US Pat. No. 9,588,777

METHOD AND SYSTEM OF KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER BETWEEN USERS OF A SOFTWARE APPLICATION

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method comprising:
tracking steps performed by a plurality of users of a software application, based on each user's interactions with the software
application executable at a computing device of that user;

identifying a first series of steps within the tracked steps as a first task that produces an overall result within the software
application;

identifying a second series of steps within the tracked steps as a second task that also produces the same overall result
within the software application as the first task;

ranking the first and second tasks based on an identity of each user that previously performed the respective first and second
tasks;

receiving an indication of a later user performing one or more steps in at least one the first series of steps identified
for the first task or the second series of steps identified for the second task, based on the later user's interactions with
the software application executable at a computing device of the later user; and

responsive to the received indication, providing, for display on a display device coupled to the later user's computing device,
a visual representation of the first series of steps for the first task and the second series of steps for the second task
along with an indication of rank as between the first and second tasks.

US Pat. No. 9,495,807

IDENTIFYING AND EXTRACTING STRATIGRAPHIC LAYERS IN ONE OR MORE BODIES REPRESENTING A GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for identifying and extracting stratigraphic layers in one or more bodies representing a geological structure,
which comprises:
a) loading a plurality of bodies, wherein each body includes a top patch, a center of mass and a volume;
b) assigning a surface flag to each respective body, wherein each surface flag is designated as empty;
c) selecting a surface flag that is assigned to one of the plurality of bodies with a top patch that is a surface;
d) converting the selected surface flag from empty to a top surface representing a top surface flagged body;
e) selecting each one of the plurality of bodies that is below the top-surface flagged body;
f) identifying each body selected below the top-surface flagged body that is a continuation of the top-surface flagged body
using a computer processor;

g) repeating steps c)-f) for each surface flag assigned to one of the plurality of bodies with a top patch that is a surface;
h) separating each top-surface flagged body and each body identified as a respective continuation of the top-surface flagged
body from the plurality of bodies into a group of bodies, wherein each separated group of bodies excludes internal boundaries
and non-sealing edges; and

i) each group of bodies to extract one or more fluid reservoirs.

US Pat. No. 9,188,699

BASIN-TO RESERVOIR MODELING

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for generating a basin-to-reservoir model, comprising:
a) generating a through-time representation of at least one burial history property for a basin model by applying the at least
one burial history property to reservoir model elements of a reservoir model using a computer system;

b) selecting a property from at least one of reservoir model properties of the reservoir model, the at least one burial history
property, and a final property;

c) assigning a calculator to the through-time representation, wherein the calculator represents an algorithm for determination
of the final property;

d) determining the final property to be applied to the through-time representation using the calculator and the selected property;
and

e) generating the basin-to-reservoir model by assigning the final property to the reservoir model elements.

US Pat. No. 9,157,319

STRATIGRAPHIC MODELING USING PRODUCTION DATA DENSITY PROFILES

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A production logging tool data processing method that comprises:
using a logging tool to measure one or more characteristics of a formation within a borehole, of fluids within the formation
or of fluids within the borehole;

using a processing system to calculate a density profile of each of the one or more characteristics;
using the processing system to define a boundary between two reservoir simulation cells based at least in part upon the density
profile;

using the processing system to perform a simulation of a production field including the borehole based on said simulation
cells; and

presenting the simulation results to a user.

US Pat. No. 9,151,126

SYSTEM, METHOD AND COMPUTER PROGRAM PRODUCT TO SIMULATE DRILLING EVENT SCENARIOS

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A computer-implemented method to simulate drilling conditions along a wellbore, the method comprising:
(a) using a computer, determining an initial drilling temperature and pressure condition of the wellbore;
(b) using the computer, determining a final drilling temperature and pressure condition of the wellbore;
(c) using the computer, determining at least one trapped annular pressure of the wellbore based upon the initial and final
drilling temperature and pressure conditions; and

(d) using the computer, simulating the at least one trapped annular pressure the wellbore during a drilling operation.

US Pat. No. 9,598,938

METHOD AND SYSTEM OF PLANNING LATERAL WELLBORES WITHIN IRREGULAR BOUNDARIES

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method comprising:
logically dividing an irregular polygon into a plurality of contiguous sub-areas, the irregular polygon representing an outer
boundary of mineral rights, and the logically dividing by a computer system;

planning a first plurality of layouts of lateral wellbores residing in a first sub-area, each layout along a distinct azimuthal
direction, the planning by the computer system;

selecting a layout of the first plurality of layouts based on a selection criteria, the selecting creates a first selected
layout;

planning a second plurality of layouts of lateral wellbores residing in a second sub-area, each layout of the second plurality
of layouts along a distinct azimuthal direction, and the planning by the computer system;

selecting a layout of the second plurality of layouts based on a selection criteria, the selecting creates a second selected
layout;

combining the first and second selected layouts to create an overall layout for lateral wellbores within the outer boundary
of mineral rights represented by the irregular polygon, the combining by the computer system;

displaying the overall layout on a display device; and
drilling one or more of the lateral wellbores within the outer boundary of mineral rights according to the overall layout.

US Pat. No. 9,556,705

CASING JOINT ASSEMBLY FOR PRODUCING AN ANNULUS GAS CAP

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A casing joint assembly, which comprises:
a casing joint with a casing joint wall;
a first valve positioned through an opening in the casing joint wall;
a second valve positioned through another opening in the casing joint wall; and
wherein one of the first valve and the second valve permits gas to enter an annulus between a wellbore wall and the casing
joint assembly through a workstring extending into the casing joint.

US Pat. No. 9,536,143

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR IMAGING SEISMIC DATA

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for imaging seismic data, which comprises:
approximating TTI coefficients using a Pade approximation and a dispersion relation equation;
applying hybrid TTI-WEM to a velocity model and anisotropic parameters for a pre-stack shot gather using the approximated
TTI coefficients and a computer system to determine a source side wavefield propagation value and a receiver side wavefield
propagation value in a frequency-space domain;

converting the source side wavefield propagation value and the receiver side wavefield propagation value from the frequency-space
domain to a time-space domain; and

applying a zero-lag cross-correlation image condition equation to form a partial output image using the converted source side
wavefield propagation value and the converted reservoir side wavefield propagation value.

US Pat. No. 9,342,923

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR CREATING A THREE-DIMENSIONAL TEXTURE ATLAS

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for creating a three-dimensional texture atlas, which comprises:
subdividing a three-dimensional triangle mesh into a plurality of refined triangles;
grouping the plurality of refined triangles into one or more groups of refined triangles using a computer processor;
scanning each group of refined triangles within a three-dimensional bounding volume to form a standardized texture tile or
a non-standardized texture tile;

reducing an amount of computer texture cache memory required to store a texture atlas by combining each standardized texture
tile to form at least one three-dimensional texture atlas, wherein the at least one three-dimensional texture atlas comprises
an equal number of standardized texture tiles in each dimension of the at least one three-dimensional texture atlas; and

storing each texture atlas in the computer texture cache memory.

US Pat. No. 9,304,215

RECEIVING SEISMIC SIGNALS FROM SEISMIC SIGNAL SOURCES

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A system for receiving seismic signals, comprising:
a first plurality of seismic signal sources installed at a terranean surface grouped to define respective perimeters of a
first plurality of geographic zones on the terranean surface;

a second plurality of seismic signal sources installed at the terranean surface grouped to define respective perimeters of
a second plurality of geographic zones on the terranean surface, the second plurality of zones interspersed between the first
plurality of zones to form a pattern of first and second zones, each geographic zone of the second plurality of geographic
zones adjacent a geographic zone of the first plurality of geographic zones along all sides of the perimeter; and

a plurality of seismic signal receivers installed at the terranean surface, with at least one seismic signal receiver installed
within each of the first and second plurality of geographic zones, the installed seismic signal receivers within the first
plurality of geographic zones are less than the installed seismic signal receivers within the second plurality of geographic
zones,

wherein installed seismic signal receivers within the first plurality of geographic zones comprise less than two seismic signal
receivers per wavelength of seismic energy generated by at least one of the seismic signal sources, and installed seismic
signal receivers within the second plurality of geographic zones comprise two or more seismic signal receivers per wavelength
of seismic energy generated by at least one of the seismic signal sources, the seismic signal receivers within each of the
second plurality of geographic zones arranged in a two-dimensional array dispersed substantially evenly throughout areas bounded
by the perimeters defined by the second plurality of seismic signal sources.

US Pat. No. 9,519,492

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR ACCESSING INTERFACE PROPERTIES OF DATA OBJECTS

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for accessing interface properties of a data object, comprising:
getting the data object from a first data field outside a value map in a second data field, wherein the data object includes
data values and related data; and

getting an interface property for the data object from the value map in the second data field using a computer processor.

US Pat. No. 9,430,857

DETERMINING AND DISPLAYING RESERVE ESTIMATES FOR A RESERVOIR

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for determining reserve estimates for a reservoir, which comprises:
loading a sealed triangulated mesh, which includes a volume;
creating a thickness grid using the sealed triangulated mesh and a computer processor;
determining reserve estimates in a reservoir model using one of the volume of the sealed triangulated mesh and the thickness
grid;

converting the reserve estimates, the sealed triangulated mesh and the thickness grid into a printable string;
storing the printable string in Processing History fields with a link to a 3D modeling engine and predefined identification
properties describing the reserve estimates; and

generating at least one of a table, a report and a graph for the reserve estimates and the predefined identification properties
using the printable string.

US Pat. No. 9,074,459

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR SIMULATION OF DOWNHOLE CONDITIONS IN A WELL SYSTEM

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method of production from a reservoir, comprising:
receiving configuration information about a proposed well system in a production configuration, the well system including
annular fluids disposed therein;

receiving heat source information associated with a heat source disposed within the well system;
simulating heat transfer in the well system during a production scenario based at least on the configuration information and
the heat source information;

predicting pressure buildup in the annular fluids based on the simulated heat transfer in the well system; and
adjusting a proposed feature of the well system based on the predicted pressure buildup caused by the simulated heat transfer.

US Pat. No. 9,534,475

GUI-FACILITATED CENTRALIZING METHODS AND SYSTEMS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) facilitated centralization method, the method comprising:
displaying a graphical representation of a tubular string within a borehole;
accepting an interactive graphical selection of a starting location for a range along the borehole;
accepting an interactive graphical selection of an ending location for the range along the borehole;
determining string stand-off device positions that provide centralization of the tubular string within the range along the
borehole; and

providing said positions to field personnel assembling and placing the tubular string in the borehole.

US Pat. No. 9,494,017

DETERMINING APPRAISAL LOCATIONS IN A RESERVOIR SYSTEM

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for determining appraisal locations in a reservoir system, which comprises:
creating a geocellular model using a computer processor;
defining a first priority area for the geocellular model using predetermined priority rule levels and one of a plurality of
hydrocarbon recovery production values determined by a first simulation;

defining a second priority area for the geocellular model using predetermined priority rule levels and one of a plurality
of adjusted hydrocarbon recovery production values determined by a second simulation based on the first priority area, wherein
the second priority area is constrained by the first priority area;

defining an optimal portfolio for one or more appraisal patterns determined by a third simulation based on the second priority
area using one of a plurality of objective function values determined by the third simulation, wherein the optimal portfolio
is constrained by the second priority area;

identifying common appraisal locations in the optimal portfolio;
calculating a ranking value for each respective common appraisal location using a respective critical risk and opportunity
size;

discretizing each ranking value by predetermined priority levels;
removing each of the common appraisal locations inside a predetermined coverage area that do not have a highest priority level,
the common appraisal locations inside the predetermined coverage area that have the highest priority level representing all
remaining common appraisal locations; and

creating a sequential appraisal plan using the remaining common appraisal locations and at least one of available drilling
activity and drilling capacity for a specified interest period of the sequential appraisal plan.

US Pat. No. 9,436,658

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR CREATING A SURFACE IN A FAULTED SPACE

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for creating a surface having one or more faults, comprising:
a) estimating a surface level on each side of each fault, an elevation difference between the estimated surface levels on
each side of a respective fault representing a respective fault throw value;

b) adjusting each fault throw value using a computer processor;
c) locating each local well top within a predefined search neighborhood from a grid node within a grid on the surface;
d) identifying each fault that crosses a vector between the grid node and each respective local well top, each vector between
the grid node and each respective local well top representing an intersecting vector;

e) accumulating each adjusted fault throw value along each respective intersecting vector, which represents an accumulated
fault throw value for each respective intersecting vector;

f) adjusting a value for each local well top based on a respective accumulated fault throw value;
g) performing interpolation at the grid node using the adjusted value for each local well top; and
h) repeating steps c)-g) for each grid node within the grid.

US Pat. No. 9,329,288

DATA ACQUISITION AND PRESTACK MIGRATION BASED ON SEISMIC VISIBILITY ANALYSIS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A seismic survey method that comprises:
determining visibility values of a target event as a function of seismic source and receiver positions, wherein said determining
the visibility values of a target event includes:

finding, for each of multiple simulated shots, a reflection wavefield from the target event in a seismic model;
calculating, for each of multiple receiver positions, a contribution signal from each reflection wavefield; and
converting each contribution signal into a source-receiver visibility value that indicates an energy intensity of a respective
contribution signal;

acquiring seismic data using a source-receiver geometry selected at least in part to include source and receiver positions
associated with visibility values above a threshold; and

imaging the target event based on the acquired seismic data.

US Pat. No. 9,261,097

MONITORING, DIAGNOSING AND OPTIMIZING ELECTRIC SUBMERSIBLE PUMP OPERATIONS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for monitoring, diagnosing and optimizing operation of an electric submersible pump (ESP) that comprises:
collecting measured data representative of a state of an ESP within a well or of well conditions, and further storing the
measured data;

matching a nodal analysis model of the well to the well by matching one or more modeled values to corresponding measured data;
identifying one or more likely conditions of the ESP based at least in part on data generated by a matched nodal analysis
model;

updating the matched nodal analysis model to reflect a selected correction of one of the one or more likely conditions identified;
generating a plurality of ESP performance curves using the updated matched nodal analysis model; and
presenting to a user an action recommended to achieve an ESP performance consistent with an ESP operating point selected from
one of the plurality of ESP performance curves.

US Pat. No. 9,064,066

METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR WELL PLANNING BASED ON A COMPLEX FRACTURE MODEL

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method comprising:
receiving, by a computer system, a complex fracture model that estimates fractures in a subsurface target of a target field;
applying the complex fracture model to a reservoir model for estimating subsurface geological features between the subsurface
target and earth's surface;

receiving a surface culture grid model representing surface features of the target field; and
determining a location for an earth surface well site and a well path from the earth surface well site to the subsurface target
based on the complex fracture model, the surface culture grid model, and the estimated subsurface geological features, wherein
the earth surface well site is offset from the subsurface target.

US Pat. No. 9,489,755

DETERMINING RESERVE ESTIMATES FOR A RESERVOIR

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for determining reserve estimates for a reservoir, which comprises:
resampling an attribute grid by matching the attribute grid and a thickness grid so that the attribute grid includes an attribute
grid node at each location of a thickness grid node;

creating a unified grid with a plurality of cells and a unified grid node at each location of an attribute grid node; wherein
each unified grid node includes a value that is the product of a thickness value of a thickness grid node at a location of
the respective unified grid node and an attribute value of a respective resampled attribute grid node at the location of the
respective unified grid node;

replacing each invalid value for a respective unified grid node with one of a constant value and an average value;
dividing each cell of the unified grid into four triangles, wherein each of the four triangles includes a vertex at a center
of the respective cell and two vertices that form one of four sides of the respective cell;

creating a truncated prism with a volume for each set of four triangles using a computer processor;
adding the volume of each truncated prism together, which represents an Original Oil in Place;
dividing the Original Oil in Place by a Formation Volume Factor, which represents a Stock Tank Original Oil in Place; and
multiplying the Stock Tank Original Oil in Place and a recovery factor, which represents Recoverable Hydrocarbon Reserves.

US Pat. No. 9,429,679

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR RESERVOIR SIMULATION

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for reservoir simulation, which comprises:
distributing new fluid pressures and compositions determined for the reservoir to one or more GPUs wherein the new fluid pressures
and compositions are distributed to each GPU with grid cells that are nearest multi-phase grid cells or source and sink terms;

performing a multi-phase flash calculation on each GPU that was distributed new fluid pressures and compositions with an unstable
phase; and

performing a reservoir simulation using a result for each multi-phase flash calculation.

US Pat. No. 9,330,064

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR GENERATING UPDATES OF GEOLOGICAL MODELS

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for updating geological models, comprising:
a) performing a normal score transform on a current geological model realization using a computer processor, the current geological
model realization belonging to a predefined number of geological model realizations for a geological model;

b) performing a forward discrete DCT on the current geological model realization, the results representing current DCT coefficients;
c) selecting a random sample from the predefined number of geological model realizations or from a distribution of DCT coefficients;
d) performing a normal score transform on the random sample geological model realizations selected;
e) performing a forward discrete DCT on the random sample geological realizations processed by the normal score transform,
the results representing a random sample of DCT coefficients;

f) truncating the current DCT coefficients and the random sample of DCT coefficients;
g) updating each current DCT coefficient that was truncated;
h) performing an inverse discrete DCT on each updated DCT coefficient, the results representing an updated geological model;
i) performing a normal score transform on the updated geological model, the results representing an updated geological model
in zero-mean and unit-variance domain; and

j) renormalizing the updated geological model.

US Pat. No. 9,260,948

MULTI-LEVEL RESERVOIR HISTORY MATCHING

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A multi-level reservoir history matching method that comprises:
generating a first history-matched model using at least one updated model parameter derived from one or more existing model
parameters;

generating a plurality of second history-matched models by applying a probabilistic inversion to the first history-matched
model;

deriving a plurality of third history-matched models from the plurality of second history-matched models;
generating a plurality of dynamic simulation realization sets using each of the plurality of third history-matched models;
ranking each of the plurality of third history-matched models based at least in part on the plurality of dynamic simulation
realization sets to identify a highest ranked third history-matched model; and

presenting, by a computer, a production forecast via a display to a user based on the highest ranked third history-matched
model.

US Pat. No. 9,489,769

DYNAMICALLY UPDATING COMPARTMENTS REPRESENTING ONE OR MORE GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for dynamically updating compartments representing one or more geological structures, which comprises:
loading current data;
extrapolating the current data against a volume of interest to produce one or more bodies;
extracting at least one of a stratigraphic layer and a fault block from the one or more bodies to produce at least one group
of bodies with at least one of the stratigraphic layer and the fault block;

extracting a fluid reservoir from each group of bodies to produce a group of fluid reservoir bodies;
converting each body in at least one of the at least one group of bodies to a respective compartment;
generating one or more combined compartments representing a custom reservoir using each compartment; and
automatically updating at least one of each compartment and each combined compartment using a computer processor.

US Pat. No. 9,470,067

CASING JOINT ASSEMBLY FOR PRODUCING AN ANNULUS GAS CAP

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for producing an annulus gas cap, which comprises:
lowering a work string into a casing string and through one end of a casing joint assembly;
connecting the work string to a first valve or a second valve and a valve actuator;
opening the first valve and the second valve using the work string and the valve actuator;
injecting a compressible gas through the work string and the first valve or the second valve into an annulus between a well
bore wall and the casing joint assembly to form the annulus gas cap; and

displacing a portion of a fluid in the annulus through the first valve or the second valve into another annulus in the casing
string.

US Pat. No. 9,322,263

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR DYNAMIC VISUALIZATION OF FLUID VELOCITY IN SUBSURFACE RESERVOIRS

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for dynamically visualizing fluid velocity in a subsurface reservoir, which comprises:
a) displaying a plurality of streamlines in a streamline model, each streamline representing a fluid path in the subsurface
reservoir;

b) displaying a particle on each streamline at a simulation start time based on a fluid velocity for a respective streamline;
c) removing the particle displayed on each streamline at the simulation start time or at another simulation time;
d) displaying another particle on each streamline at another simulation time based on the fluid velocity for a respective
streamline, wherein each another simulation time is a sum of a time step, multiplied by a number of times step d) is performed,
and the simulation start time; and

e) repeating steps c) and d) for each another simulation time that is less than a simulation end time using a computer processor.

US Pat. No. 9,182,510

METHODS AND SYSTEMS OF INCORPORATING PSEUDO-SURFACE PICK LOCATIONS IN SEISMIC VELOCITY MODELS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method of refining models of subsurface formations targeted for hydrocarbon exploration and recovery,
the method comprising:
modeling, by a computer system, at least one surface of a subsurface formation based on a seismic velocity model of the subsurface
formation and measurements of formation properties from one or more offset wells, the modeled surface representing a boundary
of a target zone corresponding to a location of a hydrocarbon reservoir within the subsurface formation;

planning a trajectory of a borehole to be drilled toward the target zone within the subsurface formation, based on the modeled
surface;

correlating a predicted log generated using the measurements obtained from the one or more offset wells to a measured log
of formation properties obtained from the borehole while it is drilled along the planned trajectory within the subsurface
formation;

determining a pseudo-surface pick location for the modeled surface based on the correlating, the pseudo-surface pick location
representing a point at which the borehole being drilled is expected to penetrate the boundary of the target zone represented
by the model surface;

modifying at least a portion of the seismic velocity model based on the determined pseudo-surface pick location of the modeled
surface;

updating at least a portion of the modeled surface based on the modified portion of the seismic velocity model; and
adjusting the planned trajectory of the borehole as it is being drilled toward the target zone within the subsurface formation,
based on the updated portion of the modeled surface.

US Pat. No. 9,646,414

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR MODELING 3D GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A computer-implemented method for modeling a three-dimensional (“3D”) geological structure, which comprises:
calculating a structure and diffusion tensor field for a digitized image of the geological structure;
processing the digitized image to form an enhanced image;
calculating a fault displacement field for the digitized image using a computer processor; and
merging the structures and diffusion tensor field, the enhanced image and the fault displacement field for interpolation.

US Pat. No. 9,349,212

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR ANALYZING AND IMAGING THREE-DIMENSIONAL VOLUME DATA SETS USING A THREE-DIMENSIONAL SAMPLING PROBE

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A non-transitory program storage device readable by a machine, the device tangibly embodying a program of instructions
executable by the machine for imaging a three-dimensional (3D) volume defined by a data set of voxels, the instructions being
executable to implement:
creating a three-dimensional (3D) sampling probe, wherein the 3D sampling probe is a sub-volume of the 3D volume;
processing only the data set of voxels that intersect the 3D sampling probe;
drawing only an image of at least a portion of one of the 3D sampling probe and the 3D volume, the image comprising an intersection
of the 3D sampling probe and the 3D volume; and

repeating the drawing step responsive to movement of the 3D sampling probe within the 3D volume so that as the 3D sampling
probe moves through the 3D volume, the image of the 3D sampling probe is redrawn sufficiently fast to be perceived in real-time
as the 3D sampling probe is moved.

US Pat. No. 9,091,141

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR DYNAMICALLY DEVELOPING WELLBORE PLANS WITH A RESERVOIR SIMULATOR

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for developing wellbore plans with a reservoir simulator, comprising:
creating, on a computer system, a drainable volume indicator for each group of connected grid cells in a gridded reservoir
model;

calculating a value on the computer system for each drainable volume identified by its drainable volume indicator;
selecting, on the computer system, each drainable volume that has a value up to a predetermined maximum value; and
connecting, on the computer system, contiguous selected drainable volumes.

