US Pat. No. 9,480,969

SYNTHESIS OF CO2-ONE ADSORBENT FOR CO2 REMOVAL

King Fahd University of P...

1. A Ca—Na—SiO2—Al2O3/Sodium-Calcium-Aluminosilicate composition comprising:
40-45% gehlenite and 55-60% stilbite.

US Pat. No. 9,480,979

CROSS-LINKED COPOLYMERS AND METHODS THEREOF

King Fahd University of P...

1. A copolymer, comprising:
an aspartic acid derivative;
a quaternary ammonium salt; and
sulfur dioxide;
wherein:
the aspartic acid derivative, the quaternary ammonium salt and the sulfur dioxide are cyclopolymerized to form the copolymer;
and

in the copolymer, a sulfur dioxide molecule connects every two molecules of the aspartic acid derivative, the quaternary ammonium
salt, or both.

US Pat. No. 9,585,861

METHOD FOR TREATING A CANCER WITH A MIXED LIGAND GOLD(III) COMPLEXES AS ANTI-CANCER AGENTS

King Fahd University of P...

1. A pharmaceutically active composition, comprising:
a gold(III) complex having a formula selected from the group consisting of Formula II, Formula III, and Formula IV:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug thereof, and
one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers.
US Pat. No. 9,181,435

SULFUR EXTENDED ASPHALT MODIFIED WITH CRUMB RUBBER FOR PAVING AND ROOFING

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A sulfur rubber asphalt binder composition comprising:
about 58% by weight a base asphalt having a softening point;
about 40% by weight elemental sulfur; and
2% by weight a crumb rubber material;
wherein the crumb rubber material is combined with the base asphalt and the elemental sulfur to create the sulfur rubber asphalt
binder composition, and

wherein the crumb rubber material is present in the sulfur rubber asphalt binder composition in an amount effective to increase
the softening point of the composition as compared to the softening point of the base asphalt.

US Pat. No. 9,333,487

CATALYTIC COMPOSITION FOR THE ELECTROCHEMICAL REDUCTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A method of making a catalytic composition for the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide, comprising the steps of:
dissolving tin chloride (SnCl2) in deionized water to form a tin precursor solution;

sonicating the tin precursor solution;
impregnating the sonicated tin precursor solution in a support material comprising multi-walled carbon nanotubes to form a
slurry;

sonicating the slurry to form a homogenous solid solution;
removing solids from the homogenous solid solution;
drying the solids; and
calcining the dried solids in an argon atmosphere to form the catalytic composition.

US Pat. No. 9,073,900

DIHYDROQUINONE DERIVATIVES OF PIPERIDINE AND PIPERAZINE

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A dihydroquinone derivative of piperidine and piperazine, comprising a compound of the formula:
wherein X is nitrogen and R is a group selected from a, b, c, d, e, and f having the formula:
or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

US Pat. No. 9,072,984

BUBBLE-COLUMN VAPOR MIXTURE CONDENSER

Massachusetts Institute o...

1. A method for condensing a fluid from a carrier-gas stream, comprising:
bubbling a carrier-gas stream comprising a condensable fluid in vapor phase through a first bath of the fluid in liquid phase
in a first stage of a bubble-column condenser, wherein the carrier-gas stream contacts the first bath, and wherein some of
the fluid in vapor phase in the carrier-gas stream condenses into the first bath;

exhausting the carrier-gas stream with a reduced content of the fluid in vapor phase from the first stage of the bubble-column
condenser; and

passing a coolant through a conduit that passes through the liquid in the first stage to recover energy from condensation
in the condenser to the coolant passing through the conduit.

US Pat. No. 9,322,491

ECONOMICAL HEAVY CONCRETE WEIGHT COATING FOR SUBMARINE PIPELINES

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A method for increasing the negative buoyancy of a segment of pipe, the method comprises:
creating an economical heavy concrete weight coating comprising:
Portland cement;
iron ore, where the iron ore is less than one half of the weight of the economical heavy concrete weight coating;
steel slag, where the steel slag is produced by purifying steel billets in one of an electric arc furnace or a basic oxygen
furnace; and

sand;
where the economical heavy concrete weight coating has a unit weight of at least about 190 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) and
a thickness in a range of about 1 to about 5 inches; and

attaching the economical heavy concrete weight coating to an outer surface of the segment of pipe, where the segment of pipe
with the economical heavy concrete weight coating has a greater negative buoyancy than without the economical heavy concrete
weight coating.

US Pat. No. 9,467,925

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR EFFICIENT ROUTING DURING ENERGY HARVESTING OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

King Fahd University of P...

1. A wireless sensor network (WSN), comprising:
a plurality of sensor nodes, each configured with a radio transceiver and electronic circuitry for interfacing with one or
more associated sensors;

a gateway sensor node configured to receive sensor data from and forward instructions to the one or more sensor nodes;
a server configured to control the WSN in combination with the gateway sensor node; and
circuitry configured to
process a route request message from an origination sensor node to a destination sensor node via a routing protocol, wherein
a message packet of each of the plurality of sensor nodes includes a minimum energy field, a minimum energy harvesting rate
field, and a sum of energy field;

determine a new delivery route based upon comparing a minimum energy and a minimum energy harvesting rate of an instant sensor
node with a minimum energy and a minimum energy harvesting rate contained in the message packet, and select a lower minimum
energy and a lower minimum energy harvesting rate from the instant sensor node or the message packet;

broadcast the lower minimum energy and the lower minimum harvesting rate throughout the WSN; and
continue the processing, determining, and broadcasting until the destination sensor node is reached.

US Pat. No. 9,285,290

LEAK DETECTION APPARATUS

Massachusetts Institute o...

1. Leak detection apparatus for deployment in a pipe comprising;
a carrier disposed for motion along the pipe;
a detector connected to move within the carrier in an axial direction, the detector comprising;
a drum mounted for rotation about pitch and yaw axes;
flexible material mounted on, and extending from, the drum; and
at least two sensors responsive to drum rotation;
wherein the flexible material will be drawn into contact with a wall of the pipe at a leak location thereby producing a torque
on the drum causing the drum to rotate and the at least two sensors to generate signals from which leak location is determined.

US Pat. No. 9,146,218

FULLY AUTOMATED ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF CHLOROETHERS IN WATER AND URINE SAMPLE

King Fahd University of P...

1. A flow assisted-solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (FA-SPME/GC-MS) system, comprising:
a sample container comprising a sample solution comprising an aqueous solution and analytes;
a first tube that connects the sample container and a pump and transports the sample solution to the pump;
a second tube that transports sample solution to an extraction vial;
an autosampler that uses the extraction vial to extract an aliquotted sample through an automated SPME method to determine
the chloroether content in the aliquotted sample;

a gas-chromatograph that desorbs the SPME fiber and determines the content of one or more chloroethers in the aliquotted sample;
and

a third tube that circulates the aliquotted sample from the extraction vial to the sample container.

US Pat. No. 9,134,455

HIGH PERFORMANCE AND GRID COMPUTING WITH HISTORY QUALITY OF SERVICE CONTROL

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A computer implemented method of computerized processing in a data processing system of data for exploration and production
of hydrocarbons, the data processing system including at least one master node established as a publisher of exploration and
production data with an established quality of service standard profile including a history profile for the exploration and
production data being processed, a plurality of processor nodes established as subscribers to receive exploration and production
data from the publisher master node, and a data memory, the method comprising the computer processing steps of:
(a) transmitting the established quality of service standard profile from the pr bliSher master node to the subscriber processor
nodes;

(b) establishing with the publisher master node a domain for exploration and production processing by the publisher master
node and designated ones of the plurality of processor nodes as subscriber processor nodes, and the history profile indicating
control of data communication when values of exploration and production data change before being communicated to at least
one of the designated subscriber processor nodes;

(c) further establishing the designated subscriber processor nodes as data writers to transfer to the publisher master node
the processed exploration and production data;

(d) sending a source data sample of the exploration and production data from the publisher master node to the designated subscriber
processor nodes of the domain;

(e) processing the transmitted exploration and production data in the designated subscriber processor nodes of the domain;
(f) monitoring at the publisher master node the processed exploration and production data of the designated subscriber processor
nodes of the domain;

(g) determining in the publisher master node whether the designated subscriber processor nodes of the domain comply with the
transmitted established quality of service standard profile from the publisher master node; and

(h) if so, receiving at the publisher master node the processed exploration and production data from the designated subscriber
processor nodes which comply with the transmitted established quality of service standard profile; and

(i) if not, inhibiting at the publisher master node transfer to the master publisher node of the processed exploration and
production data from the designated subscriber processor nodes which do not comply with the transmitted established quality
of service standard profile; and

(j) assembling in the data memory of the data processing system the processed exploration and production data received at
the publisher master node.

US Pat. No. 9,284,492

CATALYST FOR ENHANCED PROPYLENE IN FLUIDIZED CATALYTIC CRACKING

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. An FCC catalyst for increasing production of ethylene and propylene from heavy hydrocarbon feedstock comprising:
10% by weight ultra-stable Y-type zeolite;
30% by weight phosphorous modified sub-micron ZSM-5 catalyst characterized by an average particle size of between 50 nm and
400 nm and a silica to alumina ratio in the range of between 1:2 and 1:4;

20% by weight pseudoboehmite alumina; and
40% by weight kaolin.

US Pat. No. 9,146,561

ROBOTIC LEADER-FOLLOWER NAVIGATION AND FLEET MANAGEMENT CONTROL METHOD

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A robotic leader-follower navigation and fleet management control method, comprising the steps of:
performing Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) in a group leader of a nonholonomic group of autonomous robots using
at least one sensor, the SLAM generating a map of landmarks in an environment;

the group leader localizing itself with respect to the map to navigate the environment;
executing potential field formation control in follower members of the nonholonomic group of autonomous robots;
computing a desired formation of the autonomous robots by utilizing a control law characterized by the relation

where ƒci represents a force between a center of the desired formation, represented by a position of the group leader, and an i-th one
of the follower members, wherein the force maintains each of the follower members at a radius of a circle circumscribing a
polygon at a distance from the center of the desired formation; and

the follower members following the group leader in a predefined formation pattern based on the desired formation and the potential
field with respect to each other and with respect to the group leader.

US Pat. No. 9,148,183

OPTIMAL LOW POWER COMPLEX FILTER

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. An optimal low power complex filter, comprising:
a plurality of current amplifiers (CAs) configured as a cascade of current mode (CM) complex integrators to provide a fully
differential biquad electronic filter circuit, the electronic filter circuit including input terminals to receive in-phase
(I) and quadrature (Q) input signals for filter processing of the input signals, and including output terminals to provide
filtered I and Q output signals; and

a plurality of series RC circuits, each RC circuit having a resistor's lead connected to a respective CA's input and a capacitive
lead connected to ground.

US Pat. No. 9,128,211

HIGH PERFORMANCE AND GRID COMPUTING WITH RELIABILITY QUALITY OF SERVICE CONTROL

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A computer implemented method of computerized processing in a data processing system of data for exploration and production
of hydrocarbons, the data processing system including at least one master node established as a publisher of exploration and
production data with an established quality of service standard profile including a reliability policy for the exploration
and production data being processed, a plurality of processor nodes established as subscribers to receive exploration and
production data from the publisher master node, and a data memory, the method comprising the computer processing steps of:
(a) transmitting the established quality of service standard profile from the publisher master node to the subscriber processor
nodes;

(b) establishing with the publisher master node a domain for exploration and production processing by the publisher master
node and designated ones of the plurality of processor nodes as subscriber processor nodes;

(c) further establishing the designated subscriber processor nodes as data writers to transfer to the publisher master node
the processed exploration and production data;

(d) sending a source data sample of the exploration and production data from the publisher master node to the designated subscriber
processor nodes of the domain;

(e) processing the transmitted exploration and production data in the designated subscriber processor nodes of the domain;
(f) monitoring at the publisher master node the processed exploration and production data of the designated subscriber processor
nodes of the domain;

(g) determining in the publisher master node whether the designated subscriber processor nodes of the domain comply with the
transmitted established quality of service standard profile from the publisher master node; and

(h) if so, receiving at the publisher master node the processed exploration and production data from the designated subscriber
processor nodes which comply with the transmitted established quality of service standard profile; and

(i) if not, inhibiting at the publisher master node transfer to the publisher master node of the processed exploration and
production data from the designated subscriber processor nodes which do not comply with the transmitted established quality
of service standard profile; and

(j) assembling in the data memory of the data processing system the processed exploration and production data received at
the publisher master node.

US Pat. No. 9,137,082

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR JOINT COMPENSATION OF POWER AMPLIFIER'S DISTORTION

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. In an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) telecommunication system having an OFDM transmitter sending OFDM
signals amplified by a power amplifier to an OFDM receiver, a method for joint compensation (at the transmitter and the receiver)
of the power amplifier's distortion, comprising the steps of:
(a) compensating distortion of the OFDM signals caused by the power amplifier at the transmitter;
(b) overdriving the linearized power amplifier to increase transmission power efficiency of the OFDM signals;
(c) estimating and further compensating the distortion of the OFDM signals using compressive sensing at the receiver, said
compressive sensing being performed without reserving subcarriers specifically for said compressive sensing, thereby enhancing
spectral efficiency of the OFDM signals; and

(d) using a priori knowledge about the sparsity of the overdrive distortion to recover the distortion introduced at the transmitter
thereby facilitating the estimation and compensation step (c),

wherein the receiver performs the following steps:
iteratively estimating a modulated data vector until a maximum number, j=Jmax, of modulated data vectors has been estimated;

iteratively comparing a jth estimated modulated data vector Uj with a constellation of size P (P representing a number of data-free/pilot carriers) to produce a vector set of reliable carriers
SR?;

iteratively performing compressive sensing based on inputs of the vector set of reliable carriers SR? and the estimated modulated data vector Uj, output of the iterative compressive sensing providing xdj;

subtracting said xdj from an xj output of a front end compressive sensing and equalization step, said subtracting said xdj from said xj forming a compensation signal xj+1;

performing a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) on the compensation signal xj+1 to provide an updated estimated modulated data vector Uj+1 as input to said iterative constellation comparison and iterative compressive sensing steps; and

demodulating and removing the data-free/pilot carriers of said enhanced, linearized OFDM signals when the maximum number,
j=jmax, of modulated data vectors has been estimated.

US Pat. No. 9,470,818

SAND AND DUST STORM DETECTION METHOD

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A computer-implemented sand and dust storm detection method, comprising the steps of:
storing GPS, atmospheric pressure, surface temperature, humidity, wind velocity, and soil moisture readings obtained from
a wireless sensor network (WSN) to a database in substantially real time;

storing near-real time Meteosat RGB Composite Dust images obtained from an orbital satellite to the database, substantially
in real time;

activating all of the sensors in the WSN based on a dust event detected from the satellite images, the sensors in the WSN
being adapted for detecting short-term/small-scale dust events;

establishing context information by resolving any data conflicts among sensors in the WSN and between data from the sensors
and data from analysis of the images;

fusing the context information;
drawing an inference from the WSN readings and the Meteosat RGB Composite Dust images, the inference determining whether or
not a sand/dust storm exists in a locale in which the WSN is deployed, wherein the context information is used in formulating
the inference about the existence of the sand/dust storm; and

issuing an early warning of a sand/dust storm to a user based on the determination from the inference.

US Pat. No. 9,098,079

METHOD OF JOINT PLANNING AND CONTROL OF A RIGID, SEPARABLE NON-HOLONOMIC MOBILE ROBOT USING A HARMONIC POTENTIAL FIELD APPROACH

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method for controlling a position of a robot, the method comprising:
transferring a plan to a controller including a processor and memory, storing the plan in the memory, the plan including a
reference velocity field vector;

transferring parameters of the robot to the memory of the controller, the parameters including kinematics of motion of the
robot;

calculating, in the processor of the controller, a synchronization signal, S, based on the parameters of the robot;
calculating, in the processor of the controller, a control signal, U, based on the synchronization signal S; and
generating, in the processor of the controller, the control signal, U, to synchronize an actual velocity of the robot to navigate
the robot according to the plan.

US Pat. No. 9,288,362

TECHNIQUE FOR SKEW DETECTION OF PRINTED ARABIC DOCUMENTS

King Fahd University of P...

1. A document skew detection method, comprising:
binarizing, with circuitry, a document to provide a binarized document image,
performing, by the circuitry, a connected component analysis to remove noise and non-text elements from the binarized document
image; then

splitting, by the circuitry, the binarized document image into a first image and a second image;
individually estimating, by the circuitry, a coarse skew angle for the first image and second image by performing a first
pixel projection to determine a coarse horizontal line based on a maximum concentration of pixels in the pixel projection
of a sharp writing line of script of the first image of the binarized document and the second image of the binarized document
image;

individually estimating, by the circuitry, a fine skew angle within the coarse skew angle for the first image and second image
by performing a second pixel projection to determine a fine horizontal line based on a maximum concentration of pixels in
the pixel projection of the sharp writing line of script of the first image of the binarized document and the second image
of the binarized document; and

averaging, by the circuitry, the fine skew angle for the first image and the second image to determine a final skew angle.

US Pat. No. 9,188,471

TWO-PHASE FLOW SENSOR USING CROSS-FLOW-INDUCED VIBRATIONS

King Fahd University of P...

1. A system for detecting two-phase flow comprising:
a data analysis system;
a pipe with crossflow inside the pipe;
a thin rod with a first flat segment and a second flat segment
a cantilever tube elastically supported by the thin rod;
a first sensor on the first flat segment, in a first direction parallel to the crossflow, connected to the cantilever tube
and to the data analysis system;

a second sensor on the second flat segment, in a second direction perpendicular to the first direction, connected to the cantilever
tube and to the data analysis system;

wherein the cantilever tube is immersed in the crossflow, and
wherein the data analysis system collects information from the sensors, computes values representing fluidelastic-induced
forces on the cantilever tube, compares the values to reference values, and determines whether the crossflow is a two-phase
flow.

US Pat. No. 9,146,820

WSAN SIMULTANEOUS FAILURES RECOVERY METHOD

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. In a wireless sensor-actor network (WSAN) having a topology defined by a plurality of connected sensor nodes and actor
nodes, a computer- implemented WSAN simultaneous failures recovery method, comprising the steps of:
searching the plurality of connected sensor nodes and actor nodes in a breadth first search (BFS) manner, starting at a root
node;

assigning a rank to the plurality of connected sensor nodes and actor nodes during the BFS of the plurality of connected sensor
nodes and actor nodes, wherein the rank of each of the plurality of connected sensor nodes and actor nodes is determined by
a number of shortest hops to the root node of the wireless sensor-actor network;

creating a recovery tree based on the rank assigned to the plurality of connected sensor nodes and actor nodes, the recovery
tree having parent nodes;

defining roles of the plurality of connected sensor nodes and actor nodes based on levels of the plurality of connected sensor
nodes and actor nodes in the recovery tree;

assigning a clustering weight and a recovery weight to each of the plurality of connected sensor nodes and actor nodes, the
recovery weight being based on a number of hops to a particular one of the plurality of connected sensor nodes and actor node's
closest leaf node in the recovery tree, the recovery weight being used to determine how the plurality of connected sensor
nodes and actor nodes are to move to restore connectivity, the clustering weight being based on the number of children nodes
down in the recovery tree until a cluster is encountered, the clustering weight being used to determine which of the plurality
of connected sensor nodes and actor nodes will form a new cluster head;

each of the plurality of connected sensor nodes and actor nodes checking its clustering weight against a predefined cluster
size and when its clustering weight exceeds the predefined cluster size establishing itself as a cluster head and sending
cluster identification to the cluster head's neighbor nodes;

monitoring the network for the occurrence of a node failure;
upon determination of a failed node, each of the plurality of connected sensor nodes and actor nodes in a set of children
nodes of the failed node in the recovery tree recursively transmitting its assigned recovery weight and an ID of its parent
to other ones of the plurality of connected sensor nodes and actor nodes in the set of children nodes of the failed node and
saving received assigned recovery weights and IDs from the other ones of the plurality of connected sensor nodes and actor
nodes in the set of children nodes of the failed node, each of the plurality of connected sensor nodes and actor nodes in
the set of children nodes of the failed node ceasing transmission of its assigned recovery weight and saving of received assigned
recovery weights when a received assigned recovery weight is lower than its own assigned recovery weight, thereby leaving
the other children nodes of the failed node with lower weight to recover;

moving each of the plurality of connected sensor nodes and actor nodes to positions having ranks that are at most half of
the rank of the failed nodes away from the failed node, one of the plurality of connected sensor nodes and actor nodes becoming
a recovering node taking the place of the failed node in the recovery tree.

