi-camera vision system comprising:
a rear-mounted video camera at a rear portion of a vehicle equipped with said multi-camera vision system;
said rear-mounted video camera having at least a rearward field of view external of the equipped vehicle;
said rear-mounted video camera operable to capture video image data at least rearward of the equipped vehicle during a maneuver
of the equipped vehicle;

a front-mounted video camera at a front portion of the equipped vehicle;
said front-mounted video camera having at least a forward field of view external of the equipped vehicle;
said front-mounted video camera operable to capture video image data at least forward of the equipped vehicle during the maneuver
of the equipped vehicle;

a first side-mounted video camera at a driver-side side portion of the equipped vehicle;
said first side-mounted video camera having at least a sideward field of view external of the equipped vehicle;
said first side-mounted video camera operable to capture video image data at least sideward of the equipped vehicle during
the maneuver of the equipped vehicle;

a second side-mounted video camera at a passenger-side side portion of the equipped vehicle;
said second side-mounted video camera having at least a sideward field of view external of the equipped vehicle;
said second side-mounted video camera operable to capture video image data at least sideward of the equipped vehicle during
the maneuver of the equipped vehicle;

a display device comprising a video screen operable to display video images for viewing by a driver of the equipped vehicle
who is operating the equipped vehicle;

a central data processor disposed in the equipped vehicle;
wherein captured image data is provided to said central data processor;
wherein image data captured by said front-mounted video camera, said first side-mounted video camera, said second side-mounted
video camera and said rear-mounted video camera is processed at said central data processor to generate video images for display
on said video screen that inform the driver of the environment in which the equipped vehicle is being operated;

wherein image data captured by said front-mounted video camera, said first side-mounted video camera, said second side-mounted
video camera and said rear-mounted video camera is processed at said central data processor in order to detect objects that
are within the combined field of view of said front-mounted video camera, said first side-mounted video camera, said second
side-mounted video camera and said rear-mounted video camera;

wherein detection of objects via processing at said central data processor of captured image data comprises use of an edge
detection algorithm;

wherein the equipped vehicle is further equipped with at least one non-visual sensor selected from the group consisting of
(i) a radar sensor and (ii) an ultrasonic sensor;

wherein said at least one non-visual sensor captures sensor data in a region external of the equipped vehicle;
wherein captured sensor data is provided to said central data processor;
wherein an alert to the driver of the equipped vehicle is generated when, via processing at said central data processor of
at least one of received image data and received sensor data, a potential hazard is determined to exist; and

wherein said rear-mounted video camera has a field of view that encompasses at least a portion of a vehicle bumper of the
equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,881,220

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM UTILIZING COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system of a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a camera disposed at a vehicle and having a field of view forward of the vehicle;
a control comprising an image processor;
wherein said image processor is operable to process image data captured by said camera;
wherein said control is operable to receive wireless communication that is associated with a traffic light ahead of the vehicle,
the wireless communication comprising a communicated status of the traffic light ahead of the vehicle;

wherein said image processor, responsive to processing of captured image data, is operable to determine an imaged status of
the traffic light ahead of the vehicle and in the field of view of said camera;

wherein said control compares the imaged status with the communicated status and, when the communicated status corresponds
to the imaged status, determines the status of the traffic light ahead of the vehicle;

wherein, responsive to a determination that a driver of the vehicle is not properly responding to the determined traffic light
status, said system is operable to at least one of (i) generate an alert to the driver of the vehicle and (ii) apply the brakes
of the vehicle; and

wherein, when the communicated status does not correspond to the imaged status, said control generates an alert to the driver
of the vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,621,769

CAMERA MODULE FOR VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A camera module for a vision system of a vehicle, said camera module comprising:
a housing and a lens;
at least one circuit board having circuitry disposed in said housing;
an imaging array sensor disposed at said at least one circuit board; an electrically conductive connector making electrical
connection to circuitry at said at least one circuit board and configured to electrically connect to a wire harness of a vehicle
when said camera module is disposed at the vehicle;

an elongated thermally conductive element separate from said electrically conductive connector and having a first portion
in thermal conductive contact with at least one heat generating component of said at least one circuit board and a second
portion extending from said first portion towards and through said housing, wherein said second portion of said thermally
conductive element protrudes from said housing exterior of said camera module; and

a heat sink disposed exterior of said housing, wherein said second portion of said thermally conductive element is in thermally
conductive contact with said heat sink so as to transfer heat from said at least one heat generating component of said at
least one circuit board to said heat sink to reduce heat within said camera module;

wherein said first portion of said thermally conductive element is arranged generally parallel to said at least one circuit
board to provide a generally planar contacting surface of said first portion at said at least one heat generating component
of said at least one circuit board, and wherein said second portion of said thermally conductive element extends from said
first portion in a direction generally normal to said contacting surface.

US Pat. No. 10,099,610

DRIVER ASSISTANCE SYSTEM FOR A VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A driver assistance system for a vehicle, said driver assistance system comprising:a vision system comprising a first camera disposed at a vehicle equipped with said driver assistance system, said first camera having a field of view forward of the equipped vehicle that encompasses a road being traveled along by the equipped vehicle;
wherein the road has at least three lanes comprising (i) a first lane along which the vehicle is traveling, (ii) a second lane immediately adjacent the first lane, and (iii) a third lane immediately adjacent the second lane at the opposite side of the second lane from the first lane;
a control disposed at or in the equipped vehicle and comprising a data processor;
wherein said data processor comprises an image processor;
wherein image data captured by said first camera is provided to said control and is processed by said image processor;
wherein said data processor processes data at a processing speed of at least 30 MIPS;
wherein, responsive to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said first camera, lane markers on the road being traveled along by the equipped vehicle are detected;
wherein, responsive to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said first camera, said control determines the first, second and third lanes of the road being traveled by the equipped vehicle;
a sensing system operable to detect other vehicles present exterior the equipped vehicle;
wherein said sensing system comprises a second camera disposed at the equipped vehicle and having a field of view at least rearward and sideward of the equipped vehicle as the equipped vehicle travels along the road;
wherein said sensing system further comprises a radar sensor disposed at the equipped vehicle and having a field of sensing at least rearward and sideward of the equipped vehicle as the equipped vehicle travels along the road;
wherein image data captured by said second camera is provided to said control;
wherein radar data generated by said radar sensor is provided to said control;
wherein said control receives vehicle data relating to the equipped vehicle via a vehicle bus of the equipped vehicle;
wherein, responsive at least in part to processing at said data processor of radar data generated by said radar sensor and of image data captured by said second camera, said control detects another vehicle present on the road being traveled along by the equipped vehicle and approaching the equipped vehicle from its rear;
wherein, with the equipped vehicle traveling along the first lane, and responsive at least in part to processing at said data processor of radar data generated by said radar sensor and of image data captured by said second camera, said control determines that the other vehicle is travelling in a next but one lane to the lane the second lane or in the third lane of the road along which the equipped vehicle is travelling;
wherein, responsive to determination that the other vehicle is approaching the equipped vehicle and is traveling in the second lane, and responsive to said control detecting a lane change maneuver of the equipped vehicle toward the second lane, said control generates an alert that a lane change by the equipped vehicle from the first lane to the second lane is not safe; and
wherein, responsive to determination that the other vehicle is approaching the equipped vehicle and is traveling in the third lane, and responsive to said control detecting a lane change maneuver of the equipped vehicle toward the second lane, said control determines that a lane change from the first lane to the second lane can proceed without hazard of impact with the other vehicle detected travelling in the third lane.

US Pat. No. 10,089,540

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM WITH DIRT DETECTION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:a camera disposed at a vehicle equipped with said vision system, said camera comprising an image sensor and a lens, wherein, when said camera is disposed at the equipped vehicle, said lens is exposed to the environment exterior the equipped vehicle;
wherein said camera has an exterior field of view exterior the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture image data representative of a scene occurring in the field of view of said camera;
an image processor operable to process multiple frames of image data captured by said camera while the vehicle is moving;
wherein said image processor processes captured image data while the vehicle is moving to detect a blob in a first frame of captured image data;
wherein, responsive to detecting, via processing the first frame of captured image data, the blob in the first frame of captured image data, said vision system determines at a first confidence level that the blob detected in the first frame of captured image data is indicative of a contaminant;
wherein, responsive to said image processor determining, with the first confidence level being at least 80%, that the blob detected in the first frame of captured image data is indicative of a contaminant, said image processor adjusts processing when processing subsequent frames of captured image data;
wherein adjustment of processing when processing the subsequent frames of captured image data comprises detecting, in a second frame of captured image data, image data associated with the blob detected in the first frame of captured image data; and
wherein, responsive to said image processor determining, via processing of the second frame of captured image data, at a second confidence level of at least 80%, that the blob detected in the second frame of captured image data is indicative of a contaminant, said image processor determines that the blob detected in the second frame of captured image data is representative of a contaminant at said lens of said camera.

US Pat. No. 10,089,541

VEHICULAR CONTROL SYSTEM WITH TRAILERING ASSIST FUNCTION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vehicular control system, said vehicular control system comprising:a camera disposed at a vehicle and having an exterior field of view at least rearward of the vehicle;
wherein said camera is operable to capture image data;
wherein a trailer is attached to the vehicle;
an image processor operable to process captured image data;
wherein image data captured by said camera during maneuvering of the vehicle and the trailer includes image data captured by said camera when the vehicle is maneuvered with the trailer at an angle relative to the vehicle;
wherein said vehicular control system, responsive at least in part to image processing by said image processor of image data captured by said camera, determines a trailer angle of the trailer;
wherein said vehicular control system is operable to determine a path of the trailer responsive at least to a steering angle of the vehicle and the determined trailer angle of the trailer relative to the vehicle;
wherein said vehicular control system determines an object present exterior of the vehicle which ought not to be impacted during maneuvering of the vehicle and the trailer;
wherein said vehicular control system determines drivable surfaces and prohibited spaces and distinguishes drivable surfaces from prohibited spaces;
wherein said vehicular control system, responsive to determination of objects present exterior of the vehicle which ought not to be impacted during maneuvering of the vehicle and trailer and distinguishing drivable surfaces from prohibited spaces, constructs a three dimensional model of the region encompassed by the field of view of said camera; and
wherein, in accordance with the constructed three dimensional model, and based at least in part on image processing by said image processor of image data captured by said camera during maneuvering of the vehicle and the trailer, said vehicular control system plans a driving path for the vehicle and trailer that avoids detected objects and that avoids determined prohibited spaces so that wheels of the vehicle and trailer do not run over or contact detected objects and do not violate determined prohibited spaces during maneuvering of the vehicle and trailer.

US Pat. No. 10,046,702

CONTROL SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vehicular control system suitable for use in a vehicle, said vehicular control system comprising:a data processor module disposed at a vehicle equipped with said vehicular control system;
said data processor module receiving and processing image data provided by a plurality of video sensors disposed at the equipped vehicle;
said data processor module receiving and processing sensor data provided by a plurality of non-video sensors disposed at the equipped vehicle;
said plurality of non-video sensors comprising a radar sensor;
said plurality of video sensors comprising at least five vehicular cameras;
said at least five vehicular cameras comprising a first vehicular camera disposed at a driver side of the equipped vehicle;
said at least five vehicular cameras comprising a second vehicular camera disposed at a passenger side of the equipped vehicle;
said at least five vehicular cameras comprising a third vehicular camera disposed at a rear portion of the equipped vehicle;
said at least five vehicular cameras comprising a fourth vehicular camera disposed at a front portion of the equipped vehicle;
said at least five vehicular cameras comprising a fifth vehicular camera disposed at an in-cabin side of a windshield of the equipped vehicle and viewing forwardly through the windshield of the equipped vehicle;
wherein said first vehicular camera has a first field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture first image data;
wherein said second vehicular camera has a second field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture second image data;
wherein said third vehicular camera has a third field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture third image data;
wherein said fourth vehicular camera has a fourth field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture fourth image data;
wherein said fifth vehicular camera has a fifth field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture fifth image data;
wherein said data processor module receives first image data captured by said first vehicular camera at a first interface;
wherein said data processor module receives second image data captured by said second vehicular camera at a second interface;
wherein said data processor module receives third image data captured by said third vehicular camera at a third interface;
wherein said data processor module receives fourth image data captured by said fourth vehicular camera at a fourth interface;
wherein said data processor module receives fifth image data captured by said fifth vehicular camera at a fifth interface;
wherein said data processor module receives radar data captured by said radar sensor of said plurality of non-video sensors;
wherein said data processor module comprises a radar sensor interface configured for receiving radar data captured by said radar sensor of said plurality of non-video sensors;
wherein said data processor module communicates with other vehicle systems via a vehicle bus of the equipped vehicle;
wherein, responsive at least in part to processing of image data and sensor data at said data processor module, other vehicles present exterior of the equipped vehicle are detected; and
wherein, responsive at least in part to processing of image data and sensor data at said data processor module, a speed control system of the equipped vehicle is controlled.