US Pat. No. 9,361,303

SYSTEMS AND METHODS TO FACILITATE A REQUEST FOR OILFIELD SERVICES USING A DATA TRANSFER PROTOCOL

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A system, comprising:
a data store to receive a request for services for a wellsite system from a services requestor through a data transfer protocol
interface and update an entry in the data store to indicate one or more parameters associated with the services request;

a monitor tool to detect an update to the data store that corresponds to the request for services and, if an update is detected,
to verify the correctness of the request based on the services requested for the particular wellsite system; and

a configuration file creator to detect an update to the data store that corresponds to the request for services and, if an
update is detected, to identify an affected receiving system of a vendor that provides one or more of the services requested
for the wellsite system, determine a configuration file format for the vendor's affected receiving system, and generate a
configuration file including a formatted request for each of the one or more requested services provided by the vendor, in
accordance with the configuration file format determined for the vendor's affected receiving system.

US Pat. No. 9,262,563

METHODS AND SYSTEMS OF MODELING HYDROCARBON FLOW FROM KEROGENS IN A HYDROCARBON BEARING FORMATION

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method of modeling hydrocarbon flow through a hydrocarbon bearing formation, the method comprising:
determining, by a computer system, a kerogen-wet porosity within a portion of a reservoir rock formation, based on one or
more formation parameters associated with the portion of the reservoir rock formation;

determining, by the computer system, a water-wet porosity within the portion of the reservoir rock formation, based in part
on the kerogen-wet porosity;

simulating, by the computer system, hydrocarbon movement through a first small model volume representing the kerogen-wet porosity
within the portion of the reservoir rock formation;

simulating, by the computer system, hydrocarbon movement through a second small model volume representing the water-wet porosity
within the portion of the reservoir rock formation;

determining a matrix porosity and permeability for the portion of the reservoir rock formation, based on the simulated hydrocarbon
movement through the respective first and second small model volumes;

simulating, by the computer system, hydrocarbon movement through a large scale formation model of the reservoir rock formation,
based on the matrix porosity and permeability determined for the portion of the reservoir rock formation; and

estimating, by the computer system, future hydrocarbon production for drilling one or more boreholes within the reservoir
rock formation, based on the simulated hydrocarbon movement through the large scale formation model.

US Pat. No. 9,128,693

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR WORKFLOW AUTOMATION, ADAPTATION AND INTEGRATION

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method of performing an adaptive routine workflow,
which comprises:
selecting an oilfield data set stored in a petrotechnical application;
performing an analysis of the oilfield data set using the petrotechnical application to determine multiple analysis outcomes,
which comprise a skin thickness and a well performance plot;

performing a Monte-Carlo analysis on each of the multiple analysis outcomes;
validating at least one of the multiple analysis outcomes;
determining a new operational scenario using an updated petrotechnical model and one of the validated multiple analysis outcomes;
optimizing the new operational scenario using a computer processor and at least one of a calculated production profile, a
forecast and events detected; and

adjusting oilfield operations based on the optimized new operational scenario by adjusting a choke and initiating a well workover.

US Pat. No. 9,753,181

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR AUTOMATIC LOCAL GRID REFINEMENT IN RESERVOIR SIMULATION SYSTEMS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method of modeling a formation, comprising:
applying a coarse grid to a geologic formation of interest, the coarse grid having a plurality of coarse grid blocks;
identifying a structure of interest disposed in the geologic formation;
determining a fine grid zone around the structure based upon a time period for flow simulation of the geologic formation and
an average permeability and an average porosity of the geologic formation in a local region adjacent the structure; and

applying a fine grid to the coarse grid blocks encompassed by the fine grid zone,
wherein determining the fine grid zone includes calculating a distance Xval away from the structure at which the fine grid
zone terminates, the calculating based upon the time period for flow simulation and the average permeability and the average
porosity of the geologic formation in the local region adjacent the structure, and

wherein the calculating the distance Xval is in accordance with the equation:


wherein time=the time period for simulation, k=average permeability for the local region adjacent the structure, por=average
porosity of the local region adjacent the structure, and a=an empirical constant determined through calibration simulation
of a linear subset of the geologic formation.

US Pat. No. 9,633,067

GOLD DATA SET AUTOMATION

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

6. A computer-based method of creating and managing data sets related to a wellbore, comprising:
receiving a processed data set that has been published or is to be published in a publication database, the publication database
containing a published data set and a gold data set, each data set being composed of predefined data components, the gold
data set including a designated data component that is preferred over a data component of the published data set for use in
performing the hydrocarbon exploration or production operation;

determining whether a data component of the processed data set matches the designated data component of the gold data set;
performing a comparison of a quality of such data component of the processed data set to a quality of such data component
of the gold data set; and

replacing such data component of the gold data set with such data component of the processed data set based on the comparison;
wherein the gold data set is replaced with the processed data set in the publication database if the predefined data components
of the processed data set match the predefined data components of the gold data set, or wherein the processed data set is
designated as a new gold data set in the publication database if no data component of the processed data set matches a data
component of the gold data set.

US Pat. No. 9,594,483

METHOD AND SYSTEM OF PLOTTING CORRELATED DATA

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer system comprising:
a processor;
a memory device coupled to the processor;
a pointing device coupled to the processor;
a display device coupled to the processor, the display device showing a cursor whose position is based on position data generated
by the pointing device;

the memory device stores a program that, when executed by the processor, causes the processor to:
perform a simulation using an earth model of a hydrocarbon bearing formation over a plurality of modeled times;
store output data from the simulation for each of the plurality of modeled times in association with a state of the earth
model at that modeled time;

display the output data relative to the plurality of modeled times in a first pane on the display device;
monitor the position of the cursor on the display device relative to the displayed output data in the first pane;
when the monitored position of the cursor overlays a particular datum in the displayed output data for a particular modeled
time, identify the state of the earth model at the particular modeled time associated with the particular datum in the stored
output data; and

display, in a second pane on the display device distinct from the first pane, the identified state of the earth model at the
particular modeled time associated with the particular datum.

US Pat. No. 9,494,710

DETERMINING WELL INTEGRITY

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method performed with a computing system for determining well integrity, the method comprising:
receiving, based on user interaction with a graphical user interface (GUI), a selection of a well configuration of a well,
the selection comprising of one or more casing strings and a production tubing extending from adjacent a wellhead of the well
to adjacent a bottom of the well;

receiving, based on user interaction with the GUI, a selection of a wellbore operation performed with the well configuration;
determining, based on the well configuration and the wellbore operation, a characteristic of the well at or adjacent the one
or more casing strings and the production tubing during the wellbore operation, and displaying the characteristic on the GUI;

modifying the user-selected well configuration to remove the production tubing; and
determining, based on the modified well configuration and the wellbore operation, the characteristic of the well at or adjacent
the one or more casing strings during the wellbore operation, and displaying the characteristic on the GUI.

US Pat. No. 9,223,042

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR THE QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATE OF PRODUCTION-FORECAST UNCERTAINTY

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for updating posterior geological models, comprising:
a) computing new geological realizations for a prior geological model using a computer processor;
b) computing an exact likelihood of an objective function using the new geological realizations for the prior geological model
or an acceptable number of the new geological realizations for the prior geological model;

c) defining an initial state for a sequential Monte Carlo chain based on the exact likelihood of an objective function;
d) defining a new sample based on the initial state for a sequential Monte Carlo chain and a random sample from the prior
geological model;

e) computing an approximate likelihood of an objective function using the new sample;
f) repeating step d), based only on another random sample from the prior geological model, and step e) until the approximate
likelihood of an objective function meets an acceptance criteria;

g) computing another exact likelihood of an objective function using the new sample if the new sample meets the acceptance
criteria;

h) repeating step d), based only on another random sample from the prior geological model, and steps e) through g) until the
another exact likelihood of an objective function meets another acceptance criteria;

i) repeating step d), based only on another random sample from the prior geological model, and steps e) through h) until a
convergence criteria is met; and

j) storing each new sample that meets the acceptance criteria and the another acceptance criteria, each new sample representing
a respective updated posterior geological model for the prior geological model.

US Pat. No. 9,091,145

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR OPTIMAL POSITIONING OF DRILLING PADS

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for positioning multiple drilling pads within a predetermined boundary, which comprises:
a) determining a maximum number of rows based on a row spacing and a maximum distance;
b) determining a maximum number of columns based on a column spacing and the maximum distance;
c) determining a seed point location within the predetermined boundary for each row at a starting position and for each column
at a starting position, each seed point location belonging to a set of seed point locations;

d) computing a total value for the set of seed point locations using a computer processor;
e) adjusting the starting position in each row by a row increment and the starting position in each column by a column increment;
f) repeating steps c)-e) for a predetermined number of starting positions in each row and a predetermined number of starting
positions in each column; and

g) positioning a drilling pad at each location based on a respective seed point location within the set of seed point locations
having a best total value.

US Pat. No. 9,575,932

FLEXIBLE BLOCK ILU FACTORIZATION

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for flexible block ILU factorization, which comprises:
defining an adjacency matrix representing multiple physical nodes in a production surface network using each physical connection
and each virtual connection in a coefficient matrix and block data for the coefficient matrix, the adjacency matrix comprising
multiple blocks;

reordering each physical node in the adjacency matrix;
performing a symbolic factorization to determine a fill-in pattern for the reordered adjacency matrix, wherein each fill-in
is located in one of i) inside one of the blocks in the reordered adjacency matrix and ii) outside of the blocks in the reordered
adjacency matrix; and

performing a numerical ILU factorization on the coefficient matrix using each fill-in from the fill-in pattern and a computer
processor, wherein each fill-in located in one of the blocks is kept and each fill-in located outside of the blocks is discarded.

US Pat. No. 9,390,207

SYSTEM AND METHOD OF HYDROCARBON FORMATION MODELING

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method comprising:
formulating, by a computer system, a logical model of an underground hydrocarbon formation based on data of an actual underground
hydrocarbon formation, the model comprising a plurality of grid blocks;

simulating reaction of the formation to hydrocarbon extraction over a plurality of time steps, the simulating by:
determining a first approximation of a migration of fluid saturations across two or more of the plurality of grid blocks during
at least one of the plurality of time steps;

iteratively correcting the first approximation of the migration of fluid saturations within each of the two or more grid blocks
to account for an effect of one or more physical flow properties not considered in the first approximation, until a predetermined
minimum error value is reached; and

displaying a visual depiction of a location of a boundary of fluid saturations within the logical model of the underground
hydrocarbon formation, based on the corrected first approximation.

US Pat. No. 9,297,924

METHOD AND SYSTEM OF DISPLAYING DATA SETS INDICATIVE OF PHYSICAL PARAMETERS ASSOCIATED WITH A FORMATION PENETRATED BY A WELLBORE

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method comprising:
obtaining, by a computer system, data regarding a trajectory of a wellbore;
obtaining, by the computer system, a first data set related to a first physical parameter of a formation penetrated by the
wellbore, the first data set including values of the first physical parameter of the formation along the trajectory of the
wellbore;

obtaining, by the computer system, a second data set related to a second physical parameter of the formation that is distinct
from the first physical parameter, the second data set including values of the second physical parameter of the formation
along the trajectory of the wellbore;

displaying on a display device of the computer system a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional trajectory of
the wellbore from a viewpoint relative to the three-dimensional trajectory of the wellbore;

displaying a mathematical curve representing the values of the first physical parameter of the formation along the trajectory
of the wellbore, based on the first data set, wherein the displayed mathematical curve is a two-dimensional representation
of the first data set on a first surface that extends along and abuts the displayed two-dimensional representation of the
three-dimensional trajectory of the wellbore on the display device such that the first surface has consistent orientation
relative to the trajectory of the wellbore, and a relative distance of the mathematical curve from the two-dimensional representation
of the three-dimensional trajectory of the wellbore represents a relative magnitude of each of the respective values of the
first physical parameter of the formation along the trajectory of the wellbore;

setting a color attribute of pixels on the display device between the two-dimensional representation of the three-dimensional
trajectory of the wellbore and the mathematical curve based on the relative magnitude of the first physical parameter of the
formation; and

displaying a two-dimensional representation of the second data set on a second surface that is distinct from first surface
and that extends along and abuts the displayed two-dimensional representation of the three-dimensional trajectory of the wellbore
on the display device such that the second surface has consistent orientation relative to the trajectory of the wellbore.

US Pat. No. 9,292,633

METHOD AND SYSTEM OF DISPLAYING A GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF HYDROCARBON PRODUCTION PARAMETERS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method comprising:
obtaining values of a production parameter measured over different time periods for a hydrocarbon well located within a hydrocarbon
field;

calculating a plurality of deviation values of the production parameter of the hydrocarbon well for the different time periods
based on a deviation of each of the measured values relative to a corresponding one of a plurality of planned values of the
production parameter for each of the different time periods; and

displaying, on a display device of a computer system, an overhead view of the hydrocarbon field with a graphical image indicating
a location of the hydrocarbon well within the hydrocarbon field and the respective plurality of deviation values of the production
parameter of the hydrocarbon well for the different time periods,

wherein the graphical image comprises an annulus, the location of the hydrocarbon well is indicated by an aperture of the
annulus, and a relative magnitude of the respective plurality of deviation values of the production parameter for the different
time periods are indicated by different portions of the annulus surrounding the aperture.

US Pat. No. 9,171,391

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR IMAGING A VOLUME-OF-INTEREST

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for imaging a volume-of-interest comprising:
selecting an object or point of interest from a display of three-dimensional data;
positioning a bounding box around the object or point of interest using a computer processor, the bounding box surrounding
only the object or point of interest and a predetermined margin upon instantiation; and

displaying an image of only the contents of the bounding box upon instantiation of the bounding box, the displayed image representing
the volume-of-interest and initially comprising the object or point of interest.

US Pat. No. 9,745,844

ESTIMATING CASING WEAR DURING DRILLING USING MULTIPLE WEAR FACTORS ALONG THE DRILL STRING

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method comprising:
drilling a wellbore with a drill bit coupled to an end of a drill string extending into the wellbore, wherein a portion of
the wellbore is lined with casing and the drill string includes a plurality of drill string sections each having a drill string
wear factor;

tracking a location of the plurality of drill string sections along the wellbore;
analytically dividing progress of the drill bit into a plurality of drilling intervals, wherein each drilling interval has
a depth;

analytically dividing the casing into a plurality of casing sections, wherein each casing section has a length;
corresponding at least some of the plurality of casing sections with the drill string wear factor of the drill string section
radially proximate to each of the plurality of casing sections for at least some of the plurality of drilling intervals; and

calculating a drilling casing wear for at least one of the plurality of casing sections based on the drill string wear factors
corresponding to the at least one of the plurality of casing sections.

US Pat. No. 9,460,403

METHODS AND SYSTEMS RELATED TO HYDROCARBON RECOVERY STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method comprising:
selecting, by a computer system, a set of attributes for a first undeveloped hydrocarbon reservoir;
obtaining, from a database coupled to the computer system via a communication network, attribute data related to a plurality
of developed hydrocarbon reservoirs;

identifying a first group of developed hydrocarbon reservoirs within the plurality of developed hydrocarbon reservoirs that
have attributes matching the set of attributes selected for the first undeveloped hydrocarbon reservoir, based on a comparison
between the set of attributes of the first undeveloped hydrocarbon reservoir and the attribute data obtained for the plurality
of developed hydrocarbon reservoirs, the identifying by the computer system;

calculating a first set of statistical data based on the identified first group of developed hydrocarbon reservoirs, the calculating
by the computer system;

scaling the first set of statistical data in reference to the set of attributes of the first undeveloped hydrocarbon reservoir
to create a second set of statistical data, the scaling by the computer system; and

implementing at least one hydrocarbon recovery strategy for the first undeveloped hydrocarbon reservoir based on the second
set of statistical data.

US Pat. No. 9,285,500

METHODS AND SYSTEMS OF MODELING HYDROCARBON FLOW FROM LAYERED SHALE FORMATIONS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method comprising:
simulating, by a computer system, movement of hydrocarbons through a micro-scale model of a kerogen-rich layer of a layered
shale formation;

determining, by the computer system, a permeability of the kerogen-rich layer of the layered shale formation based on the
simulation through the micro-scale model;

determining, by the computer system, a permeability of a kerogen-poor layer of the layered shale formation based on a well
log obtained for the layered shale formation;

adjusting, by the computer system, parameters of a macro-scale model for use with the layered shale formation, based on the
respective permeabilities of the kerogen-rich and kerogen-poor layers of the layered shale formation; and

predicting hydrocarbon production for drilling a wellbore within the layered shale formation, based on the adjusted parameters
of the macro-scale model.

US Pat. No. 9,805,517

INTEGRATING EXTERNAL ALGORITHMS INTO A FLEXIBLE FRAMEWORK FOR IMAGING VISUALIZATION DATA

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for integrating external algorithms into a flexible framework for imaging visualization data, which comprises:
selecting an internal visualization algorithm API, from one or more internal visualization algorithm APIs;
selecting one or more internal visualization algorithms for the selected internal visualization algorithm API;
adding an external visualization algorithm API based on the selected internal visualization algorithm API;
selecting one or more external visualization algorithms for the selected external visualization algorithm API;
validating the selected internal and selected external visualization algorithms are configured to accept visualization data;
executing the visualization algorithm using visualization data and a computer processor;
translating results for the executed visualization algorithm to geometry primitives;
applying interpolated attributes of the visualization data to the geometry primitives;
applying surface normal vectors to the interpolated attributes applied to the geometry primitives;
adding the surface normal vectors applied to the interpolated attributes to a visualization algorithm display; and
creating a new visualization algorithm display for a visualization algorithm probe using the surface normal vectors added
to the visualization algorithm display.

US Pat. No. 9,792,726

DETERMINING AND DISPLAYING RESERVE ESTIMATES FOR A RESERVOIR

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for determining reserve estimates for a reservoir, which comprises:
creating a thickness grid using a sealed triangulated mesh and a computer processor;
determining reserve estimates in a reservoir model using one of a volume of the sealed triangulated mesh and the thickness
grid;

converting the reserve estimates, the sealed triangulated mesh and the thickness grid into a printable string; and
displaying the sealed triangulated mesh and the thickness grid with at least one of a table, a report and a graph.

US Pat. No. 9,378,587

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR CREATING A THREE-DIMENSIONAL TEXTURE ATLAS

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for creating a three-dimensional texture atlas, which comprises:
subdividing a three-dimensional triangle mesh into a plurality of refined triangles;
grouping the plurality of refined triangles into one or more groups of refined triangles using a computer processor wherein
the one or more groups of refined triangles are grouped according to their spatial relationship to an octree leaf;

scanning each group of refined triangles within a three-dimensional bounding volume to form a standardized texture tile or
a non-standardized texture tile;

reducing an amount of computer texture cache memory required to store a texture atlas by combining each standardized texture
tile to form at least one three-dimensional texture atlas; and

storing each texture atlas in the computer texture cache memory, wherein the at least one three-dimensional texture atlas
comprises an equal number of standardized texture tiles in each dimension of the at least one three-dimensional texture atlas.

US Pat. No. 9,228,393

METHOD AND SYSTEM OF DRILLING LATERALS IN SHALE FORMATIONS

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method comprising:
drilling a deviated borehole through a shale formation with a drill string comprising a drill bit; and simultaneously logging
the shale formation with a logging tool disposed within the drill string;

estimating, in real time with the drilling, fracture potential of a portion of the shale formation near the drill bit, the
estimation of the fracture potential based on information acquired by the logging tool; and

controlling drilling direction based on the fracture potential.

US Pat. No. 9,863,241

ENHANCED 1-D METHOD FOR PREDICTION OF MUD WEIGHT WINDOW FOR SUBSALT WELL SECTION

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A computer-implemented method, the method comprising:
generating a 3-D model of a formation;
determining a plurality of effective stress ratio values for the 3-D model;
plotting, within the 3-D model, a trajectory for a wellbore to be drilled through the formation;
selecting effective stress ratio values from the plurality of effective stress ratios, based on the trajectory plotted within
the 3-D model;

importing the selected effective stress ratio values from the 3-D model into a 1-D model for estimating a mud weight window
for the formation;

combining the imported 3-D data with 1-D data utilizing the 1-D model;
estimating the mud weight window for the formation based on the combined data within the 1-D model; and
drilling the wellbore through the formation based on the estimated mud weight window.

US Pat. No. 9,715,762

3D STADIA ALGORITHM FOR DISCRETE NETWORK MESHING

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method for modeling three-dimensional (3D) geological fractures, the method comprising:
receiving a set of 3D fractures with geometry that has been discretized by 2D surfaces by a collection of polygonal facets;
generating a set of 3D stadia at specified radii around each facet in the collection of polygonal facets;
generating closed 3D stadia surfaces around intersecting facets;
discretizing all 3D stadia surfaces using various shape cells; and
generating 3D cells within each of the closed 3D stadia surfaces.

US Pat. No. 9,645,280

GLOBAL GRID BUILDING IN REVERSE FAULTED AREAS BY AN OPTIMIZED UNFAULTING METHOD

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method comprising:
storing on a storage device, at least one data structure representing a plurality of fault blocks associated with one or more
faults in a geographic formation;

selecting two fault blocks of the plurality of fault blocks associated with a fault of the one or more faults;
changing the position of a first of the two fault blocks in the at least one data structure, using at least one processor,
representative of a shift of the first fault block towards the other fault block of the two fault blocks to position the center
of gravity of a fault boundary of the first fault block with the center of gravity of a fault boundary of the other fault
block;

after performing the shift, aligning the first fault block with the other fault block according to a permitted level of conflict
between fault blocks; and

updating the at least one data structure to indicate a merging of the two selected fault blocks into an unfaulted block after
the alignment.

US Pat. No. 9,611,729

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR POSITIONING HORIZONTAL WELLS WITHIN BOUNDARIES

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for determining subsurface target locations within a predetermined boundary, which comprises:
computing an azimuth and an offset distance based on a point at a total depth for a reference well within the predetermined
boundary;

creating a line that is perpendicular to the azimuth and passes through a center location of the predetermined boundary;
creating a point on the line at a maximum distance from the center location within the predetermined boundary;
creating a series of points along the line beginning at the offset distance from the point on the line and passing through
the center location until reaching twice the maximum distance; and

computing a list of heel/toe pairs for each point in the series of points using a computer processor and adding the list for
each point in the series of points to a collection of lists comprising heel/toe pairs as each list is computed, the collection
of lists representing the target locations within the predetermined boundary.

US Pat. No. 9,347,293

METHOD AND SYSTEM OF DISPLAYING DATA ASSOCIATED WITH DRILLING A BOREHOLE

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method comprising:
reading data associated with drilling of a first borehole, the reading during drilling of the first borehole and at least
one datum of the data based on a controllable parameter;

calculating an operational value related to drilling the first borehole, the calculating in real-time with reading the data
and the operational value based on the data;

determining a target value of the operational value, the determining in real-time with reading the data and the target value
at least in part based on the data;

displaying a first borehole trajectory on a display device;
superimposing a first coordinate system over the first borehole trajectory on the display device, the superimposing proximate
to a distal end of the first borehole trajectory; and

plotting, within the first coordinate system, an indication of the operational value and an indication of the target value.