US Pat. No. 9,075,037

MICRO-SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION OF HALOACETIC ACIDS

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A method of extracting haloacetic acids from aqueous solution, comprising the steps of:
preparing a sorbent consisting of porous rice husk silica having particles of iron embedded in the pores, wherein said step
of preparing the sorbent comprises the steps of:

incinerating rice husks to produce a powder;
treating the powder with 1.0 M nitric acid for 24 hours to produce rice husk silica;
washing the silica with base to form a sodium silicate solution;
adding 3.6 g of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide into the sodium silicate solution and stirring until the cetyltrimethylammonium
bromide is completely dissolved;

titrating the silicate solution with a 10% Fe3+ solution to pH 5, thereby forming a gel;

aging the gel; and
filtering, drying, and calcining the aged gel to produce a nitrate-free, iron-modified rice husk silica sorbent;
sealing the sorbent in a membrane envelope formed from at least one porous polypropylene membrane to form a packaged sorbent;
and

using the packaged sorbent as the stationary phase for micro-solid phase extraction of the haloacetic acids from the aqueous
solution, wherein the membrane envelope provides filtering for preventing particulates and humic substances from complex sample
matrices adsorbing on the sorbent.

US Pat. No. 9,182,367

ELECTROANALYTICAL METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF PHENOLS

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. An electroanalytical method for determination of phenols, comprising the steps of:
contacting an aqueous sample of a phenolic compound with an electrode assembly having a working electrode;
determining a response of the working electrode in a voltammogram by varying a potential applied to the working electrode,
wherein the potential applied to the working electrode is an accumulation potential during a square-wave adsorptive stripping
voltammetry measurement, the square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry measurement being conductive at a pulse amplitude
of 25 mV with a pulse width of 8 mV and at a frequency of 15 Hz;

measuring the size of peaks in the voltammogram corresponding to a redox-active polyphenol film that develops at the working
electrode at an electro-polymerization potential of the phenolic compound in order to determine the concentration of the phenolic
compound.

US Pat. No. 9,176,513

HIGH DYNAMIC RANGE EXPONENTIAL CURRENT GENERATOR WITH MOSFETS

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A high dynamic range exponential current generator with MOSFETs, comprising:
a numerator current generator;
first and second numerator current generator squaring circuits connected in-line within the numerator current generator;
a denominator current generator;
first and second denominator current generator squaring circuits connected in-line within the denominator current generator;
a single quadrant divider circuit connected between output of the first numerator current generator squaring circuit and output
of the first denominator current generator squaring circuit;

a bidirectional current mirror circuit connected between output of the second numerator current generator squaring circuit
and output of the second denominator current generator squaring circuit;

numerator current generator and denominator current generator being biased in a weak inversion region that provides an approximation
characterized by a relation,


and
wherein all components of the exponential current generator are MOSFETs.

US Pat. No. 9,145,388

6-PIPERAZINYL-3,4-DIHYDROQUINAZOLIN-2(1H)-ONES

King Fahd University of P...

1. A dihydroquinolinone compound of formula (1)

wherein R is selected from the group consisting of:

US Pat. No. 9,128,106

DISPERSIVE LIQUID-LIQUID MICROEXTRACTION METHOD OF DETECTING N-NITROSOAMINES

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method of detecting N-nitrosoamines, comprising the steps of:
adding microliters of an extraction solvent, the extraction solvent being xylene, and microliters of a disperser solvent,
the disperser solvent being methanol, to microliters of an aqueous solution to form a test sample;

agitating the test sample at an agitation speed of 706.15 RPM to form a cloudy suspension when an analyte is present in the
test sample;

allowing the test sample to separate into an organic phase and an aqueous phase;
withdrawing an aliquot of the organic phase from the test sample with an extraction time of 25.77 minutes;
directly injecting the aliquot into a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer; and
analyzing the aliquot by gas chromatography and mass spectrography for the presence of N-nitrosamines, wherein the steps of
adding the microliters of the extraction solvent and the microliters of the disperser solvent, agitating the test sample,
withdrawing the aliquot and directly injecting the aliquot are each performed by a programmable array logic auto-sampler.

US Pat. No. 9,099,711

FUEL CELL MEMBRANE

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A fuel cell membrane, comprising a blend of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and phosphonated polysulfone cast to form
a membrane wherein the membrane consists of 50 wt % sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone), 25 wt % phosphonated polysulfone
in acid form, and 25 wt % phosphonated polysulfone in ester form.
US Pat. No. 9,145,491

WEATHERABILITY AND DURABILITY OF LOW-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE NANOCOMPOSITES WITH CLAY, SILICA AND ZINC OXIDE

King Fahd University of P...

1. A low-density polyethylene nanocomposite comprising a low-density polyethylene resin and 5 weight percent or more of at
least one nanoscale filler having a specific surface area of 10 m2/g to 50 m2/g selected from the group consisting of montmorillonite clay, silica and zinc oxide.

US Pat. No. 9,077,300

PREDISTORTION CIRCUIT WITH CONCAVE CHARACTERISTIC

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A predistortion circuit with concave characteristic, comprising:
an amplifier, and
a passive network connected to the amplifier, the passive network having a plurality of breakpoints determined from a database
containing database values that memorialize variation of relative third-order intermodulation as a function of the amplifier's
input/output (I/O) characteristics where the input is comprised of multi-sinusoidal waveforms, the multi-sinusoidal waveforms
consisting of a two-tone equal-amplitude input, the passive network substantially cancelling out third order IMD of the amplifier
thereby resulting in a linearized I/O characteristic of the amplifier, where the database values are a function of an amplifier
model having a transfer function characterized by the Fourier sine-series relation,


 where y is a normalized output voltage, x is a normalized input voltage, D is a complete period of a periodic function, and
bm, where m=1, 2, . . . , M for a maximum integer value M, are obtained fitting parameters which provide a best fit between
a measured input/output characteristic and the Fourier sine-series relation,

wherein the concave characteristic of the predistortion circuit is represented by a fifth order polynomial characterized by
the relation

Vout=AVin+BVin3+CVin5,

 with the two-tone equal-amplitude input being characterized by the relation Vin(t)=X(cos ?1t+cos ?2t), and the predistortion circuit output being characterized by the relation


 where,



 where the amplitude of the output signal with frequency f1=?1/2? or f2=?2/2? is characterized by the relation

S1=X(A+9/4BX2+25/4CX4),

 and the amplitude of the output intermodulation product with frequency 2f1?f2=(2?1??2)/2? or 2f2?f1=(2?2??1)/2? is characterized by the relation


 and the amplitude of the output intermodulation product with frequency 3f1?2f2=(3?1?2?2)/2? or 3f2?2f1=(3?2?2?1)/2? is characterized by the relation

S32=5/8CX5, and

 the maximum output is characterized by the relation

 the amplitude of a single input tone X being characterized by the relation

 where ?=10??/10, and the output intermodulation product amplitudes are further characterized by relations




 wherein the concave characteristic of the predistortion circuit has three break points, (Vm/3,V1), 2Vm/3,V1) and (Vm,V1) dividing the concave characteristic into first second, and third regions, respectively, and wherein the passive network
comprises:

a top rail and a bottom rail;
a resistor RA connected in series with the top rail;

a resistor RB connected across the top and bottom rail at an output Vout of the passive network;

a resistor-diode loop comprised of a first series connected resistor-diode pair R11, D1 in parallel with a second series connected resistor-diode pair R12, D2, the resistor-diode loop being connected in parallel with resistor RA, diode end of the resistor-diode loop connected at the Vout end of the top rail and resistor end of the resistor-diode loop
being connected at a Vin end of the top rail;

a biasing voltage supply VDC having a positive terminal connected to ground and the bottom rail, the biasing voltage supply also having a negative terminal;

a first biasing resistor R21 connected to a junction between R11 and D1 and connected to the negative terminal of the biasing voltage supply; and
a second biasing resistor R22 connected to a junction between R12 and D2 and connected to the negative terminal of the biasing voltage supply.

US Pat. No. 9,221,037

MULTIMETAL ZEOLITES BASED CATALYST FOR TRANSALKYLATION OF HEAVY REFORMATE TO PRODUCE XYLENES AND PETROCHEMICAL FEEDSTOCKS

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY...

1. A transalkylation catalyst for the conversion of a heavy reformate feedstock into a xylenes-rich product stream and a C2
through C4 hydrocarbon product stream, the transalkylation catalyst consisting of:
a beta zeolite in ammonium form, containing Na2O present in an amount of 0.05% by weight, based on the total weight of the beta zeolite in ammonium form;

ZSM-5;
nickel;
platinum;
cerium; and
alumina;
wherein the beta zeolite in ammonium form, ZSM 5 and alumina are present in a ratio of 3:1:1.

US Pat. No. 9,207,003

INTERMITTENT ABSORPTION SYSTEM WITH A LIQUID-LIQUID HEAT EXCHANGER

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. An intermittent absorption system with a liquid-liquid heat exchanger, comprising:
a first combination generator/absorber unit and a second combination generator/absorber unit, each of the combination generator
absorption units having a generator heat exchanger and an absorber heat exchanger;

a dephlegmator;
a condenser;
an evaporator;
a solar collector unit;
a conduit system connecting the combination generator/absorber units, the dephlegmator, the condenser, the evaporator, and
the solar collector unit;

a plurality of valves disposed in the conduit system for controlling coolant flow, the conduit system and the valves being
configured so that:

the solar collector panel is selectively connected by the conduit system to the generator heat exchanger of the first combination
generator/absorber unit, the generator heat exchanger of the second combination generator/absorber unit, or neither of the
combination generator/absorber units; and

the generator heat exchanger of the first combination generator/absorber unit and the generator heat exchanger of the second
combination generator/absorber unit are selectively connected to each other for liquid-liquid heat exchange between the combination
generator/absorber units; and

an aqua-ammonia coolant circulating in the conduit system, the coolant including ammonia refrigerant and water absorber.

US Pat. No. 9,154,263

EVALUATION OF COMPRESSED SENSING IN UWB SYSTEMS WITH NBI

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method of mitigating interference by narrow band interference (NBI) signals in ultra wide band (UWB) systems, comprising:
mitigating multiuser interference from narrowband interferers operating in a range of 2-11 GHz, wherein the multiuser interference
interferes with a trained UWB system that uses pilot symbol assisted modulation;

passing a received UWB signal through a band pass filter (BPF), wherein the BPF is located at a UWB receiver and the received
UWB signal is a Hanning modulated pulse;

measuring a plurality of test functions to determine frequencies of the NBI signals in the received UWB signal;
determining a number of active users;
notch filtering the NBI signals, based on the determined frequencies of the NBI signals and the determined number of active
users;

passing the notch filtered signal through a quadratic programming algorithm, wherein the quadratic programming algorithm performs
joint decoding;

estimating an arrival of a UWB payload; and
demodulating the UWB payload, based on the estimated arrival of the UWB payload.

US Pat. No. 9,148,739

SYSTEM FOR DETECTING VEHICLE NOISE AND METHOD

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A system for detecting excessive noise, the system comprising:
a microphone adapted to selectively detect sound;
a filter circuit in communication with the microphone, the filter circuit being adapted to amplify current;
a camera in communication with the filter circuit; and,
a power source to provide power to the microphone;
wherein the microphone detects sounds within a preselected frequency from a source and produces a current, the current passes
through the filter circuit, the filter circuit amplifies current to a preselected magnitude to activate the camera and the
camera takes a photo of the source emitting the sound within the frequency.

US Pat. No. 9,481,765

SYNTHESIS OF A DIALLYLAMMONIUM/SO2 COPOLYMER BEARING PHOSPHO- AND SULFOPROPYL PENDENTS

King Fahd University of P...

1. A polyzwitterion or polyzwitterionic acid having the following formula:

where R is a C1 to C6 alkyl group or a C6-C12 aryl group or an H group; and

where n is an integer of 10 or greater.

US Pat. No. 9,317,786

METHOD, SYSTEM AND COMPUTER PROGRAM PRODUCT FOR BREAST DENSITY CLASSIFICATION USING FISHER DISCRIMINATION

King Fahd University of P...

1. A system for classifying breast density from mammographic imagery using content-based image retrieval, the system comprising:
circuitry configured to
store a mammogram image database;
pre-process one or more digital mammogram images of a patient to remove noise and enhance contrast;
segment the one or more digital mammogram images to produce one or more extracted regions of interest and save the one or
more extracted regions of interest;

group the one or more saved extracted regions of interest to produce a large mammogram image;
decompose the large mammogram image by principal component analysis (PCA) in the mammogram image database; and
classify the large mammogram image according to breast density with Fisher Linear Discriminant (FLD) in the mammogram image
database.

US Pat. No. 9,301,163

AMPLIFY AND FORWARD RELAY METHOD

King Fahd University of P...

1. In a cooperative wireless relay network of nodes, the nodes including a source, a set of relays, and a destination, an
amplify and forward relay method performed during concurrent direct and relay communication between the source and the destination,
the amplify and forward relay method comprising the steps of:
arbitrarily selecting a first relay from the set of relays;
estimating a channel of the first arbitrarily selected relay;
comparing a minimum magnitude of two hops of a path of the first arbitrarily selected relay to a switching threshold, wherein
the switching threshold is derived from an end-to-end (e2e) bit error probability (BEP) minimization, the BEP minimization
being based on an average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of relay paths and direct link channels;

selecting the first arbitrarily selected relay path as a route for the communication between the source and the destination
if the minimum magnitude exceeds the switching threshold;

combining signals of the direct path and the first arbitrarily selected relay path to enhance the concurrent direct and relay
communication;

arbitrarily selecting a second relay from said set of relays if the first arbitrarily selected relay did not have a minimum
magnitude exceeding said switching threshold, the second arbitrarily selected relay estimating its channels to be compared
with said switching threshold;

continually arbitrarily selecting from the set of relays until a relay satisfying the switching threshold is found; and
combining signals of said direct path and said arbitrarily selected switching threshold satisfying relay's path to further
enhance said concurrent direct and relay communication.

US Pat. No. 9,334,387

METHOD FOR PREPARATION OF EPOXY-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A method for the preparation of epoxy-clay nanocomposites, comprising the step of high shear mixing of Nanomer I.30E nanoclay
with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy at a mixing speed in the range of 6000 rpm to 8000 rpm over a time period
between 15 minutes and 60 minutes.

US Pat. No. 9,309,336

SYNTHESIS AND ANTISCALANT BEHAVIOR OF A NOVEL POLYZWITTERIONIC ACID

King Fahd University Of P...

1. A zwitterionic monomer having the following formula (4):

where R is a C1 to C6 alkyl group or C6-C12 aryl group.

US Pat. No. 9,168,474

INERTIAL PARTICLE SEPARATOR WITH HEAT EXCHANGE

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. An inertial particle separator with heat exchange, comprising:
a rotating pipe having an inlet and an outlet, the inlet receiving a mixture of a fluid and particulate matter, wherein driven
rotation of said rotating pipe imparts a tangential velocity to the mixture;

a first heat exchanger in thermal communication with said rotating pipe for decreasing a first temperature of the mixture
when the mixture is flowing through said rotating pipe;

a convergent-divergent nozzle having an inlet and an outlet, the inlet thereof being connected to the outlet of said rotating
pipe for receiving the mixture, wherein said convergent-divergent nozzle accelerates the mixture to a supersonic axial velocity,
said convergent-divergent nozzle having a throat having a selectively and controllably variable geometry;

a temperature-controlled pipe having an inlet and an outlet, the inlet thereof being connected to the outlet of the convergent-divergent
nozzle for receiving the mixture;

a second heat exchanger in thermal communication with said temperature-controlled pipe for decreasing a second temperature
of the mixture when the mixture is flowing through said temperature-controlled pipe; and

a concentric diffuser having an inlet and an outlet, the inlet thereof being connected to the outlet of said temperature-controlled
pipe for receiving the mixture, wherein said concentric diffuser includes at least one outer radial portion and at least one
inner radial portion, the particulate matter of the mixture being separated from the fluid of the mixture under centrifugal
force thereon, the particulate matter passing through the at least one outer radial portion and the fluid passing through
the at least one inner radial portion.

US Pat. No. 9,109,293

ELECTROCATALYST FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF CARBON DIOXIDE

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A method of making an electrocatalyst for electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide, comprising the steps of:
dissolving copper nitrate trihydrate in deionized water to form a salt solution;
adding carbon nanotubes to the salt solution to form a suspension;
heating the suspension;
adding a urea solution to the suspension to form an electrocatalyst in solution, the electrocatalyst comprising copper material
supported on the carbon nanotubes;

cooling the solution to room temperature;
removing the electrocatalyst from the solution by centrifuging the solution to separate the electrocatalyst out of the solution;
washing and drying the electrocatalyst at a temperature of about 110° C.; and
calcining the washed and dried electrocatalyst at a temperature of about 450° C. for about four hours in an argon gas flow.

US Pat. No. 9,184,729

RECONFIGURABLE NTH-ORDER FILTER

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A reconfigurable Nth-order filter, comprising:
a filter stage which includes a second generation current conveyor (CCII) having a y input, an x input, first, second, and
third current sense non-inverting outputs, for all stages except a first of said filter stage, second current sense non-inverting
output connected to an ungrounded lead of a capacitor portion of a passive circuit having a time constant ?i;

the filter stage further including a first current division network (CDN) having an analog input, an analog output, and a
digital control input ?b, the first current sense non-inverting CCII output being connected to the first CDN analog input;

the filter stage further including a first digitally controlled current follower (DCCF) having an input, a digital control
input ?b, and for all stages except a last said filter stage an inverting output connected to a current source bi, output of the first CDN being connected to the first DCCF input;

the filter stage further including a second CDN having an analog input, an analog output, and a digital control input ?a, the third current sense non-inverting CCII output being connected to the second CDN analog input;

the filter stage further including a second DCCF having an input, a digital control input ?a, and an inverting output connected to a current source ai, output of the second CDN being connected to the second DCCF input;

a cascade connection of said filter stages, for all stages except a last stage, said passive circuit being formed by a capacitor
connected between the y input of the stage and ground, and a resistor connected between the x input of the stage and ground;

except for the last stage, said first DCCF outputs of the stages being connected to each other in a feedback loop, said feedback
loop connecting the current source bi and terminating at the x input of the last stage, the x input accepting an input signal is;

said second DCCF outputs of the stages being connected to each other in a feedforward configuration, the first stage delivering
an output signal iout; and

wherein the reconfigurable Nth-order filter is defined by a pair of transfer functions characterized by the equations,

US Pat. No. 9,077,585

FULLY INTEGRATED DC OFFSET COMPENSATION SERVO FEEDBACK LOOP

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A transceiver with servo feedback loops for compensating for DC offset in transmitted and received signals, comprising:
a direct conversion frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) transceiver, the transceiver having a front end modulating and demodulating
signals when transmitting and receiving signals, the front end having a fourth-order low pass filter for transmitted signals
and a fourth-order low pass filter for received signals, the front end mixing an unwanted DC offset component onto the transmitted
and received signals; and

a first servo feedback loop connected across the fourth-order low pass filter for transmitted signals and a second servo feedback
loop connected across the fourth-order low pass filter for received signals, each of the servo feedback loops having a differential
dual operational amplifier integrated circuit configured as a differential integrator, each of the operational amplifiers
in the integrated circuit having an RC circuit connected thereto, each of the RC circuits having a digitally programmable
R-2-R ladder forming the resistive component of the RC circuit, wherein each said differential dual operational amplifier
integrated circuit comprises a class-AB fully differential operational amplifier circuit; and

wherein the differential intergrator measures the unwanted DC offset and the R-2-R ladders and programmable to compensate
for the unwanted DC offset.

US Pat. No. 9,421,516

METHOD FOR PREPARING ALUMINA—ZINC OXIDE—NICKEL OXIDE COMPOSITE FOR DESULFURIZATION

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method for obtaining a metal-oxide/NiO/ZnO material, comprising:
dispersing a metal-oxide in a solvent to form a mixed solution;
dissolving a zinc compound and a nickel compound in an aqueous solution to form a second mixed solution;
mixing the first and second mixed solutions to form a mixture;
sonicating the mixture;
heating the mixture;
cooling and filtering the mixture to obtain the desired material;
drying the mixture; and
calcining the mixture to form a metal-oxide/NiO/ZnO material having a surface area of about 10-15 m2/g, a pore volume of about 0.1-0.8 cm3/g, and an adsorption average pore width of about 500-600 Å.