US Pat. No. 9,881,501

DRIVER ASSISTANCE SYSTEM WITH TRAFFIC LIGHT ALERT

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A traffic light alert system for a vehicle, said traffic light alert system comprising:
a display operable to display an iconistic traffic light representation and a background surrounding the displayed iconistic
traffic light representation;

a control operable to control said display responsive to a determination of a status of a traffic light ahead of the vehicle
and being approached by the vehicle;

wherein, responsive to determination of the traffic light ahead of the vehicle and determination that the traffic light has
a particular signal status, said control controls said display so that the iconistic traffic light representation indicates
the determined particular signal status;

wherein said control is operable to adjust orientation of the iconistic traffic light representation between horizontal orientation
and vertical orientation; and

wherein said control adjusts orientation of the iconistic traffic light representation between horizontal orientation and
vertical orientation responsive to at least one of (i) image processing of image data captured by a forward viewing camera
of the vehicle and (ii) a global positioning system of the vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,862,323

VEHICLE ACCESSORY SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. An accessory system for a vehicle, said accessory system comprising:
an attachment member attached at a vehicle windshield;
an accessory module configured to detachably mount to said attachment member;
said accessory module and said attachment member configured so that when said accessory module mounts to said attachment member,
an electrical element of said accessory module is biased toward and against a surface of the vehicle windshield so as to optically
couple therewith;

wherein said electrical element comprises a camera and wherein said camera comprises a CMOS imaging array sensor and a lens;
wherein, with said accessory module mounted to said attachment member, said camera has a forward field of view through the
vehicle windshield; and

wherein said camera is associated with at least one of (i) a headlamp control system, (ii) a lane departure warning system,
(iii) an adaptive cruise control system, (iv) a sign recognition system, (v) a night vision system, (vi) a pedestrian detection
system and (vii) a pre-crash avoidance system.

US Pat. No. 9,843,777

CABIN MONITORING SYSTEM FOR A VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A cabin monitoring system for a vehicle, said cabin monitoring system comprising:
a video display screen disposed in a cabin of a vehicle equipped with said cabin monitoring system so as to be viewable by
a driver of the equipped vehicle when the driver is driving the equipped vehicle;

a camera assembly disposed at a ceiling of the cabin of the equipped vehicle, said camera assembly comprising a camera comprising
an imager and a lens, said camera having a field of view that encompasses a rear seat area of the equipped vehicle;

an illumination device operable to illuminate the rear seat area encompassed by the field of view of said camera;
wherein said illumination device, when operated, illuminates the rear seat area and wherein said camera captures image data
representative of the illuminated rear seat area; and

wherein image data captured by said camera is provided to said video display screen for displaying video images for viewing
by the driver of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,824,587

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM WITH COLLISION MITIGATION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A method for determining potential collision with another vehicle by a vehicle equipped with a vision system, said method
comprising:
capturing image data of an exterior environment ahead of the equipped vehicle via a camera disposed at the equipped vehicle
and having a field of view at least forward of the equipped vehicle;

processing, via an image processor, image data captured by said camera;
determining, via image processing by said image processor of captured image data, the presence of a leading vehicle ahead
of the equipped vehicle;

determining, via image processing by said image processor of captured image data, a time to collision to the leading vehicle;
determining, via image processing by said image processor of captured image data, when a brake light of the leading vehicle
is illuminated;

responsive at least in part to the determined time to collision being below a threshold value of time and determination that
the brake light of the leading vehicle is illuminated, determining at least one of (i) a degree of warning to a driver of
the equipped vehicle and (ii) a braking level of the equipped vehicle to mitigate collision with the leading vehicle; and

after determining at least one of (i) a degree of warning to a driver of the equipped vehicle and (ii) a braking level of
the equipped vehicle to mitigate collision with the leading vehicle, and responsive at least in part to determination, via
image processing by said image processor of captured image data, that the brake light of the leading vehicle ceases to be
illuminated, at least one of (i) reducing the determined degree of warning to the driver of the vehicle and (ii) decreasing
the determined braking level of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,819,845

CAMERA MODULE FOR VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A method for assembling a camera module for use in a vision system for a vehicle, said method comprising:
providing a rear housing portion, said rear housing portion comprising a first mating surface and a first perimeter flange
at least partially around said first mating surface, said first perimeter flange having a first securing surface opposite
said first mating surface;

providing a front housing portion, said front housing portion comprising a second mating surface and a second perimeter flange
at least partially around said second mating surface, said second perimeter flange having a second securing surface opposite
said second mating surface;

providing a securing element having first and second tabs that extend from a center portion of said securing element;
with said first mating surface at said second mating surface, disposing said securing element along said first and second
perimeter flanges;

bending said first and second tabs to overlap and engage said first and second securing surfaces of said first and second
perimeter flanges, respectively; and

crimping said securing element at said first and second perimeter flanges to urge said first mating surface against said second
mating surface to secure said rear housing portion relative to said front housing portion.

US Pat. No. 9,802,542

TRAILER ANGLE DETECTION SYSTEM CALIBRATION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A dynamic calibration method for calibrating a trailer angle detection system of a vehicle towing a trailer, said dynamic
calibration method comprising:
providing a plurality of cameras;
wherein providing a plurality of cameras comprises providing a rearward viewing camera at a rear portion of a vehicle equipped
with said trailer angle detection system so as to have at least a rearward field of view;

wherein providing a plurality of cameras comprises providing a driver side camera at a driver side portion of the equipped
vehicle so as to have at least a sideward and rearward field of view;

wherein providing a plurality of cameras comprises providing a passenger side camera at a passenger side portion of the equipped
vehicle so as to have at least a sideward and rearward field of view;

providing a processor that processes image data captured by said rearward viewing camera, said driver side camera and said
passenger side camera;

attaching a trailer to the equipped vehicle and rearward of the equipped vehicle;
driving the equipped vehicle forward while the equipped vehicle is towing the trailer;
processing, using said processor, image data captured by at least some of said cameras while the equipped vehicle is being
driven forwardly and towing the trailer;

determining a location of a portion of the trailer via processing by said processor of image data captured by at least some
of said cameras while the equipped vehicle is being driven forwardly and towing the trailer;

responsive at least in part to processing by said processor of image data captured by at least some of said cameras while
the equipped vehicle is being driven forwardly and towing the trailer, determining a plurality of trailer parameters and vehicle-trailer
interface parameters;

wherein determining the plurality of trailer parameters and vehicle-trailer interface parameters is performed while the vehicle
is being driven forwardly and towing the trailer; and

calibrating the trailer angle detection system of the equipped vehicle responsive to determination, via processing by said
processor of image data captured by at least some of said cameras, that the portion of the trailer is not where said trailer
angle detection system expects it to be when the equipped vehicle is traveling straight forward.

US Pat. No. 9,736,435

VISION SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a forward viewing camera configured to be disposed at a windshield of a vehicle equipped with said vision system;
wherein, when disposed at the windshield of the equipped vehicle, said forward viewing camera has a field of view through
the windshield of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture image data;

said forward viewing camera comprising an imaging array sensor and a lens;
an image processor operable to process image data captured by said forward viewing camera;
wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward viewing
camera, a road characteristic of a road along which the equipped vehicle is traveling is detected;

wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward viewing
camera, other vehicles exterior the equipped vehicle are detected;

wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward viewing
camera, road curvature of the road along which the equipped vehicle is traveling is determined;

wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward viewing
camera, a school bus stopping signal of a school bus present within the field of view of said forward viewing camera is detected;
and

wherein said vision system identifies the detected school bus stopping signal by matching a detected color or shape of the
signal to a specified color or shape for that type of signal.

US Pat. No. 9,731,653

VISION DISPLAY SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision display system for a vehicle, said vision display system comprising:
a rear backup camera disposed at a rear portion of a vehicle equipped with said vision display system;
said rear backup camera having a field of view exterior and rearward of the equipped vehicle;
wherein the equipped vehicle is operable as a “stop and go” vehicle with the engine of the equipped vehicle turning off at
a traffic stop and then restarting again when the equipped vehicle is to commence moving again;

a display device comprising a video display screen disposed in the interior cabin of the equipped vehicle and viewable by
a driver of the equipped vehicle, said video display screen having a diagonal dimension of at least 5 inches;

wherein, when the equipped vehicle is at a traffic stop and the engine is turned off under “stop and go” operation, said video
display screen displays video images derived from image data captured by said rear backup camera within two seconds of shifting
of a vehicle transmission of the equipped vehicle into reverse gear; and

wherein, after the engine of the equipped vehicle restarts under “stop and go” operation, said video display screen displays
video images derived from image data captured by said rear backup camera within two seconds of shifting of the vehicle transmission
of the equipped vehicle into reverse gear.

US Pat. No. 9,729,636

SMART ROAD SYSTEM FOR VEHICLES

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A communication system for vehicles, said communication system comprising:
a plurality of communication devices at respective geographic locations along the road;
wherein said communication devices are operable to wirelessly communicate with communication systems of vehicles traveling
on the road;

wherein said communication devices of the road communicate lane boundary information to the vehicles traveling on the road,
and wherein, when a vehicle receiving the communicated lane boundary information is moving out of a lane into an adjacent
lane that is occupied by another vehicle, an alert at that vehicle is generated to alert a driver of that vehicle; and

wherein said communication devices of the road communicate location information to the vehicles traveling on the road pertaining
to the respective geographical locations of said communication devices, and wherein the location information is communicated
at least during situations where GPS satellite reception at the vehicles is lost or interrupted.

US Pat. No. 9,718,357

VEHICULAR ACCESSORY SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vehicular accessory system, said vehicular accessory system comprising:
an attachment element adhered at an interior surface of a windshield of a vehicle;
an accessory assembly comprising a housing;
said accessory assembly attached to said attachment element;
said accessory assembly comprising structure used in attaching said accessory assembly to said attachment element;
wherein said accessory assembly comprises circuitry disposed in said housing, said circuitry comprising a video camera;
wherein said video camera, when said accessory assembly is attached to said attachment element, has a field of view into the
interior of the vehicle;

wherein said field of view of said video camera into the interior of the vehicle encompasses the head of a potential driver
of the vehicle;

wherein said video camera captures an image of the face of the potential driver;
wherein, responsive to image processing by image recognition software of said vehicular accessory system, said vehicular accessory
system determines that the potential driver is an authorized driver who is authorized to operate the vehicle and, responsive
to this determination, enables the ignition system to allow the motor of the vehicle be started; and

wherein said video camera monitors the authorized driver while the authorized driver is driving the vehicle, and wherein,
responsive at least in part thereto, said system determines whether the authorized driver is becoming drowsy/falling asleep.

US Pat. No. 9,656,608

DRIVER ASSIST SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vehicular driver assist system suitable for use in a vehicle, said vehicular driver assist system comprising:
a video processor module disposed at a vehicle equipped with said vehicular driver assist system;
said video processor module receiving and processing image data provided by a plurality of video sensors disposed at the equipped
vehicle;

said video processor module receiving and processing sensor data provided by a plurality of non-video sensors disposed at
the equipped vehicle;

said plurality of video sensors comprising at least five vehicular cameras;
said at least five vehicular cameras comprising a first vehicular camera disposed at a driver side of the equipped vehicle;
said at least five vehicular cameras comprising a second vehicular camera disposed at a passenger side of the equipped vehicle;
said at least five vehicular cameras comprising a third vehicular camera disposed at a rear portion of the equipped vehicle;
said at least five vehicular cameras comprising a fourth vehicular camera disposed at a front portion of the equipped vehicle;
said at least five vehicular cameras comprising a fifth vehicular camera disposed at, and viewing forwardly through, an in-cabin
side of a windshield of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said first vehicular camera has a first field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture
first image data;

wherein said second vehicular camera has a second field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture
second image data;

wherein said third vehicular camera has a third field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture
third image data;

wherein said fourth vehicular camera has a fourth field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture
fourth image data;

wherein said fifth vehicular camera has a fifth field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture
fifth image data;

wherein said first vehicular camera comprises a CMOS imaging sensor and wherein said second vehicular camera comprises a CMOS
imaging sensor and wherein said third vehicular camera comprises a CMOS imaging sensor and wherein said fourth vehicular camera
comprises a CMOS imaging sensor and wherein said fifth vehicular camera comprises a CMOS imaging sensor;

said plurality of non-video sensors comprising at least one non-video sensor selected from the group consisting of a radar
sensor, a near-infrared sensor, a far-infrared sensor, a thermal sensor and a sonar sensor;

wherein said video processor module receives first image data captured by said first vehicular camera;
wherein said video processor module receives second image data captured by said second vehicular camera;
wherein said video processor module receives third image data captured by said third vehicular camera;
wherein said video processor module receives fourth image data captured by said fourth vehicular camera;
wherein said video processor module receives fifth image data captured by said fifth vehicular camera;
wherein said video processor module receives sensor data captured by said plurality of non-video sensors;
wherein said video processor module communicates with other vehicle systems via a vehicle bus of the equipped vehicle;
wherein received image data is processed at said video processor module to generate a synthesized image;
wherein said synthesized image is output from said video processor module for display by a single display screen of a display
device of the equipped vehicle that is viewable by a driver of the equipped vehicle when normally operating the equipped vehicle;

wherein said synthesized image displayed by said display screen approximates a view as would be viewed from a single virtual
camera located exterior the equipped vehicle; and

wherein, responsive at least in part to processing of image data and sensor data at said video processor module, a driver
assistance system of the equipped vehicle is controlled.