US Pat. No. 9,719,333

VARIABLE FIDELITY SIMULATION OF FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method comprising:
(a) a computer accepting a fine model of a porous media covering an area, the model comprising:
a grid of N fine grid cells, each of the N fine grid cells representing a portion of the area, each of the fine grid cells
defined by fine grid nodes connected by fine grid edges;

a physical property having a value for each of the N fine grid cells;
a fault following a fine-grid-path along a fault-fine-grid set of edges of the N fine grid cells, the fault representing a
structural discontinuity between a first fine side of the area and a second fine side of area; a model of a source of fluid
flow associated with a fine grid cell located on the first fine side of the area; and

a model of a sink of fluid flow associated with a fine grid cell located on the second fine side of the area;
(b) the computer coarsening the model by: creating a grid of M coarse grid cells, M cells represents a portion of the area corresponding to A fine grid cells, A>1, each of the coarse grid cells defined by coarse
grid nodes connected by coarse grid edges;

a fault following a coarse-grid-path along a fault-course-grid-set of coarse grid edges of the M course cells, the coarse-grid-path
dividing the area into a first coarse side of the area and a second coarse side of the area;

the fine grid cell associated with the source of fluid flow and the fine grid cell associated with the sink of fluid flow
corresponding to coarse grid cells on the first coarse side of the area;

(c) the computer moving one of the model of the source of fluid flow or the model of the sink of the fluid flow from an origination-coarse-grid-cell
on the first coarse side of the are to a destination-coarse-grid-cell on the second coarse side of the area, wherein the moving
comprises: determining that there are two candidate coarse grid cells on the second coarse side of the area that share an
edge with the origination-coarse-grid-cell, determining that a physical value of the two candidate coarse grid cells is the
same, and applying a rule to select the destination-coarse-grid-cell from between the two candidate coarse grid cells;

(d) the computer using the coarsened model to create a plan to drill a well; and
(e) drilling the well using the plan.

US Pat. No. 9,081,918

METHODS AND SYSTEMS REGARDING MODELS OF UNDERGROUND FORMATIONS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method comprising:
creating, by a computer system, a model of an underground formation, the model defining a plurality of modeled values for
each of a plurality of horizontal locations within the underground formation, the creating comprising:

calculating a set of probabilities indicative of a likelihood of finding abutting geological layers at a first horizontal
location within the underground formation;

estimating a plurality of successions of geological layers and a thickness or a porosity of each geological layer of each
succession to create a plurality of estimated successions associated with the first horizontal location, based on the calculated
set of probabilities;

comparing each of the estimated successions with a measured succession of geological layers at the first horizontal location,
as determined by a seismic survey of the underground formation; and

selecting from among the plurality of estimated successions a succession of geological layers that most closely matches the
measured succession, based on the comparison, wherein the selected succession of geological layers is used to define the plurality
of modeled values for the first horizontal location.

US Pat. No. 9,752,388

ESTIMATING CASING WEAR DUE TO DRILL STRING RECIPROCATION

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method comprising:
drilling a wellbore penetrating a subterranean formation with a drill bit coupled to an end of a drill string extending into
the wellbore, wherein a portion of the wellbore is lined with casing;

reciprocating the drill string within the wellbore for a plurality of up strokes and a plurality of down strokes according
to reciprocation parameters that include a reciprocation operation time, a drill string revolutions per minute (rpm), a stroke
length for the plurality of up and down strokes, and a stroke rate for the plurality of up and down strokes;

calculating an up stroke normal force and a down stroke normal force for the casing or a section thereof based on the reciprocation
parameters using a soft string model, a stiff string model, a finite element model;

calculating an up stroke casing wear based on the up stroke normal force using a reciprocation casing wear model;
calculating a down stroke casing wear based on the down stroke normal force using the reciprocation casing wear model;
calculating a reciprocation casing wear based on the up and down stroke casing wears; and
calculating a total casing wear for the casing or the section thereof based on the reciprocation casing wear using a total
casing wear model.

US Pat. No. 9,745,833

OPTIMIZING OIL RECOVERY AND REDUCING WATER PRODUCTION IN SMART WELLS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for optimizing oil recovery and reducing water production in a well, which comprises:
a) calculating surface values for respective parameters of the well using static data for the well and at least one of dynamic
data for the well and adjusted dynamic data for the well; said respective parameters of the well comprising at least one selected
from the group consisting of well productivity index, water and oil flow rates, flowing bottom hole pressure, water cut and
gas-to-oil ratio; wherein the static data for the well comprises at least one selected from the group consisting of well trajectory,
well log profiles, relative permeability curves, pressure, volume, temperature, completion, well connection in horizontal
section, permeability, initial saturation along well connection in horizontal section, valve coefficient, valve position and
skin factor; and wherein said dynamic data comprises at least one selected from the group consisting of average oil, water
and gas saturations and bottom hole pressure for each well connection and average static pressure for the well;

b) performing history matching to compare the calculated surface values with real-time surface values for the respective parameters
and to produce a misfit representing a surface model;

c) adjusting one or more values in the dynamic data, which represents the adjusted dynamic data, and repeating steps a)-c)
until the misfit representing the surface model is ?10% with respect to the real-time surface values;

d) calculating an optimal downhole valve setting for each completion zone in the well using a 3D grid simulation model and
at least one of the surface model and a downhole model;

e) updating the 3D grid simulation model using the adjusted dynamic data and a current downhole valve setting for each completion
zone in the well;

f) calculating a cumulative oil value over a predetermined forecasted time period at a predetermined forecasted time interval
using the updated 3D grid simulation model and the current downhole valve setting for each completion zone in the well;

g) calculating a maximum cumulative oil value over the predetermined forecasted time period at the predetermined forecasted
time interval using the updated 3D grid simulation model and a new optimal downhole valve setting for each completion zone
in the well that is based on a simulation to maximize the cumulative oil value; and

h) using one of the optimal downhole valve setting for each completion zone in the well and the new optimal downhole valve
setting for each completion zone in the well, adjusting the current downhole valve setting for each completion zone in the
well to optimize oil recovery and reduce water production in the well.

US Pat. No. 9,581,726

ATTRIBUTE IMPORTANCE DETERMINATION

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for determination of importance of attributes identified in a plurality of attribute importance models selected
from a plurality of available attribute importance models, comprising:
determining an ordered set of attributes group by applying the plurality of attribute importance models to the plurality of
attributes, the ordered set of attributes group having a plurality of attributes with a ranked attribute sequence;

determining a subset evaluator important attribute group by applying at least one subset evaluator attribute importance model,
and at least one classifier to the plurality of attributes;

creating a combined ranked attribute sequence by combining, in descending rank order, the ordered set of attributes group
and the subset evaluator important attribute group according to one of a constrained model mode and a relaxed model mode;

creating a normalized attribute importance array for each attribute in the combined ranked attribute sequence, the normalized
importance array having a normalized weight;

creating a tagged attributes set by tagging each attribute in the combined ranked attribute sequence with a partition number
based on recursive partitioning of the plurality of attributes through a weight range of the normalized attribute importance
array;

determining a conditional maximum number of attributes from the tagged attributes set and the subset evaluator important attribute
group;

designating, as attributes for further consideration, the plurality of attributes in a highest two partitions of the tagged
attributes set having a non-zero rank in the normalized attribute importance array and a next highest attribute in the tagged
attributes set until the conditional maximum number of attributes is met;

designating, as additional attributes for further consideration, each of the plurality of attributes in the subset evaluator
important attribute group having a rank greater than zero and which are not designated as attributes for further consideration;

creating boosted attributes by increasing a normalized weight of each attribute in the subset evaluator important attribute
group which is also designated as an attribute for further consideration;

creating an order of attributes according to the normalized weight for each respective attribute, from the boosted attributes,
the attributes designated for further consideration that are not in the boosted attributes, and the additional attributes
designated for further consideration that are not in the boosted attributes;

generating an ordered attribute set for each attribute in one of the order of attributes and a modified order of attributes
by ordering each occurrence of each attribute in each of the plurality of attribute importance models in a descending order
according to a number of occurrences;

producing a normalized global rank for each attribute in one of the order of attributes and the modified order of attributes
by multiplying the number of occurrences of each attribute in one of the order of attributes and the modified order of attributes
by a number of occurrences of each attribute in each ordered attribute set, an average of the normalized weight of each respective
attribute from the normalized attribute importance array and the normalized weight of each attribute from the boosted attributes;

generating one of a normalized ranking list and a modified normalized ranking list for each attribute in the normalized global
rank using a computer processor; and

adjusting drilling operations based on one of the normalized ranking list and the modified normalized ranking list.

US Pat. No. 9,732,592

ESTIMATING WELL PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE IN FRACTURED RESERVOIR SYSTEMS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

15. A method for identifying poor fracture conductivity in fractured reservoir systems to use in refracturing, which comprises:
a) selecting acoustic profiles for a predetermined period of time over a length of each fracture stage;
b) calculating a compressional velocity using at least one of the acoustic profiles;
c) identifying a main lithology of an acoustic medium represented by the acoustic profiles and a related Gardner coefficient;
d) calculating an effective stress using the compressional velocity and the Gardner coefficient;
e) calculating a fracture conductivity for each fracture stage using the effective stress and a computer processor; and
f) identifying each fracture stage with poor fracture conductivity.

US Pat. No. 9,286,437

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR POSITIONING HORIZONTAL WELLS WITHIN BOUNDARIES

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for determining subsurface target locations within a predetermined boundary, which comprises:
selecting a reference well within the predetermined boundary;
computing an azimuth and an offset distance based on a point at a total depth for the reference well;
creating a line that is perpendicular to the azimuth and passes through a center location of the predetermined boundary;
creating a point on the line at a maximum distance from the center location within the predetermined boundary;
creating a series of points along the line beginning at the offset distance from the point on the line and passing through
the center location until reaching twice the maximum distance, each point in the series of points being separated from another
point in the series of points by a well spacing distance; and

computing a list of heel/toe pairs for each point in the series of points using a computer processor and adding the list for
each point in the series of points to a collection of lists comprising heel/toe pairs as each list is computed, the collection
of lists representing the target locations within the predetermined boundary.

US Pat. No. 9,582,764

REAL-TIME RISK PREDICTION DURING DRILLING OPERATIONS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for predicting a risk during drilling operations of a well, which comprises:
a) defining a coarse layer model and a fine layer model for each layer of the coarse layer model based on a model type for
the well comprising at least one from fuzzy mapping and static mapping;

b) training the coarse layer model and each fine layer model using a computer processor, the model type and at least one of
segmented historical data and one or more extracted features representing each respective historical data segment;

c) repeating steps a)-b) with another model type until the coarse layer model and each fine layer model are acceptable;
d) predicting the predetermined risk for the well using an acceptable coarse layer model, each acceptable fine layer model
and real-time data for the well received during drilling operations; and

e) adjusting at least one of the drilling operations based on the predetermined risk predicted for the well.

US Pat. No. 9,528,364

WELL INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT USING COUPLED ENGINEERING ANALYSIS

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for well integrity management using a coupled engineering analysis, which comprises:
a) performing drilling operations and a drilling engineering analysis based on a temperature and a pressure for a well during
the drilling operations using a computer processor, wherein the drilling engineering analysis determines a casing integrity,
a wellbore integrity, a surface equipment integrity and a drillstring integrity;

b) performing completion operations and a completion engineering analysis based on a temperature and a pressure for the well
during the completion operations using the computer processor, wherein the completion engineering analysis determines a casing
integrity, a tubing integrity, a surface equipment integrity and a completion string integrity; and

c) performing production operations and a production engineering analysis based on a temperature and a pressure for the well
during the production operations using the computer processor, wherein the production engineering analysis determines at least
one of a metal loss, a type of corrosion, a tubing yield strength, an erosion velocity and an erosion rate.

US Pat. No. 9,633,475

MODELING GEOLOGIC SURFACES USING UNILATERAL NON-NODE CONSTRAINTS FROM NEIGHBORING SURFACES IN THE STRATIGRAPHIC SEQUENCE

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for modeling geologic surfaces using a constraining surface and a constrained surface, which comprises:
a) approximating one of the constraining surface and the constraining surface and the constrained surface using a computer
processor, each approximated surface representing a respective solution grid with at least four nodes, each node having an
initialized value;

b) determining simultaneous linear equations for solving the initialized values for the nodes on each respective solution
grid using only three-dimensional data points for the respective one of the constraining surface and the constraining surface
and the contained surface;

c) performing one of:
interpolating values for the constrained surface at x/y locations on the constrained surface corresponding to x/y locations
of the nodes on the solution grid for the constraining surface using the three-dimensional data points for the constrained
surface only at x/y locations that are closest to the x/y locations of the nodes on the solution grid for the constraining
surface, the interpolated values representing interpolated values for nodes on the constrained surface; and

approximating one of new values for the nodes on the solution grid for the constraining surface and new values for the nodes
on the solution grids for the constraining surface and the constrained surface using the simultaneous linear equations and
one of the initialized value for each node, new values for each respective node and adjusted values for each respective node;
and

d) performing one of:
adjusting the new values for the nodes on the solution grid for the constraining surface that overlap the interpolated values
for the nodes on the constrained surface; and

adjusting i) the new values for the nodes on the solution grid for the constraining surface that overlap the new values for
the nodes on the solution grid for the constrained surface, and ii) the new values for the nodes on the solution grid for
the constrained surface that overlap the new values for the nodes on the solution grid for the constraining surface.

US Pat. No. 9,734,627

METHOD AND SYSTEM OF DISPLAYING DATA SETS INDICATIVE OF PHYSICAL PARAMETERS ASSOCIATED WITH A FORMATION PENETRATED BY A WELLBORE

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method comprising:
obtaining, by a computer system, data regarding a trajectory of a wellbore;
obtaining, by the computer system, a first data set related to a first physical parameter of a formation penetrated by the
wellbore, the first data set including values of the first physical parameter of the formation along the trajectory of the
wellbore;

displaying on a display device of the computer system a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional trajectory of
the wellbore from a viewpoint relative to the three-dimensional trajectory of the wellbore;

displaying a mathematical curve representing the first data set on a first surface that extends along and abuts the displayed
two-dimensional representation of the three-dimensional trajectory of the wellbore on the display device such that the first
surface has consistent orientation relative to the trajectory of the wellbore, and a relative distance of the mathematical
curve from the two-dimensional representation of the three-dimensional trajectory of the wellbore represents a relative magnitude
of each of the respective values of the first physical parameter of the formation along the trajectory of the wellbore; and

setting a transparency of a texture on the display device between the two-dimensional representation of the three-dimensional
trajectory of the wellbore and the mathematical curve on the first surface, based on the relative magnitude of the first physical
parameter of the formation.

US Pat. No. 9,689,207

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR WELLBORE OPTIMIZATION

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A computer-implemented method for optimization of a wellbore, which comprises:
calculating a field scale model for multiple well paths in a production field using a computer processor, each well path representing
a potential well bore trajectory;

calculating a Formation Loading Potential for the field scale model and plotting a distribution of the Formation Loading Potential
along each well path;

selecting a well path having a lowest peak value of Formation Loading Potential, the selected well path representing an optimal
wellbore trajectory for the wellbore;

calculating a primary submodel using the selected well path, the primary submodel comprising a wellbore interval containing
the peak value of Formation Loading Potential for the selected well path;

calculating a secondary submodel of the wellbore interval, the secondary submodel comprising a predetermined casing for the
wellbore and an elasto-plastic prediction of a casing failure value for the predetermined casing;

determining an optimal casing strength for the wellbore; and
displaying the secondary submodel for a section of graphically reproduced predetermined casing;
drilling the wellbore along the selected well-path; and
installing casing in the wellbore with the optimal casing strength.

US Pat. No. 9,645,281

GEOSTATISTICAL PROCEDURE FOR SIMULATION OF THE 3D GEOMETRY OF A NATURAL FRACTURE NETWORK CONDITIONED BY WELL BORE OBSERVATIONS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method comprising:
determining parameters for simulating a three dimensional (3D) geometry of a natural fracture network;
determining locations of seed points for fractures to be simulated;
assigning to each seed point a target strike length and target dip length;
locating a triangulated fracture of a predetermined size to be simulated at each seed point;
marking all edges of the triangulated fracture as open for growth;
while the triangulated fracture has at least one edge marked open, simulating, by a processor, the 3D geometry of the natural
fracture network by:

selecting the at least one edge of the triangulated fracture that is marked open;
repeating a step of adding a new triangulated fracture of the predetermined size to be simulated to the at least one edge
marked open until at least one of a set of conditions is met, the set of conditions comprising a strike length of the triangulated
fracture reaching the target strike length, a dip length of the triangulated fracture reaching the target dip length, and
the new triangulated fracture touching a different triangulated fracture within the 3D geometry of the natural fracture network;
and

marking the at least one edge of the triangulated fracture as closed for growth in response to the at least one condition
being met; and

estimating reserves of a petroleum reservoir based on the simulation.

US Pat. No. 9,638,023

DETERMINING STRESSES IN A PIPE UNDER NON-UNIFORM EXTERIOR LOADS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for determining stresses in a pipe under non-uniform exterior loads, which comprises:
a) determining coefficients in multiple stress equations for the pipe by solving boundary condition equations using a maximum
lateral pressure on the pipe, a minimum lateral pressure on the pipe, an inside radius of the pipe and an outside radius of
the pipe;

b) solving two of the multiple stress equations that each represent a radial stress for the pipe, two of the multiple stress
equations that each represent a hoop stress for the pipe, which are added together to represent a total radial stress and
a total hoop stress, and one of the multiple stress equations that represents a total shear stress for the pipe using one
or more of the coefficients, a predetermined pipe radius and a predetermined pipe angle;

c) calculating a stress intensity for the pipe using a computer processor, the total radial stress, the total hoop stress,
the total shear stress and a predetermined total axial stress for the pipe,

d) repeating steps b)-c) with another predetermined pipe radius and another predetermined pipe angle until a maximum stress
intensity for the pipe is calculated;

e) selecting the pipe based on the maximum stress intensity for the pipe; and
f) installing the selected pipe in a wellbore.

US Pat. No. 9,670,753

OPTIMIZED ACIDIZING OF PRODUCTION AND INJECTION WELLS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method for optimizing acid placement for well treatments, the method comprising:
determining a flow rate profile of a well in a reservoir formation based on a uniform acid placement function;
determining a reference location along a length of the well, wherein the reference location satisfies a condition of having
a minimum ratio between a current injection front and a target injection front;

determining a reference value based on the flow rate profile at the reference location along the length of the well;
defining a target flow rate profile based on the reference value;
determining a pressure distribution along the length of the well based on the target flow rate profile;
determining an acid placement function that yields a prescribed shape of the flow rate profile for the well based on the target
flow rate profile and the pressure distribution; and

optimizing placement of an acid treatment along the length of the well, based on the acid placement function.

US Pat. No. 9,824,488

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR RENDERING 2D GRID DATA

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for rendering two-dimensional (2D) grid data, the method comprising:
dividing, by a computer processor, a 2D grid formed from the 2D grid data into multiple sub-grids, each sub-grid of the multiple
sub-grids including multiple points from the 2D grid data; and

for each sub-grid of the multiple sub-grids:
calculating, by the computer processor, a respective geometry for the sub-grid using a geometry of the 2D grid, the respective
geometry for the sub-grid being a shape of a perimeter of the sub-grid as defined by multiple points in the sub-grid;

rendering, by the computer processor, the respective geometry for the sub-grid to generate a respective rendered-geometry
that has fragments; and

applying, by the computer processor, a fragment shader to each fragment within the respective rendered-geometry to generate
colored or shaded fragments, wherein the fragment shader generates the colored or shaded fragments based on a base color associated
with the 2D grid and a value for a normal, and wherein the base color is determined at least in part by:

identifying a fragment in the respective rendered-geometry;
sampling a texture coordinate for the fragment to determine a sampled value;
determining that the sampled value is not null; and
in response to determining that the sampled value is not null, determining the base color for the fragment based on a correlation
between the sampled value and the base color in a colormap.

US Pat. No. 9,817,792

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR CREATING A SURFACE IN A FAULTED SPACE

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for reducing a number of artifacts along one or more faults in a surface related to a simulation of a subsurface
formation, the method comprising:
a) locating, by a computer processor, each local well top within a predefined search neighborhood from a grid node within
a grid on the surface;

b) identifying, by the computer processor, each fault that crosses a vector between the grid node and each respective local
well top, each vector between the grid node and each respective local well top representing an intersecting vector;

c) accumulating, by the computer processor, an adjusted fault throw value for each fault along each respective intersecting
vector, wherein the adjusted fault throw value represents an accumulated fault throw value for each respective intersecting
vector;

d) adjusting, by the computer processor, a value for each local well top based on a respective accumulated fault throw value;
e) performing, by the computer processor, interpolation at the grid node using the adjusted value for each local well top
to create at least a portion of the surface;

f) creating, by the computer processor, the surface by repeating steps a)-e) for each grid node within the grid; and
g) causing, by the computer processor, the surface to be displayed using a display device to enable hydrocarbons to be located
in the subsurface formation.

US Pat. No. 9,658,354

SEISMIC IMAGING SYSTEMS AND METHODS EMPLOYING CORRELATION-BASED STACKING

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A seismic imaging method that comprises:
obtaining shot gathers using an array of spaced-apart receivers, a seismic energy source, and position information sensors,
wherein each shot gather includes seismic energy measurements corresponding to at least some of the spaced-apart receivers,
and wherein each shot gather includes position information for the seismic energy source and for at least some of the spaced-apart
receivers;

obtaining, by at least one processor, partial images of the survey region using the shot gathers;
stacking, by the at least one processor, the partial images to produce a reference image; and
combining, by the at least one processor, the partial images to form an enhanced image, wherein the combining includes:
measuring at each point the reference image's similitude to each of the partial images; and
determining at each point an enhanced image value from a weighted combination of corresponding values in the partial images,
the weighted combination using weights derived from the reference images' similitude at that point to each partial image;
and

displaying, by a display device, a visual representation of at least some portion of the enhanced image.

US Pat. No. 9,836,561

OPTIMIZING MULTISTAGE HYDRAULIC FRACTURING DESIGN BASED ON THREE-DIMENSIONAL (3D) CONTINUUM DAMAGE MECHANICS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method for optimizing multistage hydraulic fracturing design based on three-dimensional (3D) continuum
damage mechanics, the method comprising:
generating a 3D global model of a field of hydrocarbon reservoirs, based on subsurface data captured for the field;
calculating values of one or more mechanical variables for the field based on a finite element analysis of the generated 3D
global model;

generating a smaller-scale 3D sub-model of a selected portion of the field based on the 3D global model and the calculated
values of the one or more mechanical variables, the selected portion corresponding to a formation of at least one of the field's
hydrocarbon reservoirs that is targeted for fluid injection stimulation;

determining a critical value for a synthetic continuum damage variable of the targeted reservoir formation, based on the subsurface
data for the selected portion of the field corresponding to the targeted reservoir formation, the synthetic continuum damage
variable representing hydraulic fracturing effects resulting from compressive and tensile stresses under fluid injection stimulation;

applying one or more numerical damage models to the generated 3D sub-model to simulate the hydraulic fracturing effects of
the fluid injection stimulation within the targeted reservoir formation;

determining one or more optimal design parameters for a multistage hydraulic fracturing of the targeted reservoir formation
to be performed with a plurality of horizontal wells, based on numerical results of the simulation and the critical value
of the synthetic continuum damage variable; and

performing the multistage hydraulic fracturing with the plurality of horizontal wells, based on the one or more optimal design
parameters.

US Pat. No. 9,779,060

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR GENERATING UPDATES OF GEOLOGICAL MODELS

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for updating geological models, comprising:
a) performing a normal score transform on a current geological model realization using a computer processor, the current geological
model realization belonging to a predefined number of geological model realizations for a geological model;

b) performing a forward discrete cosine transform (DCT) on the current geological model realization, the results representing
current DCT coefficients;

c) truncating the current DCT coefficients;
d) updating each current DCT coefficient that was truncated; and
e) performing an inverse discrete DCT on each updated DCT coefficient, the results representing an updated geological model.