US Pat. No. 9,146,988

HIERARCHAL CLUSTERING METHOD FOR LARGE XML DATA

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A computer-implemented hierarchal clustering method for large XML data, comprising the steps of:
(a) inputting at least one XML dataset containing numeric data, categorical data, or combinations thereof into a computer
for processing;

(b) transforming the at least one XML dataset into a single document having a single root when the at least one XML dataset
has multiple roots;

(c) normalizing the numeric data;
(d) in a first phase, storing and labeling distinct root-to-leaf paths (DRLP) in the single document;
(e) in a second phase, creating an XML Structure Index (XSI) based on information of the DRLP labeling, the XSI having entries
representing data structure information of transactions of the at least one XML dataset, each of the XSI entries defining
a structural cluster of the at least one XML dataset, steps (a) through (e) being performed by the computer in a first scan
of the large XML data; and

(f) presenting the XSI cluster entries to a user of the computer.

US Pat. No. 9,226,252

RECURSIVE TIME SYNCHRONIZATION PROTOCOL METHOD FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A computer-implemented recursive time synchronization protocol method for a clustered wireless sensor network (WSN), comprising
the steps of:
electing a single reference node i for offset and drift compensation, the electing being limited to nodes that are clusterheads;
calculating a time read by a logical clock of the ith node of the clustered WSN, the calculation utilizing the relation:

Ci(t)=?i+?it, where ?i is the clock offset deviation from ideal time at the reference time t=0 and ?i is the frequency of the clock;
re-synchronizing the clock within a time T??/2?, where ? is an offset and ? is a skew rate;
estimating the offset and a drift of the clock, thereby re-synchronizing the clock;
initiating a time synchronization request, the time synchronization request being initiated by any initiating node in the
clustered WSN, wherein the step of initiating the time synchronization request comprises the steps of:

initiating the time synchronization request from the initiating node at the initiating node's local time T1 and transmitting
the time synchronization request to a first intermediate node;

receiving the time synchronization request at the first intermediate node at the first intermediate node's local time T2;
storing identification data and local times T1 and T2 in computer readable memory, the local times T1 and T2 being respectively
stored as variables T1 old and T2old; and

forwarding the time synchronization request from the first intermediate node to a second intermediate node at the first intermediate
nodes local time T1;

recursively forwarding the time synchronization request from the second intermediate node to the reference node, thereby establishing
a request-path, the reference node receiving the forwarded time synchronization request at the reference node's local time
T2;

using a REP (reply to time synchronization) message to forward the time T back to the initiating node via the request-path;
and

compensating the time T with a propagation delay time at each hop in the request-path, thereby time synchronizing all clustered
WSN nodes in the request-path, wherein the step of compensating the time T comprises the steps of:

transmitting the REP message from the reference node to the second intermediate node at the reference node's local time T3;
receiving the REP message at the second intermediate node at the second intermediate node's local time T4;
calculating a first propagation delay, d1, as

updating the time T as T=T+d1;
updating the time T by adding an elapsed time since the second intermediate node's local time T4 to T;
forwarding the REP message from the second intermediate node to the first intermediate node at the first intermediate node's
local time T3;

calculating a second propagation delay, d2, as

updating the time T as T=T+d2;
updating the time T by adding an elapsed time since the first intermediate node's local time T3 to T; and
recursively forwarding the REP message from the first intermediate node to the initiating node.
US Pat. No. 9,207,220

FULLY AUTOMATED ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF CHLOROETHERS IN WATER AND URINE SAMPLE

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method for determination of chloroethers in a sample, comprising:
directly contacting an SPME fiber with an aqueous sample to form an enriched SPME sample, wherein the aqueous sample comprises
one or more chloroethers selected from the group consisting of bis(2-chloroethyl)ether, bis(2-chloroisopropyl)ether, and bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane,
and the contacting is carried out with a single pass of a flowing stream of the aqueous sample; and

desorbing the chloroethers from the enriched SPME sample and determining the content of the chloroethers in the sample with
a flow assisted-solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (FA-SPME/GC-MS) system comprising

a sample container comprising a sample solution comprising an aqueous solution and analytes,
a first tube that connects the sample container and a pump and transports the sample solution to the pump,
a second tube that transports sample solution to an extraction vial,
an autosampler that uses the extraction vial to extract an aliquotted sample through an automated SPME method to determine
the chloroether content in the aliquotted sample,

a gas-chromatograph with a sample port that desorbs the SPME fiber and determines the content of one or more chloroethers
in the aliquotted sample, and

a third tube that circulates the aliquotted sample from the extraction vial to the sample container;
wherein the desorbing is carried out inside the sample port of the gas chromatograph to obtain a desorbed analyte composition
and the desorbed analyte composition is chromatographed in the gas chromatograph.

US Pat. No. 9,199,969

6-PIPERAZINYL-3,4-DIHYDROQUINAZOLIN-2(1H)-ONES

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method of making a dihydroquinazolinone compound of formula (I)

wherein R is selected from the group consisting of:

the method comprising:
Buchwald-Hartwig coupling a halogenized nitrophenyl compound with a piperazine to form a nitrophenyl piperazine compound;
reducing the nitrophenyl piperazine compound and cyclizing to form a tetrahydroquinazolin-6-yl-piperazine compound;
mixing the tetrahydroquinazolin-6-yl-piperazine compound with an acid to form a 6-piperazinyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2(1H)
compound; and

reductively aminating the 6-piperazinyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2(1H) compound in the presence of one or more selected from
the group consisting of

an aldehyde, an organosulfur compound, and a reducing agent to form the dihydroquinazolinone compound of formula (I).

US Pat. No. 9,193,608

REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS USING VANADIUM-DOPED TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A method for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions, consisting of contacting the aqueous solution with vanadium-doped
titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

US Pat. No. 9,147,245

METHOD, SYSTEM AND COMPUTER PROGRAM PRODUCT FOR BREAST DENSITY CLASSIFICATION USING FISHER DISCRIMINATION

King Fahd University of P...

1. A computer-implemented method for classifying breast density from mammographic imagery using content-based image retrieval
comprising:
(a) pre-processing one or more digital mammogram images of a patient to remove noise and enhance contrast;
(b) segmenting the one or more digital mammogram images to produce one or more extracted regions of interest and saving the
one or more extracted regions of interest in computer memory;

(c) grouping the one or more extracted regions of interest saved in memory to produce a large mammogram image;
(d) decomposing, with a processor of a computer, the large mammogram image by principal component analysis (PCA) in a mammogram
image database; and

(e) classifying, with a processor of a computer, the large mammogram image according to breast density with Fisher Linear
Discriminant (FLD) in the mammogram image database.

US Pat. No. 9,352,297

METHODS FOR PREPARING COMPOSITES OF ACTIVATED CARBON/ZINC OXIDE AND ACTIVATED CARBON/ZINC OXIDE/NICKEL OXIDE FOR DESULFURIZATION OF FUELS

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method for obtaining an activated carbon/NiO/ZnO material, comprising:
dispersing an activated carbon in a solvent and sonicating to form a first mixed solution;
mixing a nickel salt solution with the first mixed solution to form a second mixed solution;
heating and stirring the second mixed solution to precipitate a first precipitate;
dispersing the first precipitate in a solvent and mixing with a zinc salt solution to form a second mixture;
heating and stirring the second mixture to precipitate a second precipitate;
calcining the second precipitate to form an activated carbon/NiO/ZnO material having a surface area in the range of 20-45
m2/g, a pore volume in the range of 0.05-1 cm3/g, and an adsorption average pore width in the range of 500-600 Å.

US Pat. No. 9,186,659

CONTROLLED GROWTH OF MTT ZEOLITE BY MICROWAVE-ASSISTED HYDROTHERMAL SYNTHESIS

King Fahd University of P...

1. A process for preparing an MTT zeolite, the process comprising:
preparing a sol-gel by mixing a metal hydroxide with water, then mixing with an aluminum compound, to form an aluminate solution,
to form the sol-gel;

mixing a structure directing agent with the sol-gel, in a controlled manner over an addition time period, to form a structure
directing mixture;

mixing a silica with the structure directing mixture to form a reaction mixture;
heating the reaction mixture in a microwave reactor at a crystallization temperature for a crystallization time period with
stirring at a crystallization stirring speed, to form an initial zeolite; and

removing the structure directing agent to form the MTT zeolite,
wherein the crystallization time period ranges from 12 hours to 72 hours.

US Pat. No. 9,184,734

VOLTAGE OR CURRENT CONTROLLED CURRENT-FEEDBACK OPERATIONAL-AMPLIFIER BASED MULTIVIBRATOR

King Fahd University of P...

1. A voltage or current controlled current-feedback operational-amplifier based multivibrator, comprising:
a first current-feedback operational amplifier having
a first input terminal,
a second input terminal directly coupled to a voltage control input, and
a first output terminal,
a second current-feedback operational amplifier having
a third input terminal directly coupled to the first output terminal of the first current-feedback operational amplifier,
a fourth input terminal,
a second output terminal directly coupled to a output terminal of the multivibrator, and
a third output terminal,
a first resistor connected between the first input terminal of the first current-feedback operational amplifier and a ground,
a second resistor connected between the first output terminal of the first current-feedback operational amplifier and a first
node,

a non-floating capacitor connected between a second node and the ground, wherein the second node is directly connected to
the first node,

a third resistor coupled connected the fourth input terminal of the second current-feedback operational amplifier and ground,
and

a fourth resistor coupled between the fourth input terminal and the third output terminal of the second current-feedback operational
amplifier.

US Pat. No. 9,146,228

DETERMINATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN WATER USING NANOPOROUS MATERIAL PREPARED FROM WASTE AVIAN EGG SHELL

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method for dispersive micro solid phase extraction, comprising:
ultrasonically conditioning a nanoporous vateritic calcium carbonate with a solvent to form a calcium carbonate mixture;
mixing an aqueous solution containing one or more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with the calcium carbonate mixture to adsorb
said polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the nanoporous vateritic calcium carbonate and to form an analysis composition;

centrifuging the analysis composition to isolate a solid fraction and a liquid fraction of the analysis composition;
removing water from the solid fraction derived from centrifugation; and
adding the solvent to the centrifuged solid fraction to desorb said polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by ultrasonication, thereby
obtaining desorbed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

US Pat. No. 9,103,935

METHOD OF FIRST ARRIVAL PICKING OF SEISMIC REFRACTION DATA

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A method of first arrival picking of seismic refraction data, comprising the steps of:
obtaining field records of seismic data detected at a plurality of seismic receivers in an area of interest, the seismic data
including signal amplitude data recorded over time and containing both first arrival reflection signals and unwanted noise;

calculating the signal amplitude data in an offset-time domain, the signal amplitude data being formulated as energy ratio
amplitude data characterized by the relation:

where ERj is the energy-ratio value associated with a sampling window starting with the jth sample of a trace of the energy ratio amplitude data and Ai is the signal amplitude of the ith sample of the trace;
applying a Radon transform to the energy ratio amplitude data, thereby transforming the energy ratio amplitude data from the
offset-time domain to a time-slowness domain;

selecting a corresponding first arrival energy data from the time-slowness domain energy ratio amplitude data, the selection
generating a binary mask wherein a binary 1 indicates a required first-arrival picks region with a ?-p energy ratio map and
a binary 0 indicates that the region is not a required first-arrival picks region;

multiplying the Radon transformed energy ratio amplitude data with the binary mask to form a Radon transform energy ratio
amplitude data-binary mask product;

applying an inverse Radon transform to the Radon transform energy ratio amplitude data-binary mask product, thereby transforming
the Radon transform energy ratio amplitude data-binary mask product into the offset-time domain; and

binary thresholding in the offset-time domain the inverse Radon transform of the product, thereby producing an enhanced binary
image in the offset-time domain of the selected first arrival region.

US Pat. No. 9,362,600

CELL WITH REUSABLE AND DISPOSABLE ASSEMBLIES FOR SIMULTANEOUS ELECTROCHEMICAL AND EPR MEASUREMENTS

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A cell for electrochemical and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) measurements, comprising:
a first hollow tube assembly, the first hollow tube assembly having a first hollow tube, the first hollow tube having an electro-conductive
material positioned within a lower portion of the interior of a first hollow tube and having a first insulating material positioned
adjacent to the electro-conductive material within the interior of the first hollow tube, the first insulating material acting
as a first seal;

a wire connector, the wire connector positioned to enter the lower portion of the interior of the first hollow tube extending
through the insulating material and engaging the electro-conductive material;

a second hollow tube assembly, the second hollow tube assembly removably positioned within the first hollow tube assembly
in forming the cell, the second hollow tube assembly having a second hollow tube having a second insulating material situated
within a lower portion of the interior of the second hollow tube acting as a second seal, the second hollow tube to contain
within the interior of the second hollow tube a supporting electrolyte including a sample for analysis;

a working electrode, the working electrode positioned within the interior of the second hollow tube extended through the second
insulating material and extending out through the second hollow tube to position into the electro-conductive material; and

a reference electrode, the reference electrode being adapted to be removably positioned within the interior of the second
hollow tube and extending out through an opening at an upper portion of the second hollow tube in opposing relation to the
working electrode.

US Pat. No. 9,257,705

METHOD FOR PRODUCING PT-FREE ELECTROCATALYSTS FOR FUEL CELLS AND BATTERIES

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method for synthesizing a nitrogen-doped carbon electrocatalyst, comprising:
performing selective catalytic oxidative polymerization of a solid aniline salt on a carbon support with a catalytic system
comprising Fe3+/H2O2 to obtain a mixture;

filtering the mixture;
washing the mixture;
seeding the mixture with ammonium carbonate as a seedant, sacrificed agent; then heat treating the mixture under a nitrogen
atmosphere at 900° C.

US Pat. No. 9,238,771

NON-COILED TUBING WELL CLEAN-UP

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method of treating a filter cake present in at least one of a horizontal section and a multilateral section of a hydrocarbon-producing
well, comprising:
drilling the hydrocarbon-producing well with a drilling rig,
injecting into the hydrocarbon-producing well,
a treatment fluid having a diffusion coefficient of 10?9 to 10?6 cm2/s and comprising (hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid, a viscoelastic surfactant and an aqueous solvent, and

initiating breakdown and removal of the filter cake five days or more after the injecting, and
rigging down the drilling rig,
wherein the break down and removal of the filter cake occurs during the rigging down of the drilling rig.

US Pat. No. 9,214,969

SCALABLE DIGITAL PREDISTORTION SYSTEM

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A scalable digital predistortion method for linearizing a power amplifier, comprising the steps of:
establishing a memoryless look-up table bank stored in computer readable memory, the memoryless look-up table bank having
a set of memoryless predistortion functions stored therein indexed by average power values;

storing memory polynomial size parameters indexed by bandwidth in the computer readable memory, the size parameters including
nonlinearity order and memory depth;

receiving a signal;
estimating an average power of the signal;
measuring bandwidth of the signal;
determining a nonlinearity order and a memory depth of a memory polynomial function associated with the bandwidth of the signal
from the memory polynomial size parameters stored in the computer readable memory;

applying the memory polynomial function to the signal to generate a first modified signal;
determining a memoryless predistortion function associated with the estimated average power of the signal from the memoryless
look-up table bank;

applying the memoryless predistortion function to the first modified signal to generate a second modified signal;
inputting the second modified signal to a power amplifier to produce an amplified signal;
outputting the amplified signal from the power amplifier; and
estimating a set of coefficients of the memory polynomial function based on the nonlinearity order, the memory depth, the
first modified signal and the amplified signal to define the memory polynomial function.

US Pat. No. 9,079,119

FLEXIBLE BELT EVAPORATOR

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

14. A flexible belt evaporator, comprising:
a plurality of guide rollers including upper guide roller and lower guide rollers, said upper guide rollers being configured
in a staggered configuration having one row of upper guide rollers staggered above another row of upper guide rollers, and
said lower guide rollers being configured in a staggered configuration having one row of lower guide rollers staggered above
another row of lower guide rollers;

a wash bath adjacent the guide rollers;
an ultrasonic device disposed in the wash bath;
an endless, flexible absorbent fabric belt formed of hydrophobic warp strands and hydrophilic weft strands, the belt alternating
about the upper guide rollers and the lower guide rollers in a sinusoidal path and selectively traveling therearound, the
belt further having a loop portion disposed in the wash bath, the ultrasonic device ultrasonically removing residue from the
belt as the belt passes through the wash bath, wherein the sinusoidal path of said endless, flexible absorbent fabric belt
is positioned external to said wash bath; and

a salt water dispenser selectively dispensing salt water onto the endless, flexible absorbent fabric belt, wherein water of
the salt water dispensed on the endless, flexible absorbent fabric belt evaporates to leave a salt residue on the endless,
flexible absorbent fabric belt, the salt residue being washed therefrom in the wash bath, whereby the staggered configuration
of the upper guide rollers and the staggered configuration of the lower guide rollers allows a greater number of each to be
disposed over a linear distance than a corresponding linear configuration thereof, thus increasing a length of the sinusoidal
path of said belt and corresponding evaporative surface area exposed to said salt water dispenser.

US Pat. No. 9,053,849

MAGNETIC AND LUMINESCENT SILICON NANOPARTICLES, SUPERMOLECULES AND FABRICATION METHODS

NanoSi Advanced Technolog...

1. A magnetic nanosilicon material comprising silicon nanoparticles impregnated with magnetic atoms.

US Pat. No. 9,228,919

SYSTEM FOR LEAK DETECTION IN PIPELINES BY OPTICAL MEANS

King Fahd University of P...

1. A system for leakage detection in a fluid-transporting pipeline, comprising:
at least one pulse light transmitter positioned at a first location on an inner wall of the pipeline;
at least one light sensor positioned at a second location on the inner wall of the pipeline and aligned with the light transmitter
to detect and receive light rays emitted by the light transmitter;

a converter connected to the light sensor to convert light rays received by the light sensor into a digitized optical signal;
a wireless transmitter connected to the converter; and,
a computerized processing unit that receives the digitized optical signal from the wireless transmitter;
wherein interference and scattering of the emitted light rays by bubbles and/or entrained particles resulting from a leakage
is detected and received by the light sensor; and,

wherein the computerized processing unit processes and analyzes the digitized optical signal to determine the location of
the leakage.

US Pat. No. 9,212,979

AUTOMATED MICROEXTRACTION TECHNIQUE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF N-NITROSAMINES IN WATER

King Fahd University of P...

1. An automated headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for determining nitrosamine
concentration, comprising:
mixing a nitrosamine-containing aqueous sample that has not been pretreated with one or more salts in a vial comprising an
SPME fiber at a headspace portion above the unfiltered nitrosamine-containing aqueous sample in the vial;

extracting a nitrosamine-containing analyte from the nitrosamine-containing aqueous sample with the SPME fiber at the headspace
portion at 60-75° C. for 15-25 minutes;

desorbing the nitrosamine-containing analyte from the SPME fiber in an injection port of a gas chromatograph coupled with
a single mass spectrometer comprising only a single mass separation step at 225-250° C. for 2-3 minutes; and

separating the nitrosamine-containing analyte in the gas chromatograph coupled with the single mass spectrometer into a plurality
of individual nitrosamine compounds; and

determining the nitrosamine concentration in the nitrosamine-containing analyte with the single mass spectrometer;
wherein the nitrosamine-containing aqueous sample comprises a total original nitrosamine concentration of 30-35 ?g/L before
the nitrosamine-containing aqueous sample is spiked with 20 ?g/L of nitrosamine such that the extracting comprises and maintains
an analyte recovery rate of at least 85% and up to 114%.