US Pat. No. 9,643,605

VISION SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A forward-facing vision system for a vehicle, said forward-facing vision system comprising:
a forward-facing camera comprising an imaging sensor and a lens;
said imaging sensor comprising a plurality of photo-sensing pixels arranged in a matrix of multiple horizontal rows of photo-sensing
pixels and multiple vertical columns of photo-sensing pixels;

wherein said forward-facing camera is disposed in a windshield electronics module attached at a windshield of a vehicle equipped
with said forward-facing vision system, said forward-facing camera, when disposed in said windshield electronics module attached
at the windshield, viewing through the windshield exteriorly of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said imaging sensor is operable to capture image data representative of a scene exterior of the equipped vehicle and
in the field of view of said forward-facing camera;

a control comprising a processor;
wherein said processor, responsive to processing of captured image data, detects taillights of leading vehicles within the
exterior field of view of said forward-facing camera when the equipped vehicle is operated under nighttime conditions;

wherein said processor, responsive to processing of captured image data, detects lane markers within the exterior field of
view of said forward-facing camera on a road being traveled by the equipped vehicle;

wherein said control, responsive to said lane markers detection and to a determination based at least in part on processing
of captured image data by said processor that the equipped vehicle is drifting out of a traffic lane that the equipped vehicle
is currently travelling in and when a turn signal of the equipped vehicle is not being activated, controls a steering system
of the equipped vehicle to adjust the steering direction of the equipped vehicle to mitigate such drift out of the traffic
lane the equipped vehicle is travelling in, and wherein said steering system is manually controllable by a driver of the equipped
vehicle irrespective of control by said control;

wherein said processor processes captured image data via an edge detection algorithm to detect edges of vehicles present exteriorly
of the equipped vehicle and within the exterior field of view of said forward-facing camera;

wherein said processor processes captured image data to estimate distance from the equipped vehicle to a detected vehicle
that is present exteriorly of the equipped vehicle and within the exterior field of view of said forward-facing camera;

wherein said processor, based at least in part on detection of lane markers via processing of captured image data, determines
curvature of the road being traveled by the equipped vehicle; and

wherein said processor processes captured image data for at least one driver assistance system of the equipped vehicle selected
from the group consisting of (i) a traffic sign recognition system of the equipped vehicle, (ii) a stop light recognition
system of the equipped vehicle, (iii) a stop sign recognition system of the equipped vehicle and (iv) a vehicle speed control
system of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,632,590

VISION SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a camera disposed in a vehicle equipped with said vision system, said camera having a field of view that encompasses a front
seat of the equipped vehicle so as to capture images of an occupant of the equipped vehicle;

said camera capturing image data;
an image processor;
said image processor provided with image data captured by said camera;
said image processor image processing image data captured by said camera;
said image processor, responsive at least in part to image processing of image data captured by said camera, recognizing movement;
wherein said movement comprises a hand gesture made by the occupant of the equipped vehicle; and
wherein said image processor comprises a system-on-a-chip image processor.

US Pat. No. 9,563,809

VEHICULAR VISION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A driver assistance system for a vehicle, said driver assistance system comprising:
at least one forward viewing camera disposed at a vehicle equipped with said driver assistance system so as to view at least
generally forwardly of the equipped vehicle;

a control comprising an image processor operable to process image data captured by said at least one forward viewing camera;
wherein the equipped vehicle comprises start-stop technology operable to turn off the engine of the equipped vehicle when,
during forward driving of the equipped vehicle, the equipped vehicle stops and operable to restart the engine of the equipped
vehicle to enable the equipped vehicle drive forward;

wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said at least one forward
viewing camera, said driver assistance system determines that the equipped vehicle, when stopped via said start-stop technology,
is behind a stopped leading vehicle;

wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said at least one forward
viewing camera, said driver assistance system determines forward movement of said leading vehicle from its stopped position;
and

wherein, responsive at least in part to said determination of forward movement of said leading vehicle, said control automatically
restarts the engine of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,527,445

ACCESSORY MOUNTING SYSTEM FOR MOUNTING AN ACCESSORY AT A VEHICLE SUCH THAT A CAMERA VIEWS THROUGH THE VEHICLE WINDSHIELD

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. An accessory mounting system for mounting an accessory at a windshield of a vehicle, the accessory mounting system comprising:
an accessory adapted for mounting at and demounting from a receiving structure adhesively attached by an adhesive to an interior
surface of a windshield of an equipped vehicle;

wherein the receiving structure comprises a portion configured to adhesively attach the receiving structure to a windshield
of an equipped vehicle;

wherein the receiving structure comprises a portion configured to receive and support the accessory;
wherein the accessory comprises a camera and circuitry;
wherein, with the accessory received and supported by the receiving structure and with the receiving structure adhesively
attached by an adhesive to an interior surface of a windshield of an equipped vehicle, the camera at least one of (i) views
through the windshield via an aperture in the receiving structure and (ii) contacts the windshield via an aperture in the
receiving structure and views through the windshield;

wherein, with the accessory received and supported by the receiving structure and with the receiving structure adhesively
attached by an adhesive to an interior surface of a windshield of an equipped vehicle, the accessory receives an input from
the equipped vehicle via a CAN bus communication and delivers an output to the equipped vehicle via a CAN bus communication;

wherein, with the accessory received and supported by the receiving structure and with the receiving structure adhesively
attached by an adhesive to an interior surface of a windshield of an equipped vehicle, the camera views forwardly through
the windshield via a light transmitting portion of a light absorbing layer of the windshield of the equipped vehicle, and
wherein the light absorbing layer of the windshield otherwise hides the accessory from view through the windshield from external
the equipped vehicle;

wherein, with the accessory received and supported by the receiving structure and with the receiving structure adhesively
attached by an adhesive to an interior surface of a windshield of an equipped vehicle, the accessory is removable from the
receiving structure; and

wherein, with the accessory received and supported by the receiving structure and with the receiving structure adhesively
attached by an adhesive to an interior surface of a windshield of an equipped vehicle, a cover is removable to facilitate
service.

US Pat. No. 10,040,481

VEHICLE TRAILER ANGLE DETECTION SYSTEM USING ULTRASONIC SENSORS

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A trailer angle detection system, for a vehicle, said trailer angle detection system comprising:a camera disposed at a rear portion of a vehicle and viewing rearward of the vehicle, said camera capturing image data;
a plurality of ultrasonic sensors disposed at a rear portion of the vehicle and sensing rearward of the vehicle, said ultrasonic sensors capturing sensor data;
a control having at least one processor operable to process image data captured by said camera;
wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said at least one processor of image data captured by said camera, said control detects a trailer rearward of the vehicle and in the field of view of said camera;
wherein said at least one processor is operable to process sensor data captured by said ultrasonic sensors to determine distances to portions of the trailer rearward of the vehicle;
wherein, responsive at least in part to processing of captured image data and processing of captured sensor data, said trailer angle detection system is operable to determine an angle of the trailer relative to the vehicle;
wherein said ultrasonic sensors are part of a parking assist feature or collision alert feature of the vehicle;
wherein said ultrasonic sensors are used to estimate a distance map of the trailer tongue location, and wherein said trailer angle detection system uses the distance map to estimate a first estimated trailer tongue angle; and
wherein said trailer angle detection system uses triangular shape information of the trailer tongue, as determined by image processing of captured image data, to estimate the orientation of the trailer tongue with respect to the vehicle and to estimate a second estimated trailer tongue angle.

US Pat. No. 10,003,755

IMAGING SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. An imaging system suitable for use in a vehicle, said imaging system comprising:an imaging sensor comprising a two-dimensional array of photosensing pixels, said two-dimensional array comprising a plurality of sub-arrays, each consisting of four photosensing pixels arranged in two rows and two columns, wherein each of said sub-arrays comprises a first photosensing pixel, a second photosensing pixel, a third photosensing pixel and a fourth photosensing pixel;
wherein spectral filtering is disposed at said first photosensing pixel whereby said first photosensing pixel primarily senses red visible light;
wherein spectral filtering is disposed at said second photosensing pixel whereby said second photosensing primarily senses blue visible light;
wherein spectral filtering is disposed at said third photosensing pixel whereby said third photosensing primarily senses green visible light;
wherein spectral filtering is disposed at said fourth photosensing pixel whereby said fourth photosensing primarily senses infrared radiation;
wherein said imaging sensor is disposed at a vehicle equipped with said imaging system and wherein, with said imaging sensor disposed at the equipped vehicle, said imaging sensor has a field of view forward of the equipped vehicle;
an image processor operable for processing image data captured by said imaging sensor;
wherein said image data comprises an output of said first photosensing pixel of each sub-array, an output of said second photosensing pixel of each sub-array, an output of said third photosensing pixel of each sub-array and an output of said fourth photosensing pixel of each sub-array;
wherein said imaging system is associated with (i) a lane departure warning system of the equipped vehicle, (ii) an object detection system of the equipped vehicle and (iii) a night vision system of the equipped vehicle;
an infrared illumination source disposed at the equipped vehicle and operable to emit at least near infrared illumination to illuminate forward of the equipped vehicle to enhance nighttime viewing by said imaging sensor, and wherein said infrared illumination source, when activated, illuminates at least a portion of said field of view of said imaging sensor with infrared illumination;
wherein the outputs of said first, second and third photosensing pixels of sub-arrays are processed for at least one of (i) the lane departure warning system of the equipped vehicle and (ii) the object detection system of the equipped vehicle; and
wherein the output of at least said fourth photosensing pixel of sub-arrays is processed for the night vision system of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,986,136

VEHICLE CAMERA WITH SINGLE POINT IMAGER FIXATION TO LENS HOLDER

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system of a vehicle, said vision system comprising:a camera configured to be disposed at a vehicle so as to have a field of view exterior of the vehicle;
wherein said camera comprises a front housing portion that accommodates a lens thereat;
wherein said camera comprises a circuit element having an imager disposed thereat, and wherein said imager comprises an imaging array having a plurality of photosensing elements arranged in multiple rows and multiple columns of photosensing elements;
wherein one of said front housing portion and said circuit element comprises a protrusion protruding therefrom;
wherein the other of said front housing portion and said circuit element comprises a receiving portion for at least partially receiving said protrusion when said circuit element is positioned at said front housing portion to align said imager with said lens;
wherein, when said circuit element is positioned at said front housing portion to align said imager with said lens, said protrusion is at least partially received at said receiving portion and is adhesively bonded at said receiving portion;
wherein no other part of said front housing portion is attached at said circuit element when said circuit element is positioned at said front housing portion to align said imager with said lens and when said protrusion is at least partially received at said receiving portion and is adhesively bonded at said receiving portion; and
wherein said protrusion and said receiving portion are disposed at one side of said imager when said circuit element is positioned at said front housing portion to align said imager with said lens and when said protrusion is at least partially received at said receiving portion and is adhesively bonded at said receiving portion, and wherein said camera comprises a damper disposed between said circuit element and said front housing portion at a side of said imager generally opposite from said protrusion and said receiving portion.

US Pat. No. 9,898,671

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM WITH STRUCTURE AND MOTION ESTIMATION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system of a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a camera disposed at a vehicle and having a field of view exterior of the vehicle, said camera capturing frames of image data;
a control having an image processor operable to process frames of image data captured by said camera;
wherein said image processor is operable, via image processing of frames of captured image data, to detect an object present
in the field of view of said camera;

wherein, when the vehicle is moving, said control, responsive at least in part to vehicle motion information and image processing
of frames of captured image data, detects an object present in the field of view of said camera and determines motion of the
detected object relative to the moving vehicle; and

wherein said control, responsive at least in part to vehicle motion information and image processing of frames of captured
image data, determines the motion of the detected object relative to the moving vehicle by (i) determining corresponding object
points in at least two frames of captured image data, (ii) estimating object motion trajectory of the detected object responsive
to the determination of corresponding object points and (iii) determining the structure of the detected object along the estimated
object motion trajectory.

US Pat. No. 9,883,088

METHOD OF ASSEMBLING CAMERA FOR VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A method of assembling a vehicular camera suitable for vehicular use, said method comprising:
providing a lens comprising a plurality of optical elements, wherein said lens is accommodated in a lens barrel, and wherein
said lens barrel comprises a cylindrical portion and an annular flange that circumscribes and extends radially from said cylindrical
portion, and wherein said annular flange comprises a first mating surface;

providing a camera front housing having a front portion and a rear portion, wherein said front portion comprises a cylindrical
portion having a second mating surface;

providing a printed circuit board, wherein an imager is disposed at said printed circuit board;
providing an adhesive in its uncured state;
dispensing the uncured adhesive so as to establish a layer of uncured adhesive between said first mating surface of said lens
barrel and said second mating surface of said cylindrical portion of said front portion of said camera front housing;

positioning said lens barrel at said front portion of said camera front housing by inserting said cylindrical portion of said
lens barrel at least partially into a cylindrical passageway of said cylindrical portion of said front portion of said camera
front housing until said first mating surface is at said second mating surface with said layer of uncured adhesive therebetween
and contacting said first and second mating surfaces;

bringing said lens into focus with said imager and optically center-aligning said lens with said imager;
with said lens in focus with said imager and optically center-aligned therewith, initially curing the adhesive to an initially-cured
state in an initial radiation curing process that comprises exposure to UV light for a first period of time;

wherein the initially-cured adhesive, as cured via the initial radiation curing process, holds said lens in focus with said
imager and optically center-aligned therewith;

after the initial radiation curing process, further curing the initially-cured adhesive to a further-cured state in a secondary
curing process;

wherein said further-cured state is achieved within a second period of time;
wherein said second period of time is longer than said first period of time;
wherein, when further cured via the secondary curing process, the further-cured adhesive maintains focus and optical center-alignment
of said lens with said imager for use of said camera in a vehicle;

wherein the adhesive, in its uncured state, comprises a one-part, solvent-free, filled adhesive; and
wherein the adhesive, in its uncured state, is halogen-free.