US Pat. No. 9,976,416

CASING WEAR ESTIMATION

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method of determining casing wear during drilling operations, the method comprising:receiving, by a computer system from one or more sensors disposed within a drill string, an indication of the drill string's interaction with an inside diameter of a casing during a drilling operation along a first section of a wellbore;
calculating a value indicative of static casing wear caused by interaction of the drill string against the inside diameter of the casing during the drilling operation, based on the received indication;
selecting at least one model from a plurality of models, each model based on a respective cross-sectional wear pattern;
calculating a value indicative of impact casing wear caused by interaction of the drill string against the inside diameter of the casing during the drilling operation, based on the selected model;
combining the value indicative of static casing wear and the value indicative of impact casing wear to determine a value indicative of aggregate casing wear for the first section of the wellbore;
adjusting one or more drilling parameters associated with the drilling operation, based on the value indicative of aggregate casing wear; and
performing the drilling operation along a second section of the wellbore according to the one or more adjusted drilling parameters.

US Pat. No. 9,684,093

METHOD AND SYSTEM OF DETERMINING CHARACTERISTICS OF A FORMATION

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method of determining characteristics of a formation, the method comprising:
collecting optically interacted electromagnetic radiation from a portion of a shale formation;
directing a first portion of the optically interacted electromagnetic radiation from the shale formation to a first multivariate
optical element (MOE), the first MOE creating a first modified electromagnetic radiation;

applying the first modified electromagnetic radiation to a first detector, the first detector creating a first signal based
on the first modified electromagnetic radiation;

determining a first characteristic of the shale formation from the first signal;
directing a second portion of the optically interacted electromagnetic radiation to a second MOE distinct from the first MOE,
the second MOE creating a second modified electromagnetic radiation;

applying the second modified electromagnetic radiation to a second detector distinct from the first detector, the second detector
creating a second signal based on the second modified electromagnetic radiation; and

determining a second characteristic of the shale formation from the second signal.

US Pat. No. 9,865,097

IDENTIFYING MATCHING PROPERTIES BETWEEN A GROUP OF BODIES REPRESENTING A GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE AND A TABLE OF PROPERTIES

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for identifying matching properties between a group of bodies representing a geological structure and a table
of properties, which comprises:
identifying each inherent property in the table with a value that is identical to a value for an inherent property of one
of the bodies in the group of bodies using a computer processor, wherein each body with an inherent property value that is
identical to an inherent property value in the table represents a matching body;

identifying each inherent property in the table with a value that is within a predefined tolerance of a value for an inherent
property of one of the bodies in the group of bodies that is not a matching body using the computer processor, wherein each
body with an inherent property value that is within the predefined tolerance of an inherent property value in the table and
is not a matching body represents a related body;

associating each inherent property value in the table that is identical to an inherent property value of one of the bodies
in the group of bodies with the respective body representing a matching body; and

associating each inherent property value in the table that is within the predefined tolerance of an inherent property value
of one of the bodies in the group of bodies with the respective body representing a related body.

US Pat. No. 10,041,344

DETERMINING PRESSURE WITHIN A SEALED ANNULUS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for determining pressure within a sealed annulus to test the sealed annulus for structural integrity, which comprises:a) calculating an initial mass of each fluid in the sealed annulus based on an initial temperature and an initial pressure for each fluid;
b) calculating a new mass of each fluid in the sealed annulus based on a new temperature and a new pressure for each fluid;
c) determining the pressure within the sealed annulus using a computer processor by comparing a total for the initial mass of each fluid in the sealed annulus and a total for the new mass of each fluid in the sealed annulus;
d) adjusting the new pressure within the sealed annulus based on the total for the initial mass of each fluid in the sealed annulus not being within a predetermined tolerance of the total for the new mass of each fluid in the sealed annulus;
e) repeating steps b)-d) until the total for the initial mass of each fluid in the sealed annulus is within the predetermined tolerance of the total for the new mass of each fluid in the sealed annulus; and
f) controlling, after the total initial mass of each fluid in the sealed annulus is within the predetermined tolerance of the total for the new mass of each fluid in the sealed annulus, an actual annulus pressure based on the new pressure by at least one of circulating gas in an actual annulus during cementing operations or selecting a casing design and deploying said casing.

US Pat. No. 9,977,585

PREDEFINING ELEMENTS OF A CEMENTED WELLBORE

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for predefining elements of a cemented wellbore, comprising:selecting a fluid from a key comprising multiple fluids using a graphical user interface;
dragging the fluid from the key to one of a plurality of zones within a schematic view of a wellbore and a tubing string using the graphical user interface; and
filling the one of the plurality of zones with the fluid or filling half of the one of the plurality of zones with the fluid using a computer processor.

US Pat. No. 9,897,721

CLUSTER ANALYSIS FOR SELECTING RESERVOIR MODELS FROM MULTIPLE GEOLOGICAL REALIZATIONS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for selecting geological data realizations, comprising:
organizing a plurality of geological data realizations into respective arrays of geological property values, wherein each
geological property value in an array is obtained from a grid location of a respective geological data realization, wherein
the plurality of geological data realizations correspond to a geological area comprising a reservoir;

clustering the arrays into two or more array groups based on a comparison of geometric locations of similar values within
the respective arrays of geological property values;

providing the two or more array groups at a user interface;
receiving a selection of at least one array from the two or more array groups; and
providing at least one of the plurality of geological data realizations corresponding to the selected at least one array to
a geological model simulator configured to simulate fluid flow within the geological area for facilitating production of fluids
from the reservoir.

US Pat. No. 10,026,133

METHOD AND SYSTEM OF ANALYZING WELLS OF A MATURE FIELD

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method comprising:gathering, by a computer system from a database via a network, data about a group of wells within a hydrocarbon producing field;
identifying conditions affecting hydrocarbon production for each well in the group of wells, based on the gathered data;
determining at least one corrective action to be performed for each well in the group of wells, based on the conditions identified for that well;
creating an initial prioritization of the group of wells based on the corrective action determined for each well of the group of wells;
creating a secondary prioritization of the group of wells based on one or more predetermined criteria of a client and the initial prioritization of the group of wells;
selecting at least one well from the group of wells for which the corresponding corrective action is to be performed, based on the secondary prioritization of the group of wells;
determining an availability of a service providing entity to perform the corrective action for the selected well;
providing, via the network to a computing device of the client, a recommendation regarding the corrective action to be performed for the selected well, based on the service providing entity's availability; and
performing the corrective action on the selected well, based on the recommendation, wherein the corrective action is selected from the group consisting of: plugging the selected well for abandonment; fracturing at least one zone along the selected well; acidizing at least one production zone along the selected well; and perforating a casing to create a new production zone along the selected well.

US Pat. No. 9,890,616

HORIZONTAL WELL DESIGN FOR FIELD WITH NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIR

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A computer-based system for designing a horizontal oil well, comprising:
a central processing unit mounted within the computer-based system;
a display electrically connected to the central processing unit; and
a storage device in data communication with the central processing unit, the storage device storing one or more applications
thereon for integrating a plurality of workflows to design a horizontal well in a hydrocarbon field with a naturally fractured
hydrocarbon reservoir, the workflows comprising a geophysics workflow, a geomechanics workflow, and a completion and production
workflow;

the storage device further storing one or more integration rules for integrating the plurality of workflows, each integration
rule causing the central processing unit to perform or omit a predefined action, respectively, in a given one of the workflows
if a design parameter derived from a different one of the workflows satisfies or fails to satisfy a predetermined criterion.

US Pat. No. 9,946,445

NAVIGATING TO FAILURES IN DRILLING SYSTEM DISPLAYS

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method comprising:storing a plurality of data records in a memory, wherein the data records comprise data about a drill string in a well and wherein each data record comprises:
a depth zone, wherein the depth zone comprises a range of depths in the well,
a description of a component in the drill string in the depth zone for the data record, and
a failure flag that, when set, represents a failure in the drill string at the depth zone for the data record;
setting a failure flag for a data record for a depth zone when a change by a user to a drilling system parameter results in the failure in the drill string at the depth zone;
using a processor with access to the memory to generate and transmit for display on a graphical user interface a schematic of a portion of the drill string; and
using the processor to emphasize on the schematic of the portion of the drill string on the graphical user interface a representation of an emphasized depth zone, wherein a failure flag in a data record for the emphasized depth zone is set; and
wherein, when emphasizing the representation of the emphasized depth zone, the processor displays text adjacent to the representation of the emphasized depth zone on the graphical user interface, the text indicating a type of failure and a range of depths at which the failure in the drill string occurred.

US Pat. No. 10,061,875

RELATIVE PERMEABILITY INVERSION FROM HISTORICAL PRODUCTION DATA USING VISCOSITY RATIO INVARIANT STEP-FUNCTION RELATIVE PERMEABILITY APPROXIMATIONS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method for approximating multiphase flow reservoir production simulation, the method comprising:generating, by a computer system, a set of pseudo-phase production relative permeability curves representing a single phase of a multiphase fluid flow through a subsurface porous medium;
receiving, by the computer system, production rate history data;
receiving simulation configuration parameters;
performing, by the computer system, flow simulation using each pseudo-phase production relative permeability curve in the set of pseudo-phase production relative permeability curves and the simulation configuration parameters;
determining, by the computer system, an optimal matching pseudo-phase production simulation result that best matches the production rate history data by:
interpolating pseudo-phase production rate data resulting from the flow simulation for each pseudo-phase production relative permeability curve;
comparing the interpolated pseudo-phase production rate data for each pseudo-phase production relative permeability curve to the production rate history data; and
selecting at least one of the pseudo-phase production relative permeability curves as the optimal matching pseudo-phase production simulation result, based on the comparison; and
performing relative permeability inversion using pseudo-phase production analysis to approximate relative permeability curves describing hydraulic conductivity for the multiphase fluid flow through the subsurface porous medium, based on the optimal matching pseudo-phase production simulation result.

US Pat. No. 9,989,659

METHODS AND SYSTEMS OF RETRIEVING SEISMIC DATA BY A DATA SERVER

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A system comprising:a processor;
a memory coupled to the processor;
a display device coupled to the processor;
a network interface device coupled to the processor;
wherein the memory stores a program that, when executed by the processor, causes the processor to:
receive a request to view a first of a plurality of seismic data slices from a seismic data volume organized in parallel layers, wherein the request is received by way of a user interface device, and the first seismic data slice spans a plurality of the layers of the seismic data volume;
formulate a query that defines the first seismic data slice;
send the query via the network interface device to a remote data server communicatively coupled to the system;
receive, via the network interface device from the remote data server in response to the query, datums of the seismic data volume that reside within the first seismic data slice;
fill one or more cache lines of a cache memory coupled to the processor with the datums received for the first seismic data slice, wherein at least some of the filled cache lines include datums that span more than one layer of the seismic data volume; and
render the first seismic data slice on the display device, based on the corresponding datums within the cache memory.

US Pat. No. 9,898,560

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR FLEXIBLE AND EFFICIENT SIMULATION OF VARYING FRACTURE DENSITY IN A RESERVOIR SIMULATOR

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

12. A system for performing simulation of a reservoir represented by a model having a plurality of matrix nodes, a plurality
of fracture nodes, a fracture zone and a fracture-free zone, the system comprising:
a processor;
storage media;
means for characterizing interconnected zones comprised of a plurality of matrix nodes, wherein the matrix nodes represent
a pore system characterized by high pore volume and low conductivity;

means for eliminating a block comprised of one or more dual matrix nodes for at least one of the zones, and updating a coefficient
matrix and Right Hand Side (“RHS”) vector for the model accordingly, wherein the dual matrix nodes represent matrix nodes
with matrix-to-fracture connectivity;

means for determining in-fill patterns between fracture nodes, including virtual fracture nodes, that will result from the
elimination, wherein the fracture nodes represent a pore system characterized by low pore volume and high conductivity and
the virtual fracture nodes represent fracture nodes with matrix-to-matrix connectivity;

means for merging the virtual fracture nodes to a fracture grid and updating the coefficient matrix and RHS vector for the
model accordingly;

means for solving the resultant linear system using a linear solver;
means for backsolving for the eliminated dual matrix nodes, thereby simulating the reservoir; and
means for implementing a drilling plan for utilizing during a drilling process based upon the reservoir simulation.

US Pat. No. 10,042,833

OPTIMIZING THE PLACEMENT OF CLUSTERED TEXTURAL ANNOTATIONS

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method comprising:receiving at a processor a command to optimize the placement of a plurality of overposted annotations along a polyline displayed on a graphical user interface, wherein the plurality of annotations have a plurality of font sizes, the plurality of font sizes includes a largest of the font sizes, and each font size has a height;
selecting a plurality of annotation slot size candidates for logical annotation slots along the polyline;
choosing an annotation slot size from among the plurality of annotation slot size candidates, wherein the chosen annotation slot size is smaller than the largest of the font sizes;
dividing the polyline into logical annotation slots having the chosen annotation slot size;
distributing the plurality of overposted annotations among the logical annotation slots; and
displaying the polyline and the distributed plurality of overposted annotations on the graphical user interface.

US Pat. No. 9,934,479

WELL PLANNING WORKFLOW SYSTEM, METHOD AND COMPUTER-PROGRAM PRODUCT

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method of well planning, the method comprising:receiving, by a computer system via a network, one or more characteristics of a wellbore to be drilled within a formation;
analyzing, by the computer system, the one or more characteristics of the wellbore using a technical applications module;
outputting, by the computer system, a well planning workflow for the wellbore based upon the analysis of the one or more characteristics of the wellbore;
drilling the wellbore along a planned path within the formation in accordance with the well planning workflow;
generating an audit trail of change events occurring during the drilling of the wellbore; and
updating the planned path of the wellbore as the wellbore is drilled, based on the audit trail.

US Pat. No. 9,880,321

DEFINING NON-LINEAR PETROFACIES FOR A RESERVOIR SIMULATION MODEL

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method for defining non-linear petrofacies for a reservoir simulation model, the method comprising:
obtaining a three-dimensional (3D) geocellular grid with an array of petrophysical properties representing a reservoir rock
formation;

presenting, via a display of a computing device, a cross-plot visualization of selected petrophysical properties from the
array, the cross-plot visualization including a plurality of data points representing values of the selected petrophysical
properties;

receiving, from a user of the computing device, input for defining a non-linear petrofacies region of the 3D geocellular grid
within the presented cross-plot visualization;

determining, by the computing device, boundaries for the non-linear petrofacies region within the cross-plot visualization
based on the input received from the user;

identifying, by the computing device, data points in the plurality of data points of the cross-plot visualization that are
within the boundaries of the petrofacies region;

associating, by the computing device, the identified data points with the petrofacies region; and
assigning, by the computing device, hydraulic rock properties to one or more cells of the 3D geocellular grid based on the
data points associated with the petrofacies region.

US Pat. No. 9,863,233

METHOD AND SYSTEM OF SELECTING HYDROCARBON WELLS FOR WORKOVER

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method comprising:
receiving, by a computer system via a communication network from each of a plurality of measurement devices corresponding
to a plurality of wells, measurements of at least one parameter associated with hydrocarbon flow for each of the plurality
of wells;

calculating, by the computer system, a plurality of present-performance index values for the respective plurality of wells,
based on the measurements received for each well, each present-performance index value based on a well's performance with
respect to the plurality of wells, and each present-performance index value dimensionless;

calculating, by the computer system, a plurality of future-performance index values for the respective plurality of wells,
each future-performance index value based on a well's expected future performance with respect to the plurality of wells,
and each future-performance index value dimensionless;

combining, by the computer system, a present-performance index value and a future-performance index value for a first well
to create a first combination index;

combining, by the computer system, a present-performance index value and a future-performance index value for a second well
to create a second combination index;

selecting, by the computer system, at least one of the plurality of wells for a workover operation to be performed, based
on the first and second combination indices; and

performing the workover operation on the at least one selected well.

US Pat. No. 9,850,737

SIMULATING THE EFFECTS OF SYNTACTIC FOAM ON ANNULAR PRESSURE BUILDUP DURING ANNULAR FLUID EXPANSION IN A WELLBORE

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for simulating the effects of syntactic foam on annular pressure buildup during annular fluid expansion in a wellbore,
which comprises:
a) selecting a syntactic foam and calculating one of an elastic foam volume change in a region of a casing string annulus
or a crushed foam volume change in the region of the casing string annulus;

b) calculating an adjusted casing volume change for the region in the casing string annulus using i) one of the elastic foam
volume change or the crushed foam volume change; and ii) a casing volume change;

c) calculating an adjusted annular pressure buildup for the region in the casing string annulus using i) a fluid volume change;
and ii) the adjusted casing volume change;

d) repeating steps a)-c) for each region in the casing string annulus;
e) repeating steps a)-d) for each casing string annulus in a combined casing string;
f) repeating steps a)-e) using a computer processor until a global pressure equilibrium is achieved in the combined casing
string; and

g) disposing the selected syntactic foam, the selected foam determined after the global pressure equilibrium is achieved,
on a real casing string.

US Pat. No. 9,934,338

METHODS AND RELATED SYSTEMS OF BUILDING MODELS AND PREDICTING OPERATIONAL OUTCOMES OF A DRILLING OPERATION

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method comprising:gathering sensor data regarding offset wells, based on measurements by one or more physical sensors associated with a drilling operation;
gathering context data regarding the offset wells, the context data relating to aspects of the drilling operation that are not based on measurements by physical sensors associated with the drilling operation;
placing the sensor data and the context data into a data store;
creating a reduced data set by identifying a correlation between the sensor data and the context data in the data store, wherein the correlation is predictive of an operational outcome of the drilling operation, and the correlation is identified without preselected distance measures;
creating a model based on the reduced data set;
predicting the operational outcome based on the model;
adjusting at least one drilling parameter for the drilling operation, based on the predicted operational outcome; and
drilling a wellbore through a formation based on the at least one adjusted drilling parameter.

US Pat. No. 9,912,918

ESTIMATING CASING WEAR

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method comprising:
receiving, by a computer system, an image captured by at least one camera associated with a shale shaker, the image comprising
cuttings and casing wear particles on the shale shaker in a drilling operation;

identifying, by the computer system, casing wear particles shown in the image;
estimating an originating location of the identified casing wear particles within a casing;
estimating a volume of casing wear expected at the originating location of the casing wear particles;
changing a drilling parameter responsive to the estimated volume of casing wear; and
drilling a wellbore through a formation according to the changed drilling parameter.

US Pat. No. 9,892,366

FACIES DEFINITION USING UNSUPERVISED CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method for generating a facies definition, the method comprising:
receiving well logging data indicative of one or more properties of geologic formations penetrated by one or more wellbores,
wherein no assumptions are being introduced to the well logging data;

determining a type well;
developing an appropriate scaling of the well logging data based on the type well;
creating a training set by drawing samples from the well logging data at random depths;
modifying the training set to remove interfering data;
performing an unsupervised classification procedure on the training set to group samples in the training set;
comparing a suite of values of the well logging data in the groups to classify lithofacies of the type well;
developing classification functions;
classifying unknown wells using the classification functions to generate the facies definition;
populating an earth model of the geological formations using the facies definition;
determining a distribution of rock types within the geologic formations, based on the populated earth model;
selecting a location for a new wellbore to be drilled within the geologic formations, based on the distribution of rock types;
and

drilling the new wellbore at the selected location within the geological formations.

US Pat. No. 9,874,094

IDENTIFYING FORMATION LAYER BOUNDARIES ON WELL LOG MEASUREMENTS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for identifying formation layer boundaries on well log measurements, which comprises:
a) computing a number of peaks and troughs using one of a first derivative of the well log measurements and last smoothed
well log measurements, the well log measurements and the last smoothed well log measurements comprising a number of data points;

b) computing a fluctuation index by dividing the number of peaks and troughs by the number of data points in the well log
measurements;

c) smoothing one of the well log measurements and the last smoothed well log measurements using a computer processor;
d) repeating steps a)-c) until the fluctuation index is less than a predetermined threshold;
e) computing a value at each sampled point using one of a second derivative of the well log measurements and the last smoothed
well log measurements;

f) identifying each value with a zero value, which represents an inflection point;
g) displaying a formation layer boundary on one of the well log measurements and the last smoothed well log measurements at
each identified inflection point; and

h) adjusting one or more drilling operations based on each displayed formation layer boundary.

US Pat. No. 10,049,474

WELL ACTIVITY BAR CHARTS

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A computer-implemented method to display bar charts that represent well activities, the method comprising:displaying a well activity listing for a first well comprising a plurality of well activities listed in chronological order, the well activities being operations that occur over a life cycle of a first well;
receiving well drilling data from a plurality of wells;
automatically determining event data in response to the well activities, wherein the event data is determined from the well drilling data, wherein the event data comprises a plurality of well activities, and a time amount associated with each well activity;
displaying a plurality of event bars, wherein each event bar corresponds to a different well activity;
displaying a time frame indicator;
receiving time bar feedback with the time frame indicator from a user;
defining, in response to the time bar feedback, a time period in which to display the event bars, wherein the event bars are displayed at a first time at which the corresponding well activity occurs within the defined time period;
receiving a pop up indication from the user;
displaying a pop up for a first event bar associated with a first well activity in response to the pop up indication;
receiving a pop up selection from the user;
accessing activity information associated with the first well activity in response to the pop up selection; and
presenting the activity information in response to the pop up selection.

US Pat. No. 10,007,550

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR REORDERING SEQUENTIAL ACTIONS

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for reordering multiple actions in a process, the method comprising:selecting and performing, by a processing unit, each action in the process;
recording, by the processing unit, parameters for each action in the process, the parameters including input data required to complete each action and output data generated by each action;
selecting, by the processing unit, an action of in the process to repeat;
determining, by the processing unit and based on the parameters for each action, a subset of actions in the process that is required to enable the selected action by:
generating a first list in which the subset of actions is to be stored;
generating a second list indicating one or more items of input data for the selected action;
determining that the selected action occurred at a particular time; and
for each item of input data indicated in the second list:
identifying that a particular action in the process occurred prior to the particular time and generated the item of input data as an output; and
adding the particular action to the first list; and
reordering, by the processing unit the subset of actions that is required to enable the selected action.

US Pat. No. 9,959,144

OPTIMIZING COMPUTER HARDWARE RESOURCE UTILIZATION WHEN PROCESSING VARIABLE PRECISION DATA

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method for optimizing hardware resource utilization when processing variable-precision data, the method comprising:determining, by a central processing unit, a level of precision of an application data object to be processed, wherein the application data object is one of a plurality of application data objects represented by different nodes of a scene graph, the different nodes including transform nodes corresponding to the plurality of application data objects, each transform node specifying parameters for one or more data transforms to be applied to a corresponding application data object;
calculating, by the central processing unit, at least one bounding value for the application data object based on the determined level of precision, the at least one bounding value corresponding to a maximum extent of a bounding volume for the application data object;
determining, by the central processing unit, whether the calculated bounding value exceeds a precision threshold;
when the calculated bounding value is determined not to exceed the precision threshold, sending, by the central processing unit to a graphics processing unit, the application data object to be processed by the graphics processing unit and rendered to a display device coupled to the graphics processing unit;
when the calculated bounding value is determined to exceed the precision threshold:
processing, by the central processing unit, the application data object according to a predetermined set of operations;
generating, by the central processing unit, an output dataset based on the processed application data object; and
sending, to the graphics processing unit, the generated output dataset to be rendered to the display device;
detecting a change in at least one of the parameters specified by the transform node corresponding to the application data object to be processed;
when the bounding value is determined to exceed the precision threshold:
modifying the scene graph based on the detected change;
reprocessing the application data object based on the modified scene graph; and
regenerating the output dataset based on the reprocessed application data object; and
when the bounding value is determined to be within the precision threshold, sending an indication of the detected change to the graphics processing unit, the graphics processing unit being configured to apply the change automatically to the application data object without reprocessing and without having to modify the scene graph.