US Pat. No. 9,136,925

TWO-PATH AMPLIFY-AND-FORWARD RELAYING METHOD FOR BANDWIDTH EFFICIENT COGNITIVE RADIOS

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A two-path amplify-and-forward relaying method for a bandwidth efficient cognitive radio, comprising the steps of:
transmitting PU data from a primary user (PU) transmitter S to a primary user (PU) receiver D in cooperation with a first
secondary user (SU) relay RA (SU receiver) and a second secondary user relay RB (SU transmitter), the PU data transmission being divided into first, second, and third timeslots;

in the first timeslot transmitting the algebraic subtraction of two successive modulated signals, s1 and s2 with total power Ps from S to the first secondary user relay RA and the PU receiver D;

in the first timeslot transmitting data b1 with power PB from RB to RA and the PU receiver D, the data b1 interfering with PU data at RA and D, the received signal at D and RA in the 1st time slot being characterized by the relations,

and

in the second timeslot transmitting the second symbol only s2 with total power Ps to RB and D from S, while RA transmits the previous received data after applying amplify-and-forward (AF) protocol, the second time slot received signals
at D and at RB being characterized by the relations,

yD(2)=?{square root over (Ps)}hSDs2+hADxA(2)+wD(2)and
yB(2)=?{square root over (Ps)}hSBs2+hABxA(2)+wB(2),
where wB and wA are AWGN samples with zero mean and variance ?2 and xA(2) is the amplified received signal at RA such that xA(2)=?AyA(1);
in the third timeslot transmitting from RB to RA and D the received signal after removing the interfered SU data b1 and adding a new fresh version of it but with negative sign ?b1 with power PB, the received signal at D and RA in the third time slot being characterized by the relations,

yD(3)=hBDxB(3)??{square root over (PB)}hBDb1+wD(3),
and
yA(3)=hBAxB(3)??{square root over (PB)}hBAb1+wA(3),
where xB(3) is the amplified received signal at RB after the subtraction of the SU data such that xB(3)=?B(yB(2)?b?1), where b?1 is the modified image of SU data b1 such that b?1=?AhABhBAb1;
using a maximum likelihood detector (MLD) in the PU and SU to detect the PU and SU data, wherein the MLD estimates a symbol
vector xs that gives the minimum Euclidean distance metric at D and RA, independently, the Euclidean distance metric for D and RA being characterized by the relations,

and
where hD(l) and hA(l) denote the l-th row of HD and HA, respectively, a pairwise-error probability being defined as the probability that the MLD chooses the erroneous data vector
ci=(ci1, ci2, ci3) instead of the transmitted data vector cj=(cj1, cj2, cj3), where the data symbols cim and cjm are for the m-th user; and
controlling SU transmission power and amplifying factors of the two relays RA and RB based on the pairwise-error probability.

US Pat. No. 9,207,219

FULLY AUTOMATED ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF CHLOROETHERS IN WATER AND URINE SAMPLE

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method for determination of chloroethers in a sample, comprising:
directly contacting a polyethylene glycol/divinylbenzene SPME fiber with a matrix active group size of 40-80 ?m with an aqueous
sample to form an enriched SPME sample, wherein the aqueous sample comprises one or more chloroethers and the contacting is
carried out with a single pass of a flowing stream of the aqueous sample; and

desorbing the chloroethers from the enriched SPME sample and determining the content of the chloroethers in the sample with
a flow assisted-solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (FA-SPME/GC-MS) system comprising

a sample container comprising a sample solution comprising an aqueous solution and analytes,
a first tube that connects the sample container and a pump and transports the sample solution to the pump,
a second tube that transports sample solution to an extraction vial,
an autosampler that uses the extraction vial to extract an aliquotted sample through an automated SPME method to determine
the chloroether content in the aliquotted sample,

a gas-chromatograph that desorbs the polyethylene glycol/divinylbenzene SPME fiber and determines the content of one or more
chloroethers in the aliquotted sample, and

a third tube that circulates the aliquotted sample from the extraction vial to the sample container.

US Pat. No. 9,120,094

POLYMERIZATION OF BIS[3-(DIETHOXYPHOSPHORYL)PROPYL]DIALLYLAMMONIUM CHLORIDE

King Fahd University of P...

1. A symmetrically substituted cationic monomer having the following formula:

where R is a C1 to C6 alkyl group or a C6-C12 aryl group.

US Pat. No. 9,067,279

APPARATUS FOR JOINT SEALING USING TUBE EXPANSION AND FRICTION WELDING

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. An apparatus for joint sealing using tube expansion and friction welding for sealing a tube to a tube sheet, comprising
a clamping assembly including a collet and a mandrel;
a tube sheet having at least one aperture formed therein;
at least one elongate tube positioned in the at least one aperture of the tube sheet, the tube having a first end having an
edge;

at least one elongate tube sleeve having a first end having an edge complementary to the edge of the tube, the edge of the
at least one tube sleeve abutting the edge of the at least one tube within the tube sheet aperture, the tube sleeve having
a second end adapted for being releasably gripped by a clamping assembly of a friction welding apparatus, wherein the collet
having a base adapted for gripping the tube sleeve, the mandrel being sized and configured for extension through the tube
sleeve and into the tube and adapted to be friction welded thereto and thereby sealed to the tube sheet;

a motorized spindle assembly, the spindle assembly releasably gripping the clamping assembly; and
a tube expansion apparatus having means for expanding the tube while an end of the tube is inserted into the at least one
aperture in the tube sheet to swage the end of the tube in the tube sheet;

wherein the swaged end of the tube is abutted against the tube sleeve in the hole in the tube sheet with the mandrel extending
through the tube sleeve into the tube and the spindle assembly is rotated to friction weld the tube and the tube sleeve to
the tube sheet, thereby sealing the joint between the tube and the tube sheet.

US Pat. No. 9,278,873

METHOD TO REMOVE ORGANIC POLLUTANTS BY ELECTROCATALYSIS

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method for removing chlorinated organic pollutants from an aqueous composition by electrocatalysis, comprising:
electrolyzing the aqueous composition, in a capillary reactor, with an applied potential of 1-5 kV,
wherein during the electrolyzing, the aqueous composition is in contact with at least one of a porous silica supported-sol-gel
coated platinum catalyst or a porous silica supported-sol-gel coated titanium catalyst; and

wherein the electrolyzing forms hydrogen and hydrogen chloride.

US Pat. No. 9,590,425

PARKING LOT SHADE FOR GENERATING ELECTRICITY HAVING A PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM THAT TRACKS A MAXIMUM POWER POINT

King Fahd University of P...

1. A parking lot shade for generating electricity, comprising:
photovoltaic system that tracks a maximum power point, wherein the photovoltaic system comprises:
a photovoltaic array that generates a varying DC output voltage and current depending on one or more weather conditions;
a buck/boost converter to step down/step up of the output voltage from the photovoltaic array;
a DC link capacitor to connect the buck/booster converter to a load/inverter, wherein the load/inverter provides a grid output
of the photovoltaic system;

an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference maximum power point tracking controller to generate a reference voltage;
a voltage control loop to compare the output voltage of the photovoltaic array to the reference voltage, and
a proportional integral controller to maintain the output voltage of the photovoltaic array to the reference voltage by adjusting
the duty ratio of buck/boost converter,

a parking lot shade structure,
and a grid connection to inject power produced by the photovoltaic array into a power grid.

US Pat. No. 9,134,160

ONLINE MULTI-PHASE FLOW METER SYSTEM

King Fahd University of P...

1. An online multi-phase flow meter, comprising:
an inlet pipe;
an exit outlet pipe;
a single vertical cylindrical gas separation unit connected at an upper portion on a first side to the inlet pipe, wherein
the bottom surface of the cylindrical gas separation unit is positively inclined from the first side to a second side, which
is opposite to the first side of the cylindrical gas separation unit;

an upper outlet pipe disposed on the top of the cylindrical gas separation unit at the second side, wherein upper outlet pipe
comprises a gas flow meter and a one way valve, and wherein the gas flow meter is upstream from the one way valve;

a first lower outlet pipe disposed on the bottom of the cylindrical gas separation unit on the second side, wherein the first
lower outlet pipe comprises a vertical portion comprising a solenoid valve, a horizontal portion, an inverted U-shaped portion
comprising a liquid flow meter and a water cut meter, wherein the vertical portion is connected to the bottom of the cylindrical
gas separation unit and is upstream of the horizontal portion, the horizontal portion is upstream of the inverted U-shaped
portion, and the liquid flow meter is disposed upstream of the water cut meter in the inverted U-shaped portion;

a second lower outlet pipe disposed on the bottom of the cylindrical gas separation unit on the first side, wherein the second
lower outlet pipe comprises a drain valve;

a T-shaped junction formed between the upper outlet pipe and the first lower outlet pipe and the exit pipe outlet, wherein
the T-shaped junction is downstream from the one way valve, and

a data acquisition system comprising a microprocessor, which collects data from the gas flow meter, the liquid flow meter,
and the water cut meter; and

an electronic controller, which controls the solenoid valve and maintains a minimum level of liquid inside the cylindrical
gas separation unit,

wherein the cylindrical gas separation unit comprises a perforated plate, a slotted plate connected to the top inner surface
of the cylindrical gas separation unit, a float ball valve system disposed under the upper outlet pipe and between the slotted
plate and the second side of the cylindrical gas separation unit, and a density sensor that communicates with the solenoid
valve via the electronic controller,

wherein the perforated plate comprises inclined plates.

US Pat. No. 9,461,535

PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS WITH MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING CONTROLLER

King Fahd University of P...

1. A photovoltaic system to track the maximum power point, comprising:
a photovoltaic array that generates a varying DC output voltage and current depending on one or more weather conditions;
a buck/boost converter to step down/step up of the output voltage from the photovoltaic array;
a DC link capacitor to connect the buck/booster converter to a load/inverter, wherein the load/inverter provides a grid output
of the photovoltaic system;

an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference maximum power point tracking controller to generate a reference voltage;
a voltage control loop to compare the output voltage of the photovoltaic array to the reference voltage, and
a proportional integral controller to maintain the output voltage of the photovoltaic array to the reference voltage by adjusting
the duty ratio of buck/boost converter.

US Pat. No. 9,130,502

PHOTOVOLTAIC PANEL CLEANING MACHINE

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A photovoltaic panel cleaning machine for cleaning a linear array of photovoltaic panels, the machine comprising:
a frame movably disposed upon the photovoltaic panels;
a plurality of panel cleaning elements disposed across the frame, the panel cleaning elements comprising a pneumatic blower,
a foam plastic roller, and a synthetic fiber roller; and

an automated system disposed on the frame, the system selectively driving the frame and the panel cleaning elements along
the linear array of photovoltaic panels and selectively positioning each of the panel cleaning elements adjacent the photovoltaic
panels, in sequence.

US Pat. No. 9,212,159

NITRATED AND AMINE-REACTED ASPHALTENES

King Fahd University of P...

1. A functionalized asphaltene represented by the formula:

US Pat. No. 9,170,811

STRUCTURED CONTROL INSTRUCTION FETCH UNIT

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A structured control instruction fetch unit, comprising:
a stack controller;
a control stack having an address stack and a counter stack, the stack controller managing the control stack; and
execution units in operable communication with the control stack;
wherein the structured control instruction fetch unit is configured for processing fixed format block structured instructions,
the fixed format block structured instructions having a control instruction including a predicate field, an opcode field,
an offset field, and a stop field, the instructions being processes via the control stack, the stack controller feeding the
fixed format block structured instructions to the execution units, the execution units executing blocks of the instructions
based on the content of the predicate, opcode, offset, and stop fields, the execution units terminating execution of the instruction
blocks upon reading stop bits in the stop fields; and

wherein the instruction blocks are executed by the execution units in direct correspondence with blocks of high-level code,
the structured control instruction fetch unit implementing loops and nested block expansions without the necessity of low
level branch and jump instructions.

US Pat. No. 9,205,087

6-PIPERAZINYL-3,4-DIHYDROQUINAZOLIN-2(1H)-ONES

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A therapeutic agent comprising:
a dihydroquinazolinone compound of formula (I) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof as an active ingredient

wherein R is selected from the group consisting of:
and
a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient selected from the group consisting of carboxymethylcellulose, methyl cellulose, hydropropylmethylcellulose,
sodium alginate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, gum tragacanth, gum acacia, calcium carbonate, sodium carbonate, lactose, calcium phosphate, and sodium phosphate.

US Pat. No. 9,492,465

GOLD(I) COMPLEXES WITH T-BUTYL PHOSPHINE AND DIALKYL DITHIOCARBAMATE LIGANDS

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method for treating cancer or a tumor comprising
administering, in a cytotoxically effective amount, a gold complex of formula Au{P(t-Bu)3}(S2CN(R)2) where R is CH3 or C2H5 to a subject in need of treatment for a human cervical cancer.

US Pat. No. 9,170,218

NITROGEN DETECTION IN BULK SAMPLES USING A D-D REACTION-BASED PORTABLE NEUTRON GENERATOR

King Fahd University of P...

1. A bulk nitrogen detector for analysis of nitrogen by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation, comprising:
a sample cavity,
a portable D-D neutron generator having neutron tube,
a polyolefin moderator;
a BGO gamma ray detector; and
a neutron shield;
wherein the polyolefin moderator is positioned between the sample cavity and the neutron generator,
the BGO gamma ray detector is positioned orthogonally to the axis of the neutron tube on the sample cavity side of the polyolefin
moderator, and

the neutron shield surrounds the BGO detector,
and wherein
the polyolefin moderator further comprises a cylindrical slab positioned between the portable neutron generator and the sample;
or

the polyolefin moderator is a cylinder which encloses the sample cavity and is positioned adjacent to a high density polyethylene
slab which is between the portable neutron generator and the cylinder; or

the polyolefin moderator is a high density polyethylene moderator cylinder which encloses the sample and is configured adjacent
to the neutron generator.

US Pat. No. 9,158,503

UML MODEL INTEGRATION AND REFACTORING METHOD

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A computer-implemented unified modeling language (UML) model integration and refactoring method, comprising the steps of:
accepting and inputting for further processing a plurality of UML metamodels, the UML metamodels including structural, behavioral,
and functional providing structural, behavioral, and functional views diagrams of a system, wherein the structural view diagrams
inputting step includes the step of inputting a UML class diagram metamodel, the behavioral view diagrams inputting step includes
the step of inputting a sequence diagram metamodel, and the functional view diagrams inputting step includes the step of inputting
a UML use case diagram metamodel;

extending the functional and the behavioral metamodels, wherein the extending step further comprises the steps of:
extending the use case diagram metamodel with behavior information in order to establish its relation to the sequence diagram
metamodel; and

extending the sequence diagram metamodel to provide model traceability and act as a liaison between the use case diagram metamodel
and the class diagram metamodel, wherein the sequence diagram metamodel extension further comprises the steps of:

forming a first new meta-class, SingleOperand, and a second new meta-class, MultiOperand, the new meta-classes deprecating
at least one well-formedness rule enforced through constraints on the sequence diagram;

adding a single meta-class for each InteractionOperandKind to the extended metamodel; and
breaking out the each InteractionOperandKind metaclass into a subclass selected from one of said SingleOperand and said MultiOperand
meta-classes, thereby permitting a subset of combined fragment operators to be added as metamodel extensions;

composing an integrated UML model derived from the extended metamodels, the integrated UML model integrating the structural,
behavioral, and functional system views, wherein the composing further comprises the steps of:

identifying, based on the mapping links, syntactic similarity (SYN) correspondence relationships among the at least two meta-classes,
the SYN correspondence relationships indicating that the meta-classes are syntactically equivalent;

merging together the syntactically similar meta-classes, in the resulting metamodel;
identifying, based on the mapping links, Semantic Similarity (SEM) correspondence relationship indicating that the two meta-classes
related to each other by this relation are semantically equivalent;

merging together said semantically similar meta-classes based on predefined correspondence rules;
determining, based on an Inclusion (INC) mapping link, that a subject meta-class is included in the resulting metamodel although
no similarity exists between the subject meta-class with other meta-classes;

defining correspondence rules to describe an association of the subject meta-class with other meta-classes in said resulting
metamodel;

excluding from the resulting metamodel metaclasses having an Exclusion (EXC) mapping link;
determining, based on a Dependency (DEP) mapping link that the at least two meta-classes related to each other by the DEP
relation are dependent;

retaining the DEP related at least two meta-classes in the resulting metamodel; and
wherein the use case and sequence metamodels are integrated into the resulting metamodel;
detecting anti-patterns in the integrated UML model, the anti-patterns defining refactoring opportunities and transformation
operations applicable to the integrated UML model, wherein detection step further comprises the step of detecting and removing
ripple effect smells over the use case, sequence and class diagrams, further wherein the ripple effect smell detection and
removing step further comprises the steps of:

calculating a number of associations linked to a Class (NASC) for each class;
calculating a number of internal connections (NOIC);
calculating a number of external connections (NOEC) for each class in a use case behavior, said NOEC calculation being characterized
by the following relations,

NOECclass=NASCclass?NOICclass
where NOEC is a measure of the number of classes that may be affected because of any change occurring to the description of
the class;

calculating an impact factor (IF) for each use case, said IF calculation being characterized by the following relation,

 calculating a maximum threshold value UPIF which quantifies an acceptable impact factor (IF) for each use case, said maximum threshold value calculation being characterized
by the following relation,

UPIF=0.3*NCM,

where NCM is the number of classes in the system;
creating a list of use cases exceeding said maximum threshold value UPIF,

selecting a class contributing most to the value of IF for each use case in the use case list;
creating two sub classes for each said selected class;
assigning methods from each said selected class to its corresponding two sub classes; and
replacing corresponding lifelines with their appropriate child classes from the structural view; and
applying the refactoring opportunities and transformation operations to remove the anti-patterns (model smells) from the integrated
UML model.

US Pat. No. 9,237,578

SPECTRUM ALLOCATION SCHEME FOR FEMTOCELLS

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method for mitigating interference and reducing spectrum costs, comprising:
initializing, by a circuitry, at least one ungrouped femtocell base station;
initializing, by the circuitry, a location index corresponding to the location of the ungrouped femtocell base station;
initializing, by the circuitry, a grouping index of the at least one ungrouped femtocell base station to an initial value;
initializing, by the circuitry, a first group and setting a number of femtocell base stations in the initialized first group
to the initial value;

assigning, by circuitry, the at least one ungrouped femtocell base station to the first group to be a grouped femtocell base
station;

setting, by the circuitry, the grouping index of the grouped femtocell base station to a non-initial value;
selecting, by the circuitry, at least one other ungrouped femtocell base station for evaluation;
assigning, by the circuitry, the at least one other ungrouped femtocell base station to the first group if the distance between
the grouped femtocell base station and the at least one other ungrouped femtocell base station is larger than a threshold
distance value; and

setting, by the circuitry, a grouping index of the at least one other ungrouped femtocell base station to the non-initial
value.

US Pat. No. 9,191,361

AUTHENTICATION METHOD FOR STATELESS ADDRESS ALLOCATION IN IPV6 NETWORKS

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A computer software product, comprising a non-transitory medium readable by a processor, the non-transitory medium having
stored thereon a set of instructions for a new node to perform an authentication method for stateless address allocation during
a stateless address auto-configuration (SLAAC) sequence in IPv6 networks, the set of instructions including:
(a) a first sequence of instructions which, when executed by the processor, causes said processor to form a new node link-local
address (LLA);

(b) a second sequence of instructions which, when executed by the processor, causes said processor to extract the last 24
bits of the new node LLA, dividing it into a Most Significant Segment (MSS) and a Least Significant Segment (LSS);

(c) a third sequence of instructions which, when executed by the processor, causes said processor to construct a neighbor
solicitation (NS) message and multicast the NS to all nodes on a link of the IPv6 network, the LSS being encapsulated inside
a payload of the NS;

(d) a fourth sequence of instructions which, when executed by the processor, causes said processor to receive neighbor advertisement
(NA) messages from all existing nodes having a LSS matching the LSS of the new node, the NA message including the LLA of the
existing node responding with the NA message, an existing neighbor's LLA residing in a payload portion of the NA message;

(e) a fifth sequence of instructions which, when executed by the processor, causes said processor to search from a list of
the responding existing nodes for a match between the existing neighbor's LLA and the LLA of the new node;

(f) a sixth sequence of instructions which, when executed by the processor, causes said processor to join the network using
the new node LLA when there is no match between the new node LLA and the LLA of the existing neighbor node; and

(g) a seventh sequence of instructions which, when executed by the processor, causes said processor to select a new LSS from
a pool of 224-m remainder addresses (m being a predetermined number of LSS bits defined at initialization time of the network), construct
a new LLA based on the new LSS, and loop through the third through the seventh sequence of instructions until the new node
has a unique new node LLA.

US Pat. No. 9,221,953

WEATHERABILITY AND DURABILITY OF LOW-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE NANOCOMPOSITES WITH CLAY, SILICA AND ZINC OXIDE

King Fahd University of P...