US Pat. No. 9,834,142

DRIVING ASSIST SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vehicular driving assist system suitable for use in a vehicle, said vehicular driving assist system comprising:
a data processor module disposed at a vehicle equipped with said vehicular driving assist system;
said data processor module receiving and processing image data provided by a plurality of video sensors disposed at the equipped
vehicle;

said data processor module receiving and processing sensor data provided by a plurality of non-video sensors disposed at the
equipped vehicle;

said plurality of non-video sensors comprising a radar sensor;
said plurality of video sensors comprising at least five vehicular cameras;
said at least five vehicular cameras comprising a first vehicular camera disposed at a driver side of the equipped vehicle;
said at least five vehicular cameras comprising a second vehicular camera disposed at a passenger side of the equipped vehicle;
said at least five vehicular cameras comprising a third vehicular camera disposed at a rear portion of the equipped vehicle;
said at least five vehicular cameras comprising a fourth vehicular camera disposed at a front portion of the equipped vehicle;
said at least five vehicular cameras comprising a fifth vehicular camera disposed at an in-cabin side of a windshield of the
equipped vehicle and viewing forwardly through the windshield of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said first vehicular camera has a first field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture
first image data;

wherein said second vehicular camera has a second field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture
second image data;

wherein said third vehicular camera has a third field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture
third image data;

wherein said fourth vehicular camera has a fourth field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture
fourth image data;

wherein said fifth vehicular camera has a fifth field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture
fifth image data;

wherein said data processor module receives first image data captured by said first vehicular camera at a first interface;
wherein said data processor module receives second image data captured by said second vehicular camera at a second interface;
wherein said data processor module receives third image data captured by said third vehicular camera at a third interface;
wherein said data processor module receives fourth image data captured by said fourth vehicular camera at a fourth interface;
wherein said data processor module receives fifth image data captured by said fifth vehicular camera;
wherein said data processor module receives sensor data captured by said plurality of non-video sensors;
wherein said data processor module communicates with other vehicle systems via a vehicle bus of the equipped vehicle;
wherein received image data and received sensor data are processed at said data processor module for at least one of (i) object
tracking of objects present exterior of the equipped vehicle, (ii) object identification of objects present exterior of the
equipped vehicle and (iii) object classification of objects present exterior of the equipped vehicle; and

wherein, responsive at least in part to processing of image data and sensor data at said data processor module, a driving
assistance system of the equipped vehicle is controlled.

US Pat. No. 9,802,541

DRIVER ASSISTANCE SYSTEM FOR A VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A driver assistance system suitable for use in a vehicle, said driver assistance system comprising:
a forward-viewing camera mounted at a front windshield of a vehicle equipped with said driver assistance system;
said camera viewing forward of the equipped vehicle through the windshield;
said camera comprising a lens and an image sensor;
said image sensor comprising a plurality of photosensor elements arranged in a photosensor array having rows and columns;
an event recorder comprising an image processor and memory;
wherein said image processor is operable to process image data captured by said camera for detecting objects in the field
of view of said camera;

said image processor utilizing object detection software for detecting objects in the field of view of said camera;
wherein memory of said event recorder comprises random access memory associated with said image processor;
wherein memory of said event recorder comprises non-volatile memory associated with said image processor;
wherein, based at least in part on processing by said image processor of image data captured by said camera, a lane departure
warning is generated if, when a turn signal of the equipped vehicle is not activated, at least one of (i) the equipped vehicle
is heading towards a lane marking and (ii) the equipped vehicle is within a certain distance of an edge of a lane marking
for a certain time;

wherein generation of said lane departure warning defines a lane departure warning event;
wherein, based at least in part on processing by said image processor of image data captured by said camera, a forward collision
alert is generated if the equipped vehicle is heading towards a given object with the separation between the equipped vehicle
and the given object being less than a threshold;

wherein generation of said forward collision alert defines a forward collision alert event;
wherein said event recorder receives vehicle data via a vehicle data bus of the equipped vehicle;
wherein vehicle data received at said event recorder comprises vehicle speed;
wherein image data captured by said camera and vehicle data received at said event recorder during a first pre-event time
period immediately preceding said lane departure warning event begins is stored in memory of said event recorder;

wherein image data captured by said camera and vehicle data received at said event recorder during a first post-event time
period immediately following said lane departure warning event begins is stored in memory of said event recorder;

wherein image data captured by said camera and vehicle data received at said event recorder during a second pre-event time
period immediately preceding said forward collision alert event begins is stored in memory of said event recorder; and

wherein image data captured by said camera and vehicle data received at said event recorder during a second post-event time
period immediately following said forward collision alert begins is stored in memory of said event recorder.

US Pat. No. 9,749,509

CAMERA WITH LENS FOR VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A camera assembly for a vision system of a vehicle, said camera assembly comprising:
an imager disposed at a circuit element, said imager comprising a pixelated imaging array having a plurality of photosensing
elements;

a lens;
a lens holder comprising a barrel portion that houses said lens;
wherein said lens holder is positioned relative to an image plane of said imager;
wherein said lens holder comprises a flange protruding outward from said barrel portion;
wherein said flange comprises an angled surface portion that faces said image plane of said imager, and wherein said flange
comprises a planar surface portion that protrudes from said angled surface portion;

wherein said planar surface portion of said flange of said lens holder comprises a flat structure that has a planar surface
that resides in a structure plane that is normal to an axis of said barrel portion; and

wherein said lens holder is positioned relative to said image plane of said imager such that said planar surface of said planar
surface portion is parallel to said image plane of said imager and such that said planar surface is a predetermined distance
from said image plane, thereby positioning said lens at a predetermined location relative to said image plane of said imager.

US Pat. No. 9,723,272

MULTI-CAMERA IMAGE STITCHING CALIBRATION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system of a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a plurality of cameras having fields of view exterior a vehicle equipped with the vision system, wherein said plurality of
cameras comprises a forward camera having a forward field of view, a rearward camera having a rearward facing view, a left
side camera having a left sideward field of view at the left side of the equipped vehicle and a right side camera having a
right sideward field of view at the right side of the equipped vehicle;

wherein a portion of said forward field of view overlaps respective portions of said left sideward field of view and said
right sideward field of view and wherein a portion of said rearward field of view overlaps respective portions of said left
sideward field of view and said right sideward field of view;

a display device operable to display images captured by said cameras of said vision system;
a plurality of user inputs actuatable by a user to manipulate the displayed images;
wherein, during manual camera calibration, a plurality of targets are disposed at ground locations near the vehicle and within
the overlapping portions of the fields of views of said cameras of said vision system;

wherein, when the displayed image of one of said cameras is misaligned with a displayed image of another of said cameras,
a user actuates said user inputs to manipulate the displayed image of said one of said cameras to align portions of at least
one of the targets in an overlapping region of the displayed images of said one of said cameras and said another of said cameras
to correct for misalignment of said one of said cameras;

wherein, during manual camera calibration, the displayed image captured by a first calibrated camera of said plurality of
cameras is manipulated so that lines are displayed as straight and rectangles are displayed in their right shapes and scales;
and

wherein, after the displayed image captured by the first calibrated camera is manipulated to reach a satisfactory state, the
first calibrated camera is used as a calibration reference for a second calibrated camera, and wherein the displayed image
captured by the second calibrated camera is manipulated so that lines are displayed as straight and rectangles are displayed
in their right shapes and scales and so that at the border of the displayed images captured by the first and second calibrated
cameras, the patterns transition smoothly and continuously across the border or overlapping areas of the displayed images.

US Pat. No. 9,701,246

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM USING KINEMATIC MODEL OF VEHICLE MOTION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a plurality of cameras disposed at a vehicle equipped with said vision system;
said plurality of cameras comprising at least (i) a first camera disposed at a rear portion of the equipped vehicle, (ii)
a second camera disposed at a driver side portion of the equipped vehicle and (iii) a third camera disposed at a passenger
side of the equipped vehicle;

wherein each of said first, second and third cameras has a respective field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle;
wherein each of said first, second and third cameras is operable to capture frames of image data;
an electronic control unit, said electronic control unit comprising an image processor operable to process image data captured
by any or all of said first, second and third cameras;

wherein, responsive to image processing by said image processor of captured image data, said electronic control unit is operable
to determine objects present in the field of view of at least one of said first, second and third cameras;

wherein, responsive to vehicle data, said electronic control unit determines a vehicle motion vector during driving of the
equipped vehicle by a driver of the equipped vehicle;

wherein the vehicle data includes steering information of the equipped vehicle and at least one of (i) speed of the equipped
vehicle and (ii) distance traveled by the equipped vehicle;

wherein, during driving of the equipped vehicle by the driver of the equipped vehicle, said electronic control unit determines
movement of an object relative to the equipped vehicle via image processing by said image processor of at least two frames
of image data captured by said at least one of said first, second and third cameras;

wherein said electronic control unit compares the determined relative movement of the object to the determined vehicle motion
vector;

wherein, responsive to a difference between the determined relative movement of the object and the determined vehicle motion
vector, said electronic control unit determines a misalignment of said at least one of said first, second and third cameras;
and

wherein image data captured by cameras of said plurality of cameras is used by a surround view system of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,694,749

TRAILER HITCHING AID SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A tow hitching aid system for a vehicle, said tow hitching aid system comprising:
a camera mounted at a rear portion of a vehicle equipped with said tow hitching aid system and having a field of view at least
rearward of the equipped vehicle, the equipped vehicle having a hitching ball at a rear portion of the equipped vehicle for
connecting to a hitching receiver of a trailer;

wherein the field of view of said camera encompasses the hitching ball of the equipped vehicle;
a plurality of distance measuring sensors disposed at the equipped vehicle;
said plurality of distance measuring sensors at least comprising a first distance measuring sensor disposed at the equipped
vehicle at a first location and a second distance measuring sensor disposed at the equipped vehicle at a second location;

wherein said second location is spaced from said first location;
a display screen disposed in the equipped vehicle and viewable by a driver of the equipped vehicle when the driver is normally
operating the equipped vehicle;

a control, wherein said control receives input from said camera and input from said plurality of distance measuring sensors;
wherein said control, responsive to processing of input from said plurality of distance measuring sensors, determines at least
one of (i) distance from the equipped vehicle to the trailer and (ii) orientation of the equipped vehicle relative to the
trailer;

wherein, during a tow hitching maneuver where the equipped vehicle is reversed towards the hitching receiver of the trailer
to establish a hitch connection, and responsive to input from said camera, said display screen displays video images captured
by said camera as the equipped vehicle is reversing towards the trailer so the driver can view the hitching ball of the equipped
vehicle approaching the hitching receiver of the trailer; and

wherein, during the tow hitching maneuver of the equipped vehicle, and responsive to input from said camera and input from
said plurality of distance measuring sensors, said control generates at least one graphic overlay that is superimposed over
the displayed video images to assist the driver during the tow hitching maneuver to connect the hitching ball of the equipped
vehicle with the hitching receiver of the trailer.

US Pat. No. 9,693,454

CAMERA FOR VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vehicle vision system, said vehicle vision system comprising:
at least one camera disposed at a vehicle equipped with said vision system;
said at least one camera operable to capture image data and having a field of view exterior of the equipped vehicle;
an image processor chip operable to process image data captured by said at least one camera for detecting at least one of
a vehicle and a pedestrian present in the field of view of said at least one camera;

said image processor chip surface mounted at a mounting location of a circuit board;
said mounting location having a plurality of solder pads established thereat;
said plurality of solder pads corresponding to a plurality of respective solder points of said image processor chip;
wherein said plurality of solder pads comprises elongated solder pads and wherein each elongated solder pad has a longitudinal
axis;

wherein said mounting location comprises a first quadrant, a second quadrant, a third quadrant and a fourth quadrant;
wherein said first and fourth quadrants diagonally oppose one another
wherein said second and third quadrants diagonally oppose one another;
wherein said first quadrant is laterally adjacent said second quadrant;
wherein said third quadrant is laterally adjacent said fourth quadrant;
wherein said third quadrant is below said first quadrant;
wherein said fourth quadrant is below said second quadrant; and
wherein the longitudinal axes of elongated solder pads disposed at said first quadrant are aligned different from the longitudinal
axes of elongated solder pads disposed at said second quadrant.

US Pat. No. 9,635,230

METHOD OF ASSEMBLING CAMERA FOR VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A method of assembling a vehicular camera suitable for vehicular use, said method comprising:
providing a lens comprising a plurality of optical elements, wherein said lens is accommodated in a lens barrel;
providing a camera front housing having a front portion and a rear portion;
providing a printed circuit board, wherein an imager is disposed at said printed circuit board;
providing an adhesive in its uncured state;
dispensing the uncured adhesive so as to establish a layer of uncured adhesive one of (i) between said lens barrel and said
front portion of said camera front housing and (ii) between said printed circuit board and said rear portion of said camera
front housing;

bringing said lens into focus with said imager and optically center-aligning said lens with said imager;
with said lens in focus with said imager and optically center-aligned therewith, initially curing the adhesive to an initially-cured
state in an initial radiation curing process that comprises exposure to UV light for a first period of time;

wherein the initially-cured adhesive, as cured via the initial radiation curing process, holds said lens in focus with said
imager and optically center-aligned therewith;

after the initial radiation curing process, further curing the initially-cured adhesive to a further-cured state in a secondary
curing process;

wherein said further-cured state is achieved within a second period of time;
wherein said second period of time is longer than said first period of time;
wherein, when further cured via the secondary curing process, the further-cured adhesive maintains focus and optical center-alignment
of said lens with said imager for use of said camera in a vehicle; and

wherein the adhesive, in its further-cured state, has a glass transition temperature greater than 90 degrees Celsius and has
greater than 50 Shore D hardness.