US Pat. No. 9,934,136

AUTOMATED GENERATION OF SCRIPTED AND MANUAL TEST CASES

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method of generating test cases comprising:receiving, by a processor, a test application in an executable format, the test application including a plurality of forms;
simulating the execution of the test application with the processor;
iterating through each one of the plurality of forms of the test application;
detecting a field in at least one form of the plurality of forms;
inspecting a field included in the at least one form for metadata in the test application;
generating, based on the metadata, at least one test case corresponding to the field;
storing the test case in a first format; and
storing the test case in a second format that is different from the first format.

US Pat. No. 9,869,783

STRUCTURE TENSOR CONSTRAINED TOMOGRAPHIC VELOCITY ANALYSIS

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for tomographic migration velocity analysis, comprising:
collecting seismographic traces from a subterranean formation;
using an initial velocity model to generate a plurality of common image gathers and a depth image volume based, at least in
part, on the seismographic traces;

computing a structure tensor using said depth image volume for automated structural dip and azimuth estimation, wherein computing
the structure tensor using said depth image volume for automated structural dip and azimuth estimation comprises computing
smoothed Gaussian derivatives in said depth image volume;

generating a semblance using said plurality of common image gathers and said structure tensor;
automatically picking a plurality of image depth residuals from said semblance;
performing a ray tracing computation on said initial velocity models using said structure tensor;
generating an updated velocity model with a tomographic inversion computation, wherein said tomographic inversion computation
uses said plurality of image depth residuals and said ray tracing computation that is based on the initial velocity model;

displaying a mapping of a topography of the subterranean formation based on an updated velocity image, wherein the updated
velocity image is based on the updated velocity model; and

determining a location of a reservoir based on the mapping.

US Pat. No. 9,835,012

SIMPLIFIED COMPOSITIONAL MODELS FOR CALCULATING PROPERTIES OF MIXED FLUIDS IN A COMMON SURFACE NETWORK

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method of simulating a multi-reservoir production system to maximize fluid production, the method
comprising:
obtaining, by a computer system via a communication network, wellsite data for fluids produced from each of a plurality of
reservoirs in a multi-reservoir system having a common surface network;

generating an initial fluid model for each of the plurality of reservoirs, based on the wellsite data obtained for the fluids
produced from that reservoir;

matching an equation of state (EOS) characterization of the initial fluid model generated for each of the plurality of reservoirs
with a common EOS model of the multi-reservoir system, the common EOS model representing common fluid components for the plurality
of reservoirs and at least one marker component that is unique to each reservoir;

simulating fluid production in the multi-reservoir system for different points in the common surface network, based in part
on the common EOS model;

determining whether or not the simulated fluid production for each of the different points include mixed fluids from different
reservoirs, based on the at least one marker component represented by the common EOS model for each of the different reservoirs;

calculating properties of fluids to be produced at each of the different points in the common surface network, based on the
determination, wherein:

the calculation for each point at which the simulated fluid production is determined not to include mixed fluids is based
on the initial fluid model for the corresponding reservoir from which the fluids are to be produced; and

the calculation for each point at which the simulated fluid production is determined to include mixed fluids is based on a
simplified compositional model that is generated as a function of the at least one marker component represented by the common
EOS model for each of the different reservoirs from which the fluids are to be produced, wherein the simplified compositional
model includes one or more interpolation tables of compositional values for different phase properties of the mixed fluids
that are tabulated as a function of one or more interpolation parameters, and the one or more interpolation parameters include
the at least one marker component that is unique to each of the different reservoirs from which the mixed fluids are produced;

determining operating settings for a selected group of the plurality of wells corresponding to the different points in the
common surface network, based on the calculated properties of the fluids to be produced at each point; and

controlling, using control signals transmitted from the computer system to a wellsite control unit at each of the selected
group of wells via the communication network, production operations of the selected group of wells according to the determined
operating settings.

US Pat. No. 9,932,813

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR PERFORMING FRICTION FACTOR CALIBRATION

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method comprising:calibrating friction factor for a drilling operation, the calibrating by:
plotting on a display device an indication of expected hook load versus depth for the drilling operation;
displaying a plurality of plot points on the display device, each plot point indicative of a measured hook load versus depth for the drilling operation;
selecting a first plot point of the plurality of plot points, the first plot point associated with a first depth, and the selecting responsive to a pointer cursor residing within a predetermined distance of the first plot point on the display device;
displaying a first value of friction factor which correlates the expected hook load versus depth for the particular depth to the measured hook load versus depth for the first plot point, the displaying of the first value responsive to the selecting of the first plot point;
selecting the first value responsive to the pointing cursor residing within a predetermined distance of the first value; and
shifting on the display device at least a portion of the indication of expected hook load versus depth based on the first value of friction factor.

US Pat. No. 10,138,724

MONITORING, DIAGNOSING AND OPTIMIZING GAS LIFT OPERATIONS BY PRESENTING ONE OR MORE ACTIONS RECOMMENDED TO ACHIEVE A GL SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method performed by one or more processors for monitoring, diagnosing and optimizing operation of a gas lift (GL) system that comprises:collecting measured data representative of a state of the GL system within a well, and further storing the measured data;
comparing the measured data to calculated data generated by a well model;
identifying, by the one or more processors, one or more likely conditions of the GL system based at least in part on mismatches between the measured data and the calculated data;
selecting, by a user, corrections to the one or more likely conditions causing the mismatches;
updating the well model to reflect the corrections to the one or more likely conditions;
generating a plurality of GL system performance curves using the updated well model;
selecting, by the user, a GL system operating point on at least one of the generated plurality of GL system performance curves using the updated well model;
generating, by the one or more processors, one or more actions recommended to achieve a GL system performance consistent with the user selected GL system operating point;
presenting to the user, via a display, the one or more actions recommended;
accepting a user selection of one of the displayed one or more actions recommended to achieve the GL system performance consistent with the user selected GL system operating point; and
triggering a system command that automatically changes a setting of a GL choke of the GL system in response to the accepting of the user selection of the one of the displayed one or more actions recommended.

US Pat. No. 10,133,831

METHOD AND SYSTEM OF PREDICTING FUTURE HYDROCARBON PRODUCTION

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method comprising:obtaining, by a computer system from a plurality of measurement devices via a communication network, measurements regarding hydrocarbon production from a hydrocarbon producing field;
applying the obtained measurements as input data to a data model to produce output data including a set of values of a predicted parameter of future hydrocarbon production for at least one hydrocarbon well within the hydrocarbon producing field, wherein the set of values is associated with a plurality of confidence intervals, each confidence interval includes at least one value in the set of values, and the output data is produced by the data model without simulating fluid movement within the hydrocarbon producing field;
adjusting at least one input parameter associated with hydrocarbon production for the at least one hydrocarbon well, based on at least one value in the set of values of the predicted parameter of future hydrocarbon production; and
controlling hydrocarbon production from the at least one hydrocarbon production well based on the at least one adjusted input parameter.

US Pat. No. 9,933,919

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR MONITORING OPERATIONS DATA FOR MULTIPLE WELLS IN REAL-TIME

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A computer-implemented method for monitoring operations data for multiple wells in real-time, comprising:defining a well issue for each well, the well issue being associated with an event;
assigning a weight to the event;
defining one or more operations' parameters for the well issue, the one or more operations' parameters including a condition for performing an action;
reading, by a processor, real-time operations data during construction of each well;
comparing an engineering model and the real-time operations data to determine a status of the well issue, the status of the well issue being based upon an occurrence of the event and the weight assigned to the event; and
displaying the status of the well issue and a status of each well using a three-dimensional graphical representation of an object, the object having a plurality of faces, and the status of the well issue being represented by a face of the plurality of faces, wherein the status of each well is based upon a comparison of the status of the well issue and the condition of the one or more operations' parameters.

US Pat. No. 9,879,530

METHOD AND SYSTEM OF SELECTING HYDROCARBON WELLS FOR WELL TESTING

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method comprising:
acquiring, by a computer system from a data source via a communication network, information about well tests performed on
a plurality of hydrocarbon wells tied to one or more production lines within a hydrocarbon producing field;

calculating a first value indicative of an amount of lapsed time since a prior well test was performed for each of the plurality
of hydrocarbon wells, based on the acquired information;

obtaining, by the computer system via the communication network from measurement devices coupled to each of the plurality
of hydrocarbon wells, measurements of at least one parameter for each of the plurality of hydrocarbon wells;

calculating at least one second value indicative of a change in the at least one parameter for each of the plurality of hydrocarbon
wells, based in part on the measurements obtained from the measurements devices coupled to that hydrocarbon well;

determining a well test priority index for each of the plurality of hydrocarbon wells, based on the first and second values
calculated for that hydrocarbon well;

assigning the corresponding well test priority index to each hydrocarbon well in the plurality of hydrocarbon wells;
selecting, by the computer system, a predetermined number of hydrocarbon wells from the plurality of hydrocarbon wells to
create a list of selected wells, based on the well test priority index assigned to each hydrocarbon well; and

performing, by a mobile well testing unit associated with each of the hydrocarbon wells in the list of selected wells, a well
test by:

diverting hydrocarbon flow from the associated hydrocarbon well through well testing equipment of the mobile well testing
unit before flowing into the one or more production lines;

measuring parameters associated with the diverted hydrocarbon flow; and
determining whether the associated hydrocarbon well is functioning as expected, based on the measured parameters,
wherein each hydrocarbon well in the list of selected wells is once again tied to the one or more production lines following
the well test of that hydrocarbon well.

US Pat. No. 9,846,964

MULTI-Z POLYLINE TO SINGLE-Z HORIZONS CONVERSION

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A computer-based imaging system for imaging a geologic structure in a subterranean formation, comprising:
a central processing unit mounted within the computer-based imaging system;
a display electrically connected to the central processing unit and displaying a three-dimensional (3-D) image of the geologic
structure;

a data input unit electrically connected to the central processing unit, the data input unit receiving seismic interpretations
for the geologic structure, the seismic interpretations comprising interpretations of data acquired from a seismic reflection
survey taken of the subterranean formation; and

a storage device electrically connected to the central processing unit, the storage device storing therein an imaging application
executable by the central processing unit to render the seismic interpretations as multi-Z polylines, each multi-Z polyline
being composed of a series of sample points defining a different contour of the geologic structure within a given plane, and
each multi-Z polyline having a plurality of intersection points where the multi-Z polyline intersects other multi-Z polylines;

wherein the storage device further stores therein a single-Z conversion module executable by the central processing unit to
convert the multi-Z polylines into single-Z line segments, each multi-Z polyline being converted into a set of contiguous
single-Z line segments, each single-Z line segment having only one value in Z at any point along the single-Z line segment;

the storage device further storing therein a single-Z line segment identification sub-module executable by the central processing
unit to determine whether a slope of the multi-Z polyline reversed sign from positive to negative or vice versa between sample
points N?1 and N and sample points N and N+1, and identify a new single-Z line segment starting at sample point N in response
to the slope reversing sign.

US Pat. No. 10,161,239

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR THE EVALUATION OF PASSIVE PRESSURE CONTAINMENT BARRIERS

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A computer-implemented method, the method comprising:performing, by a processor, a process including:
determining, by the processor, one or more initial conditions associated with a well, the well containing a passive pressure containment barrier associated with a breach condition, and the one or more initial conditions being determined using field data associated with the well;
identifying, by the processor, a well construction operation to be performed on the well;
causing, by the processor, performance of the well construction operation using the one or more initial conditions;
determining, by the processor, a change in temperature within the passive pressure containment barrier caused by performing the well construction operation using the one or more initial conditions;
determining, by the processor, a change in pressure within the passive pressure containment barrier caused by the change in temperature;
predicting, by the processor, a potential for the breach condition of the passive pressure containment barrier to be satisfied;
automatically, by the processor, causing performance of a remedial action associated with the passive pressure containment barrier, the remedial action preventing the breach condition from being satisfied; and
determining, by the processor, one or more new initial conditions for the well using the change in temperature and the change in pressure; and
repeating, by the processor, the process for a new well construction operation, wherein repeating the process includes causing performance of the new well construction operation on the well using the one or more new initial conditions to prevent the breach condition from being satisfied.

US Pat. No. 10,147,204

CREATING PLATFORM POSITIONING MAPS REPRESENTING SURFACE PAD LOCATION FEASIBILITY

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method of creating a platform positioning map for validating a current surface pad location and determining the suitability of another surface pad location, which comprises:determining a position for each pixel in an area of interest;
determining if each pixel position is valid;
assigning one of a first color and a first grey-scale shade to each pixel subject to an invalid pixel position, the first color and the first grey-scale shade representing an invalid position for a surface pad location where drilling cannot be conducted without at least one of a surface constraint and a subsurface constraint;
calculating a value for each pixel with a valid pixel position using a computer processor;
assigning one of a second color and a second grey-scale shade to each pixel subject to the respective value, the second color and the second grey-scale shade representing at least (1) lateral well but less than a full set of lateral wells can be planned from a valid pixel position for a surface pad location; and
assigning one of a third color and a third grey-scale shade to each pixel subject to the respective value, the third color and the third grey-scale shade representing a full set of lateral wells can be planned from a valid pixel position for a surface pad location.

US Pat. No. 10,089,424

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR TWO-DIMENSIONAL DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION DURING PARALLEL RESERVOIR SIMULATION

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A computer-implemented method for two-dimensional (2D) domain decomposition during parallel reservoir simulation, comprising:identifying a predetermined number of decomposition domains in a reservoir model using a computer processor;
calculating a plurality of configurations for the predetermined number of decomposition domains, each configuration of the plurality of configurations corresponding to one or more decomposition domains in an X direction and another one or more decomposition domains in a Y direction, and a total number of decomposition domains in each configuration equaling the predetermined number;
performing a process for each configuration of the plurality of configurations, the process being based on the predetermined number of decomposition domains, and the process including:
identifying a configuration of the plurality of configurations;
identifying a number of decomposition domains in the X direction and a number of decomposition domains in the Y direction for the configuration;
calculating one or more first decomposition boundaries for the number of decomposition domains in the X direction and the number of decomposition domains in the Y direction, a first number of active cells within each of the one or more first decomposition boundaries being determined by summing a number of active cells counted within each of one or more cross sections in the X direction, the one or more first decomposition boundaries being formed when the first number of active cells exceeds a pre-defined threshold number of active cells, such that the first number of active cells exceeding the pre-defined threshold number causes a new first decomposition boundary to begin, and the predetermined number of decomposition domains being separated by the one or more first decomposition boundaries and assigned a respective actual number of active cells;
calculating an offset size by computing a difference between the pre-defined threshold number of active cells and the actual number of active cells within each decomposition domain;
calculating one or more second decomposition boundaries for the number of decomposition domains in the X direction and the number of decomposition domains in the Y direction, a second number of active cells within the one or more second decomposition boundaries being determined by summing a number of active cells counted within each of one or more cross sections in the Y direction, the one or more second decomposition boundaries being formed when the second number of active cells exceeds the pre-defined threshold number of active cells, such that the second number of active cells exceeding the pre-defined threshold number causes a new second decomposition boundary to begin, and the predetermined number of decomposition domains being separated by the one or more second decomposition boundaries and assigned a respective another actual number of active cells; and
calculating another offset size by computing a difference between the pre-defined threshold number of active cells and the another actual number of active cells within each decomposition domain;
repeating the process for each remaining configuration of the plurality of configurations, each configuration corresponding to a calculated offset size and a calculated another offset size;
iteratively adjusting at least one of the first decomposition boundaries or the second decomposition boundaries by adding or removing one or more active cells, a number of the one or more active cells added or removed being based on the offset size and the another offset size, and the adjusting defining one or more new first decomposition boundaries or one or more new second decomposition boundaries;
reducing a process time of the computer processor during the parallel reservoir simulation by selecting one of the configurations from among the plurality of configurations, the selected configuration having a lowest one of the offset size and the another offset size, the selected configuration including the one or more new first decomposition boundaries or the one or more new second decomposition boundaries; and
determining a balanced number of active cells to assign to each decomposition domain of the selected configuration, the selected configuration representing a greater balance of assigned active cells to each decomposition domain as compared to remaining configurations of the plurality of configurations.

US Pat. No. 9,959,022

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR DISPLAYING WELLS AND THEIR RESPECTIVE STATUS ON AN ELECTRONIC MAP

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for displaying wells and their respective status on an electronic map, which comprises:receiving, using a computer processor, a selection of a geographical area on the electronic map via a graphical user interface and a selection of a time frame via a slider in the graphical user interface;
receiving, using the computer processor, a selection of a preferred well activity via the graphical user interface or default settings, each well having an associated time-dependent well activity and a respective geographical location on the electronic map;
identifying, using the computer processor, one or more wells that have a time-dependent well activity within the selected time frame that matches the preferred well activity; and
displaying, using the computer processor, only the identified one or more wells that have a geographical location within the selected geographical area, and each associated time-dependent well activity, on the electronic map.

US Pat. No. 9,938,815

ESTIMATING AND PREDICTING WELLBORE TORTUOSITY

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1. A method comprising:receiving, by a computer system, an indication of rotational drilling time and slide drilling time for a drilled portion of a wellpath;
calculating a value indicative of tortuosity for an undrilled portion of the wellpath based on the indication of rotational drilling time and slide drilling time for the drilled portion of the wellpath;
determining, by the computer system, whether or not the value indicative of tortuosity calculated for the undrilled portion of the wellpath exceeds a tortuosity threshold;
changing a drilling parameter regarding the undrilled portion of the wellpath responsive to determining that the value indicative of tortuosity exceeds the tortuosity threshold; and
drilling a wellbore along the undrilled portion of the wellpath according to the changed drilling parameter.

US Pat. No. 9,940,414

TOTAL ASSET MODELING WITH INTEGRATED ASSET MODELS AND PERSISTENT ASSET MODELS

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for generating a total asset valuation for a potential oil and gas field asset target by total asset modeling, which method comprises:(a) selecting a potential oil and gas field target asset;
(b) generating a list of potential conceptual engineering design scenarios for the potential asset target selected in step (a);
(c) retrieving from a library a unique type model;
(d) associating the retrieved unique type model with each potential conceptual engineering design scenario wherein each unique type model includes one or more economic variables and one or more technical variables;
(e) performing an initial technical feasibility analysis on each potential conceptual engineering design scenario from step (d);
(f) evaluating and removing each potential conceptual engineering design scenario from step (e) that is not technically feasible to provide a technically feasible potential conceptual engineering design scenario;
(g) updating each technically feasible potential conceptual engineering design scenario and associated unique type model over time using a computer processor by at least one of (1) adjusting each technical variable and each economic variable for the respective unique type model according to currently available economic data and technical data that is related to a respective adjusted variable and (2) adding at least one of one or more economic variables and one or more technical variables to the respective unique type model according to the currently available economic data and technical data that is related to a respective added variable to obtain an updated technically feasible potential conceptual engineering design scenario;
(h) refining each updated type model by adjusting each technical variable and each economic variable for the respective updated type model according to the initial technical feasibility analysis for the respective updated technically feasible potential conceptual engineering design scenario that is related to a respective adjusted variable;
(i) calculating a net present value for each updated technically feasible potential conceptual engineering design scenario;
(j) ranking the updated technically feasible potential conceptual engineering design scenario in order of its respective net present value;
(k) eliminating each ranked updated technically feasible scenario from step (j) that is not economical;
(l) identifying one or more remaining potential conceptual engineering design scenarios that are both technically feasible and economical according to the respective technical feasibility analysis and its respective ranked net present value, wherein each identified remaining potential conceptual engineering design scenario represents both a technically feasible, economical scenario;
(m) re-updating each refined type model associated with each respective both technically feasible, economical scenario by at least one of (A) adjusting each technical variable and each economic variable for the respective refined type model according to any additional economic data and technical data that is related to a respective adjusted variable and (B) adding at least one of one or more economic variables and one or more technical variables to the respective refined type model according to any additional economic data and technical data that is related to a respective added variable;
(n) re-updating each ranked net present value for the respective both technically feasible, economical scenario;
(o) identifying a list of the most profitable, technically feasible, economic scenarios from step (n);
(p) submitting each profitable scenario identified on the list from step (o) to one or more engineering, procurement and construction contractors for bidding; and
(q) selecting a best profitable engineering design scenario from the both technically feasible, economical scenarios based on at least one of the respective re-updated net present value and a respective acceptable project bid from an engineering procurement and construction contractor that includes a project timeline estimate for developing components required to produce at least one of oil and gas from the potential target asset;
(r) executing the acceptable project bid for the potential asset target including procurement of at least one capital equipment.

US Pat. No. 9,851,451

METHOD FOR USING GEOGRAPHICAL POSITIONING SYSTEM DATA TO SKETCH THE SITE FOR SCOUTING JOB

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A system comprising:
at least one processor;
a global positioning system to receive satellite signals;
a display device; and
at least one memory coupled to the at least one processor and storing instructions that when executed by the at least one
processor performs a plurality of functions, including functions to:

determine location data for a mobile device of a user at a well site based on the satellite signals received by the global
positioning system;

track the location data of the mobile device as the user moves from a starting point to an ending point at the well site;
identify a location of interest at the well site based on the tracking; and
provide an indication of the identified location of interest on a map of the well site as displayed via a graphical user interface
on the display device.

US Pat. No. 9,835,021

RATIO-BASED MODE SWITCHING FOR OPTIMIZING WEIGHT-ON-BIT

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1. A drilling method that comprises:
operating a drill string drilling operation in a first drilling mode that applies a first weight-on-bit;
detecting a prospective drilling mode transition from the first drilling mode to a second drilling mode;
upon said detecting the prospective drilling mode transition,
determining a sinusoidal buckling ratio between a minimum weight-on-bit to induce sinusoidal buckling in sliding mode and
a minimum weight-on-bit to induce sinusoidal buckling in rotating mode; and

determining a helical buckling ratio between a minimum weight-on-bit to induce helical buckling in sliding mode and a minimum
weight-on-bit to induce helical buckling in rotating mode;

determining a weight-on-bit operating range that comprises a range of buckling ratios between the determined sinusoidal buckling
ratio and helical buckling ratio; and

transitioning from the first drilling mode to the second drilling mode, wherein said transitioning includes transitioning
from the first weight-on-bit to a second weight-on-bit that is determined in accordance with the ratio between the second
weight-on-bit and the first weight-on-bit being within the weight-on-bit operating range.

US Pat. No. 10,145,216

DETERMINING DOMINANT SCENARIOS FOR SLOWING DOWN TRIP SPEEDS

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method comprising:accessing data about a well;
for each of a plurality of steps, wherein a step is defined to be the location in the well of a deepest end of a tubular string, a processor performing the following elements a-c using the data:
a. for each of a plurality of slices, wherein a slice is defined to be a depth in the well, performing the following elements i-vi:
i. establishing a pore pressure for the slice, which is defined to be the pressure of the formation fluids at the location of the slice in the well,
ii. establishing a fracture gradient for the slice, which is defined to be the pressure above which the formation at the location of the slice in the well will fracture,
iii. establishing a default trip speed, which is defined to be a default speed that the tubular string moves longitudinally within the well,
iv. calculating a pressure at the slice as a function of the step location and the default trip speed,
v. determining that the calculated pressure is outside a range defined by the pore pressure for the slice and the fracture gradient for the slice, and
vi. iteratively adjusting the trip speed and recalculating the pressure at the slice until the recalculated pressure falls within the range; and
b. determining, for one of the plurality of slices, that the trip speed at which the pressure at the slice fell within the range is the minimum trip speed that has been encountered for the step;
c. storing in a trip speed table the step location, the minimum trip speed for the step location, and the slice depth where the minimum trip speed for the slice occurred; and
the processor accessing the trip speed table when planning a tripping operation on the drill string;
adjusting the tripping operation in light of the trip speed table.