1. A pelletized low-density polyethylene nanocomposite, comprising
a low-density polyethylene resin having a melt index of 0.8 to 1.2 g/10 minutes (190° Celsius, 2.16 kg), and
5-30 weight % of a fumed silica having a primary particle size of 5-50 nm and having a specific surface area of 10 m2/g to 50 m2/g.

US Pat. No. 9,335,233

IN-PIPE LEAK DETECTION BASED ON PRESSURE GRADIENT

Massachusetts Institute o...

1. Leak detection system comprising:
structure sized to fit within a pipe conveying water for smooth sliding within the pipe while maintaining a uniform clearance
in the range of 1 to 3 mm with an inside wall of the pipe for supporting at least one sensing element near the inside wall
of the pipe, whereby a pressure gradient in the water at a leak in the pipe will cause the sensing element to respond to the
pressure gradient in the water to indicate a leak while the structure is moving within the pipe.

US Pat. No. 9,321,466

CONTROLLABLE NORMAL FORCE MECHANISM WITH MINIMUM ENERGY CONSUMPTION

Massachusetts Institute o...

1. Force control system comprising;
a plurality of first rotor permanent magnets symmetrically disposed around a rotor, each first rotor magnet spaced apart from
corresponding first stator permanent magnets mounted for radial motion, the first rotor and stator magnets having the same
polarity resulting in repulsive forces between the first rotor and stator permanent magnets forming a first rotor/stator magnet
pair;

a plurality of second rotor permanent magnets symmetrically disposed around the rotor at a location apart from the first rotor
permanent magnets, each second rotor magnets spaced apart from corresponding second stator permanent magnets, the second rotor
and stator magnets having opposite polarity resulting in attractive forces between the second rotor and stator permanent magnets
to form a second rotor/stator magnet pair; and

means for rotating the rotor, whereby force on the first stator permanent magnets in a radial direction is controlled as the
rotor rotates through a selected angular range while the torque required to rotate the rotor is reduced by the second rotor/stator
magnet pair.

US Pat. No. 9,296,625

BENZENE REMOVAL USING CARBON NANOTUBES IMPREGNATED WITH IRON

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method for removing benzene from a benzene-containing aqueous composition, comprising:
contacting an adsorbent with the benzene-containing aqueous composition;
wherein the adsorbent comprises multi-walled carbon nanotubes having an outside diameter of 10-20 nm and an inside diameter
of 5-10 nm, with iron(III) oxide nanoparticles impregnated on outside walls of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

US Pat. No. 9,429,677

HIGH PERFORMANCE AND GRID COMPUTING WITH FAULT TOLERANT DATA DISTRIBUTORS QUALITY OF SERVICE

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A computer implemented method of computerized processing in a data processing system of data for exploration and production
of hydrocarbons, the data processing system including a plurality of master nodes, each with an established quality of service
standard profile including an assigned ownership strength, and with the master node of the plurality of master nodes having
a highest assigned ownership strength being designated master publisher node for the exploration and production data being
processed, the data processing system further including a plurality of processor nodes established as subscribers to receive
exploration and production data from the designated master publisher, and a data memory, the method comprising the computer
processing steps of:
(a) transmitting the established quality of service standard profile from the designated master publisher to the subscriber
processor nodes;

(b) establishing with the designated master publisher a domain for exploration and production processing by the designated
master publisher and designated ones of the plurality of processor nodes as subscriber processor nodes;

(c) sending a source data sample of the exploration and production data from the designated master publisher to the designated
subscriber processor nodes of the domain;

(d) processing the transmitted exploration and production data in the designated subscriber processor nodes of the domain;
(e) monitoring at the designated master publisher the processed exploration and production data of the designated subscriber
processor nodes of the domain;

(f) determining in the designated master publisher whether the designated subscriber processor nodes of the domain comply
with the transmitted established quality of service standard profile from the designated master publisher; and

(g) if so, receiving at the designated master publisher the processed exploration and production data from the designated
subscriber processor nodes which comply with the transmitted established quality of service standard profile; and

(h) if not, inhibiting at the designated master publisher transfer to the designated master publisher of the processed exploration
and production data from the designated subscriber processor nodes which do not comply with the transmitted established quality
of service standard profile;

(i) joining additional processor nodes as designated subscriber processor nodes of the domain during processing of exploration
and production data;

(j) delivering the published exploration and production data to the joined additional processor nodes;
(k) assembling in the data memory of the data processing system the processed exploration and production data received at
the designated master publisher;

(l) monitoring performance of the designated master publisher node during the processing of the exploration and production
data to determine operating status of the designated master publisher node;

(m) if the step of monitoring performance of the designated master publisher node indicates the designated master publisher
node is operating, continuing the processing of the exploration and production data; and, if not

(n) determining ownership strength of the others of the plurality of master nodes according to their respective ownership
strength quality of service profile; and

(o) establishing as designated master publisher node the master node having the highest ownership strength quality of service
profile and resuming the processing of the exploration and production data.

US Pat. No. 9,260,586

SMECTITE CLAY LOW-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE NANOCOMPOSITE

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A smectite clay based low-density polyethylene nanocomposite in the form of pellets, consisting of
a low-density polyethylene resin having a melt index of 0.8 to 1.2 g/10 minutes (190° Celsius, 2.16 kg), and
5 weight % or more of a nanoscale montmorillonite clay modified with a quaternary ammonium salt and having a specific surface
area of 10 m2/g to 50 m2/g.

US Pat. No. 10,030,484

METHOD FOR ESTIMATING INFLOW PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP (IPR) OF SNAKY OIL HORIZONTAL WELLS

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method for managing a physical snaky well using an inflow performance relationship (IPR) and hydraulic fracturing work, the method comprising:acquiring an operating surface facilities pressure and one or more physical parameters from the physical snaky well including at least a well bottom-hole pressure, a gas-to-oil ratio, and a liquid in-flow rate;
determining a grid model from a plurality of grid models for the physical snaky well;
simulating a plurality of well geometries for the determined grid model, the plurality of well geometries including a horizontal well, and snaky wells having different numbers of undulations and multiple orientations;
performing sensitivity analysis to determine impact of a plurality of snaky well parameters on the IPR of the physical snaky well;
performing regression analysis based on the sensitivity analysis to determine Vogel based quadratic coefficient that estimates the IPR of the physical snaky well;
computing by circuitry, a transformation of the plurality of snaky well parameters to provide transformed parameters and determining a sum of squared errors of the plurality of snaky well parameters;
computing by circuitry, the IPR based on a linear weighting of the transformed parameters;
predicting a performance of the physical snaky well based on the IPR and the one or more physical parameters;
identifying a permeability in which production amount is increased based on the operating surface facilities pressure and the predicted performance; and
adjusting the permeability of the physical snaky well using hydraulic fracturing work on the physical snaky well to match the identified permeability.

US Pat. No. 9,150,455

UTILIZATION OF HEAVY OIL ASH TO PRODUCE SELF-CONSOLIDATED CONCRETE

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A heavy oil ash self-compacting concrete, consisting essentially of:
a pozzolanic aggregate;
heavy oil ash fines, the heavy oil ash fines comprising at least 90% carbon and at least 80% of the heavy oil ash fines being
finer than 45 micrometer (#325 sieve), where the heavy oil ash fines do not have cementitious or pozzolanic properties and
do not react with lime;

water; and
Portland cement;
wherein the heavy oil ash cement concrete is produced by the mixing of the water and the Portland cement in the presence of
the heavy oil ash fines and aggregate; and

wherein the heavy oil ash self-compacting concrete is capable of flowing under its own weight.

US Pat. No. 9,046,427

SYSTEM FOR DUAL PRESSURE SENSING

Massachusetts Institute o...

1. Pressure sensor comprising:
a deformable diaphragm responsive to applied pressure; and
a rigid beam mounted to more as the diaphragm deforms; wherein the rigid beam includes a mirrored surface for receiving light
from and reflecting light into an optical fiber thereby forming a Fabry-Perot cavity to detect changes in the position of
the rigid beam;

and wherein the rigid beam further includes first inter-digital fingers extending from the mirrored surface and moving with
the rigid beam with respect to second, fixed inter-digital fingers, the first and second inter-digital fingers overlapping
to create a change in electrical charges in the fingers to detect changes in the position of the rigid beam thereby providing
two measures of rigid beam displacement which are measures of pressure.

US Pat. No. 9,222,858

DISPERSIVE MICRO SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS FROM AN AQUEOUS SAMPLE

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method for dispersive micro solid phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from an aqueous sample, comprising:
ultrasonically conditioning a nanoporous vateritic calcium carbonate with an aromatic solvent to form a calcium carbonate
mixture;

mixing the aqueous sample containing one or more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with the calcium carbonate mixture to adsorb
said polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the nanoporous vateritic calcium carbonate and to form an analysis composition;

centrifuging the analysis composition to isolate a solid fraction and a liquid fraction of the analysis composition;
removing water from the solid fraction derived from centrifugation; and
adding the aromatic solvent to the centrifuged solid fraction to desorb said polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by ultrasonication,
thereby obtaining desorbed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and

determining the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of the aqueous sample by analyzing the desorbed polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons obtained from adding the aromatic solvent to the centrifuged solid fraction with gas chromatography.

US Pat. No. 9,598,598

DEVELOPMENT OF ZWITTERIONIC COATINGS THAT CONFER ULTRA ANTI-BIOFOULING PROPERTIES TO COMMERCIAL REVERSE OSMOSIS MEMBRANES

Massachusetts Institute o...

12. A method for treating water comprising
passing an aqueous solution through an article comprising a composition of claim 9, wherein said aqueous solution comprises water and a first quantity of a substance, thereby producing a second aqueous solution;
the second aqueous solution comprises water and a second quantity of the substance; and the second quantity is substantially
lower than first quantity.

US Pat. No. 9,148,022

WIND TURBINE PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR (WT-PMSG) SYSTEM

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A wind turbine-permanent magnet synchronous generator (WT-PMSG) system having electrical circuitry delivering electrical
power to a load connected to a grid via a power line, comprising:
a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) variable speed wind turbine having a synchronous generator output;
a back-to-back converter system including rectifier circuitry connected to the PMSG system in-line with the generator, inverter
circuitry connected to the PMSG system in-line with the grid, and a DC link capacitor connecting the rectifier circuitry to
the inverter circuitry, the rectifier circuitry including a modulation index control input;

voltage source converter (VSC) circuitry including an output electrical circuit, the VSC circuitry being configured as a static
synchronous compensator (STATCOM), the STATCOM being shunt connected to the load, the load being connected to the power line;
and

feedback control circuitry connected to the voltage PWM modulation index control input of the rectifier circuitry, said feedback
control circuitry controlling the PWM modulation index of the rectifier circuitry responsive to a disturbance input to the
feedback control system.

US Pat. No. 9,848,345

BI-DIRECTIONAL WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

King Fahd University of P...

1. A bi-directional wireless sensor network (WSN), comprising:
a plurality of sensor nodes, each configured with a radio transceiver having an internal antenna and electronic circuitry
for interfacing with one or more associated sensors and an energy source;

a gateway sensor node configured to receive sensor data from and forward instructions to the one or more sensor nodes;
a server configured to control the WSN in conjunction with the gateway sensor node; and
circuitry configured to
recognize a link break within a data communication route of the WSN via a routing protocol;
buffer incoming packets from a source node;
propagate a route error (RERR) message of the link break to the plurality of sensor nodes within the WSN;
build a bypass route around the link break of the data communication route towards a destination node; and
send the buffered incoming packets to the destination node through the bypass route,
wherein the circuitry is further configured to set a flag in the RERR message to prevent upstream nodes from invalidating
an unreachable route.

US Pat. No. 9,160,280

MEMORY POLYNOMIAL BASED DIGITAL PREDISTORTER

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. In a memory polynomial (MP) based digital predistorter (DPD) connected to a power amplifier, wherein the power amplifier
has a feedback loop for inputting amplifier output parameters to the DPD, an MP based digital predistortion method, comprising
the steps of:
estimating an optimally small DPD memory length, L, and an optimally low nonlinearity order, K, wherein said estimating step
further comprises the step of executing a l0 norm-penalized particle swarm optimization (LP-PSO) procedure, said LP-PSO procedure including a step for calculating for
each particle an objective function characterized by the relation,

JiCAT=(n)=Ji(n)+?ƒ(?Pi?0)
where, JiCAT is a complexity-accuracy tradeoff (CAT) cost function, ?Pi?0 is the zero-norm of a particle's position vector, defined as
and,
where, d(n) is a desired output signal used to evaluate accuracy of the estimation, e(n) is a difference between an estimated
output signal and the desired output signal, ? is a regularization parameter used for scaling the zero-norm modifier part
of the cost function, and N is a number of samples used for a training block of said LP-PSO procedure;
setting said DPD with said optimally small DPD memory length L and said optimally low nonlinearity order K; and
wherein said optimally small memory length L and said optimally low nonlinearity order K improves efficiency of the DPD in
linearizing an output signal of the power amplifier.

US Pat. No. 9,068,454

METHOD FOR WIRE SAW EXCAVATION

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A kit of apparatus for performing wire saw excavation, comprising:
a boring machine for forming a downhole and a base passage in a substrate;
a robotic excavator for at least initiating the base passage;
an apparatus for making a base cut to define a bottom surface of a core;
an apparatus for making a peripheral cut between the base cut and a ground surface;
an apparatus for removing the core from the substrate;
an apparatus for sectioning the core into a smaller block before removal of the core from the substrate; and
an apparatus for extracting the smaller block from the core before removal of the core from the substrate.

US Pat. No. 9,499,403

CATALYST AND PROCESS FOR THERMO-NEUTRAL REFORMING OF LIQUID HYDROCARBONS

Saudi Arabian Oil Company...

1. A thermo-neutral reforming process for the production of a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas from a liquid hydrocarbon fuel,
which comprises:
a. providing a mixture of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel, an oxygen (O2)-rich gas or air and steam to an interior zone of a reactor, said interior zone including a catalyst bed consisting of a
combined combustion and steam and/or CO2 reforming catalyst containing Ni, La2O3, Ce2O3, Pt, ZrO2, Rh and Re supported on magnesium aluminate, the catalyst prepared by:

impregnating a magnesium aluminate support with an aqueous solution containing a rhodium salt and a rhenium salt, followed
by drying in an NH3-rich atmosphere, calcination and hydrogen reduction to obtain a rhodium-rhenium/magnesium aluminate support,

impregnating the rhodim-rhenium/magnesium aluminate support with an aqueous solution of a zirconium salt and a platinum salt
followed by drying in an NH3-rich atmosphere, calcination and hydrogen reduction to obtain a Pt—ZrO2—Rh—Re/magnesium aluminate support, and

impregnating the Pt—ZrO2—RH—Re/magnesium aluminate support with an aqueous solution of a lanthanum sald, a cerium salt and a nickel salt followed
by drying in an NH3-rich atmosphere, calcination and reduction conducted between 700° C. and 750° C.;

b. pre-heating the fuel, the O2-rich gas or air and steam mixture to a temperature in the range of about 350° C. to about 450° C.; and,

c. bringing the pre-heated mixture into contact with the catalyst bed at a gas hour space velocity of about 30,000 h?1 to about 70,000 h?1 causing an exothermic combustion reaction raising the reaction temperature to about 800° C. to about 900° C., and also causing an endothermic steam reforming reaction for a period of time sufficient to reform the liquid fuel to
yield a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas.

US Pat. No. 9,186,026

CHIMNEY CLEANING APPARATUS AND METHOD

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A chimney cleaning apparatus, comprising:
a telescopically adjustable handle member having a proximal end and a distal end;
a soot scrubber member removably mounted on the handle member for dislodging soot from the chimney, said soot scrubber member
comprising:

an annular ring having a circumferential edge;
a plurality of metallic scrubbing wires extending from the circumferential edge of the annular ring;
a hub having a releasable connector for releasably attaching said soot scrubber member to said telescopically adjustable handle
member; and

a plurality of radially extending rods attaching the annular ring to the hub; and
a receptacle removably mounted on the handle member for receiving the dislodged soot therein.

US Pat. No. 9,151,793

METHOD FOR MEASURING THE COMPLEX DIELECTRIC CONSTANT OF A SUBSTANCE

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A method for measuring a complex dielectric constant of a substance, comprising the steps of:
(a) providing an open ended rectangular waveguide having a cross-sectional width a and a cross-sectional height b;
(b) providing a non-resonant rectangular cavity in communication with one of the ends of the open ended rectangular waveguide,
said non-resonant rectangular cavity having a cross-sectional width g, a cross-sectional height h and a cross-sectional length
d, said non-resonant rectangular cavity being symmetrically fed by an electromagnetic wave by the open ended rectangular waveguide;

(c) filling the non-resonant rectangular cavity with a substance of interest;
(d) transmitting an electromagnetic wave generated by an electromagnetic wave generator through the open ended rectangular
waveguide toward the non-resonant rectangular cavity;

(e) measuring a first reflection coefficient R1 at an interface between the open ended rectangular waveguide and the non-resonant rectangular cavity with a network analyzer;

(f) varying the cross-sectional length d of the non-resonant rectangular cavity by a length ?;
(g) re-transmitting the electromagnetic wave through the open ended rectangular waveguide toward the non-resonant rectangular
cavity;

(h) measuring a second reflection coefficient R2 at the interface between the open ended rectangular waveguide and the non-resonant rectangular cavity with the network analyzer;

(i) calculating a first variable LL as
where m and n are summation indices ranging between 1 and N, where N is an integer selected for stabilization of the summations,
where
and
where
x and y being Cartesian coordinates corresponding to width and height, respectively,
where j is the imaginary number, ? is an angular frequency of the electromagnetic wave, ?o is the constant permittivity of free space, and
where
where ?0 is the constant magnetic permeability of free space, wherein
for m?1;
(j) establishing a first set of estimated values for a real part of a dielectric constant associated with the substance of
interest, ?i, where i ranges between 1 and a pre-selected integer S;

(k) calculating a second variable Mi for i ranging between 1 and S as

where p and q are summation indices ranging between 1 and N,
where
and
and
where
and

(l) establishing a first set of values of ?i corresponding to the calculated second variable Mi which satisfy the condition


(m) establishing a second set of values of ?i corresponding to the calculated second variable Mi which satisfy the condition


(n) selecting a value of ?i which is a member of both the first set and the second set of values corresponding to the calculated second variable Mi and setting this selected value equal to a variable ?d;

(o) establishing a second set of estimated values for the real part of the dielectric constant associated with the substance
of interest, ?ri, where i ranges between 1 and S, such that ?ri=?i?j??, where ?? is an imaginary part of the dielectric constant associated with the substance of interest, where ?r1=?d?X1 and ?rS=?d+x1 and ??=x2, where x1 is approximately equal to 0.5 and x2 is a pre-selected value based on expected conductivity of the substance of interest;

(p) re-calculating the second variable Mi for i ranging between 1 and S as

where
and

(q) establishing a first set of values of ?ri corresponding to the re-calculated second variable Mi which satisfy the condition


(r) establishing a second set of values of ?ri corresponding to the re-calculated second variable Mi which satisfy the condition


(s) selecting a value of ?ri which is a member of both the first set and the second set of values corresponding to the re-calculated second variable Mi and setting the selected value equal to a variable ?rd; and

(t) re-calculating the imaginary part of the dielectric constant associated with the substance of interest, ??, as ??=j(?rd??d),

wherein the dielectric constant associated with the substance of interest is determined as ?rd+j(?rd??d).

US Pat. No. 9,476,601

SOLAR-POWERED AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A solar-powered air conditioning system, comprising:
a structure having at least one wall and a roof of hyperbolic, paraboloid configuration defining a convergent-divergent profile,
the roof having an outer surface, the structure being adapted for erection at ground level;

a throat area defined at a portion of the structure where the roof is closest to the ground;
a plurality of solar panels positioned on the outer surface of the roof for generating electrical energy;
an evaporative air conditioning system powered by the solar panels for cooling the structure, wherein said evaporative air
conditioning system comprises:

a reservoir for containing a water supply;
a solar-powered fan for supplying ambient air to the reservoir and increasing evaporation from the reservoir to entrain water
droplets in a stream of air;

an auxiliary chamber having an upper portion and a lower portion;
a first conduit for transferring the stream of air with the entrained water droplets from the reservoir to the upper portion
of the auxiliary chamber; and

a second conduit having an atomizer grill for directing the stream of air with the entrained water droplets from the upper
portion of the auxiliary chamber to said throat area, wherein the stream of air with the entrained water droplets travels
along a substantially U-shaped path within the upper portion of the auxiliary chamber between the first and second conduits.