US Pat. No. 9,623,799

CAMERA MODULE FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A camera module suitable for use for a vision system of a vehicle, said camera module comprising:
a camera housing portion;
said camera housing portion comprising a generally cylindrical portion extending outwardly from a base portion;
an imaging sensor disposed at said base portion;
a lens system received at said cylindrical portion of said camera housing portion;
a first circuit board including circuitry associated with said imaging sensor;
a connector portion;
wherein said camera housing portion and said connector portion are configured to join together to encase said imaging sensor
and said circuitry;

wherein, when joined together, said camera housing portion and said connector portion substantially prevent intrusion of water;
said connector portion comprising a multi-pin connector extending in a direction away from said camera housing portion when
said camera housing portion and said connector portion are joined together;

said multi-pin connector comprising a plurality of terminals each of which comprises (i) a first end comprising a pin extending
outwardly from said connector portion and configured to electrically connect with a connector of a vehicle equipped with said
camera module and (ii) an opposing second end configured for electrical connection with said circuitry; and

wherein said camera module is configured for mounting at a portion of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,623,878

PERSONALIZED DRIVER ASSISTANCE SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A driver assistance system of a vehicle, said driver assistance system comprising:
at least one sensor disposed at a vehicle equipped with said driver assistance system, wherein said at least one sensor comprises
an image sensor;

wherein said image sensor is operable to capture image data and wherein an image processor is operable to process captured
image data to determine a driving condition of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said driver assistance system is operable to identify that the equipped vehicle is being driven by a particular driver,
and wherein, while the identified particular driver is manually driving the equipped vehicle on a road, said driver assistance
system is operable to learn at least one preferred parameter indicative of the identified particular driver's preference for
at least one accessory or system of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said driver assistance system, when activated to operate in a semi-autonomous or autonomous mode and responsive at
least in part to image processing of captured image data, is operable to control the at least one accessory or system of the
equipped vehicle;

wherein said driver assistance system is operable to adjust at least one parameter of the control of the at least one accessory
or system of the equipped vehicle in response to (i) at least one learned preferred parameter indicative of the identified
particular driver's learned preference for the at least one accessory or system of the equipped vehicle and (ii) the determined
driving condition of the equipped vehicle; and

wherein said driver assistance system adapts the at least one learned preferred parameter responsive to the determined driving
condition;

wherein the at least one accessory or system comprises an adaptive cruise control system; and
wherein said at least one preferred parameter comprises a preferred target following distance for the adaptive cruise control
system to use in establishing a distance of the equipped vehicle behind a leading vehicle ahead of the equipped vehicle, and
wherein said driver assistance system adjusts the preferred target following distance to maintain a predetermined safe following
distance for the particular determined driving condition.

US Pat. No. 9,619,716

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM WITH IMAGE CLASSIFICATION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system of a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a camera disposed at a vehicle and having a field of view exterior of the vehicle;
wherein said camera comprises an imaging array having a plurality of photosensing elements arranged in a two dimensional array
of rows and columns;

wherein said imaging array comprises a plurality of sub-arrays comprising respective groupings of neighboring photosensing
elements;

an image processor operable to process image data captured by said camera;
wherein said image processor is operable to perform a discrete cosine transformation of captured image data;
wherein a result of the discrete cosine transformation is put into a K-Means classifier;
wherein a Markov model compares at least one sub-array with a neighboring sub-array; and
wherein said image processor is operable to adjust a classification of a sub-array responsive at least in part to the discrete
cosine transformation and said Markov model.

US Pat. No. 9,539,956

ACCESSORY SYSTEM FOR A VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. An accessory system for a vehicle, said accessory system comprising:
a bracket comprising a windshield-facing side and a cabin-facing side;
the windshield-facing side of said bracket bonded by an adhesive at a first windshield location to an in-cabin surface of
a windshield of a vehicle equipped with said accessory system;

the cabin-facing side of said bracket comprising first structure;
an accessory module comprising a housing;
wherein said accessory module is configured to mount to said bracket;
wherein an electronic device and circuitry are housed by said housing;
said housing of said accessory module comprising second structure;
wherein said electronic device comprises a CMOS camera and wherein said camera comprises an imaging array;
wherein said housing is configured to mount to said bracket when said bracket is attached to the vehicle windshield;
wherein said second structure of said housing directly engages said first structure of said bracket when mounting said housing
to said bracket;

wherein, with said accessory module mounted to said bracket attached to the vehicle windshield, said circuitry is in communication
with a vehicle bus system of the equipped vehicle;

wherein an interior rearview mirror assembly is attached at a second windshield location at the vehicle windshield, and wherein
said second windshield location is spaced from said first windshield location where said bracket is attached to the vehicle
windshield;

wherein, when mounted to said bracket attached to the vehicle windshield, said accessory module is removable from said bracket
for service or replacement without detaching said interior rearview mirror assembly from the windshield;

wherein said second structure of said housing comprises a first housing element of said housing and a second housing element
of said housing;

wherein said first and second housing elements are spaced apart;
wherein said first structure of said bracket comprises a first bracket element and a second bracket element;
wherein said first bracket element is similarly spaced apart from said second bracket element;
wherein said first bracket element engages said first housing element when mounting said housing to said bracket;
wherein said second bracket element engages said second housing element when mounting said housing to said bracket; and
wherein said first and second housing elements are at opposite parts of said housing.

US Pat. No. 10,110,860

VEHICULAR CONTROL SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vehicular control system, said vehicular control system comprising:a forward viewing camera disposed at a windshield of a vehicle equipped with said vehicular control system;
wherein said forward viewing camera views forward through the windshield of the equipped vehicle and is operable to capture image data;
said forward viewing camera comprising an imaging array sensor and a lens;
a control comprising an image processor operable to process image data captured by said forward viewing camera;
wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward viewing camera, at least one road characteristic of a road along which the equipped vehicle is traveling is detected;
wherein the at least one road characteristic of the road along which the equipped vehicle is traveling comprises at least two road characteristics selected from the group consisting of (i) a curb of the road along which the equipped vehicle is traveling, (ii) a lane marker of the road along which the equipped vehicle is traveling and (iii) a road shoulder of the road along which the equipped vehicle is traveling;
wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward viewing camera, other vehicles exterior the equipped vehicle are detected;
wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward viewing camera, road curvature of the road along which the equipped vehicle is traveling is determined;
wherein data is wirelessly communicated from the equipped vehicle to a remote data receiver located remote from the equipped vehicle;
wherein data wirelessly communicated from the equipped vehicle to the remote data receiver comprises data that is at least in part relevant to a current geographic location of the equipped vehicle;
wherein data wirelessly communicated from the equipped vehicle to the remote data receiver that is at least in part relevant to the current geographic location of the equipped vehicle is derived, at least in part, from processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward viewing camera;
wherein data wirelessly communicated from the equipped vehicle to the remote data receiver is processed at the remote data receiver to determine information relevant to the equipped vehicle; and
wherein said control controls speed of the equipped vehicle responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward viewing camera.

US Pat. No. 10,046,714

ACCESSORY MOUNTING SYSTEM FOR A VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. An accessory mounting system suitable for use in a vehicle, said accessory mounting system comprising:a plurality of individual fixing elements configured to be adhesively attached at a surface of a vehicle windshield of the vehicle equipped with said accessory mounting system;
wherein, with said fixing elements adhesively attached at the surface of the vehicle windshield, said fixing elements are spaced apart from one another at the surface of the vehicle windshield in a non-contiguous manner;
wherein each of said fixing elements comprises a base portion that is configured to be directly adhesively attached by an adhesive at the surface of the vehicle windshield and an elongated portion that extends from said base portion in a direction away from the vehicle windshield when said base portion is directly adhesively attached at the surface of the vehicle windshield;
wherein the base portion of each of said fixing elements has an attaching surface area that is larger than the cross sectional area of the elongated portion that extends from the base portion;
a frame comprising a plurality of individual receiving portions;
wherein said receiving portions are spaced apart from one another in a manner that corresponds with the spacing apart of said fixing elements when said fixing elements are adhesively attached at the surface of the vehicle windshield;
wherein each one of said receiving portions is configured to receive the elongated portion of a respective and corresponding one of said fixing elements;
wherein said plurality of individual fixing elements comprises at least three individual fixing elements and wherein said plurality of individual receiving portions comprises at least three individual receiving portions;
wherein said elongated portions of said fixing elements are at least partially received in respective and corresponding ones of said receiving portions of said frame and cooperate with said receiving portions to attach said frame at the vehicle windshield via said fixing elements when said fixing elements are adhesively attached at the surface of the vehicle windshield;
wherein said frame comprises structure for receiving an accessory thereat;
said accessory comprising a camera;
wherein, when said accessory is received at said structure of said frame, the line of vision of said camera passes through an aperture existing in said frame;
wherein said aperture in said frame, when said frame is attached at said fixing elements adhesively attached at the surface of the vehicle windshield, generally corresponds with a light transmissive aperture of a light absorbing layer of the vehicle windshield;
wherein, with said frame attached at said fixing elements adhesively attached at the surface of the vehicle windshield, the line of vision of said camera passes through both said aperture in said frame and the light transmissive aperture in the light absorbing layer when said accessory is received at said structure of said frame; and
wherein said accessory mounting system is separate from an interior rearview mirror assembly of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,911,050

DRIVER ACTIVE SAFETY CONTROL SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

Magna Electronics Inc., ...

1. A driver active safety control system for a vehicle, said driver active safety control system comprising:
a plurality of image capture sensors configured to be disposed at a vehicle equipped with said driver active safety control
system so as to have respective fields of view exterior of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said plurality of image capture sensors comprises at least (i) a forward viewing image capture sensor configured to
be disposed at the equipped vehicle so as to have a forward field of view in a direction of forward travel of the equipped
vehicle, (ii) a rearward viewing image capture sensor configured to be disposed at the equipped vehicle so as to have a rearward
field of view in a direction of rearward travel of the equipped vehicle, (iii) a driver-side sideward viewing image capture
sensor configured to be disposed at a driver side of the body of the equipped vehicle so as to have a driver-side sideward
field of view sideward of the equipped vehicle and (iv) a passenger-side sideward viewing image capture sensor configured
to be disposed at a passenger side of the body of the equipped vehicle so as to have a passenger-side sideward field of view
sideward of the equipped vehicle;

a video display screen for displaying video images derived from image data captured at least by said rearward viewing image
capture sensor, said driver-side sideward viewing image capture sensor and said passenger-side sideward viewing image capture
sensor of said plurality of image capture sensors, wherein said video display screen is viewable by a driver of a vehicle
equipped with said driver active safety control system;

a central driver active safety control module;
wherein said central driver active safety control module at least comprises an image processor, a vision core and a fusion
core;

wherein image data captured by said plurality of image capture sensors is provided to said central driver active safety control
module;

wherein said image processor processes, via machine vision analysis, image data captured by and received from at least said
forward viewing image capture sensor for at least one of (i) automatic headlamp control, (ii) lane departure warning and (iii)
traffic sign recognition;

wherein said vision core is operable to manipulate image data captured by and received at least from said rearward viewing
image capture sensor, said driver-side sideward viewing image capture sensor and said passenger-side sideward viewing image
capture sensor of said plurality of image capture sensors to form said video images for displaying on said video display screen
for viewing by the driver of the equipped vehicle;

at least one non-imaging sensor configured to be disposed at the equipped vehicle and sensing exterior the equipped vehicle;
wherein sensor data captured by said at least one non-imaging sensor is provided to said central driver active safety control
module;

wherein said fusion core at least receives (a) input from said image processor, (b) input from said vision core and (c) input
from said at least one non-imaging sensor;

wherein said fusion core receives input from at least one of (i) a global positioning system, (ii) a telematics system, (iii)
a Car2Car communication system and (iv) a Car2X communication system;

wherein said fusion core receives vehicle data relating to operation of the equipped vehicle, said vehicle data comprising
at least one of (i) vehicle speed data, (ii) vehicle steering wheel angle data, (iii) vehicle yaw rate data, (iv) vehicle
type data and (v) vehicle acceleration data;

wherein said fusion core is operable to process vehicle data and inputs received (a) from said image processor, (b) from said
vision core, (c) from said at least one non-imaging sensor and (d) from at least one of (i) a global positioning system, (ii)
a telematics system, (iii) a Car2Car communication system and (iv) a Car2X communication system to enhance control by said
central driver active safety control module of a driver assistance system of the equipped vehicle; and

wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said central driver active safety control module of at least one selected
from the group consisting of (i) captured image data and (ii) captured sensor data, presence of an object rearward of the
equipped vehicle is determined.

US Pat. No. 9,908,495

VEHICLE SAFETY SYSTEM FOR CONTROLLING A SAFETY FEATURE

Magna Electronics Inc., ...

1. A safety system for a vehicle, said safety system comprising:
an imaging sensor configured to be disposed at a vehicle equipped with said safety system so as to have an exterior field
of view external of the equipped vehicle;

said imaging sensor capturing image data;
an image processor operable to process image data captured by said imaging sensor to detect a vehicle exterior the equipped
vehicle and to determine if a collision between the detected vehicle and the equipped vehicle is pending;

wherein, responsive to such determination of the pending collision when a reverse gear of the vehicle is not engaged, a safety
feature of the vehicle is triggered before any actual impact occurs;

wherein the triggered safety feature comprises a reversible feature selected from the group consisting of (i) a reversible
adjustment of a seat headrest of the equipped vehicle, (ii) a reversible adjustment of a seat belt of the equipped vehicle,
(iii) a reversible adjustment of a seat setting of the equipped vehicle and (iv) a reversible adjustment of a door lock of
the equipped vehicle;

wherein, if the pending collision is avoided or otherwise does not occur, the adjusted safety feature returns to its unadjusted
condition that existed prior to such determination of the pending collision; and

wherein operation of the safety feature changes when the reverse gear of the vehicle is engaged.