US Pat. No. 10,060,246

REAL-TIME PERFORMANCE ANALYZER FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A non-transitory computer readable medium containing a set of instructions that, when executed by a processor, cause the processor to:receive a data set containing combinations of drilling parameter values and operating condition values for a drilling system corresponding to each combination of drilling parameter values;
determine at least one of a frequency and a duration of use for each of the combinations of drilling parameter values in the data set;
plot at least a first drilling parameter of the data set on a first axis;
plot at least a second drilling parameter of the data set on a second axis;
plot as a color gradient at least a first operating condition of the data set resulting from the combination of the at least the first drilling parameter and at least the second drilling parameter;
plot as an elevation along a third axis at least one of a frequency and a duration of use;
display a contour map, wherein the contour map comprises the plotted at least first drilling parameter, the plotted at least second drilling parameter and the plotted color gradient;
overlay a map augmentation on the contour map, wherein the map augmentation comprises one or more indicators plotted at certain combinations of the at least the first drilling parameter and the at least the second drilling parameter;
identify one or more drilling parameter values that optimize at least one operating condition of the drilling system based, at least in part, on the displayed contour map with the map augmentation overlay; and
identify performance of an operator based on the one or more indicators.

US Pat. No. 10,060,228

PSEUDO PHASE PRODUCTION SIMULATION: A SIGNAL PROCESSING APPROACH TO ASSESS QUASI-MULTIPHASE FLOW PRODUCTION VIA SUCCESSIVE ANALOGOUS STEP-FUNCTION RELATIVE PERMEABILITY CONTROLLED MODELS IN RESERVOIR FLOW SIMULATION IN ORDER TO RANK MULTIPLE PETRO-PHYSICA

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method for approximating multiphase flow reservoir production simulation for ranking multiple petro-physical realizations, the method comprising:generating a set of pseudo-phase production relative permeability curves representing a single phase of a multiphase fluid flow through a subsurface porous medium;
receiving production rate history data;
receiving minimal simulation configuration parameters;
performing flow simulation using each pseudo-phase production relative permeability curve in the set of pseudo-phase production relative permeability curves for a set of petro-physical realizations, based on the minimal simulation configuration parameters;
determining an optimal matching pseudo-phase production simulation result that best matches the production rate history data by:
interpolating pseudo-phase production rate data resulting from the flow simulation for each pseudo-phase production relative permeability curve;
comparing the interpolated pseudo-phase production rate data for each pseudo-phase production relative permeability curve to the production rate history data; and
selecting at least one of the pseudo-phase production relative permeability curves as the optimal matching pseudo-phase production simulation result, based on the comparison;
deriving one or more composite rate curves for the set of petro-physical realizations, based on the optimal matching pseudo-phase production simulation result; and
determining a ranking for the petro-physical realizations within the set of petro-physical realizations based on an area between at least one of the composite rate curves and a historical rate curve for each petro-physical realization.

US Pat. No. 10,055,684

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR USING AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK TO SIMULATE PIPE HYDRAULICS IN A RESERVOIR SIMULATOR

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method comprising:retrieving, by one or more processors from a data store, an initial set of input data relating to a current flow of fluids through a pipe disposed within a wellbore for producing hydrocarbons from a reservoir to gathering and injection facilities located at a surface of the wellbore;
developing training data by performing a calculation on the initial set of input data to obtain corresponding output data relating to current reservoir conditions;
training an artificial neural network (“ANN”) to function as a proxy model for simulating pipe hydraulics in each of a plurality of segments of the pipe within the wellbore, based on the training data;
using the trained ANN to perform the calculation on a second set of input data relating to the current reservoir conditions to obtain corresponding output data for use by the reservoir simulator in performing simulations of pipe hydraulics for the segments of the pipe represented in the reservoir simulator, the calculation being performed for each of the plurality of segments of the pipe by:
determining a flow pattern for the pipe segment based on the second set of input data relating to the current reservoir conditions;
calculating a friction factor and a no-slip holdup for the pipe segment, based on the flow pattern; and
calculating the output data for the reservoir simulator, based on the friction factor and no-slip holdup calculated for the pipe segment, wherein the output data includes pressure drops calculated for each pipe segment, the pressure drops calculated for each pipe segment are summed to determine pressure drop in the pipe as a whole, and the use of the trained ANN as a proxy model in the reservoir simulator provides smoothing to the calculated pressure drops so as to account for discontinuities in the pipe due to changes in flow regimes in the plurality of pipe segments;
estimating a flow rate of hydrocarbons from the reservoir based on the simulations performed by the reservoir simulator;
determining an operating strategy for producing hydrocarbons from the reservoir to the gathering and injection facilities at the surface of the wellbore, based upon the estimated flow rate; and
performing hydrocarbon production from the reservoir, based on the determined operating strategy.

US Pat. No. 10,012,028

SYSTEM, METHOD AND COMPUTER PROGRAM PRODUCT FOR A RUG PLOT FOR GEOSTEERING APPLICATIONS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method to geosteer a downhole assembly, the method comprising:obtaining data related to a geological formation using one or more sensors on the downhole assembly;
analyzing the data using processing circuitry;
generating a geological model based upon the data related to the geological formation;
generating a first plot whereby the geological formation is virtually sliced along a well path such that a left and right orientation of the downhole assembly is visualized along a True Vertical Depth (“TVD”) slice within the geological model;
generating a distance to bed boundary within the first plot based upon data received from the downhole assembly;
determining the distance to bed boundary does not reflect a true position of the distance to bed boundary;
in response to an editing function, adjusting geological boundaries of the well path to the left or right orientation such that a distance to the adjusted bed boundary reflects the true position of the distance to bed boundary; and
geosteering the downhole assembly using the first plot.

US Pat. No. 9,892,555

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR CREATING A THREE-DIMENSIONAL TEXTURE ATLAS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for reducing an amount of cache memory required to store a three-dimensional texture atlas, the method comprising:
determining, using a processor, a mapping between regions of a three-dimensional triangle mesh and leaves in an octree, each
region of the three-dimensional triangle mesh being mapped to a single leaf in the octree;

grouping, using the processor, a plurality of triangles that form the three-dimensional triangle mesh into a plurality of
groups of triangles based on the mapping, each triangle in the plurality of triangles being assigned to a particular group
based on a spatial positioning of the triangle within a particular region of the three-dimensional triangle mesh that corresponds
to a particular leaf in the octree;

creating, using the processor, a plurality of texture tiles based on the plurality of groups of triangles, wherein at least
one texture tile in the plurality of texture tiles is created by scanning a group of triangles that is within a three-dimensional
bounding volume, wherein a length of each dimension of the three-dimensional bounding volume is less than or equal to 2k, and wherein k equals a positive integer that limits the three-dimensional bounding volume to an octree leaf size plus a
maximum triangle size;

combining, using the processor, the plurality of texture tiles to form at least one three-dimensional texture atlas; and
storing, using the processor, the at least one three-dimensional texture atlas in the cache memory.

US Pat. No. 10,145,985

STATIC EARTH MODEL CALIBRATION METHODS AND SYSTEMS USING PERMEABILITY TESTING

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1. A method, comprising:obtaining a static earth model having multiple layers;
testing a permeability of at least part of the static earth model;
calibrating the static earth model by adjusting a distribution or proportion of geological features in at least one of the multiple layers based on results of said testing; and
using the calibrated static earth model to predict fluid flow in a formation.

US Pat. No. 10,060,226

WELL PLACEMENT AND FRACTURE DESIGN OPTIMIZATION SYSTEM, METHOD AND COMPUTER PROGRAM PRODUCT

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method of optimizing well design and placement, the method comprising:modeling, by a computer system, subsurface strata of a geological formation;
extracting, by the computer system, a representative snapshot of the subsurface strata along a vertical column, based on the modeling;
analyzing, by the computer system, the representative snapshot of the subsurface strata in order to determine subsurface properties along a true vertical stratigraphic depth (“TVSD”) of the subsurface strata;
modeling fracture growth behavior for one or more fracture initiation points along the TVSD of the subsurface strata, based on the analysis;
determining, by the computer system, a wellbore design including an optimal path of a wellbore to be drilled within the subsurface strata, based upon the modeled fracture growth behavior for the one or more fracture initiation points along the TVSD; and
drilling the wellbore along the optimal path with the subsurface strata in accordance with the wellbore design.

US Pat. No. 10,145,220

INFLOW CONTROL APPARATUS, METHODS, AND SYSTEMS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

6. A method, comprising:storing a set of instructions in a memory; executing the set of instructions by a processor to form a machine programmed to generate an analytical solution to simulate multiple scenarios for a total flow rate J in order to find one of the scenarios that meets a desired flow rate for a fluid flow entering a portion of a screen to pass through at least one orifice in a base conduit covered by the screen; wherein the analytical solution for the total flow rate J of the pressure distribution is provided by
where pB is a boundary pressure associated with a surrounding formation, pin is a pressure associated with an inlet gap between the screen and the base conduit, ? is a viscosity of the fluid, rs is a radius of a sand-formation interface surrounding the conduit, rB is a drainage radius associated with a well defining the sand-formation interface, ?1 is?2 iszm is a length of the screen that is exposed to the fluid, A1 isA2 isF1 is cos h[?2(L?zm)]?cos h(?1zm), F2 is ?1 sin h(?1zm)+?2 sin h[?2(L?zm)], L is a length of the base conduit, ? is? iskf is a permeability of the formation in the sand-formation interface, ks is a permeability of the sand in the sand-formation interface, and r0 is a radius of the conduit; andattaching a shroud to the base conduit or the screen.

US Pat. No. 10,100,619

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR SUBSURFACE OIL RECOVERY OPTIMIZATION

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A computer-implemented method, which comprises:receiving first input corresponding to a selection of one or more zones, wells, patterns, clusters or fields;
identifying a field development plan associated with the one or more selected zones, wells, patterns, clusters or fields, the field development plan corresponding to a sweep efficiency health indicator;
displaying multiple scenarios and one or more long-term optimization actions corresponding to each scenario of the multiple scenarios, each of the one or more long-term optimization actions optimizing hydrocarbon fluid recovery for the one or more selected zones, wells, patterns, clusters or fields, each of the one or more long-term optimization actions being responsive to a predicted future condition, the multiple displayed scenarios and the corresponding one or more long-term optimization actions being ranked according to at least one of net present value, increased oil recovery, or reduced recovery of unwanted gas or fluids, and the ranking being based at least in part on real-time surveillance field data associated with the one or more zones, wells, patterns, clusters or fields;
receiving second input corresponding to a selection of one or more of the multiple scenarios, and displaying each corresponding long-term optimization action of the corresponding one or more selected scenarios;
receiving third input corresponding to a selection of a prediction date for each selected scenario;
executing a simulation for each selected scenario based on the prediction date, the execution of the simulation using one or more predictive models to predict a condition that is simulated to exist on the prediction date, the condition being associated with the one or more zones, wells, patterns, clusters or fields, and the condition resulting from each selected scenario existing for a period of time;
selecting a long-term optimization action responsive to the simulated condition occurring on the prediction date, the long-term optimization action being selected from the one or more long-term optimization actions corresponding to one or more selected scenarios;
updating, based on the predicted condition, the field development plan, the selected long-term optimization action responding to the predicted condition and causing the sweep efficiency health indicator to be modified, and the modified sweep efficiency health indicator representing an improvement over the sweep efficiency health indicator; and
displaying, using one or more processors, each of:
the one or more selected scenarios,
an effect of the determined long-term optimization action on the prediction date, and
the updated field development plan, the updated field development plan being displayed for the field with a respective net present value calculation and the modified sweep efficiency health indicator, and the updated field development plan including an updated schedule for infill and re-drilling of water injection positions.

US Pat. No. 10,185,786

METHOD AND ANALYSIS FOR HOLISTIC CASING DESIGN FOR PLANNING AND REAL-TIME

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method for determining a suitable casing design for a well, the method comprising:receiving historical data associated with previously drilled wells;
determining whether the historical data associated with the previously drilled wells is relevant to the well;
in response to a determination that the historical data associated with previously drilled well is relevant to the well, generating a first set of casing designs using a probabilistic approach and generating a second set of casing designs using a combination approach, wherein the combination approach combines the probabilistic approach with a deterministic approach; and
selecting the suitable casing design from a resulting set of casing designs, wherein the resulting set of casing designs includes the first set of casing designs and the second set of casing designs.

US Pat. No. 10,145,973

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR GRADATIONAL SEISMIC VOLUME CLASSIFICATION

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for classifying seismic attributes comprising:generating a seismic signal by at least one seismic source located below the surface of the earth or below water surface;
receiving the seismic signal by a plurality of horizontally spaced apart seismic receivers located below the surface of the earth or below the water surface;
generating a first data volume and a second data volume by processing data received by the plurality of seismic receivers;
generating data points by cross plotting seismic attributes from the first data volume and the second data volume to identify one or more background trends and one or more anomalous areas spaced apart from the one or more background trends, wherein the one or more anomalous areas correlate to one or more known or prospective reservoir zones;
encompassing at least one of the generated data points within a polygon;
generating a reference line;
determining an interpolation direction relative to the reference line;
assigning an attribute value to the at least one generated data point encompassed within the polygon wherein the assigned attribute value is determined by interpolation based on the combination of its position to the reference line along the interpolation direction and the shape of the polygon.

US Pat. No. 10,145,984

SYSTEM, METHOD AND COMPUTER PROGRAM PRODUCT FOR SMART GROUPING OF SEISMIC INTERPRETATION DATA IN INVENTORY TREES BASED ON PROCESSING HISTORY

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method of grouping and displaying seismic interpretation data in a user interface based on processing history, the method comprising:generating, by a computer system, a seismic interpretation model of a hydrocarbon reservoir, the seismic interpretation model comprising seismic volume and horizon datasets;
responsive to receiving, by the computer system, user input via a graphical user interface of the computer system, selecting an input dataset including one or more input seismic volume and horizon datasets from the seismic volume and horizon datasets within the seismic interpretation model;
performing, by the computer system, an operation on the input dataset to thereby generate an output dataset, based on the received user input, the output dataset including at least one of an output seismic volume or an output horizon dataset generated from the one or more input seismic volume and horizon datasets;
generating, by the computer system, a record of the performed operation, the record reflecting a relationship between the input and output datasets based on the performed operation;
generating, by the computer system, an inventory tree including a hierarchical grouping of the one or more input seismic volume and horizon datasets from the input dataset and the at least one output seismic volume or output horizon dataset from the output dataset based on the relationship between the input and output datasets reflected in the record; and
displaying the generated inventory tree including the hierarchical grouping showing the relationship between the input and output datasets within the graphical user interface, wherein the record is updated each time an operation is performed on a selected input dataset, and the input and output datasets in the displayed inventory tree are dynamically regrouped each time the record is updated.

US Pat. No. 10,082,602

EQUATION OF STATE BASED CORRELATION FOR GAS CONDENSATES AND WET GASES IN UNCONVENTIONAL SHALE PLAYS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for correlating gas condensates and wet gases in unconventional shale plays, which comprises:collecting hydrocarbon fluid samples across an unconventional shale play from more than one well;
calculating a condensate gas-ratio value using a reduced pseudo-component fluid model and data for each fluid sample at a reservoir temperature, a separator pressure and a separator temperature;
calculating another condensate gas-ratio value using the reduced pseudo-component fluid model and data for each fluid sample at atmospheric conditions;
plotting a relationship between the another condensate gas-ratio value and a respective C7+ mole fraction value from the reduced pseudo-component fluid model for each fluid sample using a computer processor, the relationship representing another condensate gas-ratio relationship equation;
plotting a relationship between the condensate gas-ratio value and a respective C7+ mole fraction value from the reduced pseudo-component fluid model for each fluid sample using the computer processor, the relationship representing a condensate gas-ratio relationship equation;
creating a fluid database using a compositional simulation PVT data file for each fluid sample;
calculating a C7+ value using one of the another condensate gas-ratio value for each fluid sample and the another condensate gas-ratio relationship equation and
the condensate gas-ratio value for each fluid sample and the condensate gas-ratio relationship equation, wherein C7+ represents the mole fraction of components heavier than heptane (C7);
determining a mole fraction of each pseudo-component in the reduced pseudo-component fluid model using the C7+ value and the fluid database; and,
separating the hydrocarbon fluid from said unconventional shale plays into liquid and gas fractions utilizing a separator, wherein the separator is programmed to separate the hydrocarbon fluid according to the mole fraction of each pseudo-component determined in the determining step.

US Pat. No. 10,240,450

DEPTH RANGE MANAGER FOR DRILL STRING ANALYSIS

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A computer-based analysis system for analyzing a drill string operation in a subterranean formation using a Graphical User Interface (GUI) that streamlines interaction with multiple analyzing models, the system comprising:a central processing unit mounted within the computer-based analysis system;
a display electrically connected to the central processing unit, the display displaying the GUI for the computer-based analysis system;
at least one user input device electrically connected to the central processing unit, the at least one user input device receiving user inputs from a user through the GUI for the computer-based analysis system; and
a storage device electrically connected to the central processing unit, the storage device storing a depth range manager application for the GUI of the computer-based analysis system, the GUI providing a first set of input fields and a second set of input fields based on a user selected drill string analysis operation, the first set of input fields allowing the user to enter a first set of user inputs to be used by the computer-based analysis system to perform a first drill string analysis, and the second set of input fields allowing the user to enter a second set of user inputs to be used by the computer-based analysis system to perform a second drill string analysis, the first set of user inputs being different from the second set of user inputs, the first drill string analysis includes determining at least casing centralization placement and the first set of user input fields comprising operation parameters required to perform at least casing centralization placement.

US Pat. No. 10,235,478

PSEUDO-PHASE PRODUCTION SIMULATION: A SIGNAL PROCESSING APPROACH TO ASSESS QUASI-MULTIPHASE FLOW PRODUCTION VIA SUCCESSIVE ANALOGOUS STEP-FUNCTION RELATIVE PERMEABILITY CONTROLLED MODELS IN RESERVOIR FLOW SIMULATION

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method for approximating multiphase flow in reservoir simulation, the method comprising:generating a set of pseudo-phase production relative permeability curves representing a single phase of a multiphase fluid flow through a subsurface porous medium;
receiving production rate history data;
receiving simulation configuration parameters;
performing flow simulation using each pseudo-phase production relative permeability curve in the set of pseudo-phase production relative permeability curves and the simulation configuration parameters;
determining an optimal matching pseudo-phase production simulation result that best matches the production rate history data, wherein the determination is made in the absence of relative permeability measurements derived from the subsurface porous medium and by:
interpolating pseudo-phase production rate data resulting from the flow simulation for each pseudo-phase production relative permeability curve;
comparing the interpolated pseudo-phase production rate data for each pseudo-phase production relative permeability curve to the production rate history data; and
selecting at least one of the pseudo-phase production relative permeability curves as the optimal matching pseudo-phase production simulation result, based on the comparison; and
approximating the multiphase fluid flow through the subsurface porous medium, based on the optimal matching pseudo-phase production simulation result.

US Pat. No. 10,186,077

CREATING A THICKNESS GRID FOR DETERMINING RESERVE ESTIMATES FOR A RESERVOIR

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for creating a thickness grid for determining reserve estimates for a reservoir, which comprises:creating a plurality of polylines by intersecting a vertical plane with a sealed triangulated mesh at a predefined slice interval along an x-dimension in spatial extents for the sealed triangulated mesh, each polyline including a first point and a last point;
creating a plurality of polygons by connecting the first point and the last point on each polyline in a respective vertical plane;
aligning each polygon perpendicular to the respective vertical plane;
creating a grid wherein each grid node on the grid is initiated with a value of zero;
computing a plurality of thickness values using each aligned polygon at a predefined thickness interval; and
creating the thickness grid using a computer processor by assigning each thickness value to a respective grid node on the grid.

US Pat. No. 10,174,593

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR COARSENING IN RESERVOIR SIMULATION SYSTEM

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A computer-implemented method of coarsening a fine grid including a plurality of fine gridblocks, the fine grid representing a geological model having at least one discontinuity therein, the method comprising:calculating a transmissibility for each pair of adjacent fine gridblocks;
grouping a number of fine gridblocks together to form coarse gridblocks, wherein the coarse gridblocks include at least one standard-shaped gridblock and at least one nonstandard-shaped gridblock characterized by a plurality of the fine gridblocks,
wherein the standard-shaped gridblock has a first number of sides in a single plane and the nonstandard-shaped gridblock has a second number of sides in the single plane, the second number of sides being different from the first number of sides;
wherein the grouping is performed in accordance with a coarsening factor, wherein any resultant coarse blocks that include more than one structural unit are further divided such that each block of the coarsened grid includes only one structural unit based on previously defined fine blocks present along a discontinuity;
mapping each of the fine gridblock pairs of a nonstandard shaped gridblock to a coarse gridblock pair,
calculating a transmissibility for each pair of adjacent coarse gridblocks in which at least one gridblock of the coarse gridblock pair is a nonstandard-shaped gridblock;
simulating a reservoir using the geological model; and
conducting a well production operation using the geological model.

US Pat. No. 10,344,591

HISTORY MATCHING MULTI-POROSITY SOLUTIONS

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A computer implemented method, comprising:selecting a first flow rate model for a well, the first flow rate model having at least one input parameter representing reservoir data and comprising at least formation matrix permeability value;
providing reservoir data to the first flow rate model;
providing production history data to the first flow rate model;
computing a solution to the first flow rate model using an initial value for the input parameter;
comparing the solution to the production history data;
adjusting the input parameter and computing the solution to the first flow rate model using the adjusted input parameter;
selecting a second flow rate model for a well, the second flow rate model having at least one input parameter representing reservoir data and comprising at least formation matrix permeability value;
providing reservoir data to the second flow rate model;
providing production history data to the second flow rate model;
computing a solution to the second flow rate model using the input parameter;
comparing the solution to the production history data;
adjusting the input parameter and computing the solution to the second flow rate model using the adjusted input parameter; and
comparing the solution from the first model with the solution from the second model to determine an optimal model most accurately matching the production history data;
wherein the first flow rate model is a multi-porosity dimensionless flow rate model of the form:
where q(s) represents a dimensionless flow rate in Laplace space, f(s) represents a fracture function, yDe represents the dimensionless reservoir half-width and COTH is a hyperbolic cotangent function.

US Pat. No. 10,294,770

AUTOMATED WORKFLOW CAPTURE FOR ANALYSIS AND ERROR REPORTING IN A DRILLING APPLICATION

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer implemented method for automated workflow capture in a drilling application, the method comprising:receiving, via a graphical user interface (GUI) of a client application executable at a first computing device, input from a first user initiating an operation of the client application related to an activity at a well site;
automatically tracking interactions of the first user with one or more user control elements provided within the GUI for enabling the first user to perform actions related to the initiated operation of the client application at the first computing device, based on the input received from the first user via the GUI of the client application;
capturing data for a workflow related to the operation based on the tracked interactions of the first user, the captured workflow data including a record of the actions performed by the first user via the GUI of the client application while the operation is performed by the client application;
storing the captured workflow data in a memory of the first computing device;
receiving an indication of an error event prior to completion of the operation at the first computing device; and
responsive to the received indication, transmitting the captured workflow data from the first computing device via a communication network to a second computing device for playback of the workflow to a second user at the second computing device.