US Pat. No. 9,393,166

WHEELCHAIR SUSPENSION SYSTEM COMPRISING OF AN ENCASED SET OF SPRINGS WITH A DAMPER, AND METHOD FOR ENHANCING STABILITY

King Fahd University of P...

1. A wheelchair suspension system, comprising:
a top spring and a bottom spring placed inside a protective case with a center bar that is connected to a center pivot and
extrudes out through a gap in the protective case to a wheel of a wheelchair;

a damper fitted in the middle along an expansion and compression axis of at least one of the top and the bottom springs inside
the protective case placed in the center of either the top spring or the lower spring;

a first fixture placed on the reverse side of the protective case allowing the fixture to attach to a frame of the wheelchair.

US Pat. No. 9,316,629

METHOD OF DETERMINING PHENOXY HERBICIDES IN WATER SAMPLES BY PHASE TRANSFER MICROEXTRACTION WITH SIMULTANEOUS DERIVATIZATION AND GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS-SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method for determining the concentration of a phenoxy herbicide in an aqueous sample, comprising:
simultaneously phase-transfer catalyst extracting and alkylating an aqueous sample comprising a phenoxy herbicide to form
a sample composition, and

measuring an amount of the alkylated phenoxy herbicide in the sample composition,
wherein a pH of the aqueous sample throughout the extracting and alkylating is from 7 to 13.
US Pat. No. 9,099,752

ELECTROCATALYST FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF CARBON DIOXIDE

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A method of making an electrocatalyst for electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide, comprising the steps of:
dissolving copper nitrate trihydrate in deionized water to form a salt solution;
adding titania nanotubes to the salt solution to form a suspension;
heating the suspension;
adding a urea solution to the suspension to form an electrocatalyst in solution, the electrocatalyst being copper material
supported on the titania nanotubes; and

removing the electrocatalyst from the solution, wherein the step of removing the electrocatalyst from the solution comprises
the steps of:

cooling the solution to room temperature;
centrifuging the solution to separate the electrocatalyst out of the solution;
washing and drying the electrocatalyst at a temperature of approximately 110° C.; and
calcining the washed and dried electrocatalyst at a temperature of approximately 450° C. for approximately four hours in an
argon gas flow.

US Pat. No. 9,499,414

METHOD OF DYE REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A method of dye removal from wastewater, comprising:
impregnating heavy oil fly ash with phosphoric acid to provide an impregnated material, wherein the impregnation ratio of
the phosphoric acid and the heavy oil fly ash is 0.8;

heating the impregnated material under an inert atmosphere to temperatures of 500° C. to provide powdered activated carbon
(PAC), wherein the SSABET value of the activated carbon is 59 m2/g;

contacting the wastewater with the powdered activated carbon, wherein the contacting is for a period of at least 20 minutes;
adsorbing dye from the wastewater by the powdered activated carbon;
separating the powdered activated carbon from the wastewater to remove the adsorbed dye.

US Pat. No. 9,483,666

LOGARITHMIC AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION GENERATOR FOR ANALOG SIGNAL PROCESSING

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A logarithmic and exponential function generator for analog signal processing, comprising:
a pair of current mirrors having an input accepting an input current Ix and providing first and second output currents, both of the output currents being Ix;

a square root current amplifier circuit having an input accepting the first Ix output current, a normalizing input accepting a current Iy, and providing a square root output characterized by the expression:

where ? is a current gain provided by the square root current amplifier circuit;
a linear current amplifier accepting the second Ix output current as input and having an output characterized by the expression:

?Ix,
where ? is a current gain provided by the linear current amplifier;
a DC current amplifier accepting a DC current I0 as input and having an output characterized by the expression:

?I0,
where ? is a current gain provided by the DC current amplifier, the outputs from the square root current amplifier circuit,
the linear current amplifier, and the DC current amplifier being summed to provide a total output characterized by the expression:
where ?, ? and ? are selected so that the total output expression represents an approximation of a function selected from
the group consisting of a logarithmic function and an exponential function.

US Pat. No. 9,461,593

CURRENT-MODE FOLDING AMPLIFIER

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A current-mode folding amplifier, comprising:
a comparator circuit having a binary output B[i] and an input;

a first current mirror circuit configured as a current copier, the current mirror circuit accepting an input current IIN and providing a current IX=IIN included in an output of the current-mode folding amplifier, and a current ICP[i]=IIN fed to the input of the comparator circuit;

a transmission gate circuit accepting the binary output B[i] as its input and accepting a gating current I[i]=B[i]IZ[i] derived from the output of the current copier, the transmission gate providing a feedback current IZ[i]=IREF/N;

a second current mirror circuit configured as a reference scaler having the current IREF as its input, and a feedback current IY[i]=IREF/N, derived from the transmission gate feedback current IZ[i]=IREF/N, and providing a current ISC[i]=i*IREF/N fed to the input of the comparator circuit, ISC and ICP being subtracted from each other at the input of the comparator circuit in order to compare whether the resulting currents
are greater or less than zero, where N is a number of folds for an N fold, folding points being characterized as IF, 2IF, 3IF, . . . (N?1)IF.

US Pat. No. 9,188,627

DIGITAL INTEGRATED CIRCUIT TESTING AND CHARACTERIZATION SYSTEM AND METHOD

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A digital integrated circuit testing and characterization method, comprising the steps of:
providing stand-alone test circuitry for a digital integrated circuit under test, the stand-alone test circuitry including
a first set of I/O ports arranged in a first fixed interface circuit operable with any digital integrated circuit under test,
the first fixed interface circuit being adapted for interfacing the stand-alone test circuitry with an external processor
specifying tests to be run and receiving results of the tests;

fabricating and installing supporting test circuitry resident on-board the digital integrated circuit under test, the supporting
test circuitry including a second set of I/O ports arranged in a second fixed interface circuit operable with any digital
integrated circuit under test, the second fixed interface circuit interfacing the stand-alone test circuitry with the digital
integrated circuit under test;

connecting the first set of I/O ports of the stand-alone test circuitry to the corresponding second set of I/O ports of the
supporting test circuitry;

selecting a specific port to apply and receive test data to and from;
testing and characterizing the digital integrated circuit under test, the stand-alone test circuitry applying stimuli to and
capturing results from the digital integrated circuit under test;

utilizing a moderate frequency clock in the stand-alone test circuitry to scan in/out the test data/results and perform functional
characterization of the digital integrated circuit under test, wherein the moderate frequency clock has a frequency range
between approximately 50 MHz and approximately 100 MHz;

providing a high-frequency clock in said support test circuitry, the high-frequency clock performing speed characterization
of the digital integrated circuit under test, wherein the high-frequency clock has a frequency greater than 100 MHz;

providing a frequency measuring circuit (FMC) operable with said high-frequency clock, said frequency measuring circuit counting
a number of high-frequency clock cycles within a predetermined time period and transmitting the counted number to a user via
a clock frequency output signal;

providing first, second, third, and fourth operational states of said frequency measuring circuit, wherein:
the first operational state waits for a frequency measurement request from said stand-alone test circuitry to start, commands
said high-frequency counter to clear upon receipt of said frequency measurement request, and performs a state transition to
the second operational state;

the second operational state of said frequency measuring circuit waits for said high-frequency clock counter to be cleared,
and once said high frequency clock counter is cleared, the second operational state enables counting the frequency while transitioning
to the third operational state;

the third operational state of said frequency measuring circuit counts the high-frequency clock cycles while waiting for a
measurement request de-activation by said stand-alone test circuitry, and upon de-activation of said measurement request,
the third operational state stops said counting and transitions to the fourth operational state; and

the fourth operational state of said frequency measuring circuit waits for synchronization, then signals said stand-alone
test circuitry indicating that frequency measurement is complete and loads a value of the counted frequency into a frequency
register available to said user;

serializing and de-serializing data communication between said stand-alone test circuitry and the digital integrated circuit
under test, said test support circuitry converting received serial test data to parallel data and applying the parallel data
to the digital integrated circuit under test, said test support circuitry also converting back captured test results from
parallel form to serial form; and

transmitting the results captured by the stand-alone test circuitry to the external processor.
US Pat. No. 9,145,492

METHOD TO PRODUCE ULTRA-HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYETHYLENE

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A method of producing ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene, comprising the step of polymerizing ethylene monomer in
situ in the presence of a polymerization catalyst, a tungsten-doped nanofiller, and a co-catalyst, at a temperature of about
30° C. in an organic solvent.

US Pat. No. 9,079,161

CATALYST FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL DECHLORINATION OF HYDROCARBONS

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A method of making a catalyst for electrochemical dechlorination of hydrocarbons, comprising the steps of:
mixing rice husk ash with sodium hydroxide solution to form a sodium silicate solution;
dissolving cetyl trimethylammonium bromide in the sodium silicate solution, wherein the cetyl trimethylammonium bromide to
silicon molar ratio is about 1.2 to 1 to form an intermediate solution;

dissolving approximately 10 wt % of PtCl2 in 3 M HNO3 to form a titrant and titrating with the intermediate solution with the titrant to form a gel;

washing the gel;
drying the gel;
grinding the dried gel into a powder; and
calcining the powder to form the catalyst for electrochemical dechlorination of hydrocarbons.

US Pat. No. 9,488,129

PASSIVE EDGE-TONE SUPPRESSION METHOD

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A passive edge-tone suppression method, comprising the steps of:
inserting a central insertion tube within a nozzle ejecting a jet, wherein the central insertion tube is imperforate, being
devoid of microjets;

extending the central insertion tube through the nozzle and into alignment with an edge disposed in the path of the jet; and
selecting the central insertion tube so that the central insertion tube has a length of about 30 percent of a stand-off distance
between the nozzle and the edge.

US Pat. No. 9,481,699

PLATINUM(II) COMPLEXES WITH THIONE LIGANDS AND METHODS THEREOF

King Fahd University of P...

1. A platinum(II) complex of Formula I, Formula II or Formula III:
or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, tautomer, ester, solvate or prodrug thereof; wherein:
R1, R3, R5, R7, R9, R11, R13 and R15 are each independently a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, an optionally substituted C1-C3 alkyl group, an optionally substituted C1-C3 alkoxy group, an optionally substituted C2-C3 alkenyl group or an optionally substituted C2-C3 alkynyl group when R2, R4, R6, R8, R10, R12, R14 and R16 are each independently a halogen atom, an optionally substituted C1-C3 alkyl group, an optionally substituted C1-C3 alkoxy group, an optionally substituted C2-C3 alkenyl group or an optionally substituted C2-C3 alkynyl group; or

R1, R3, R5, R7, R9, R11, R13 and R15 are each independently a halogen atom, an optionally substituted C1-C3 alkyl group, an optionally substituted C1-C3 alkoxy group, an optionally substituted C2-C3 alkenyl group or an optionally substituted C2-C3 alkynyl group when R2, R4, R6, R8, R10, R12, R14 and R16 are each independently a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, an optionally substituted C1-C3 alkyl group, an optionally substituted C1-C3 alkoxy group, an optionally substituted C2-C3 alkenyl group or an optionally substituted C2-C3 alkynyl group;

R17-R24 are each independently a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, an optionally substituted C1-C3 alkyl group, an optionally substituted C1-C3 alkoxy group, an optionally substituted C2-C3 alkenyl group or an optionally substituted C2-C3 alkynyl group; and

R25-R60 are each independently a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, an optionally substituted C1-C8 alkyl group, an optionally substituted C1-C8 alkoxy group, an optionally substituted C2-C8 alkenyl group or an optionally substituted C2-C8 alkynyl group.

US Pat. No. 9,453,401

CHELATING FLUID FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY IN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS AND METHOD OF USING THE SAME

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A chelating fluid for enhanced oil recovery in carbonate reservoirs, consisting of a solution of a polyamino carboxylic
acid chelating agent in brine, wherein the polyamino carboxylic acid chelating agent comprises 5.0 wt % of the solution, the
solution having a pH of 11.0.

US Pat. No. 9,075,407

REDUCED COMPLEXITY AUTO-TUNING PROCESS CONTROLLER SYSTEM AND METHOD

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A reduced complexity auto-tuning process controller method, comprising the steps of:
computing a plant error KCe(t) based on plant output y(t) and control input r(t);

summing the plant error KCe(t) with a single-sample delay,


 the output of which is characterized by an auto-tunable gain constant K(t); and
multiplying the control input signal r(t) by the auto-tunable gain constant K(t), thereby resulting in automatic iterative
control of the plant output y(t), wherein the process controller performs process control of the plant according to a control
law governed by the relation K(t+1)=K(t)?KCe(t).

US Pat. No. 9,070,002

METHOD OF PERFORMING FINGERPRINT MATCHING

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A computer-implemented method of performing fingerprint matching, comprising the steps of:
acquiring a first fingerprint image;
locating a reference core point within the first fingerprint image in order to initiate feature extraction of the first fingerprint
image;

establishing a region of interest (ROI) around the reference core point;
decomposing the region of interest into eight separate directional sub-band outputs;
calculating translation, rotation, and scaling (TRS) independent moment invariants and affine moment invariants from each
of the eight separate directional sub-band outputs by:

calculating at least one geometric moment invariant Mpq, said geometric moment invariant calculation being defined by the relation Mpq=????????xpyqf(x,y)dxdy for p, q=0, 1, 2, . . . , n, where n represents a number of stored template features, x and y are Cartesian coordinates,
and f(x,y) is a continuous function;

adapting the geometric moment invariant calculation to grayscale images having pixel intensities I(x,y), the geometric moment
invariant calculation adaptation being characterized by the relation MIj=?x?yxIyjI(x,y) for I,j=0, 1, 2, . . . , n;

calculating at least one complex moment invariant cpq, the complex moment invariant calculation being defined by the relation cpq=????????(x+iy)p(x?iy)qf(x,y)dxdy, where i is the complex number, the at least one complex moment invariant being based on a polynomial basis kpqcharacterized by the relation kpq(x,y)=(x+iy)p(x?iy)q; and

calculating at least one orthogonal moment vpq, the orthogonal moment invariant calculation being defined by the relation vpq=npnq???pp(x)pq(y)f(x,y)dxdy, wherein npand nq are normalized factors and ? is an area of orthogonality, the grayscale image being scaled such that its support is contained
in ?;

combining features calculated from each of the separate directional sub-band outputs into a first feature vector Vf characterized by the relation Vf={I?1, I?2, . . . , I?k}, where ??{0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}, corresponding to the eight separate directional sub-band outputs, k ?{0, 1, 2, . . .
, 56}, corresponding to the independent moment invariants from each of the eight separate directional sub-band outputs, and
I?kis a feature sub-block of the ?-th directional sub-band and the k-th independent moment invariant;

calculating an absolute distance between the first feature vector and a second vector Vf2including features of a second fingerprint having similarly obtained moment invariants, the second vector being characterized
by the relation Vf2={b1, b2, . . . , bn}, where each of the {b1, b2, . . . , bn}represent one of the n stored template features; and

displaying match results based on the first and second fingerprint absolute distance calculation step.

US Pat. No. 9,484,861

METHOD FOR SYSTEM LEVEL ORIENTED LOAD-PULL-BASED ENVELOPE TRACKING POWER AMPLIFIERS

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A method for system level oriented load-pull-based envelope tracking power amplifiers (PAs), comprising the steps of:
(a) selecting a load reflection coefficient, (?L);

(b) applying direct and quadrature components, [I(n), Q(n)], of a modulated signal waveform;
(c) calculating instantaneous input power Pin (n);

(d) calculating instantaneous drain voltage of the PA;
(e) estimating instantaneous amplifier performance ?(n);
(f) estimating average amplifier performance ?avg(?L); and

(g) repeating steps (a) through (f) until a desired average amplifier performance is achieved.

US Pat. No. 9,384,371

COMPACT CMOS CURRENT-MODE ANALOG MULTIFUNCTION CIRCUIT

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A compact CMOS current-mode analog multifunction circuit, comprising:
a first translinear loop comprised of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) M1, M2, M3, and M4;

a second translinear loop comprised of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) M1, M2, M5, and M6, first and second translinear loops overlapping and configured to operate in a sub-threshold (weak inversion) region, input
iin1 of the first translinear loop consisting of at least one drain current of the first translinear loop MOSFETS, input iin2 of the second translinear loop consisting of at least one drain current of the second translinear loop MOSFETS;

currents of the first translinear loop being characterized by the relation,
I1I2=I3I4,
where Ii is the drain current for the transistor Mi and I4 is the output of the first translinear loop;
currents of the second translinear loop being characterized by the relation,
I1I5=I3I6,
where Ii is the drain current for the transistor Mi, and I6 is the output of the second translinear loop;
wherein an output current of the current-mode analog multifunction circuit is a difference between the outputs of the first
and second translinear loops.

US Pat. No. 9,296,913

RECYCLED CRUMB RUBBER COATING

King Fahd University of P...

1. A recycled crumb rubber coating composition, comprising a mixture of:
about 24.0 wt % of a crumb rubber blend having about 20 wt % powdered crumb rubber and about 80 wt % mesh crumb rubber; and
the balance being epoxy having a liquid epoxy resin: epoxy hardener ratio of about 2:1 by weight.

US Pat. No. 9,481,693

MIXED LIGAND GOLD(III) COMPLEXES AS ANTI-CANCER AGENTS

King Fahd University of P...

1. A gold(III) complex having Formula I:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, or prodrug thereof;
wherein W is selected from W1 or W2,


R1-R8 are each independently a hydrogen, an optionally substituted C1-C8 alkyl group, or an optionally substituted C6-C8 aryl group,

R9-R14 are each independently a hydrogen, a halogen, a hydroxyl, an amino, a nitro, a cyano, an optionally substituted alkyl, an
optionally substituted cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocyclyl, an optionally substituted arylalkyl, an optionally
substituted heteroaryl, an optionally substituted alkoxyl, an optionally substituted thioalkoxyl, an optionally substituted
aryl, a N-monosubstituted amino group, or a N,N-disubstituted amino group,

R15-R26 are each independently a lone pair of electrons, a hydrogen, a halogen, a hydroxyl, an amino, a nitro, a cyano, an optionally
substituted alkyl, an optionally substituted cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocyclyl, an optionally substituted
arylalkyl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, an optionally substituted alkoxyl, an optionally substituted thioalkoxyl,
an optionally substituted aryl, a N-monosubstituted amino group, or a N,N-disubstituted amino group,

Z1-Z4 are each independently a carbon, an oxygen, a sulfur, or a nitrogen atom,

Z5-Z8 are each independently a carbon, or a nitrogen atom.

US Pat. No. 9,450,786

LOW-COMPLEXITY METHOD FOR ESTIMATING IMPULSE-RADIO UWB WIRELESS CHANNELS

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method for estimating an impulse response h(t) of an impulse-radio ultra-wideband communication channel, comprising:
sub-sampling, by circuitry, a received signal profile r(n) at a frequency less than a Nyquist frequency of the impulse-radio
ultra-wideband communication channel to obtain a subsampled received signal profile y;

identifying, by the circuitry and using an orthogonal-clustering method, a plurality of clusters (?1, ?2 . . . ?c) from column vectors of a sensing matrix ? representing a sub-sampled transmit signal profile g and representing a priori
channel statistics of the impulse-radio ultra-wideband communication channel;

determining, by the circuitry, at least one active cluster having a correlation with the subsampled received signal profile
y that is greater than a correlation of other clusters of the plurality of clusters with the subsampled received signal profile;

determining, by the circuitry, a minimum mean square error (MMSE) estimate of the impulse-radio ultra-wideband communication
channel by Bayesian estimation using the subsampled received signal profile y and using the plurality of clusters to obtain
an optimal channel estimate â by using the at least one active cluster before the other clusters of the plurality of clusters,
wherein

the subsampled received signal profile y is the sub-sampled transmit signal profile g modified by the impulse response h(t)
and noise of the impulse-radio ultra-wideband communication channel, and

the impulse response
of the impulse-radio ultra-wideband communication channel is expressed as a sum of a total number of L resolvable multipath
components, each lthpath including a real valued fading gain al, and a delay ?l, and ?(.) is a Dirac delta function; and
outputting, by the circuitry, the optimal channel estimate â, thereby to exploit a structure of the sensing matrix ? to more
efficiently estimate the impulse response h(t) of the impulse-radio ultra-wideband communication channel.