US Pat. No. 9,896,039

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM WITH FORWARD VIEWING CAMERA

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vehicle vision system comprising:
a camera module configured to attach at an in-cabin surface of a windshield of a vehicle equipped with said vision system;
wherein said camera module comprises a housing and an imager assembly;
wherein said imager assembly comprises a structure and an imager and a lens, and wherein said imager is disposed at an imager
circuit board of said imager assembly;

a thermal element configured to attach at said structure of said imager assembly, wherein said thermal element comprises a
support element and a thermal pad disposed at least partially along said support element;

wherein, with said thermal element attached at said structure of said imager assembly, a first portion of said thermal pad
is engaged with and in thermal conductivity with said imager circuit board, and wherein, with said imager assembly disposed
at said housing of said camera module, a second portion of said thermal pad is engaged with and in thermal conductivity with
said housing;

wherein said thermal element comprises a clip portion that clips onto said structure of said imager assembly to engage said
first portion of said thermal pad with said imager circuit board; and

wherein said clip portion is configured so that said second portion of said thermal pad is angled relative to said first portion
of said thermal pad, and wherein, with said clip portion clipped onto said structure of said imager assembly and with said
imager assembly disposed at said housing of said camera module, said first portion of said thermal pad extends partially along
and is pressed into engagement with said imager circuit board and said second portion of said thermal pad extends partially
along and is pressed into engagement with said housing.

US Pat. No. 9,868,404

VEHICULAR CAMERA WITH ALIGNED HOUSING MEMBERS AND ELECTRICAL CONNECTION BETWEEN ALIGNED HOUSING MEMBERS

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A camera for mounting on a vehicle, the camera comprising:
a front housing member comprising a lens, an imaging element and a circuit board;
wherein the circuit board comprises a set of front electrical connectors;
a rear housing member;
wherein the rear housing member mates with the front housing member along a first axis;
wherein the rear housing member comprises a set of rear electrical connectors that, with the rear housing member mated with
the front housing member, directly contact the front electrical connectors without use of a jumper;

wherein one set of the sets of front and rear electrical connectors is a set of male electrical connectors and the other set
of the sets of front and rear electrical connectors is a set of female electrical connectors;

wherein each female electrical connector has jaw structure including first and second jaws; and
wherein the first and second jaws together define a second axis along which the first and second jaws clamp a male electrical
connector.

US Pat. No. 9,834,153

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR DYNAMICALLY CALIBRATING VEHICULAR CAMERAS

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A method of dynamically calibrating a given vehicular camera relative to a reference camera attached to the vehicle, the
given camera and the reference camera comprising pixelated imaging arrays, said method comprising:
providing a plurality of cameras at the vehicle so that the cameras have respective exterior fields of view, the cameras capturing
image data;

selecting from the plurality of cameras a reference camera and a given camera, wherein the selected reference camera and the
selected given camera have overlapping fields of view;

capturing an actual given image frame of image data by the given camera;
capturing an actual reference image frame of image data by the reference camera;
identifying an overlapping region in the actual given image frame of image data captured by the given camera and the actual
reference image frame of image data captured by the reference camera;

selecting at least one object or at least a portion of an object present in the overlapping region of the actual reference
image frame captured by the reference camera;

determining expected pixel positions of the selected object or object portion for a predicted given image frame as would be
captured by the given camera based on the location of the selected object or object portion in the actual reference image
frame captured by the reference camera;

locating, via processing of the actual given image frame captured by the given camera, actual pixel positions of the selected
object or object portion as detected in the actual given image frame captured by the given camera; and

determining alignment of the given camera based at least in part on a comparison of the actual pixel positions of the selected
object or object portion in the actual given image frame captured by the given camera to the expected pixel positions of the
selected object or object portion for the predicted given image frame.

US Pat. No. 9,824,285

VEHICULAR CONTROL SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A control system for a vehicle, said control system comprising:
a forward-viewing camera that is disposed behind a windshield of a vehicle equipped with said control system so as to view
at least forwardly of the equipped vehicle through the windshield;

an image processor operable to process image data captured by said forward-viewing camera;
wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward-viewing
camera, said control system is operable to detect a traffic light;

wherein said control system is operable to determine a change in state of the traffic light from red to green;
wherein said control system is operable to determine that the equipped vehicle is stopped;
wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward-viewing
camera, said control system determines that the equipped vehicle is stopped at a red traffic light;

wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward-viewing
camera, said control system determines that another vehicle is ahead of the equipped vehicle at the traffic light;

wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward-viewing
camera, said control system determines a change in state of the traffic light from red to green;

wherein, responsive at least in part to processing by said image processor of image data captured by said forward-viewing
camera, said control system determines that the other vehicle ahead of the equipped vehicle is moving; and

wherein, responsive to at least one of (a) a threshold period of time elapsing during which the other vehicle ahead of the
equipped vehicle has not moved after the traffic light changes state from red to green and (b) the other vehicle ahead of
the equipped vehicle moving a threshold distance away from the equipped vehicle, said control system is operable to at least
one of (i) generate an alert and (ii) control a vehicle system of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,802,609

COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A collision avoidance system suitable for use in a vehicle, said collision avoidance system comprising:
a forward-viewing camera disposed at a vehicle equipped with said collision avoidance system, said forward-viewing camera
having a field of view forward of the equipped vehicle;

wherein the field of view of said forward-viewing camera at least encompasses (i) a traffic lane the equipped vehicle is driving
in and (ii) an adjacent traffic lane that is adjacent to the traffic lane the equipped vehicle is driving in;

a first image processor operable to process image data captured by said forward-viewing camera;
wherein, responsive at least in part to image processing by said first image processor of image data captured by said forward-viewing
camera, said collision avoidance system detects the presence of vehicles present ahead of the equipped vehicle;

wherein, responsive at least in part to image processing by said first image processor of image data captured by said forward-viewing
camera, said collision avoidance system is operable to determine a detected vehicle to be present in the traffic lane the
equipped vehicle is driving in;

wherein, responsive at least in part to image processing by said first image processor of image data captured by said forward-viewing
camera, said collision avoidance system is operable to determine a detected vehicle to be present in an adjacent traffic lane
that is adjacent to the traffic lane the equipped vehicle is driving in;

a plurality of other sensors disposed at the equipped vehicle;
wherein said plurality of other sensors sense at least forwardly and sidewardly of the equipped vehicle;
wherein said plurality of other sensors capture sensor data;
a rearward-viewing camera disposed at the equipped vehicle, said rearward-viewing camera having a field of view rearward of
the equipped vehicle;

wherein the field of view of said rearward-viewing camera encompasses (i) the traffic lane the equipped vehicle is driving
in and (ii) an adjacent traffic lane that is adjacent to the traffic lane the equipped vehicle is driving in;

a second image processor operable to process image data captured by said rearward-viewing camera;
wherein, responsive at least in part to image processing by said second image processor of image data captured by said rearward-viewing
camera, said collision avoidance system detects the presence of vehicles present rearward of the equipped vehicle;

wherein, responsive at least in part to image processing by said second image processor of image data captured by said rearward-viewing
camera, said collision avoidance system is operable to determine a detected vehicle to be present in the traffic lane the
equipped vehicle is driving in;

wherein, responsive at least in part to image processing by said second image processor of image data captured by said rearward-viewing
camera, said collision avoidance system is operable to determine a detected vehicle to be present in an adjacent traffic lane
that is adjacent to the traffic lane the equipped vehicle is driving in;

wherein information relating to other vehicles present exterior the equipped vehicle is wirelessly transmitted to the equipped
vehicle via a car2car (v2v) communication system;

wherein information relating to the equipped vehicle is wirelessly transmitted to other vehicles present exterior the equipped
vehicle via the car2car (v2v) communication system; and

wherein, responsive at least in part to at least one of (i) image processing by said first image processor of image data captured
by said forward-viewing camera, (ii) image processing by said second image processor of image data captured by said rearward-viewing
camera, (iii) radar data sensed by at least one radar sensor of said plurality of other sensors, (iv) lidar data sensed by
at least one lidar sensor of said plurality of other sensors and (v) information transmitted to or from the equipped vehicle
via the car2car (v2v) communication system, said collision avoidance system is operable to determine imminence of collision with the equipped
vehicle by another vehicle present exterior the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,800,983

VEHICLE IN CABIN SOUND PROCESSING SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

12. A sound system of a vehicle, said sound system comprising:
a plurality of microphones disposed in a cabin of a vehicle equipped with said sound system, wherein said plurality of microphones
comprises at least one microphone disposed at or near respective ones of a plurality of seats in the cabin of the equipped
vehicle so that each microphone principally receives sound emanating from an occupant of a respective seat and does not principally
receive sound emanating from occupants of other seats of the equipped vehicle;

a plurality of speakers disposed in the cabin of the equipped vehicle, wherein said plurality of speakers comprises at least
one speaker disposed at or near respective ones of the seats in the cabin of the equipped vehicle so that the each speaker
generates sound principally toward an occupant of a respective seat and does not generate sound principally toward occupants
of other seats of the equipped vehicle;

a sound processor operable to process microphone output signals of said microphones to determine a voice signal of a speaking
occupant at one of the seats in the equipped vehicle at or near at least one of said microphones;

wherein, responsive to processing of microphone output signals, said sound processor generates a processor output signal that
is representative of the voice signal of the speaking occupant and that is provided to at least some of said speakers at others
of the seats in the equipped vehicle; and

wherein, responsive to said processor output signal, at least one of said speakers at at least one other occupied seat in
the equipped vehicle generates sound representative of the voice signal of the speaking occupant to direct the sound towards
at least one occupant at the at least one other occupied seat in the equipped vehicle, while a speaker at or near the seat
occupied by the speaking occupant does not generate sound representative of the voice signal of the speaking occupant so as
to not direct the sound representative of the voice signal towards the speaking occupant.

US Pat. No. 9,783,125

ACCESSORY SYSTEM FOR A VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. An accessory system for a vehicle, said accessory system comprising:
an accessory disposed at and behind a windshield of a vehicle equipped with said accessory system;
wherein said accessory comprises a forward facing camera, said forward facing camera viewing forward of the equipped vehicle
through the windshield of the equipped vehicle;

a control;
wherein said control comprises digital circuitry and a microprocessor;
wherein said control controls at least said forward facing camera;
wherein said control comprises a bus interface that connects with a vehicle network of the equipped vehicle;
wherein said control sends data via said vehicle network of the equipped vehicle and receives data via said vehicle network
of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said vehicle network comprises a controlled area network;
wherein said control connects with said vehicle network via at least one of (i) a cable connection and (ii) a fiber-optic
connection; and

wherein said control communicates with a global positioning system of the equipped vehicle over said vehicle network.

US Pat. No. 9,774,790

METHOD FOR ENHANCING VEHICLE CAMERA IMAGE QUALITY

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A method of image enhancement for a vehicle vision system, said method comprising:
(a) providing a camera at a vehicle so that the camera has an exterior field of view;
(b) providing a processor operable to process image data;
(c) capturing multiple frames of image data with the camera;
(d) executing a first brightness transfer function on a current frame of image data captured by the camera to generate a first
enhanced image frame;

(e) retrieving at least one previously captured frame of image data;
(f) executing a second brightness transfer function on the at least one previously captured frame of image data to generate
a second enhanced image frame, wherein the second brightness transfer function is different from the first brightness transfer
function;

(g) blending the first and second enhanced image frames to generate a blended enhanced image frame;
repeating steps (d)-(g) so as to generate multiple blended enhanced image frames;
(h) detecting, via processing of blended enhanced image frames by the processor, presence of an object in the field of view
of the camera; and

(i) generating an output responsive to detection of the object present in the field of view of the camera.

US Pat. No. 9,764,744

VEHICLE YAW RATE ESTIMATION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A yaw rate estimation system for a vehicle, said yaw rate estimation system comprising:
a yaw rate sensor disposed at a vehicle equipped with said yaw rate estimation system;
wheel sensors disposed at wheels of the equipped vehicle;
an acceleration sensor disposed at the equipped vehicle and operable to determine lateral acceleration of the equipped vehicle;
a steering wheel angle sensor disposed at the equipped vehicle and operable to determine an angle of a steering wheel of the
equipped vehicle;

a control system disposed at the equipped vehicle and receiving inputs indicative of (i) a first yaw rate determined by said
yaw rate sensor of the equipped vehicle, (ii) a second yaw rate derived from said wheel sensors of the equipped vehicle, (iii)
a third yaw rate derived from a lateral acceleration of the equipped vehicle as determined by said acceleration sensor, and
(iv) a fourth yaw rate derived from a steering wheel angle, wheel angle and rate of change of steering wheel angle as determined
by said steering wheel angle sensor; and

wherein said control system processes said inputs to estimate the actual yaw rate of the equipped vehicle, and wherein the
estimated actual yaw rate is derived from said inputs.

US Pat. No. 9,715,769

PROCESS FOR DETERMINING STATE OF A VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A process for robustly determining a stationary state of a vehicle equipped with a driver assistance system, said process
comprising:
providing a camera comprising a lens and a photosensor array;
said photosensor array comprising a plurality of photosensor elements arranged in a matrix that comprises multiple columns
of photosensor elements and multiple rows of photosensor elements;

disposing said camera at or proximate to an in-cabin portion of a windshield of an equipped vehicle;
wherein said camera has a forward field of view to the exterior of the equipped vehicle through the windshield of the equipped
vehicle;

operating said camera to capture image data;
providing a control comprising an image processor;
providing image data captured by said camera to said image processor;
operating said image processor to process captured image data to determine lane delimiters present in the field of view of
said camera;

connecting said control to a vehicle communication bus of the equipped vehicle;
receiving vehicle data at said control via said vehicle communication bus;
wherein vehicle data is provided to said control via said vehicle communication bus by an accelerometer of the equipped vehicle
and by at least one of (i) a transmission sensor of the equipped vehicle and (ii) a speed sensor of the equipped vehicle;

executing at said control a vehicle stationary detection routine wherein longitudinal acceleration of the equipped vehicle
is provided by said accelerometer over a selected duration of time to said control;

determining at said control a rate of change of acceleration of the equipped vehicle to establish a jerk value;
at least one of (i) receiving at said control speed of the equipped vehicle as sensed by said speed sensor and (ii) receiving
at said control transmission status of the equipped vehicle as sensed by said transmission sensor; and

determining that the equipped vehicle is stationary when at least one of (i) said control determines a jerk value that is
approximately zero for the selected duration of time and said control receives vehicle data indicating that the speed of the
equipped vehicle was approximately zero kilometer/hour for the selected duration of time and (ii) said control determines
a jerk value that is approximately zero for the selected duration of time and said control receives vehicle data indicating
that the transmission of the equipped vehicle was in ‘Park’ for the selected duration of time.