US Pat. No. 10,280,730

OPTIMIZED UBD OPERATION ENVELOPE

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

11. A system for underbalanced drilling in an oil and gas well, comprising:a mud motor;
a gas injector;
a liquid injector;
a computer system having inputs for receiving inputs representative of the performance of the mud motor, gas injector and liquid injector, and having outputs for controlling the operation of the mud motor; gas injector and liquid injector;
wherein the computer system includes a processor that:
(a) determines an initial two-dimensional underbalanced drilling (2D UBD) operation envelope based on a set of initial operating points for a selected true vertical depth (TVD) or time,
(b) displays the initial 2D UBD operation envelope on a computer display,
(c) receives at least one data point representing actual data from a well;
(d) determines at least one actual UBD operation point using the at least one data point and displaying the at least one actual UBD operation point on the computer display along with the 2D UBD operation envelope,
(e) receives an optimization parameter as an input,
(f) determines a set of optimized operating points based on the optimization parameter,
(g) displays the set of optimized operating points on the computer display along with the 2D UBD operation envelope and along with the at least one actual UBD operation point so that a visual indication of a location of the at least one actual UBD operation point is displayed relative to visual indications of locations of each of the set of optimized operating points;
(h) compares the at least one actual UBD operation point and the optimized operating points; and
(i) adjusts operating conditions of the well by adjusting the outputs for controlling at least one of operation of the mud motor, gas injector and liquid injector based on a result of the comparison.

US Pat. No. 10,233,736

SIMULATING FLUID PRODUCTION IN A COMMON SURFACE NETWORK USING EOS MODELS WITH BLACK OIL MODELS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method of simulating a multi-reservoir production system to maximize fluid production, the method comprising:obtaining, by a computer system via a communication network, black oil data for fluids to be produced from each of a plurality of reservoirs in a multi-reservoir system having a common surface network, the black oil data including one or more black oil tables representing the fluids to be produced from each of the plurality of reservoirs;
matching, by the computer system, the black oil data with an equation of state (EOS) model for each of the plurality of reservoirs in the multi-reservoir system, the EOS model for each reservoir representing different fluid components that are common across the plurality of reservoirs and at least one heavy fluid component that is unique to that reservoir, wherein the one or more black oil tables are matched with the EOS model for each reservoir based on that reservoir's at least one unique heavy fluid component;
converting the black oil data into a two-component black oil model for each of the plurality of reservoirs, based on the corresponding EOS model that matches the black oil data associated with the reservoir;
simulating fluid production in the multi-reservoir system for at least one gathering point in the common surface network, based in part on the two-component black oil model and the EOS model of each of the plurality of reservoirs;
determining whether or not the simulated fluid production at the at least one gathering point includes mixed fluids from different reservoirs in the plurality of reservoirs;
when the simulated fluid production at the at least one gathering point is determined not to include mixed fluids from different reservoirs in the plurality of reservoirs, calculating properties of fluids to be produced at the at least one gathering point using the two-component black oil model corresponding to one of the plurality of reservoirs from which the fluids are to be produced;
when the simulated fluid production at the at least one gathering point is determined to include mixed fluids from different reservoirs:
weaving together the EOS models corresponding to the different reservoirs from which fluids are to be produced at the at least one gathering point; and
calculating properties of the fluids to be produced at the at least one gathering point using the weaved EOS models of the different reservoirs;
determining operating settings for one or more production wells corresponding to the at least one gathering point in the common surface network of the multi-reservoir system, based on the calculated properties of the fluids to be produced at the at least one gathering point; and
controlling, using control signals transmitted from the computer system to a wellsite control unit at each of the one or more production wells via the communication network, production operations at each of the one or more production wells according to the determined operating settings.

US Pat. No. 10,233,750

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR PREDICTING DRILLING EVENTS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method comprising:calculating an expected wellbore energy for a planned wellpath, the calculating by a computer system;
calculating an expected tortuosity of the planned wellpath;
calculating a first value indicative of probability of occurrence of a drilling event for drilling along the planned wellpath, based on the expected wellbore energy and the expected tortuosity;
drilling a wellbore along the planned wellpath when the first value indicates the probability of the drilling event is less than a predetermined threshold;
measuring an actual wellbore energy for a first portion of the planned wellpath, the first portion corresponding to a drilled portion of the planned wellpath;
combining the actual wellbore energy with a portion of the expected wellbore energy to create a combined wellbore energy value, the portion of the expected wellbore energy attributable to a second portion of the planned wellpath, the second portion corresponding to an undrilled portion of the planned wellpath;
calculating a second value indicative of probability of occurrence of a drilling event for drilling along the second portion of the planned wellpath, based on the combined wellbore energy value; and
drilling the wellbore along the second portion of the planned wellpath when the second value indicates the probability of the drilling event is less than a predetermined threshold.

US Pat. No. 10,176,631

TARGET OBJECT SIMULATION USING UNDULATING SURFACES

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A computer-implemented method for simulating a target object, the method comprising:generating a target object using a triangle mesh formed by a plurality of triangles, the target object having an X, Y, and Z direction, wherein the Z direction is perpendicular to an X-Y plane of the target object; and
forming an undulating surface on the target object using a Z value in the Z direction by:
averaging Z values of adjacent vertices of triangles forming a fracture surface area to determine an averaged Z value; and
assigning the averaged Z value to a central vertex of the adjacent vertices.

US Pat. No. 10,145,986

MODELLING COMPLEX GEOLOGICAL SEQUENCES USING GEOLOGIC RULES AND PALEOGRAPHIC MAPS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for modelling complex geological sequences, the method comprising:identifying, by a computer processor, one or more MRS shoreline facies positions for each actual top surface that is an MRS actual top surface using a paleographic map;
calculating, by the computer processor, one or more LST termination positions against a respective sequence boundary position using at least one of the one or more MRS shoreline facies positions;
defining, by the computer processor, one or more lateral zones within a gross interval thickness using each LST termination position and each MRS shoreline facies position;
creating, by the computer processor, one or more conceptual geologic rules for each system tract interval as a function of each lateral zone;
creating, by the computer processor, new actual top surfaces for each system tract interval within the gross interval thickness using the conceptual geological rules;
selecting, by the computer processor, one or more well locations based on the new actual top surfaces and the conceptual geologic rules; and
drilling one or more wells based on the selected one or more well locations.

US Pat. No. 10,145,228

PROBABILISTIC METHODOLOGY FOR REAL TIME DRILLING

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A computer-implemented method for real-time drilling, the method comprising:creating, by a computer system, a model of a formation, the model comprising a plurality of cells;
assigning geological property values to each of the plurality of cells of the model;
determining a probability of success for each of the plurality of cells in the model based on the geological property values assigned to that cell, the probability of success for each cell indicating a probability that a corresponding portion of the formation has geological characteristics associated with a target zone within the formation;
determining a drill path of a well to the target zone based on the probability of success determined for each cell of the model, wherein the well is drilled along the drill path using a drill string communicatively coupled to the computer system;
receiving, by the computer system, real-time data from a set of measurement tools coupled to the drill string as the well is drilled along the drill path, the set of measurement tools including one or more sensors and a transceiver unit to transmit data collected by the one or more sensors to the computer system;
updating, by the computer system, the geological property values assigned to an encountered cell of the model, based on the real-time data received for a corresponding portion of the formation along the drill path;
updating, by the computer system, the probability of success for other cells of the model, based on the updated geological property values of the encountered cell;
determining, by the computer system, whether to make a change in a current direction of the drill path, based on the updated probability of success for the other cells; and
when it is determined that a change in the current direction of the drill path is to be made, transmitting, from the computer system to the transceiver unit of the set of measurement tools coupled to the drill string, control data for making the change as the well is drilled,
wherein the receiving of real-time data during drilling of the drill path, the updating of the geological property values, the updating of the probability of success, the determining of whether to make a change in the current direction of the drill path, and the transmitting of control data based on the determination are repeated until the drill path is completed.

US Pat. No. 10,380,052

IMAGE BASED TRANSFER OF WELLSITE DATA BETWEEN DEVICES IN A PETROLEUM FIELD

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method for enabling wellsite data transfer between petroleum field devices using coded data images, the method comprising:obtaining, by a first mobile device located at a wellsite in a petroleum field, wellsite data in a first format supported by only a first of a plurality of service providers at the wellsite;
converting, by the first mobile device, the obtained wellsite data from the first format into a second format supported by a second service provider at the wellsite;
generating, by the first mobile device, at least one coded data image based on the converted wellsite data; and
presenting, by the first mobile device via a display of the first mobile device, a representation of the generated coded data image for transfer to a second mobile device located at the wellsite via an image capture device of the second mobile device, wherein the second mobile device is associated with the second service provider.

US Pat. No. 10,345,482

GLOBAL GRID BUILDING UNFAULTING SEQUENCE FOR COMPLEX FAULT-NETWORK TOPOLOGIES

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method of global grid building for complex fault networks comprising:retrieving, by at least one processor, one or more data structures stored on a storage device communicatively coupled to the at least one processor, the one or more data structures identifying a plurality of faults in a three-dimensional (3D) model of a geographical formation and a plurality of fault blocks for each fault in the plurality of faults, the 3D model including a cell index domain representing the plurality of fault blocks in a 3D area;
for the plurality of fault blocks identified in the one or more data structures for each fault in the 3D model, determining selection rules for an unfaulting sequence used to merge the faults blocks for each fault in the cell index domain of the 3D model, the determining by:
determining, using the at least one processor, a fault polygon for a pair of fault blocks on opposite sides of the fault;
determining an angle between the pair of fault blocks for a portion of the fault polygon overlapped by the pair of fault blocks;
determining a ratio of the overlapped portion of the fault polygon with respect to the pair of fault blocks;
determining a length of the overlapped portion; and
calculating a matching factor between the respective pair of fault blocks, based on the angle, the ratio and the length, wherein the matching factor for each pair of fault blocks is to be applied as one of the selection rules for determining which pair of fault blocks is next to be merged in the unfaulting sequence;
applying the selection rules to select and merge a pair of fault blocks into an unfaulted block at each step of the unfaulting sequence for each fault of the plurality of faults in the 3D model until there is a global grid with no fault throws, wherein cells associated with the pair of fault blocks in the cell index domain are updated to represent an alignment of the pair of fault blocks merged into the unfaulted block; and
updating the one or more data structures to indicate the merging of fault blocks for each fault in the 3D model of the geographical formation.

US Pat. No. 10,344,535

REGRESSION RELATIONSHIP APPROACHES

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method for improving well production, the method comprising:receiving, by a computer system, a first set of data from at least a portion of a horizontal wellbore being drilled within a formation, the first set of data including image logs of the formation surrounding the horizontal wellbore;
identifying, by the computer system, an area of the formation having a relatively high fracture density along the drilled portion of the horizontal wellbore, based on the first set of data;
determining, by the computer system, an angle of the drilled portion of the horizontal wellbore at the identified area of the formation;
estimating, by the computer system, a fracture orientation for fractures within the identified area of the formation relative to the determined angle of the drilled portion of the horizontal wellbore at the identified area;
determining, by the computer system, a drilling angle for a new portion of the horizontal wellbore to be drilled within the formation, based on the estimated fracture orientation relative to the angle of the drilled portion of the horizontal wellbore; and
drilling the new portion of the horizontal wellbore within the formation according to the determined drilling angle.

US Pat. No. 10,331,093

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR OPTIMIZING FACILITY LIMITED PRODUCTION AND INJECTION IN AN INTEGRATED RESERVOIR AND GATHERING NETWORK

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for determining operating settings for a fluid production system comprising a plurality of wells and a processing facility, the method comprising:ranking the plurality of wells based on a common parameter;
sequentially removing wells with a least favorable common parameter from a combined production calculation for the plurality of wells in the fluid production system where at least one processing facility constraint is violated until the at least one processing facility constraint is no longer violated, wherein any wells that remain in the combined production calculation are designated as one or more non-swing wells for the processing facility constraint and at least one last well removed from the combined production calculation is designated as at least one swing well;
determining at least one target parameter equation that is a function of the at least one processing facility constraint and of one or more non-swing well parameters;
incorporating the at least one target parameter equation into a fully-coupled equation set representing the fluid production system;
simulating the fluid production system using the fully-coupled equation set to obtain one or more operating settings for the at least one swing well, such that the at least one processing facility constraint is not exceeded, wherein equations for reservoirs, perforations, and the processing facility of the fully-coupled equation set are solved simultaneously; and
presenting to a user the one or more operating settings for the at least one swing well, wherein the user adjusts actual settings for the at least one swing well in accordance with the operating settings for the at least one swing well obtained from the simulation.

US Pat. No. 10,325,330

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR WELL ABANDONMENT

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method of well abandonment comprising:receiving well field data at a processor, the well field data defining a set of wells for abandonment analysis;
categorizing, by a field data analysis module of the processor, the set of wells into at least two well types;
selecting, by the field data analysis module of the processor, a well inspection subset from the set of wells, the well inspection subset including at least one well of each of the at least two well types;
receiving, at the processor, inspection data for each well in the well inspection subset;
performing an analysis, by the processor, of the well inspection data, the analysis including an extrapolation of the inspection data from the well inspection subset to the set of wells;
determining, by a field estimation module of the processor, an initial sequence of well abandonment activities for the set of wells;
generating, by the field estimation module of the processor, an estimate of the cost of abandoning the set of wells based at least in part on the analysis of the inspection data and the initial sequence of well abandonment activities, the estimate of the cost of abandoning the set of wells distinguishes between the abandonment cost of the first well type and an abandonment cost of the second well type;
wherein the at least two well types include a first well type with an first abandonment cost that is more than an second abandonment cost of a second well type; and
executing, based on the estimate of the cost of abandoning the set of wells, well abandonment activities comprising using well-specific equipment to perform one or more abandonment procedures.

US Pat. No. 10,310,139

ANISOTROPIC GEOMETRY-ADAPTIVE REFINEMENT FOR RESERVOIR MESH CREATION

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method of refining an earth model of a reservoir formation for well planning and placement, the method comprising:selecting, by a computer system, cells in a mesh to be refined in a determined direction within a three-dimensional space representing the reservoir formation, the selecting by:
determining a location of a fracture within the earth model;
identifying cells in a near-fracture region, based on the location of the fracture;
determining a target size of edges of the identified near-fracture cells;
determining whether edges of the near-fracture cells in the determined direction are longer than the target size times a scalar variable; and
identifying the near-fracture cells having edges in the determined direction which are determined to be longer than the target size times the scalar variable;
refining the selected cells in the determined direction;
resolving a fracture network within the earth model using the refined cells;
utilizing the earth model in a reservoir simulation, based on the resolved fracture network; and
drilling a wellbore within the reservoir formation based on the reservoir simulation.

US Pat. No. 10,302,526

DETERMINING STRESSES IN A PIPE UNDER NON-UNIFORM EXTERIOR LOADS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for determining stresses in a pipe under non-uniform exterior loads, which comprises:a) obtaining, by a processor, non-uniform pressure measurements from within a wellbore;
b) determining, by the processor, coefficients in multiple stress equations for the pipe by solving boundary condition equations using a maximum lateral pressure on the pipe and a minimum lateral pressure on the pipe calculated from the pressure measurements within the wellbore, an inside radius of the pipe and an outside radius of the pipe;
c) solving, by the processor, two of the multiple stress equations that each represent a radial stress for the pipe, two of the multiple stress equations that each represent a hoop stress for the pipe, which are added together to represent a total radial stress and a total hoop stress, and one of the multiple stress equations that represents a total shear stress for the pipe using one or more of the coefficients, a predetermined pipe radius and a predetermined pipe angle;
d) calculating, by the processor, a stress intensity for the pipe under the non-uniform exterior loads using the total radial stress, the total hoop stress, the total shear stress and a predetermined total axial stress for the pipe; and
e) installing the pipe within the wellbore when the stress intensity for the pipe is greater than the non-uniform pressure measurements from within the wellbore.

US Pat. No. 10,287,856

OPTIMIZED FLOW CONTROL DEVICE PROPERTIES FOR ACCUMULATED GAS INJECTION

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method for determining flow control device properties for a gas injection well within a formation, the method comprising:simulating, by a computer system, injected gas flow from the gas injection well into the formation to determine a position of a displaced oil volume front within the formation, based on a flow control device distribution function and a uniform distribution profile for flow control devices along the gas injection well;
adjusting, by the computer system, the flow control device distribution function based on results of the simulation and a predetermined reference location along a length of the gas injection well, the predetermined reference location corresponding to a target gas injection profile that yields a prescribed shape of the displaced oil volume front within the formation;
determining, by the computer system, whether a deviation between a shape of the displaced oil volume front obtained using the adjusted flow control device distribution function and the prescribed shape of the displaced oil volume front according to the target gas injection profile is within a predetermined convergence range;
when the deviation is determined not to be within the predetermined convergence range, repeating the simulation and the adjustment of the flow control device distribution function until the deviation is determined to be within the predetermined convergence range;
when the deviation is determined to be within the predetermined convergence range, determining the flow control device properties that yield the target gas injection profile along the gas injection well, based on the flow control device distribution function; and
performing gas injection by using the flow control devices along the gas injection well to control a flow of gas injected into the formation, based on the determined flow control device properties.

US Pat. No. 10,287,857

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR RESERVOIR SIMULATION OPTIMIZATION

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A computer-implemented method to improve hydrocarbon recovery of wellbores in a reservoir, the method comprising:creating an initial model of a well field having a plurality of wells, each well being associated with a spatially-dependent parameter that corresponds to a first hydrocarbon recovery;
dividing the well field into first and second regions, the first region including a first subset of the plurality of wells and the second region including a second subset of the plurality of wells;
solving for the parameters associated with the wells in the first subset to get a first set of values while holding constant the parameters associated with the wells in the second subset;
setting the parameters associated with the wells in the first subset to the first set of values;
solving for the parameters associated with the wells in the second subset to get a second set of values while holding constant the parameters associated with the wells in the first subset,
wherein the first and second set of values correspond to parameters predicted to produce a second hydrocarbon recovery that is improved over the first hydrocarbon recovery;
using the first and second sets of values, designing a well completion plan that corresponds to the second hydrocarbon recovery; and
completing a well field according to the well completion plan.

US Pat. No. 10,289,668

SYSTEM AND METHOD OF POPULATING A WELL LOG

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method of performing well logging operations, the method comprising:obtaining, by a computer system from a global positioning system (GPS) receiver associated with a logging system, location information for the logging system proximate to a wellbore being drilled through one or more formations;
determining, by the computer system, a physical location of the logging system, based on the location information obtained from the GPS receiver;
requesting, by the computer system from a third party server via a communication network, location-based information related to the wellbore at the physical location of the logging system;
obtaining, by the computer system from the logging system, logging data regarding physical parameters of the one or more formations as the wellbore is drilled;
responsive to receiving the requested location-based information from the third party server via the communication network, populating, by the computer system, a header section of a well log report with the location-based information received from the third party server and a log values section of the well log report with the logging data obtained from the logging system; and
displaying, by the computer system, the populated well log report, wherein the displayed well log report is automatically updated with additional location-based information received from the third party server and additional logging data obtained from the logging system as the wellbore is drilled through additional formations.

US Pat. No. 10,253,600

PARALLEL NETWORK SIMULATION APPARATUS, METHODS, AND SYSTEMS

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A system for parallel processing multi-well network simulations, comprising:a housing positioned in a borehole having sensors to be operated in a first well that is included in a network that comprises a plurality of interconnected wells; and
a plurality of processors communicatively coupled to the housing, the processors to,
receive formation and/or fluid property information from the sensors;
compute, in parallel, to determine values of unknowns in network equations for intra-well subdivisions of the network; and
in response to determining values of unknowns in the network equations for the intra-well subdivisions, compute, in parallel, to determine values of unknowns in network equations for inter-well subdivisions of the network, wherein determining the values of the unknowns in network equations for intra-well and inter-well subdivisions includes,
constructing a distributed Jacobian matrix having portions comprising coefficients of the unknowns, wherein said constructing includes distributing the portions among at least two of the processors, wherein said distributing includes distributing each of the portions to a particular one of the processors previously assigned to corresponding ones of the subdivisions, wherein a given processor of the plurality of processors associated with an intra-subdivision well only computes the coefficients of the unknowns which are local to the given processor;
at least partially factoring, the Jacobian matrix to provide factors and solve some of the unknowns;
back-solving, for any remaining unsolved ones of the unknowns, using the factors and the determined values; and
adjusting operation of devices associated with the plurality of interconnected wells based on the values of unknowns in the network equations for intra-well subdivisions and inter-well subdivisions of the network.

US Pat. No. 10,282,382

HYPERLINK NAVIGATING TO AN ERROR SOLUTION

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method comprising:receiving at a processor a plurality of input data to be used to determine a first output;
the processor determining the first output;
the processor determining that the first output is outside a pre-determined first-output limit;
the processor displaying a plurality of hyperlinks on a display device, each hyperlink providing a link to a process for making adjustments to the plurality of input data to bring the first output within the pre-determined first-output limit;
the processor detecting selection of one of the plurality of hyperlinks (the “selected hyperlink”);
the processor following a process associated with the selected hyperlink to produce an adjustment to the plurality of input data to bring the first output within the first pre-determined first-output limit;
using the adjusted plurality of input data to plan implementation of a system; and
implementing the system;
wherein following a process comprises determining a value for the selected input data by:
using the first output and at least one of the plurality of input data that is not the selected input data,
constraining the first output to a value that is within the pre-determined first-output limit, and
setting the values of the plurality of the input data other than the selected input data to their received values; and
wherein displaying a plurality of hyperlinks comprises:
identifying a set of input data from among the plurality of input data used to determine the first output;
identifying from among the set of input data a subset of input data that:
can be adjusted, and
can be adjusted to bring the first output within the pre-determined first-output limit, and
displaying hyperlinks representing each of the input data in the subset of input data.

US Pat. No. 10,227,847

RESERVOIR SIMULATOR, METHOD AND COMPUTER PROGRAM PRODUCT TO DETERMINE PROPPANT DAMAGE EFFECTS ON WELL PRODUCTION

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A computer-implemented method to model proppant damage effects on a wellbore fracture using a reservoir simulator, the method comprising:drilling a wellbore into a formation containing a reservoir;
uploading proppant damage behavior data into the reservoir simulator, the proppant damage behavior data comprising data reflecting a fracture closure stress versus fracture permeability relationship for a defined proppant type;
using the reservoir simulator to:
transform the fracture closure stress versus fracture permeability relationship into a pore pressure versus fracture permeability relationship, wherein transforming the fracture closure stress versus fracture permeability relationship into the pore pressure versus fracture permeability relationship is achieved using a relationship defined by:

where ??p is the net intergranular stress on proppant, ? is Biot's constant, ?p is Biot's constant for the proppant, ? is the pore pressure, ?? is the overburden stress, ? is Poisson's ratio, E is Young's modulus, and ? is regional tectonic strain; and
calculate a fracture permeability reduction factor using the pore pressure versus fracture permeability relationship;
modeling growth of the wellbore fracture using a fracture simulator, thereby generating fracture characteristic data;
communicating the fracture characteristic data to the reservoir simulator;
modeling production of the wellbore using the reservoir simulator, the production model being based upon the fracture permeability reduction factor and the fracture characteristic data, thereby modeling the proppant damage effects on the reservoir;
selecting a proppant based on the production model;
designing a fracture treatment plan for the
drilled uwellbore; and
utilizing the selected proppant and designed fracture treatment plan to fracture the formation containing the drilled wellbore and produce from the drilled wellbore.