US Pat. No. 9,188,502

PIPELINE LEAK DETECTOR

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A pipeline leak detector, comprising:
a toroidal leading ring;
a toroidal trailing ring, the trailing ring being rigidly connected to the leading ring;
a plurality of flexible sensing elements axially extending between the leading ring and the trailing ring, each of the detector
elements having:

a thin, flat piezoelectric film core sheet;
thin, flat first and second electrically conductive layers sandwiching the core sheet therebetween; and
thin, flat first and second electrically insulating sheets disposed respectively about the first and second electrically conductive
layers, each of the conductive layers being captured between a corresponding one of the insulating sheets and the core sheet.

US Pat. No. 9,135,908

DUAL RESONATOR CHAMBER WITH VARIABLE VOLUME

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A method of controlling a resonator chamber with variable volume, comprising the steps of:
(a) recording a resonant frequency f to be attenuated in non-transitory computer readable memory;
(b) randomly selecting a dimensionless area ratio ? in the range of 0.1 A2 being a cross-sectional area of a neck of a resonator chamber and A1 being a cross-sectional area of a primary chamber
of the resonator chamber;
(c) establishing a first length parameter L1 associated with a height of the primary chamber having a maximum value L1max
given by

where c is the speed of sound and L1=L1max??, where ? is an optimization parameter;
(d) establishing a second length parameter L2 associated with a height of the neck of the resonator chamber, wherein
where k is the wavenumber given by k=2?/c;
(e) maximizing a transmission loss TL of the resonator chamber in terms of the optimization parameter ? to determine a maximized
parameter ?max which maximizes the transmission loss, wherein


(f) calculating the first length parameter L1 as L1=L1max??max;
(g) calculating the second length parameter

(h) if TL is not maximized for all possible values of ? in the range 0.1 the height of the primary chamber H1 as H1=L1 and calculating the height of the neck of the resonator chamber H2 as H2=L2??1??2,
where ?2 is a design parameter given by ?2=0.48?{square root over (A2)}(1?1.25?{square root over (?)}) and ?1 is a design
parameter given by

and
(i) transmitting a control signal to adjust the height of the primary chamber to H1 and the height of the neck of the resonator
chamber to H2.

US Pat. No. 9,082,307

CIRCULAR ANTENNA ARRAY FOR VEHICULAR DIRECTION FINDING

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

6. A system for locating vehicles, comprising;
a key fob having:
a key fob housing;
a microwave radio transmitter disposed in the housing for selectively generating an RF beacon signal;
a microwave radio receiver disposed in the housing; and
an LED panel mounted on the housing, the LED panel being connected to the microwave radio receiver;
a circular antenna array adapted for installation on a vehicle, the circular antenna array having;
a circular disc constructed from dielectric material, the disc having a concentric hole of a given diameter, and top and bottom
sides;

a concentric, circular ground plane formed on the bottom side of said circular disc; and
a plurality of directional microstrip antennas radially spaced at equal angles around the hole, the plurality of antennas
having elements disposed on the top and bottom sides of the disc, the plurality of antenna elements being microstrip elements
of conductive material, wherein each said directional microstrip antenna comprises:

a top leg extending radially from the concentric hole formed through the circular disc and being mounted on the top side thereof;
a top arm extending from a distal end of the top leg;
a bottom neck extending radially from the concentric, circular ground plane and being mounted on the bottom side of the circular
disc; and

a bottom arm extending from a distal end of the bottom neck;
a circuit for determining which of the antennas received the beacon signal from the key fob with the strongest strength, and
for transmitting a response signal to the key fob receiver in the direction of the beacon signal from the antenna receiving
the beacon signal with the strongest strength, the circuit including:

an electronic rotating switch connected to the antennas, the rotating switch selectively activating each of the antennas one
at a time;

a front end circuit connected to the rotating switch, the front end circuit having an amplifier and an analog-to-digital converter
for amplifying and conditioning the beacon signal received the antennas for processing;

a demodulator circuit connected to the front end circuit for converting the received beacon signal from a carrier frequency
of 2.45 GHz to a basic intermediate frequency (IF) range;

a digital signal processor circuit connected to the demodulator circuit, the digital signal processor circuit having a time
delay circuit for estimating arrival time of the received beacon signal and a direction of arrival circuit for estimating
direction of the received beacon signal;

wherein reception of the response signal from the circular antenna array activates the LED panel to assist a user in determining
user proximity to the vehicle being located.

US Pat. No. 9,811,722

MULTI-CAMERA SPATIAL SIGN LANGUAGE RECOGNITION METHOD AND SYSTEM

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A method for sign language recognition comprising:
detecting and tracking at least one hand and at least one finger of the at least one hand from at least two different locations
in a room by at least two different sensor circuitry;

generating a 3-dimensional (3D) interaction space based on the at least two different Leap Motion Controllers (LMC) each comprising
a plurality of IR cameras and a plurality of IR LEDs;

acquiring 3D data related to the at least one detected and tracked hand and the at least one detected and tracked finger;
extracting 3D features associated with the at least one detected and tracked hand and the at least one detected and tracked
finger;

analyzing, by processing circuitry a relevance metric related to the extracted 3D features;
classifying, by an analysis classifier circuitry, at least one pattern from each of the at least two different locations based
on a fusion of data outputs by the classifying circuitry;

generating a recognized Arabic alphabet sign language letter based on the fusion of the data outputs;
generating a matrix of recognized sign language letters; and
outputting at least one word based on the generated matrix of recognized sign language letters.

US Pat. No. 9,505,635

WASTEWATER FILTRATION SYSTEM AND METHOD

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

2. A wastewater filtration method, comprising the step of bringing wastewater containing rhodamine B and a pH of the wastewater
of about 2 into contact with Ruba Al-Khali Saudi sand for a period of time sufficient for the rhodamine B to be adsorbed by
the sand, wherein the Ruba Al-Khali sand has a composition of at least:
2.54-44.30% SiO2
0.55-5.52% Al2O3,
0.48-2.95% Fe2O3,
20.25-43.43% CaO,
2.01-15.38% MgO,
0.08-0.95% K2O,
0.04-2.39% Na2O,
0.07-30.30% SO4, and
0.00-0.59% Cl.

US Pat. No. 9,499,188

LUGGAGE SLIDERS

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A combination luggage slider and article of wheeled luggage, comprising:
an article of wheeled luggage having a bottom surface and a pair of wheels, each of the wheels having a periphery extending
below an underside sidewall of the luggage;

a pivot adapted for permanent installation to the article of wheeled luggage; and
a rigid, elongate skid pivotally disposed about the pivot, the skid having a lower surface having a low coefficient of friction,
wherein the pivot is located on the underside sidewall of the article of wheeled luggage, adjacent the bottom surface thereof,
such that the rigid, elongate skid may be selectively pivoted to extend along a direction parallel to a lowermost edge of
the underside sidewall into a stowed position, and may be selectively pivoted to extend along a direction perpendicular to
the lowermost edge of the underside sidewall in an operational position, the rigid, elongate skid rotating about the pivot
in a plane parallel to a plane defined by the underside sidewall.

US Pat. No. 9,347,430

ADAPTIVE PITCH CONTROL SYSTEM FOR WIND GENERATORS

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. An adaptive pitch control system for a wind generator, the wind generator being a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)
having blade pitch servos for adjusting blade pitch of the DFIG wind generator, the system comprising:
means for determining a theoretically maximum reference power of the wind generator based on rotor speed and a plurality of
given pitch angles;

a proportional-integral (PI) pitch controller having an input, a proportional gain constant KP, an integral gain constant KI, and an output adapted for connection to the blade pitch servos, the PI pitch controller output including means for sending
pitch angle commands ? to the blade pitch servos to control pitch angle of the blades;

a back propagation neural network (BPNN) having a plurality of signal paths and a corresponding plurality of weights applied
to said plurality of signal paths, said back propagation neural network being in communication with said PI controller;

means for feeding back system states of the wind generator to said PI pitch controller;
means for tuning said plurality of weights based on said feedback of said system states, wherein said means for tuning said
plurality of weights comprises means for generating a training dataset applied to said BPNN;

means for determining actual power output of the wind generator;
means for determining the difference between the actual power output of the wind generator and the theoretically maximum reference
power, the difference resulting in an error power signal;

means for applying said error power signal to the PI pitch controller input;
means for additively combining the Kp multiplied by the error power signal with the KI multiplied by a time integral of the error power signal, the additive combination means forming the PT pitch controller output
of the pitch angle commands ?;

means for adaptively adjusting the Kp and the KI based on the error power signal;

means for generating a random number having values of said wind speeds between a first predetermined wind speed and a second
predetermined wind speed to define a randomly generated wind speed;

means for saving the randomly generated wind speed in an input vector;
means for picking a wind speed from the input vector;
means for generating said Kp and said KI for the input vector wind speed;

means for saving said Kp and said KI in an output vector; and

means for collecting a predetermined number of values in the input vector and the output vector, the input vector and the
output vector forming said neural network training dataset used to train said back propagation neural network.

US Pat. No. 9,346,938

POLY(ACRYLIC ACID)-GLYCEROL BLENDS

King Fahd University of P...

1. An article comprising:
a poly(acrylic acid) polymer blend consisting of poly(acrylic acid and glycerol, wherein the glycerol crosslinks the poly(acrylic
acid) by forming hydrogen bonds and no covalent bonds to join two adjacent poly(acrylic acid) chains, and wherein the poly(acrylic
acid) polymer blend is prepared by a process comprising:

mixing the poly(acrylic acid) in an organic solvent to form a poly(acrylic acid) solution;
adding and mixing glycerol to the poly(acrylic acid) solution at a glycerol/poly(acrylic acid) weight ratio of 1:4 to 3:4
to form a blended polymer solution; and

pouring the blended polymer solution into a casting mold and drying to form the poly(acrylic acid) polymer blend;
wherein the article is a disposable hygiene product.

US Pat. No. 9,299,922

CONTINUOUS-LEVEL MEMRISTOR EMULATOR

King Fahd University of P...

1. A continuous-level memristor emulator circuit, comprising:
a first current feedback operational amplifier (CFOA) having y, x, z and w terminals;
a second CFOA having y, x, z and w terminals, the w terminal of the second CFOA being connected to they terminal of the first
CFOA;

an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) having a negative input, a positive input, and an output, the OTA negative
input being connected to the w terminal of the first CFOA, the OTA output being connected to they terminal of the second CFOA;

a resistor R3 connected between ground and they terminal of the second CFOA;

a resistor R2 connected between ground and a control input of the OTA;

a resistor R1 connected between ground and the z terminal of the second CFOA;

a capacitor C1 connected between ground and the z terminal of the first CFOA; and

a capacitor C2 connected between ground and the x terminal of the second CFOA.

US Pat. No. 9,564,874

ULTRA-LOW FREQUENCY BIO-MEDICAL ACTIVE-RC LOWPASS FILTERS

King Fahd University of P...

1. A R-0.5R ladder active-RC low pass filter with reduced pole frequencies and chip area for a high linear and low power bio-medical
applications, comprising:
a first inverting input terminal;
a second non-inverting input terminal;
a first inverting output terminal;
a second non-inverting output terminal;
first and second operational amplifiers connected together in a Tow-Thomas biquadratic filter circuit;
a first R-0.5R ladder circuit connected between the first non-inverting input terminal of the low-pass filter and a third
inverting input terminal of the first operational amplifier;

a second R-0.5R ladder circuit connected between the second inverting input terminal of the low-pass filter and a fourth non-inverting
input terminal of first operational amplifier;

a third R-0.5R ladder circuit connected in parallel with a first capacitor, wherein the third R-0.5R ladder circuit is connected
between the third inverting input terminal and a third non-inverting output terminal of the first operational amplifier;

a fourth R-0.5R ladder circuit connected in parallel with a second capacitor, wherein the fourth R-0.5R ladder is connected
between the fourth non-inverting input terminal and a fourth inverting output terminal of the first operational amplifier;

a fifth R-0.5R ladder circuit connected between the third non-inverting output terminal of the first operational amplifier
and a fifth inverting input terminal of a second operational amplifier;

a sixth R-0.5R ladder circuit connected between the fourth inverting output terminal of the first operational amplifier and
a sixth non-inverting input terminal of the second operational amplifier;

a seventh R-0.5R ladder circuit connected between the third inverting input terminal of the first operational amplifier and
a sixth inverting output terminal of the second operational amplifier, wherein the sixth inverting output terminal is connected
to the second inverting output terminal of the low-pass filter; and

an eighth R-0.5R ladder circuit connected between the fourth non-inverting input terminal of the first and a fifth non-inverting
input terminal of the second operational amplifier, wherein the fifth non-inverting output terminal is connected to the first
non-inverting output terminal of the low-pass filter.

US Pat. No. 9,507,970

CMOS CURRENT-MODE SQUARING CIRCUIT

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A CMOS current-mode squaring circuit, comprising:
a translinear loop circuit accepting an input current, |Ix|;

a rectifier circuit in operable communication with the translinear loop circuit, the rectifier circuit providing the input
current |Ix| to the translinear loop circuit;

a current mirror circuit connected to the translinear loop circuit; and
a current subtracting circuit connected to the current mirror circuit, the current subtracting circuit having an output characterized
by:

where IB is the bias current of the translinear loop circuit.

US Pat. No. 9,488,394

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR CONTINUOUSLY OPERATING A SOLAR-POWERED AIR CONDITIONER

King Fahd University of P...

1. An air-cooled, single-effect, air-conditioning system comprising:
a first set of solar collectors configured to obtain energy to facilitate release of refrigerant from an absorbent-refrigerant
solution in a refrigerant generator wherein the first set of solar collectors are directly connected to the refrigerant generator
via a first flow path including a first set of isolation valves configured to isolate the first set of solar collectors from
the refrigerant generator;

an energy storage tank configured to store thermal energy for nighttime operations of the air conditioning system wherein
the energy storage tank is directly connected to the refrigerant generator via a second flow path in parallel with the first
flow path including a second set of isolation valves configured to isolate the energy storage tank from the refrigerant generator;
and

a second set of solar collectors configured to obtain the thermal energy stored in the energy storage tank wherein the second
set of solar collectors are directly connected to the energy storage tank via a third flow path including a third set of isolation
valves configured to isolate the second set of solar collectors from the energy storage tank.

US Pat. No. 9,481,590

POLY(ZWITTERION-ALT-SULFUR DIOXIDE) COPOLYMER

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A poly(zwitterion-alt-sulfur dioxide) copolymer having the structural formula:

or a salt thereof, wherein “n” is the number of repeating units.
US Pat. No. 9,480,978

SURFACE BONDED RH-BIS(DIARYLPHOSPHINE) ON MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLES AS A RECYCLABLE CATALYST FOR HYDROFORMYLATION OF OLEFINS

King Fahd University of P...

1. A functionalized nanomaterial, comprising;
an iron oxide nanoparticle core, and
a bis(diarylphosphinomethyl) dopamine ligand
wherein the bis(diarylphosphinomethyl) dopamine ligand is anchored to a surface of the iron oxide nanoparticle core by phenolic
hydroxide groups to form a bis(diarylphosphinomethyl) dopamine ligand layer, and

wherein the bisphosphine groups of the bis(diarylphosphinomethyl) dopamine ligand chelate a catalytic metal.

US Pat. No. 9,403,104

MULTI-STAGE BUBBLE-COLUMN VAPOR MIXTURE CONDENSER

Massachusetts Institute T...

1. A multi-stage bubble-column vapor mixture condenser, comprising:
at least a first stage and a second stage, wherein each stage includes:
a carrier-gas inlet;
a carrier-gas outlet; and
a condenser chamber containing a condensing bath in fluid communication with the carrier-gas inlet and the carrier-gas outlet,
wherein the condensing bath has a substantially constant temperature from top-to-bottom of the bath, wherein the carrier-gas
inlet is positioned to bubble carrier gas from the carrier-gas inlet up through the condensing bath, overcoming a hydrostatic
head of the condensing bath, wherein the carrier-gas outlet is positioned with an opening for carrier-gas extraction above
the condensing bath, wherein the first-stage carrier-gas outlet is in fluid communication with the carrier-gas inlet of the
second stage to facilitate flow of the carrier gas through the condensing bath in the condenser chamber of the first stage
and then through the condensing bath in the condenser chamber of the second stage;

a source of coolant; and
a conduit passing from the coolant source through the condenser chamber of each stage of the bubble-column vapor mixture condenser,
wherein the coolant source and the conduit are configured to direct coolant through the conduit in counterflow to carrier-gas
flow through the condenser to recover energy from condensation.

US Pat. No. 9,382,392

EFFECT OF MODIFIED GRAPHENE AND MICROWAVE IRRADIATION ON THE MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF P(S-CO-MMA)/GRAPHENE NANOCOMPOSITES

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method for forming a blend comprising graphene nanoparticles and a poly(styrene-co-methylmethacrylate), comprising:
modifying graphene with nitric acid to form graphene nanoparticles surface modified with one or more oxygen functionalities;
melt blending the poly(styrene-co-methylmethacrylate) and the modified graphene nanoparticles to obtain a nanocomposite; and
exposing the nanocomposite to microwave irradiation to form defects in the graphene nanoparticles,
wherein the poly(styrene-co-methylmethacrylate) includes a polystyrene to methyl methacrylate content ratio of 50-90/20-40
by weight.

US Pat. No. 9,194,589

CONTROL KNOB FOR STOVES AND OVENS

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A control knob assembly for stoves and ovens, comprising:
a stationary circular planar member;
heat indicia ranging from OFF to a maximum heat setting disposed on the stationary circular planar member;
a heat control mechanism disposed inside a circumference of the stationary circular planar member; and
a time control mechanism disposed inside the circumference of the stationary circular planar member, the time control mechanism
being linked to the heat control mechanism;

wherein a cooking heat element is energized at a heat set by the heat control mechanism only for a time duration set by the
time control mechanism, after which the cooking heat element is de-energized, returning the heat control mechanism to an off
position.

US Pat. No. 9,156,763

PHOTOCATALYST FOR SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS: A GREEN SYNTHESIS APPROACH

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method for the selective oxidation of alcohols into their corresponding carbonyl compounds comprising:
irradiating an aqueous mixture comprising an alcohol and a catalyst, which is Ag3PO4, to oxidize the alcohol and form a carbonyl compound, wherein:

the irradiating is carried out with a combination of UV and visible light.

US Pat. No. 9,148,849

COVERAGE, CONNECTIVITY AND COMMUNICATION (C3) PROTOCOL METHOD FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A computer-implemented coverage, connectivity and communication (C3) protocol method for a wireless sensor network (WSN),
comprising the steps of:
establishing a plurality of nodes, including a sink node;
measuring received signal strength indication (RSSI) of the nodes relative to the sink node and relative to each other;
designating ring membership status to the nodes based on predetermined RSSI thresholds determined from the measuring step,
the ring membership status designating step assigning each node to one of a plurality of rings extending from a first node
ring to an Nth node ring based on the relative RSSI measurements;

determining required distances between said rings using said predetermined RSSI thresholds;
determining an optimal width u of said rings by using a communication range Rc of said nodes and by computing said optimal width u as being 40% of the communication range Rc;

setting said communication range Rc=?{square root over (3)}RS where RS is a sensing range of said sensors;

forming a ring inside of said cluster based on said communication range Rc;

increasing the probability of a node to be selected as a clusterhead in odd-number rings during a given round of network formation
and alternatively increasing the probability of said node to be selected as a clusterhead in even-numbered rings during a
subsequent round of network formation, wherein neighboring nodes in a lower numbered ring join a cluster associated with said
clusterhead; and

establishing wireless communication links between neighboring nodes and gateways of the WSN.

US Pat. No. 9,102,542

METHOD OF PRODUCING ACTIVATED CARBON FROM FUEL OIL

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A method of producing activated carbon from fuel oil, comprising the steps of:
mixing the fuel oil with an activating chemical at room temperature to produce activated fuel oil, wherein the activating
chemical comprises an acid mixture comprising 65 vol.% sulfuric acid, 20 vol.% phosphoric acid and 15 vol.% nitric acid; and

carbonizing the activated fuel oil to produce activated carbon.