US Pat. No. 9,701,258

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system of a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a camera disposed in an interior cabin of a vehicle equipped with said vision system, said camera having a field of view that
encompasses at least a hand of a driver of the equipped vehicle;

a control comprising an image processor operable to process image data captured by said camera;
wherein said control, responsive to image processing of captured image data by said image processor, is operable to determine
a movement of a hand of the driver of the equipped vehicle;

wherein, responsive to determination of movement of the driver's hand, said control is operable to determine if the movement
is indicative of a gesture for controlling an accessory of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said control learns habitual movements of the driver's hand and is operable to distinguish intended gestures from
learned habitual movements; and

wherein, responsive to (i) determination that a detected gesture is not indicative of a learned habitual movement and (ii)
determination that the detected gesture is indicative of an intended gesture for controlling an accessory of the equipped
vehicle, said control generates an output for controlling the accessory.

US Pat. No. 9,674,490

VISION SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE WITH ADJUSTABLE CAMERAS

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system of a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a forward viewing imager disposed at a forward portion of a vehicle equipped with said vision system and having a forward
field of view forward of the vehicle;

a rearward viewing imager disposed at a rearward portion of the vehicle and having a rearward field of view rearward of the
vehicle;

sideward viewing imagers disposed at respective side portions of the vehicle and having respective sideward fields of view
sideward of the vehicle at the respective side of the vehicle at which said sideward viewing imagers are disposed;

wherein at least one of (i) the forward field of view of said forward viewing imager is dynamically adjustable responsive
to a vehicle input, (ii) the rearward field of view of said rearward viewing imager is dynamically adjustable responsive to
a vehicle input and (iii) the sideward fields of view of said sideward viewing imagers are dynamically adjustable responsive
to a vehicle input;

wherein, responsive to the vehicle input being indicative of one of (i) rearward travel of the vehicle and (ii) traveling
speed of the vehicle being less than a first threshold level, the field of view of at least one of said imagers is adjusted
to encompass a ground region immediately adjacent the portion of the vehicle at which said at least one of said imagers is
disposed;

wherein, when the field of view of said at least one of said imagers is adjusted to encompass the respective ground region,
said vision system uses image data captured by at least some of said imagers for displaying a surround view of the vehicle
derived at least in part from image data captured by at least some of said imagers;

wherein, responsive to the vehicle input being indicative of forward traveling speed of the vehicle being greater than a second
threshold level, the field of view of said at least one of said imagers is adjusted to encompass a distant region further
away from the vehicle compared to the respective ground region; and

wherein, when the field of view of said at least one of said imagers is adjusted to encompass the respective distant region,
said vision system processes image data captured by said at least one of said imagers for a collision avoidance system.

US Pat. No. 9,637,053

ACCESSORY MOUNTING SYSTEM FOR A VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. An accessory system for a vehicle, said accessory system comprising:
an attachment element bonded by an adhesive to an in-cabin windshield surface at a first windshield location of a windshield
of a vehicle equipped with said accessory system;

an attachment member attached at the in-cabin windshield surface of the vehicle windshield at a second windshield location
that is separate and spaced from the first windshield location where said attachment element is located;

an interior rearview mirror assembly comprising a mirror head and a mirror support;
wherein said mirror head comprises a mirror reflective element and a mirror casing;
wherein said mirror support comprises a mirror mount that is configured to mount said interior rearview mirror assembly to
said attachment element;

a module configured to be received by and be supported by said attachment member attached at the in-cabin windshield surface
of the vehicle windshield;

wherein said module comprises a forward facing camera;
wherein said forward facing camera comprises (i) an image sensor and (ii) a lens;
wherein said forward facing camera has a dynamic range greater than about 60 dB;
wherein, with said module received by and supported by said attachment member attached at the in-cabin windshield surface
of the vehicle windshield, said forward facing camera views through the vehicle windshield;

wherein said forward facing camera comprises part of a driver assistance system of the equipped vehicle;
wherein, with said module received by and supported by said attachment member attached at the in-cabin windshield surface
of the vehicle windshield, said mirror mount can be mounted to said attachment element and can be demounted from said attachment
element without demounting said module from said attachment member;

wherein, with said module received by and supported by said attachment member attached at the in-cabin windshield surface
of the vehicle windshield, said module can be removed for service or replacement;

wherein a light absorbing layer disposed at the vehicle windshield at least partially masks the presence of said attachment
member from view from outside the equipped vehicle viewing through the vehicle windshield; and

wherein said driver assistance system comprises at least one of (i) an automatic headlamp control system of the equipped vehicle
and (ii) a collision avoidance system of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,598,014

VISION DISPLAY SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision display system for a vehicle, said vision display system comprising:
a rear backup camera disposed at a rear portion of a vehicle equipped with said vision display system;
said rear backup camera having a field of view exterior and rearward of the equipped vehicle;
a display device comprising a video display screen disposed in the interior cabin of the equipped vehicle and viewable by
a driver of the equipped vehicle, said video display screen having a diagonal dimension of at least 5 inches;

wherein said display device undergoes initialization at initial ignition on of the equipped vehicle;
wherein, upon an engine of the equipped vehicle being started after initial ignition on of the equipped vehicle, initialization
of said display device is delayed or overridden upon shifting of a vehicle transmission of the equipped vehicle into reverse
gear to commence a reversing maneuver in order to give priority to display by said video display screen of video images derived
from image data captured by said rear backup camera during that reversing maneuver;

wherein, within two seconds of that shifting of the vehicle transmission of the equipped vehicle into reverse gear, said display
device displays on said video display screen video images derived from image data captured by said rear backup camera;

wherein video images derived from image data captured by said rear backup camera are displayed by said video display screen
for no more than 10 seconds after the vehicle transmission of the equipped vehicle is shifted out of reverse gear; and

wherein said vision display system prohibits display by said video display screen of other than video images derived from
image data captured by said rear backup camera upon shifting of the vehicle transmission into reverse gear to commence a reversing
maneuver until the reversing maneuver is completed unless, after the shifting of the vehicle transmission into reverse, a
user of the equipped vehicle operates a user input to change to another video image derived from image data captured by said
rear backup camera.

US Pat. No. 10,099,614

VISION SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:an image sensor disposed at a subject vehicle and having an exterior field of view exterior of the subject vehicle;
a control, wherein said control comprises a processor that processes image data captured by said image sensor to detect objects present exterior of the subject vehicle and in the field of view of said image sensor;
wherein said control processes captured image data to detect points of interest of an object present in the field of view of said image sensor, and wherein detected points of interest of the detected object comprise detected corner features of the detected object that is present in the field of view of said image sensor, and wherein the detected object has a height above ground, and wherein the detected corner features of the detected object are disposed at respective heights of the detected object above ground;
wherein said control processes captured image data to determine movement vectors of the detected points of interest of the detected object, and wherein, responsive to said processing of captured image data, said control determines whether determined movement vectors of detected points of interest of the detected object present in the field of view of said image sensor are indicative of an object of interest present in the field of view of said image sensor;
wherein a parabolic region of interest in which objects exterior of the subject vehicle are likely objects of interest is defined by a parabolic boundary having an apex located centrally within the field of view of said image sensor and above a middle region of the field of view of said image sensor; and
wherein determined movement vectors that are less than a threshold pixel length are not considered indicative of an object of interest, and wherein the detected object is not considered an object of interest when the detected corner features of the detected object are above and outside the parabolic boundary of the parabolic region of interest.

US Pat. No. 10,071,687

VISION SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:multiple cameras disposed at a vehicle each having a field of view exterior of the vehicle;
a display device operable to display, for viewing by a driver of the vehicle, at least one of (a) video images derived from image data captured by at least some of said cameras and (b) a composite image formed from image data captured by at least some of said cameras;
a central processing unit comprising an image processor, wherein said central processing unit is in communication with said cameras and a remote device;
wherein image data captured by at least some of said cameras is sent to said central processing unit and wherein said image data as sent is substantially unmodified and is as captured by the respective ones of said at least some of said cameras;
wherein, responsive to processing by said image processor of image data captured by at least some of said cameras, said central processing unit determines presence of an object in the field of view of at least one of said cameras;
wherein said central processing unit receives system updates from the remote device via wireless communications from the remote device, and wherein the updates include updating of image processing software used by said image processor;
wherein said system receives inputs from at least one non-permanently mounted device; and
wherein said non-permanently mounted device comprises a camera that is wirelessly linked via a non-permanent wired connected device that receives image data from said camera via a wireless port, and wherein said non-permanent wired connected device comprises a mobile phone device with a wireless interface for transferring image data captured by said camera.

US Pat. No. 9,961,241

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM WITH CAMERA HAVING MOLDED INTERCONNECT DEVICE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A camera for a vision system of a vehicle, said camera comprising:a housing comprising a front housing portion and a rear housing portion;
wherein said camera is configured to be disposed at a vehicle so as to have a field of view interior or exterior of the vehicle;
wherein said front housing portion houses a lens assembly;
wherein said rear housing portion has a connector portion for electrically connecting circuitry of said camera to an electrical connector of the vehicle when said camera is disposed at the vehicle;
wherein said rear housing portion comprises a first printed circuit board at a first structure and a second printed circuit board at a second structure;
wherein said front housing portion is mated with said rear housing portion to house said first and second printed circuit boards;
wherein said first printed circuit board has a first surface and a second surface opposite said first surface, said second surface of said first printed circuit board contacting said first structure of said rear housing portion;
wherein said second printed circuit board has a first surface and a second surface opposite said first surface, said second surface of said second printed circuit board contacting said second structure of said rear housing portion;
wherein said second printed circuit board has an imager disposed at said first surface of said second printed circuit board, and wherein said imager comprises an imaging array having a plurality of photosensing elements;
wherein said rear housing portion comprises electrically connecting elements established at and between said first structure and said second structure via molded interconnect device (MID) technology;
wherein said electrically connecting elements electrically connect between electrical contacts at said first structure and electrical contacts at said second structure;
wherein said imager is electrically connected to connecting pads at said second surface of said second printed circuit board, and wherein said connecting pads at said second surface of said second printed circuit board electrically connect at said electrical contacts at said second structure; and
wherein said first printed circuit board has first circuitry disposed at said first surface of said first printed circuit board, and wherein said first circuitry is electrically connected to connecting pads at said second surface of said first printed circuit board, and wherein said connecting pads at said second surface of said first printed circuit board electrically connect at said electrical contacts at said first structure.

US Pat. No. 9,919,705

DRIVER ASSIST SYSTEM WITH IMAGE PROCESSING AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A driver assist system for a vehicle, said driver assist system comprising:
a camera disposed at a vehicle equipped with said driver assist system, said camera having a field of view exterior of the
equipped vehicle and operable to capture image data;

a receiver disposed at the equipped vehicle and operable to receive a wireless communication;
wherein the wireless communication is associated with and emanates from a communication device disposed at another vehicle
that is forward of the equipped vehicle along a road being traveled by the equipped vehicle and outside the field of view
of said camera;

a control comprising a data processor;
wherein said data processor processes image data captured by said camera to detect objects within the field of view of said
camera;

wherein said wireless communication comprises a car-to-car communication;
wherein said driver assist system, when a potential hazard exists in a forward path of travel of the equipped vehicle and
outside of the field of view of said camera, determines the potential hazard existing in the forward path of travel of the
equipped vehicle responsive at least in part to said wireless communication received by said receiver;

wherein said driver assist system, responsive to determination that the potential hazard will move to be within the field
of view of said camera, processes image data captured by said camera to determine when the potential hazard is within the
field of view of said camera; and

wherein said control, responsive at least in part to determination that the potential hazard is in the forward path of travel
of the equipped vehicle and within the field of view of said camera, controls at least one vehicle function of the equipped
vehicle to mitigate the potential hazard in the forward path of travel of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,912,876

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM WITH ENHANCED LOW LIGHT CAPABILITIES

Magna Electronics Inc., ...

1. A vehicular multi-camera vision system, said vehicular multi-camera vision system comprising:
a plurality of cameras disposed at a vehicle, each having a field of view exterior of the vehicle and each comprising a two
dimensional array of a plurality of photosensing elements;

a control comprising an image processor operable to process image data captured by said cameras;
said cameras comprising a rear-mounted camera disposed at a rear portion of the vehicle and having a field of view at least
rearward of the vehicle;

said cameras comprising a front-mounted camera disposed at a front portion of the vehicle and having a field of view at least
forward of the vehicle;

said cameras comprising a driver side-mounted camera disposed at a driver side portion of the vehicle and having a field of
view at least sideward of the vehicle;

said cameras comprising a passenger side-mounted camera disposed at a passenger side portion of the vehicle and having a field
of view at least sideward of the vehicle;

a display device viewable by a driver of the vehicle, wherein said display device comprising a video display screen;
wherein said control is operable to control a display intensity of video images displayed by said video display screen; and
wherein, responsive to a determination of a reduction in exterior ambient light level within the field of view of at least
one of said cameras, said control holds display intensity of video images displayed by said video display screen to within
15 percent of the display intensity that was displayed before the determination of the reduction in exterior ambient light
level by (a) adjusting an exposure time for image data capture by at least some of said cameras and by (b) at least one of
(i) adjusting a frame rate of image data capture by at least one of said cameras and (ii) adjusting a gain of at least one
of said cameras.