US Pat. No. 10,215,868

AUTOMATED HORIZON AUTO-PICKING ON MULTIPLE VOLUMES

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method for automatically picking horizons in seismic volumes, comprising:displaying, by a computer system, seismic data obtained from a seismic survey of a subsurface formation during production operations within the subsurface formation;
receiving, via a user interface of the computer system, a seed horizon input including a seed point for a seismic onset in a seismic trace of a based volume in the seismic survey, the seed horizon input representing an initial interpretation of the seismic data within the based volume;
automatically picking, by the computer system, points along adjacent unpicked seismic traces of the based volume to generate an auto-picked input horizon for the based volume, based on the initial interpretation of the seismic data;
associating the auto-picked input horizon of the based volume with a plurality of seismic volumes related to the based volume in the seismic survey;
snapping the auto-picked input horizon to each of the associated plurality of seismic volumes to generate an auto-picked output horizon for each of the plurality of seismic volumes, wherein the auto-picked output horizon for each of the plurality of seismic volumes is positioned relative to a common seismic onset across the plurality of seismic volumes;
upon receiving, by the computer system, a change to the initial interpretation of the seismic data within the based volume, automatically updating the auto-picked input horizon and the auto-picked output horizon for each of the plurality of seismic volumes by repeating the picking, the associating and the snapping based on the received change; and
performing the production operations within the subsurface formation, based on the updated auto-picked output horizon for each of the plurality of seismic volumes.

US Pat. No. 10,217,279

THREE DIMENSIONAL WELLBORE VISUALIZATION

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for displaying a three-dimensional (3D) wellbore visualization, the method comprising:generating, by a computing system, a well profile related to a design and operation of a wellbore within a subsurface earth formation;
receiving information associated with the wellbore and one or more downhole components of a drill string or a completion string located inside the wellbore;
updating the well profile with the information associated with the wellbore and the one or more downhole components; and
rendering a 3D representation of the wellbore and the one or more downhole components on a display of the computing system for review by one or more users of the computing system, based on the updated well profile.

US Pat. No. 10,197,692

VALIDATION OF DEPTH-DEPTH CURVES USING TIME-SEISMIC DEPTH INTERVAL VELOCITY

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for validating a depth-depth curve that is used to calibrate seismic depths to true vertical depths, which comprises:computing a time-seismic-depth interval velocity curve using the depth-depth curve and a computer system;
building an interval velocity difference curve using a difference between a time depth interval velocity curve and the time-seismic-depth interval velocity curve; and
validating the depth-depth curve using the time-seismic-depth interval velocity curve and the interval velocity difference curve.

US Pat. No. 10,190,403

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR PREDICTING AND VISUALIZING DRILLING EVENTS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method comprising:receiving, by a computer system, data indicative of a location of a first wellbore being drilled through a formation;
identifying, by the computer system, one or more offset wells within a scanned area of the formation in proximity to the location of the first wellbore as it is being drilled through the formation, based on the received data;
reading, by the computer system, data regarding a plurality of drilling events that had previously occurred with respect to the one or more offset wells identified within the scanned area as the first wellbore is being drilled, the read data including a distance of each identified offset well from the location of the first wellbore and a depth at which each drilling event occurred with respect to that offset well;
generating, by the computer system, a value indicative of a probability of occurrence of at least one drilling event in the plurality of drilling events for a planned path of the first wellbore to be drilled through the formation, based on the data regarding the plurality of drilling events;
adjusting the planned path of the first wellbore so as to reduce the probability of occurrence of the at least one drilling event, based on the generated value; and
drilling the first wellbore along the adjusted path through the formation.

US Pat. No. 10,380,281

VECTOR-RATIO SAFETY FACTORS FOR WELLBORE TUBULAR DESIGN

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

9. A system for determining vector-ratio safety factors for wellbore tubular design, the system comprising:at least one processor; and
a memory coupled to the processor having instructions stored therein, which when executed by the processor, cause the processor to perform functions including functions to:
obtain pressure and temperature data for at least one load point along a tubular component of a wellbore;
calculate an effective failure axial load expected at the load point during a downhole operation to be performed along one or more sections of the wellbore within a subsurface formation, based on the obtained pressure and temperature data;
determine an upper boundary and a lower boundary for the effective failure axial load, based on physical properties of the tubular component at the load point;
calculate a midpoint of the effective failure axial load based on the upper and lower boundaries;
calculate a critical failure differential pressure corresponding to a collapse resistance of the tubular component, based on the midpoint of the effective failure axial load;
calculate a vector-ratio safety factor for the tubular component, based on the critical failure differential pressure relative to the effective failure axial load;
select one of a plurality of designs for the tubular component based on the vector-ratio safety factor; and
perform the downhole operation using the selected design of the tubular component along the one or more sections of the wellbore.

US Pat. No. 10,295,684

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR CONSTRUCTING CLEAN STRATIGRAPHIC SEISMIC TRACES TO ENHANCE INTERPRETATION OF GEOLOGICAL FAULTS

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A computer implemented method, comprising:a) selecting, by a processor, a first seismic trace beyond a seismic trace gap from a plurality of seismic traces collected parallel to a side of a seed fault;
b) calculating, by the processor, cross-correlation coefficients for the selected first seismic trace with a next seismic trace for a predetermined number of vertical shifts up and down;
c) applying, by the processor, a parabolic curve fit to each cross-correlation coefficient to generate I) a sub-sample shift between the selected first seismic trace and the next seismic trace, and II) a score determined using a value of a peak of a parabola generated based on the parabolic curve fit;
d) accumulating, by the processor, the sub-sample shift(s) between the selected first seismic trace and the next seismic trace;
e) selecting, by the processor, the next seismic trace beyond the seismic trace gap from the plurality of collected seismic traces;
f) repeating, by the processor, steps b) through e) for each remaining seismic trace of the plurality of collected seismic traces until the score is less than or equal to a predetermined threshold and there are no more seismic traces in the plurality of collected seismic traces, and wherein the score becoming less than or equal to the predetermined threshold is an indication that an optimum shift has been determined;
g) extrapolating, by the processor, the accumulated sub-sample shifts across the seismic trace gap back to the seed fault to form a line or a surface on the side of the seed fault and beyond the seismic trace gap;
h) transforming, using the processor, the plurality of collected seismic traces into a clean stratigraphic seismic trace, the transformation including overlapping at least two collected seismic traces of the plurality of collected seismic traces, the at least two collected seismic traces being overlapped along the line or surface of the seed fault, and the overlapping causing a transparent overlay to be generated;
i) displaying a fault diagnostic display on a screen, the fault diagnostic display including the clean stratigraphic seismic trace and the transparent overlay, the displayed transparent overlay replacing the seed fault with a new fault location of one or more geological faults, the new fault location enhancing a visibility of the one or more geological faults displayed on the screen by reducing a positional uncertainty of the one or more geological faults, wherein the transformation by the processor causes the clean stratigraphic seismic trace to have a lower signal-to-noise ratio than the plurality of seismic traces collected; and
j) displaying a wireline well log using the clean stratigraphic seismic trace.

US Pat. No. 10,280,732

EMPLOYING A TARGET RISK ATTRIBUTE PREDICTOR WHILE DRILLING

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for preventing damage to a downhole borehole assembly (BHA) portion of a drilling system being used to drill a second borehole segment after a first borehole segment has been drilled that comprises:obtaining input attribute values and a target risk attribute value associated with a first borehole segment, wherein:
the input attribute values are data from sensors in a drilling system used to drill the first borehole segment,
the input attribute values are correlated with the target risk attribute value, and
the target risk attribute value is a value of a downhole attribute that is correlated with an increased risk of downhole sensor degradation or failure;
training a prediction model for the target risk attribute using the input attribute values and the target risk attribute value by identifying correlations between the input attribute values and the target risk attributes and embodying the correlations in the prediction model that extrapolates from new input attribute values to predict target risk attribute values;
acquiring subsequent input attribute values from the drilling system being used to drill the second borehole segment;
using the trained prediction model and the subsequent input attribute values to predict a target risk attribute value for a second borehole segment, wherein:
the predicted target risk attribute value is a value of a downhole attribute that is correlated with an increased risk of degradation or failure of a sensor in the BHA being used to drill the second borehole segment; and
determining based on the predicted target risk attribute value that the sensor in the BHA being used to drill the second borehole segment is at risk of degradation or failure and removing the BHA from the borehole and evaluating the sensor in the BHA for degradation or failure.

US Pat. No. 10,267,137

SELF-GUIDED GEOSTEERING ASSEMBLY AND METHOD FOR OPTIMIZING WELL PLACEMENT AND QUALITY

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A downhole assembly of a drill string located within a formation for drilling a wellbore through the formation, the downhole assembly comprising processing circuitry to geosteer the downhole assembly as the wellbore is drilled, the processing circuitry performing a method comprising:determining a modeled well path of the downhole assembly in a geo cellular model of the formation retrieved from a memory of the downhole assembly;
analyzing stratigraphic characteristics of the formation surrounding the downhole assembly to identify a stratigraphic location of the downhole assembly as the wellbore is drilled along an actual well path in the formation, based on real-time data collected by stratigraphic sensors of the downhole assembly;
analyzing location data collected by one or more location sensors of the downhole assembly to track a physical location of the downhole assembly as the wellbore is drilled along the actual well path in the formation;
analyzing fracture characteristics of the formation surrounding the downhole assembly to determine a fracture density of the formation as the wellbore is drilled along the actual well path, based on real-time data collected by image sensors of the downhole assembly;
comparing formation characteristics associated with the actual well path of the downhole assembly in the formation with formation characteristics associated with the modeled well path in the geo cellular model, based on the stratigraphic location of the downhole assembly, the physical location of the downhole assembly, and the fracture density of the formation;
adjusting the actual well path of the downhole assembly as necessary to correspond to the modeled well path of the downhole assembly, based on the comparison; and
steering the downhole assembly to drill the wellbore along the adjusted well path through the formation.

US Pat. No. 10,267,138

PREDICTING TEMPERATURE-CYCLING-INDUCED DOWNHOLE TOOL FAILURE

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A drilling method that comprises:obtaining a set of drilling parameters associated with a drilling plan for a well;
applying the set of drilling parameters to a physics-based model to obtain an estimated log of a downhole parameter, wherein the downhole parameter is a temperature of a tool, wherein the estimated log of the downhole parameter is an estimated temperature of the tool versus depth in the well or versus time in the drilling plan in the well, and wherein the physics-based model accepts the set of drilling parameters as inputs and generates as an output, for each instance of inputs, a depth or time and a value of the downhole parameter to include in the estimated log; and
employing a data-driven model to produce a predicted log of said downhole parameter based at least in part on said estimated log, wherein the predicted log of said downhole parameter is a predicted temperature of the tool versus depth in the well or versus time in the drilling plan in the well, and wherein the data-driven model accepts as inputs the estimated log and a log of an exogenous response that is not the temperature of the tool but that is correlated with the downhole parameter and generates as an output, for each instance of inputs, a depth or time and a value of the downhole parameter to include in the predicted log.

US Pat. No. 10,242,130

SYSTEM, METHOD AND COMPUTER PROGRAM PRODUCT FOR WELLBORE EVENT MODELING USING RIMLIER DATA

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A computer-implemented method to model downhole events, the method comprising:extracting a dataset from a database, the dataset comprising normal wellbore data and outlier wellbore data;
clustering a plurality of the outlier data into a plurality of clusters;
segregating the plurality of clusters into a high density cluster and a low density cluster, wherein the high density clusters are utilized as a rimlier;
analyzing the rimlier to determine data variables within the rimlier that indicate a downhole event, wherein the analyzing comprises:
determining a Head Rimlier Factor as defined by:

 and
determining a Tail Rimlier Factor as defined by:

wherein Eh is entropy of head data, ph is probability of the head data, Er is entropy of rimlier data, pr is probability of the rimlier data, Et is entropy of tail data, and pt is probability of the tail data,
wherein the Head Rimlier Factor and the Tail Rimlier Factor are utilized to determine the data variables indicating the downhole event; and
modeling the downhole event based upon the analysis of the rimlier,
wherein a wellbore is drilled, completed or stimulated in accordance to the modeled downhole events.

US Pat. No. 10,241,222

SEISMIC ELASTIC WAVE SIMULATION FOR TILTED TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC MEDIA USING ADAPTIVE LEBEDEV STAGGERED GRID

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A method, comprising:defining positions of at least one seismic source and at least one seismic receiver relative to a tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) medium;
defining an adaptive Lebedev staggered grid over at least a portion of the TTI medium, the grid comprising a plurality of horizontal zones with associated grid spacings, a grid spacing associated with at least one of the zones differing from a grid spacing associated with another one of the zones; and
using a processor, calculating propagation of a seismic wave emitted by the at least one seismic source through the TTI medium and receipt thereof at the receiver by solving a set of elastic wave equations discretized over the adaptive Lebedev staggered grid, wherein the elastic wave equations discretized over the grid comprise finite-difference equations of at least second order,
wherein the finite difference equations comprise finite difference coefficients, the method further comprising calculating the finite-difference coefficients based on the grid spacings, and
wherein the finite-difference coefficients are variable within an overlap region comprising adjacent portions of two of the horizontal zones, and wherein the finite-difference coefficients are constant within each of the horizontal zones outside the overlap region.

US Pat. No. 10,436,939

LOFTING ALGORITHM FOR DISCRETE NETWORK MESHING

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A computer-implemented method for modeling three-dimensional (3D) geological fractures for reservoir simulation, the method comprising:receiving, by a processor, a set of fracture line segments representing a set of 3D fracture surfaces with geometry that has been discretized on each 2D slicing surface in a set of non-intersecting 2D slicing surfaces that intersect the set of 3D fracture surfaces within a 3D domain;
generating, by the processor, a structured region for each fracture line segment on each 2D slicing surface in the set of non-intersecting 2D slicing surfaces, the generating by:
generating a set of stadia at specified radii from the fracture line segment to form closed loops around the fracture line segment; and
generating various shape cells within the closed loops of the set of stadia generated for the fracture line segment;
generating, by the processor, a constrained cell mesh around the structured region generated for each fracture line segment in the set of fracture line segments to fill in a remainder space of each 2D slicing surface;
extruding, by the processor, the various shape cells from the set of stadia of the structured region for each fracture line segment on at least one 2D slicing surface into the 3D domain to form 3D shells connecting the set of stadia of the at least one 2D slicing surface to corresponding stadia on a neighboring 2D slicing surface in the set of non-intersecting 2D slicing surfaces;
assigning, by the processor, reservoir properties to each of the extruded shape cells to produce a 3D model of a reservoir formation; and
simulating, by the processor, fluid flow within the reservoir formation, based on the 3D model, wherein the simulated fluid flow is used to estimate petroleum reserves.

US Pat. No. 10,436,940

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR THE QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATE OF PRODUCTION-FORECAST UNCERTAINTY

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A computer-implemented method, comprising:computing, using one or more processors, an exact likelihood of objective function using one or more new geological realizations for a prior geological model;
defining an initial state for a sequential Monte Carlo chain based on the exact likelihood of objective function;
defining a new sample based on the initial state for a sequential Monte Carlo chain and a random sample from the prior geological model;
computing an approximate likelihood of objective function using the new sample;
repeating the step of defining a new sample based only on another random sample from the prior geological model if the approximate likelihood of objective function does not meet an acceptance criteria;
computing another exact likelihood of objective function using the new sample if the new sample meets the acceptance criteria;
repeating the step of defining a new sample based only on another random sample from the prior geological model if the another exact likelihood of objective function does not meet another acceptance criteria;
repeating the step of defining a new sample based only on another random sample from the prior geological model until a convergence criteria is met;
storing each new sample that meets the acceptance criteria and the another acceptance criteria, each new sample representing a respective updated posterior geological model for the prior geological model, and each updated posterior geological model being generated using a non-linear technique;
performing a full-physics simulation for each updated posterior geological model;
dynamically ranking each updated posterior geological model based on the full-physics simulation;
parameterizing each updated posterior geological model, the parameterization using a Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) to characterize the updated posterior geological model in terms of one or more parameters; and
displaying a three-dimensional (3D) petrophysical realization using the one or more parameters of each parameterized updated posterior model, the use of the one or more parameters to display the 3D petrophysical realization causing a computational load processed at the one or more processors to be reduced.

US Pat. No. 10,436,010

STUCK PIPE DETECTION

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

2. A method comprising:at a plurality of bit depths:
reading hook load from a rig;
reading bit depth from the rig;
computing a large interval hookload moving average;
computing a small interval hookload moving average;
computing a large interval bit depth moving average;
computing a small interval bit depth moving average;
determining:
the difference between the large interval hookload moving average and the short interval hookload moving average is greater than a hookload threshold; and
the difference between the large interval bit depth moving average and the & short interval bit depth moving average is less than a bit depth threshold; and, in response:
storing the bit depth as part of a tight spot record;
finding a cluster of tight spot records at a fully-stuck depth associated with one of the tight spot records, and, in response:
displaying a fully-stuck event on a display;
wherein:
computing the large interval hookload moving average comprises computing an average of the hookload over a time LHKLD prior to the time of the most recent reading of hookload from the rig, wherein LHKLD is the time length of the hookload large interval;
computing the small interval hookload moving average comprises computing an average of the hookload over a time SHKLD computing the large interval bit depth moving average comprises computing an average of the bit depth over a time LBLK_POS prior to the time of the most recent reading of bit depth from the rig, wherein LBLK_POS is the time length of the bit depth large interval; and
computing the small interval bit depth moving average comprises computing an average of the bit depth over a time SBLK_POS

US Pat. No. 10,428,641

DRAW-DOWN PRESSURE APPARATUS, SYSTEMS, AND METHODS

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method, comprising:building a global model of a field including an actual wellbore extending through geological formations, the global model accounting for the details of the geological formations included in the field around the wellbore;
determining, from the global model, stress components in the field;
building a sub-model accounting for a portion of the field at the location of the wellbore using a finite element modeling tool, the sub-model including a plurality of formation elements;
applying the stress components to the sub-model as boundary conditions;
modeling the wellbore by removing formation elements from the sub-model to define a well surface in the sub-model;
modeling a perforated portion of the wellbore by removing formation elements from the sub-model to define at least one perforation tunnel surface in the sub-model, the perforation tunnel surface intersecting the well surface in the sub-model and extending laterally from the well surface in the sub-model;
determining pressure values for a set of draw-down pressures of a fluid present downhole in the perforated portion of the wellbore;
determining a value of strain in the perforated portion of the wellbore by applying the pressure values determined for the set of draw-down pressures to the perforation tunnel surface in the perforated portion in the sub-model; and
operating a controlled device that is fluidly coupled to the wellbore to control a rate of hydrocarbon extraction from the wellbore, when the value of strain determined is greater than a selected threshold, wherein operating the controlled device adjusts the set of draw-down pressures of the fluid present downhole in the perforated portion of the wellbore.

US Pat. No. 10,392,905

OPTIMIZING FLOW CONTROL DEVICE PROPERTIES FOR ACCUMULATED LIQUID INJECTION

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A computer implemented method for determining flow control device properties of flow control devices along an injection well within a formation that yield a prescribed accumulated injection profile along a production well within the formation, the method comprising:initializing, by a computer system, a flow control device distribution function to have a uniform flow control device distribution profile;
simulating, by the computer system, propagation of an injected fluid front from the injection well to the production well, based on the initialized flow control device distribution function, the injected fluid front representing a volume of fluid to be injected from the injection well into a reservoir area of the formation between the injection well and the production well;
determining, using the flow control device distribution function, a distribution of flow in the injection well and a location of the injected fluid front when it reaches the production well during the simulation;
determining a reference location along a length of the injection well, based on the distribution of flow in the injection well and the location of the injected fluid front, the reference location corresponding to a point along the injected fluid front where the simulated injected fluid front propagation is determined to be at a minimum;
adjusting the flow control device distribution function by decreasing values of the flow control device distribution function at points where the injected fluid front overshoots a target fluid front;
determining whether a deviation between shape of the injected fluid front according to the adjusted flow control device distribution function and the prescribed accumulated injection profile is within a predetermined convergence value;
when the deviation is determined not to be within the predetermined convergence value, repeating the simulation of the injected fluid front propagation and the adjustment of the flow control device distribution function until the deviation is determined to be within the predetermined convergence range;
when the deviation is determined to be within the predetermined convergence value, determining the flow control device properties of the flow control devices along the injection well that yield the prescribed accumulated injection profile along the production well; and
injecting the volume of fluid into the reservoir area of the formation using the flow control devices along the injection well according to the determined flow control device properties that yield the prescribed accumulated injection profile along the production well.

US Pat. No. 10,385,656

METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR DETERMINING MANUFACTURING AND OPERATING PARAMETERS FOR A DEVIATED DOWNHOLE WELL COMPONENT

LANDMARK GRAPHICS CORPORA...

1. A method for determining manufacturing or operating parameters for a deviated downhole well component, the method comprising:representing a tubular string prior to cementing in a borehole as a sequence of nodes separated by tapered segments, said nodes being numerable from i=1 to N with an initial, mechanically constrained reference node located at a casing hanger representable with i=0, a final, mechanically constrained Nth node located at a shoe representable with i=N, and each node being associated with a state vector describing a position of the corresponding node in the borehole and one or more forces present on the tubular string at said corresponding node;
determining a sequence of transfer matrices enabling the determination of an ith node's state vector from an ith?1 node's state vector;
defining values of an initial state vector for the reference node;
applying the transfer matrices to obtain values for each of the state vectors;
deriving from at least one of the state vectors a parameter value for said component, the parameter value being in a set consisting of a composition, manufacturing dimensions, and a position for a centralizer or stabilizer of the tubular string; and
specifying a component having said parameter value, wherein said parameter value facilitates manufacture of the component or positioning of the component for cementing in the borehole.

US Pat. No. 10,385,658

IN-SITU WELLBORE, CORE AND CUTTINGS INFORMATION SYSTEM

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A computer-implemented method for generating a static earth model, comprising:building an enhanced three-dimensional stratigraphic geocellular grid using a three-dimensional stratigraphic geocelluar grid, wellbore image data and a computer system;
generating an assigned wellbore image by assigning core property data to the wellbore image data, the core property data being associated with a core image;
creating a lithotype proportion map using the core property data, the assigned wellbore image, and the enhanced three-dimensional stratigraphic geocellular grid or generating a constrained lithotype proportion map by constraining a smoothing of a lithotype proportion map using trends found in properties of the assigned wellbore image;
generating a facies simulation using the lithotype proportion map or the constrained lithotype proportion map, and the enhanced three-dimensional stratigraphic geocellular grid, and the generated facies simulation referencing a scale associated with the wellbore image data or the core image; and
generating the static earth model using the enhanced three-dimensional stratigraphic geocellular grid, the facies simulation, a modified well log property curve, porosity data, and permeability data.

US Pat. No. 10,388,065

FRACTURE NETWORK TRIANGLE MESH ADJUSTMENT

Landmark Graphics Corpora...

1. A computer-implemented method for simulating a downhole fracture network, the method comprising:receiving input data defining parameters of one or more fractures in the fracture network, the fractures being comprised of a triangle mesh;
determining a first triangle mesh size for the fractures based on the input data;
determining a second triangle mesh size for the fractures based on the input data, wherein the second triangle mesh size is smaller than the first triangle mesh size;
simulating the fracture network using the first and second triangle mesh sizes,
wherein determining the first and second triangle mesh sizes comprises:
selecting a fracture to be simulated;
calculating a strike and dip length for the selected fracture;
calculating a number of orbits based on the strike and dip length;
determining the first and second triangle mesh sizes based upon the number of orbits; and
propagating the selected fracture using the number of orbits and first and second triangle mesh sizes; and
conducting a fracture operation based upon the simulated fracture network.