US Pat. No. 9,908,385

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM WITH ENHANCED FUNCTIONALITY

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
at least one camera disposed at a vehicle equipped with said vision system, wherein said at least one camera has a field of
view exterior of the equipped vehicle;

a control comprising an image processor for processing image data captured by said at least one camera;
wherein said control, responsive at least in part to image processing of captured image data by said image processor, is operable
to at least one of (i) control an HVAC system of the equipped vehicle responsive to a type of vehicle detected exterior of
the equipped vehicle, (ii) control an HVAC system of the equipped vehicle responsive to a vehicle detected exterior of the
equipped vehicle being within a threshold distance of the equipped vehicle and (iii) control an HVAC system of the equipped
vehicle responsive to detection of a construction zone; and

wherein said control, responsive at least in part to image processing of captured image data by said image processor, is operable
to put the HVAC system of the equipped vehicle into recirculation mode.

US Pat. No. 9,883,080

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM WITH COLOR CORRECTION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A method for processing color image data captured by a vehicular camera disposed at a vehicle to correct for color error,
said method comprising:
providing a color camera comprising an imaging array having a plurality of photosensors;
disposing one or more spectral filters at or in front of photosensors of the plurality of photosensors of the imaging array;
disposing the color camera at a vehicle so as to have a field of view exterior of the vehicle;
providing an image processor;
capturing image data with the color camera;
providing captured image data to the image processor;
processing image data captured by the color camera via the image processor;
wherein said processing of image data comprises processing via an algorithmic loop that corrects color variation due to lighting
conditions so that images derived from captured image data are color corrected; and

wherein the algorithmic loop comprises processing image data in a color correction loop for color correction.

US Pat. No. 9,738,224

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system suitable for use for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a monitoring system operable to determine a gaze direction of a driver of a vehicle equipped with said vision system, said
monitoring system comprising an interior viewing camera having a field of view interior of the equipped vehicle and directed
generally towards the head of the driver of the equipped vehicle, wherein, responsive to processing of image data captured
by said interior viewing camera, said monitoring system determines the gaze direction of the driver of the equipped vehicle;

a plurality of exterior viewing cameras disposed at the equipped vehicle and having respective fields of view exterior of
the equipped vehicle;

a display system operable to display images for viewing by the driver of the equipped vehicle; and
wherein, responsive at least in part to determination by said monitoring system that the gaze direction of the driver is towards
a non-transparent portion of the equipped vehicle, said display system displays an image derived from image data captured
by at least one of said plurality of exterior viewing cameras to display a representation of the driver's view as it would
be through the non-transparent portion of the equipped vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,740,945

DRIVER ASSISTANCE SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A driver assistance system of a vehicle, said driver assistance system comprising:
a camera configured to be disposed at a vehicle equipped with said driver assistance system so as to have a field of view
forward of the equipped vehicle;

a control comprising an image processor operable to process image data captured by said camera when disposed at the equipped
vehicle to determine an object present in the forward field of view of said camera;

wherein a projected path of travel of the equipped vehicle is determined at least in part by processing of captured image
data by said image processor;

a communication system of the equipped vehicle, wherein said communication system is operable to receive vehicle information
pertaining to another vehicle;

wherein said control is operable to process vehicle information received by said communication system to determine an estimated
time to arrival of the other vehicle at a location in the projected path of travel of the equipped vehicle;

wherein, responsive at least in part to a determination that the estimated time to arrival is less than a threshold amount,
said control generates an alert to the driver of the equipped vehicle that it is not safe to proceed along the projected path
of travel;

wherein, responsive at least in part to (i) a determination that the estimated time to arrival is greater than the threshold
amount and (ii) a determination via image processing of captured image data that an object is present in the projected path
of travel of the equipped vehicle, said control generates an alert to the driver of the equipped vehicle that it is not safe
to proceed along the projected path of travel;

wherein the projected path of travel is a turn at an intersection, and wherein said communication system receives information
pertaining to a state of a signal light at the intersection; and

wherein, responsive to the information being indicative of the signal light being green and responsive to a turn signal of
the equipped vehicle being activated, said control determines the estimated time to arrival of the other vehicle at the intersection.

US Pat. No. 9,761,142

DRIVER ASSISTANT SYSTEM USING INFLUENCE MAPPING FOR CONFLICT AVOIDANCE PATH DETERMINATION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A driver assistance system for a vehicle, said driver assistance system comprising:
a plurality of sensors disposed at a vehicle equipped with said driver assistance system, wherein said plurality of sensors
comprise at least one vehicle-based camera and at least one vehicle-based non-camera sensor, and wherein said plurality of
sensors are operable to detect objects at least one of ahead of the equipped vehicle and sideward of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said at least one vehicle-based non-camera sensor is selected from the group consisting of a vehicle-based radar sensor
disposed at the equipped vehicle and sensing exterior of the equipped vehicle and a vehicle-based lidar sensor disposed at
the equipped vehicle and sensing exterior of the equipped vehicle;

wherein said driver assistance system includes a data processor operable to process data captured by said at least one vehicle-based
non-camera sensor and said at least one vehicle-based camera to determine the presence of objects at least one of ahead of
the equipped vehicle and sideward of the equipped vehicle;

wherein, responsive to said data processing, said driver assistance system is operable to determine at least one of respective
speeds of the determined objects and respective directions of travel of the determined objects;

wherein said driver assistance system is operable to determine respective influence values for the determined objects and
wherein determined respective influence values are based on a determined potential hazard to the equipped vehicle presented
by the determined objects;

wherein, responsive to the at least one of respective speeds and respective directions of travel of the determined objects
and responsive to the determined respective influence values, a plurality of paths for the equipped vehicle is determined;

wherein the determined plurality of paths is assessed by a decision algorithm that ranks each of the determined paths based
on likelihood of collision along the respective determined path with one or more determined objects;

wherein said driver assistance system ranks the determined paths based on (i) the determined speeds of the respective objects
relative to the equipped vehicle for the respective determined path, (ii) determined distances to the respective objects from
the equipped vehicle for the respective determined path, (iii) a level of steering intervention required for the equipped
vehicle to follow the respective determined path, (iv) a level of braking required for the equipped vehicle to follow the
respective determined path, and (v) a level of acceleration required for the equipped vehicle to follow the respective determined
path;

wherein said data processor processes data captured by said at least one vehicle-based non-camera sensor and said at least
one vehicle-based camera to determine a respective type of object for the determined objects;

wherein a selected path of travel is selected from the plurality of determined paths responsive at least in part to the rankings
of the ranked paths and responsive at least in part to the determined types of objects along one or more of the determined
paths; and

wherein said driver assistance system selects the selected path of travel based in part on at least one of (i) a legislative
consideration and (ii) an ethical consideration.

US Pat. No. 9,707,896

VEHICLE CAMERA LENS DIRT PROTECTION VIA AIR FLOW

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A The vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a camera comprising an imager and a lens, wherein said camera is disposed at an exterior portion of a vehicle and has a field
of view exterior of the vehicle, and wherein said camera captures image data;

a control comprising an image processor, wherein, responsive to said image processor processing image data captured by said
camera, said control determines when there is debris at said lens of said camera;

an air flow device operable to generate and direct air flow towards said lens of said camera to direct debris away from said
lens of said camera;

a heater device that heats the air flow so that heated air flow is directed towards said lens of said camera to direct debris
away from said lens of said camera;

wherein, responsive to determination of debris at said lens of said camera by processing by said image processor of captured
image data, said control activates said air flow device to generate and direct air flow towards said lens of said camera;

a moisture separator that separates water from the air flow, wherein the separated water is discharged from the air flow via
a water discharge port that discharges the separated water away from said lens of said camera;

wherein said camera comprises a front camera comprising an imager and a lens and disposed at a forward portion of the vehicle
and having a field of view forwardly of the vehicle, and wherein said air flow device is operable to generate air flow and
direct heated air flow towards said lens of said front camera to direct debris away from said lens of said front camera; and

wherein an inlet port that receives air is disposed at a forward portion of the vehicle, and wherein said air flow device
receives air from said inlet port, and wherein said moisture separator comprises baffles disposed at or near said inlet port
of said vision system.

US Pat. No. 9,900,490

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM USING IMAGE DATA TRANSMISSION AND POWER SUPPLY VIA A COAXIAL CABLE

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

3. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a plurality of imaging sensors disposed at the vehicle and having respective exterior fields of view, each of said imaging
sensors capturing image data;

a control disposed at the vehicle;
wherein said imaging sensors are connected to said control via respective ones of a plurality of single core coaxial cables;
wherein each said single core coaxial cable commonly carries (i) image data from the respective imaging sensor, (ii) power
to the respective imaging sensor and (iii) communication data;

wherein each of said imaging sensors is operable to transmit calibration data to said control;
wherein each of said imaging sensors transmits calibration data when the respective imaging sensor is triggered to transmit
calibration data;

wherein said vision system, responsive to receipt of calibration data by said control, is operable to identify the respective
one of said imaging sensors transmitting the received calibration data; and

wherein, when initially powering up said vision system, a transceiver of each of said imaging sensors is tuned to an initial
communication mode, which is suitable for communication with at least one of (i) said control, (ii) a communication interface
of said vision system and (iii) a display device of said vision system, and wherein a communication protocol is transmitted
during the initial communication mode.

US Pat. No. 9,779,313

VEHICLE VISION SYSTEM WITH TRAILER ANGLE DETECTION

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vehicular vision system, said vehicular vision system comprising: a camera disposed at a vehicle and having an exterior
field of view at least rearward of the vehicle, wherein said camera is operable to capture image data; an image processor
operable to process captured image data; wherein, when the vehicle is towing a trailer, and based at least in part on image
processing by said image processor of image data captured by said camera during maneuvering of the vehicle and the trailer,
said vision system estimates a length of the trailer; wherein image data captured by said camera during maneuvering of the
vehicle and the trailer includes image data captured by said camera when the vehicle is maneuvered with the trailer at an
angle relative to the vehicle; wherein said vision system, responsive at least in part to image processing of captured image
data, determines a trailer angle of the trailer that is towed by the vehicle; wherein said vision system is operable to determine
a path of the trailer responsive to a steering angle of the vehicle and the determined trailer angle of the trailer and the
estimated length of the trailer; wherein said vision system, with the same force F coming from the torque of the vehicle's
engine, measures (i) the acceleration ?v when the vehicle is accelerating with the trailer being towed by the vehicle and (ii) the acceleration ?t of the vehicle without the trailer being towed; and wherein said vision system estimated the mass m of the trailer in accordance
with the equation: m=F/(?t??v); wherein, based at least in part on image processing by said image processor of image data captured by said camera during
maneuvering of the vehicle and the trailer around a curve, said vision system estimates the height of the center of mass of
the trailer by observing the trailer's nicking angle while the vehicle steers around the curve; wherein, based at least in
part on image processing by said image processor of image data captured by said camera during maneuvering of the vehicle and
the trailer, said vision system forms a three dimensional (3D) world reconstruction and plans a driving path for the vehicle
and the trailer in a way that neither impacts an object nor violates a prohibited driving space; wherein said vision system,
based at least in part on image processing by said image processor of image data captured by said camera during maneuvering
of the vehicle and the trailer, is operable to determine a distance between the trailer turning axis and the nicking point
of the hitch of the trailer by the trailer's nicking behavior while the vehicle and trailer are in motion.

US Pat. No. 9,769,381

VEHICULAR MULTI-CAMERA VISION SYSTEM

MAGNA ELECTRONICS INC., ...

1. A vision system for a vehicle, said vision system comprising:
a plurality of cameras disposed at a vehicle and having respective fields of view exterior of the vehicle;
wherein said plurality of cameras comprises a forward viewing camera having at least a forward field of view forward of the
vehicle, a rearward viewing camera having at least a rearward field of view rearward of the vehicle, a driver-side sideward
viewing camera having at least a sideward field of view at the driver side of the vehicle and a passenger-side sideward viewing
camera having at least a sideward field of view at the passenger side of the vehicle;

wherein one of said plurality of cameras functions as a master camera and other cameras of said plurality of cameras function
as slave cameras;

an image processing system operable to process image data captured by said plurality of cameras;
wherein, responsive to processing of captured image data, said vision system is operable to synthesize a composite image derived
from image data captured by at least two cameras of said plurality of cameras;

wherein at least one of said at least two cameras comprises a slave camera;
wherein operating parameters of the master camera are used by slave cameras of said plurality of cameras;
wherein operating parameters of the master camera comprise at least one of (i) white balance and (ii) color control;
wherein each of said plurality of cameras receives and sends signals via an Ethernet connection to an electronic control unit;
wherein operating parameters of the master camera are carried via Ethernet connection between the master camera and the electronic
control unit;

wherein the electronic control unit sends via Ethernet connection operating parameters carried via Ethernet connection between
the master camera and the electronic control unit to said at least one of said at least two cameras that comprises a slave
camera so that image sections of the composite image, when displayed to a driver of the vehicle by a display device of the
vehicle, appear uniform in at least one of (i) brightness at the borders of the sections and (ii) color at the borders of
the sections;

wherein Ethernet connection to said at least one of said at least two cameras that comprises a slave camera comprises utilization
of a network hub that routes camera image signal processing control commands from the master camera to said at least one of
at least two cameras that comprises a slave camera; and

wherein the network hub is one of (i) part of the master camera and (ii) part of a separate electronic control unit separate
from the master camera.