US Pat. No. 9,068,873

MULTIPHASE FLOW MEASUREMENT SYSTEM AND METHOD

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A multiphase flow measurement system, comprising:
a first video head assembly having at least one video head disposed at a first location along a conduit;
a second video head assembly having at least one video head disposed at a second location along the conduit, the first location
and the second location being separated by a known distance, the first location and the second location having a transparent
portion allowing the first video head assembly and the second video head assembly to video record contents of the conduit
flowing through the first and the second locations;

a first adjustable illumination source illuminating contents of the conduit flowing through the first location;
a second adjustable illumination source illuminating contents of the conduit flowing through the second location;
a processor operably connected to the first and second video head assemblies, the processor receiving and processing video
frames from the first and second video head assemblies, respectively, the processor having:

means for isolating image objects related to phases of a fluid flowing in the conduit captured in image frames taken by the
video head assemblies;

means for separating image objects by phase into object classes;
means for cross-correlating the object classes from the first location with the corresponding object classes from the second
location;

means for detecting delay time between the object classes in the image frames;
means for calculating flow speed of the object classes through the conduit based on the delay time;
means for calculating an aggregate speed of each of the phases based on the object classes associated with the phases; and
means for determining the flow speed and the flow type of the phases by aggregation of the aggregate speeds of the phases.

US Pat. No. 9,366,596

PIPELINE LEAK DETECTOR

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A pipeline leak detector, comprising:
a rotationally stationary drive component;
a rotary driveshaft extending axially from the drive component;
a leak detector component disposed upon the driveshaft, the leak detector component being driven in axial rotation relative
to the drive component;

a leak sensor support wheel disposed circumferentially about the leak detector component; and
a single leak sensor array disposed radially outward from the leak sensor support wheel, the leak sensor array having a plurality
of pressure differential sensing leak sensors thereon, each of the leak sensors communicating electrically with the leak detector
component, wherein each of the pressure differential sensing leak sensors comprises:

a radially disposed tube having an attachment end and an outer end;
a frustoconical mouth extending from the outer end of the tube;
a flexible valve disposed at the juncture of the frustoconical mouth and the outer end of the tube, the valve being movable
between an open position and a closed position in response to pressure changes; and

a strain gauge disposed upon the flexible valve, the strain gauge communicating electronically with the leak detector component.

US Pat. No. 9,337,781

AUGMENTED TWIN NONLINEAR TWO-BOX MODELING AND PREDISTORTION METHOD FOR POWER AMPLIFIERS AND TRANSMITTERS

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A method of predistorting signals using an augmented reverse twin nonlinear two-box model to compensate for a nonlinear
power amplifier, comprising the steps of:
accepting an input signal, xin_Poly_R, the input signal being a digitized signal;

predistorting the input signal, xin_Poly_R, in accordance with a memory polynomial function including cross terms to produce a first predistorted input signal, xout_Poly_R, the memory polynomial function being characterized by the relation:

wherein xin_Poly_R and xout_Poly_R are input and output waveforms of the output polynomial, respectively, N1, N2, and N3 are the nonlinearity orders of aligned, lagging and leading polynomial function terms, respectively, M1, M2, and M3 represent memory depths of the aligned, lagging and leading polynomial functions, respectively, L2, and L3 represent lagging and leading cross-terms orders, respectively, aij, bijl, and cijl are the coefficients of the aligned, lagging and leading polynomial functions, respectively; and
subsequently predistorting the first predistorted input signal, xout_Poly_R, using values in a look-up table of values computed from a memoryless polynomial to produce a second predistorted input signal,
xout_LUT_R, for input to the nonlinear power amplifier.

US Pat. No. 9,289,696

WATER DESALINATION SYSTEM USING GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

King Fahd University of P...

1. A water desalination system using geothermal energy, comprising:
a sloped evaporator tray housing formed from a functionally graded material for one-way thermal transfer therethrough;
an plurality of successively stepped evaporator trays disposed within the housing, the evaporator trays ranging from an uppermost
tray to a lowermost tray, each successively lower tray receiving overflow from the tray immediately above;

a lower glass panel disposed above the evaporator trays and housing, the glass panel having a slope substantially parallel
to the slope of the housing;

a closed geothermal heat exchange system extending from the housing to a subterranean depth and back to the housing; and
a heat exchange fluid circulating within the heat exchange system.

US Pat. No. 9,197,457

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR ADAPTIVE EQUALISATION USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION FOR UPLINK SC-FDMA

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method for channel equalization in a communication system comprising:
receiving, by a receiver, a signal;
demapping, using processing circuitry, the signal;
calculating, using the processing circuitry, filter coefficients of an adaptive equalizer in a frequency domain using particle
swarm optimization (PSO); and

filtering the signal using the computed filter coefficients,
wherein the adaptive equalizer is a linear equalizer,
wherein computing the filter coefficients of the linear equalizer using PSO comprises minimizing a vector of cost function,
wherein the vector of cost function is expressed as

Ek=Dk?Xk
where Dk=diag(FM(xk)), FM is a DFT matrix, and Xk is the output of the equalizer.

US Pat. No. 9,144,921

METHOD FOR WIRE SAW EXCAVATION

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A method for wire saw excavation, comprising the steps of:
(a) providing a kit of apparatus for performing wire saw excavation, the kit including:
i) a boring machine;
ii) a robotic excavator;
iii) an apparatus for making a base cut;
iv) an apparatus for making a peripheral cut;
v) an apparatus for removing a core from a substrate;
vi) an apparatus for sectioning the core into a smaller block; and
vii) an apparatus for extracting the smaller block from the core;
(b) marking a geometric shape of the core of material to be cut from the substrate;
(c) forming a single downhole along a periphery of the geometric shape of the core to be cut from the substrate to a predetermined
depth with the boring machine, the downhole having a distal end at the predetermined depth;

(d) forming a base passage at the distal end of the downhole defining the geometric shape of the core to be cut from the substrate
with the boring machine and the robotic excavator, the robotic excavator at least initiating the base passage;

(e) defining a surface saw path on the substrate;
(f) cutting across the base passage at the predetermined depth with the apparatus for making the base cut, the base cut defining
a bottom surface of the core;

(g) cutting along the periphery of the marked geometric shape of the core between the surface saw path and the base passage
with the apparatus for making the peripheral cut, the peripheral cut being between the base cut and a ground surface;

(h) sectioning the core into the smaller block with the apparatus for sectioning the core into the smaller block;
(i) extracting the smaller block from the core with the apparatus for extracting the smaller block from the core; and
(j) extracting the cut core from the substrate with the apparatus for removing the core from the substrate.

US Pat. No. 9,051,197

CROSS-LINKED POLYAMINOMETHYLDIPHOSPHONATE FOR THE REMOVAL OF METAL IONS FROM WASTEWATER

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A cross-linked polyaminodiphosphonate for the removal of metal ions from wastewater, comprising a compound having the formula:

US Pat. No. 9,809,472

STACKED HYDROMAGNETIC DESALINATION CELL

King Fahd University of P...

1. A hydromagnetic desalination cell, comprising:
a plurality of stacked hollow rectangular flow conduits with each conduit having a conduit inlet on a first end and a conduit
outlet on a second end, wherein the hollow rectangular flow conduits are made of a non-magnetic and non-conductive material;

a first rectangular magnet and a second rectangular magnet each having a north pole face and a south pole face opposite of
each other, wherein the first and second rectangular magnets are disposed along a longitudinal axis and on opposite sides
of the stacked rectangular flow conduits such that the north pole face of the first rectangular magnet contacts a first face
of the stacked rectangular flow conduits and the south pole face of the second rectangular magnet contacts a second face of
the stack rectangular flow conduits, and the first and the second rectangular magnets provide a magnetic field that extends
between the magnets;

a first opening and a second opening on opposite walls of the stacked rectangular flow conduits extending between the first
and second rectangular magnets;

a first chamber fluidly connected to the first opening of the stacked rectangular flow conduits;
a second chamber fluidly connected to the second opening of the stacked rectangular flow conduits;
a positive electrode connected to the first chamber; and
a negative electrode connected to the second chamber;
wherein the first and second rectangular magnets generate a magnetic field that causes cations to flow from the first opening
of the stacked rectangular flow conduits to the first chamber, and anions to flow from the second opening of the sacked rectangular
flow conduits it to the second chamber.

US Pat. No. 9,503,098

CURRENT-FEEDBACK OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER-BASED SINUSOIDAL OSCILLATOR

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A current-feedback operational amplifier-based sinusoidal oscillator, comprising:
a first current feedback operational amplifier (CFOA) having inverting, non-inverting, W- and Z-terminals;
a second CFOA having inverting, non-inverting, W- and Z-terminals, the Z-terminal of the second CFOA being connected to the
non-inverting terminal of the first CFOA;

a parallel RC circuit (R3, C3);

a first resistor (R1) connected in series with the parallel RC circuit (R3, C3) at a junction, the first resistor (R1) being connected to the inverting terminal of the first CFOA and the parallel RC circuit (R3, C3) being connected to the non-inverting terminal of the second CFOA, the junction between the first resistor (R1) and the parallel RC circuit (R3, C3) being connected to ground;

a third resistor (R2) connected to the inverting terminal of the first CFOA and the non-inverting terminal of the second CFOA, the third resistor
(R2) being in parallel with the series connection of the first resistor (R1 and the parallel RC circuit (R3, C3);

a fourth resistor (R4) connected to the inverting terminal of the second CFOA;

a fifth resistor (R5) connected to the non-inverting terminal of the first CFOA and connected in series with the fourth resistor (R4) at a second junction; and

a second capacitor (C6) connected between the second junction and ground;

wherein the sinusoidal oscillator circuit has a high impedance oscillatory output taken at the Z-terminal of the first CFOA
and two low impedance oscillatory outputs taken at the W-terminal of the first CFOA and the W-terminal of the second CFOA,
respectively.

US Pat. No. 9,406,054

VIRTUAL ACCOUNT BASED NEW DIGITAL CASH PROTOCOLS

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method for electronic cash issuing for a digital cash protocol to protect user privacy having two pairs of user keys,
one pair linked to the real identity of the user including a master public key (mPKU) and a master secret key (mSKU), and
a second pair linked to the pseudonym identity of the user including a pseudonym public key (pPKU) and a pseudonym secret
key (pSKU), the method comprising:
signing pPKU and an amount of digital cash (x) using pSKU;
encrypting [pPKU,x]pSKU using a public key (PKI) of a digital cash issuer;

signing a user real identification UID, the amount of money to be withdrawn x, and PKI([pPKU,x]pSKU) using mSKU

encrypting [PKI([pPKU,x]pSKU),UID,x]mSKU using the public key of the bank (PKB);
sending PKB([PKI([pPKU,x]pSKU),UID,x]mSKU) to the bank via a communications path;
decrypting PKB([PKI([pPKU,x]pSKU),UID,x]mSKU) using a bank secret key (SKB);

verifying the validity of the signature for authentication with mPKU,
determining if the signature is valid;
withdrawing the amount of money x from the user account;
signing PKI([pPKU,x]pSKU and the withdrawn amount of money x using SKB;

encrypting [PKI([pPKU,x]pSKU),x]SKB using PKI; and

sending PKI([PKI([pPKU,x]pSKU),x]SKB) to the digital cash issuer via a communications path.

US Pat. No. 9,359,458

POLYZWITTERIONIC ACID ANTISCALANT COMPOUND

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A method of making a polyzwitterionic antiscalant compound, comprising the steps of:
cyclopolymerizing N-carboethoxymethyl-3-(N,N-diallylamino)propanesulfonate monomer in aqueous solution using tert-butyl hydroperoxide
as an initiator to form a polyzwitterion having the structural formula:


 wherein the step of cyclopolymerizing comprises the steps of:
preparing a solution of the monomer in 1M NaCl aqueous solution;
adding the tert-butyl hydroperoxide initiator to the solution;
stirring the solution in a closed vessel at a temperature of 90° C. for a period of 48 hours;
cooling the solution;
dialyzing the cooled solution against deionized water for a period of 48 hours;
removing unreacted monomer and NaCl from the solution; and
freeze-drying the solution to produce the polyzwitterion; and
performing acid hydrolysis on ester groups of the polyzwitterion to form a polyzwitterionic acid having the structural formula:

 wherein the step of performing acid hydrolysis comprises the steps of:
preparing a solution of the polyzwitterion in HCl;
hydrolyzing the solution in a closed vessel at a temperature of 53° C. for a period of 48 hours;
cooling the hydrolyzed solution to room temperature;
dialyzing the cooled, hydrolyzed solution against deionized water for a period of 24 hours; and
freeze-drying the dialyzed solution to produce the polyzwitterionic acid.

US Pat. No. 9,338,411

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR REMOTE UTILITY METER READING

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A system for remote utility meter reading, comprising:
a camera for generating an analog optical image signal representative of a utility meter having a visual identifier associated
with the utility meter;

an analog-to-digital converter in communication with the camera for receiving the analog optical image signal and generating
an associated digital image signal;

a transmitter connected to the camera for transmitting both the analog optical image signal and the digital image signal to
a remote host, wherein both the analog optical image signal and the digital image signal are used for verification of location
and power consumption associated with the utility meter;

a track positioned adjacent the utility meter;
a camera mount slidably mounted on the track, wherein said camera is mounted on said camera mount; and
means for mechanically translating said camera and said camera mount with respect to said track for generating the analog
optical image signal representative of a selected one of a plurality of utility meters.

US Pat. No. 9,274,036

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CHARACTERIZING COMPOSITE MATERIALS USING AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method for predicting an impact resistance of a composite material, the method comprising:
designing an artificial neural network including a plurality of neurons;
employing, by a processor, a sensitivity analysis to identify a parameter and quantitatively describe a degree of influence
of the parameter on the impact resistance of the composite material;

training, by the processor, the artificial neural network to predict the impact resistance by adjusting an output of the plurality
of neurons according to the parameter and the degree of influence identified in the employed sensitivity analysis;

inputting data of the composite material into the artificial neural network; and
utilizing the artificial neural network to predict the impact resistance of the composite material.

US Pat. No. 9,074,559

ENGINE EMISSIONS CONTROL SYSTEM USING ION TRANSPORT MEMBRANE

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. In an internal combustion engine, an engine emissions control system using an ion transport membrane, the system comprising:
an ion transport membrane unit having a housing defining an air intake channel and an exhaust gas recirculation channel, the
unit having an ion transport membrane dividing the air intake channel from the exhaust gas recirculation channel, the membrane
being selectively permeable to oxygen to permit oxygen from ambient air to pass through the membrane from the air intake channel
to the exhaust gas recirculation channel, said ion transport membrane unit being impermeable to nitrogen, water and carbon
dioxide;

a first conduit extending from the exhaust gas recirculation channel and adapted for connection to an intake of the engine;
a second conduit extending from the exhaust gas recirculation channel and adapted for connection to an exhaust of the engine;
and

means for disposing of accumulated excess exhaust gases in the conduits;
whereby, oxygen extracted from the ambient air passing through the air intake channel is selectively transported through the
membrane to enrich exhaust gases passing through the exhaust gas recirculation channel to provide oxygen-enriched exhaust
gases to the intake of the engine.

US Pat. No. 9,075,846

METHOD FOR RETRIEVAL OF ARABIC HISTORICAL MANUSCRIPTS

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A computer-implemented method for retrieval of Arabic historical manuscripts, comprising the steps of:
entering Arabic historical manuscript images into a computer for processing;
extracting circular polar grid features from the Arabic historical manuscript images stored in the computer, wherein the step
of extracting circular polar grid features comprises:

building a circular polar grid from a multiline-axis including an intersection of a 0° line, a 45° line, a 90° line and a
135° line;

overlaying concentric circles centered about the intersection point of said multiline-axis, the concentric circles having
radial values of r, 2r, 3r, . . . nr; and

centering said circular polar grid at a centroid of an image term to be indexed;
constructing a Latent Semantic Index based on the extracted circular polar grid features, the Latent Semantic Index having
a reduced dimension m×n Term-by-Document matrix obtained from a Singular Value Decomposition of a higher dimensional Term-by-Document
matrix constructed by the computer from the extracted circular polar grid features, wherein m rows represent the features
and n columns represent the images;

accepting a user query against the stored Arabic historical manuscript images, the computer forming the user query as a query
vector derived from features extraction of a query image supplied by the user;

performing query matching based on comparison between the query vector and the Term-by-Document matrix;
weighing each term of said Term-by-Document matrix by a value representing an occurrence frequency of a feature of said term
in said document, wherein the step of weighing each term of said Term-by-Document matrix comprises:

picking a comprehensive training set of said document for each said feature;
calculating a mean ?f and a standard deviation ?f of the features f's value across the training set; and

for each image in the collection, defining an occurrence count Ofj of feature f according to the relation:


where valfj is the value of the feature f in image j; and

displaying Arabic historical document images returned by the query matching process performed by the computer, the returned
document images being ranked by similarity to the user query according to a predetermined distance measurement between the
query vector and the Term-by-Document matrix, wherein the computer determines a plurality of image features defined by a count
of black image pixels found in regions of intersection between said multilines and said concentric circles.

US Pat. No. 9,482,593

SELECTABLE MULTI-AXIS SHAKER TABLE

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A selectable multi-axis shaker table, comprising:
a rigid base, wherein a pair of laterally spaced, parallel slots are formed in an upper surface of said rigid base;
an intermediate plate movably disposed above the base;
an upper platform movably disposed above the intermediate plate;
a carriage disposed between the base and the intermediate plate, the carriage supporting the intermediate plate above the
base, wherein the carriage comprises a plurality of wheels which are selectively moveable within the pair of laterally spaced,
parallel slots formed in the upper surface of said rigid base such that the intermediate plate may be selectively moved linearly
in a longitudinal direction with respect to said rigid base; and

a linkage disposed between the intermediate plate and the upper platform, the linkage supporting the upper platform above
the intermediate plate, wherein the linkage comprises a plurality of arms pivotally connected to the intermediate plate and
to the upper platform such that the upper platform may be selectively moved in a lateral direction which is orthogonal to
the longitudinal direction.

US Pat. No. 9,384,560

CONTAMINATION LEVEL ESTIMATION METHOD FOR HIGH VOLTAGE INSULATORS

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A contamination level estimation method for high voltage insulators, comprising the steps of:
building an image data set of a collection of naturally polluted insulator samples;
estimating equivalent salt deposit density (ESDD) levels of the collection, the ESDD estimations being used for training a
Multi-layer Feed-forward Neural Network (MFNN);

forming a grayscale model from an RGB representation of each of the images;
a first stage segmentation step comprised of segmenting the grayscale insulator images to exclude an insulator cap from the
image using matrix manipulation;

a second stage edge based segmentation step comprised of segmenting the grayscale insulator images to exclude the background;
transforming the RGB representation of each of the images to an HSV representation of each of the images;
extracting statistical and algebraic features from the HSV representation of each of the images, wherein the HSV segmented
images are used to assess the contamination level that would lead to a flashover;

using the statistical and algebraic features and the ESDD estimates to train the (MFNN) to correlate levels of contamination
captured in insulator images with ESDD levels, the contamination levels being light pollution level, medium pollution level,
heavy pollution level and very heavy pollution level categories;

classifying live insulator images using the MFNN; and
outputting to a user the classified high voltage insulator pollution levels as a corollary to equivalent salt deposit density
(ESDD).

US Pat. No. 9,297,595

HEAT EXCHANGER FLOW BALANCING SYSTEM

King Fahd University of P...

12. A heat exchanger flow balancing system, comprising:
a first plenum having a first end and a second end opposite the first end, wherein the first plenum extends between the first
and second ends thereof along a first direction;

a first transfer pipe communicating with the first plenum, wherein the first transfer pipe extends along a second direction
orthogonal to the first direction;

a second plenum spaced apart from the first plenum, the second plenum having a first end and a second end opposite the first
end, wherein the second plenum extends between the first and second ends thereof along the first direction;

a second transfer pipe communicating with the second plenum, wherein the second transfer pipe extends along the second direction;
a plurality of tubes extending between the first plenum and the second plenum, each of the tubes being of equal diameter to
one another, the first plenum communicating with the second plenum by the plurality of tubes extending therebetween, wherein
each said tube extends along a third direction orthogonal to the first and second directions; and

a nozzle disposed at a juncture of each of the tubes with the first plenum, where smallest diameter nozzles are located at
a juncture nearest the first transfer pipe and at each juncture farthest from the first transfer pipe, where diameters of
the nozzles of the remaining junctures of the remaining transfer pipes decreases from the nozzle at the juncture nearest first
transfer pipe to each of the junctures farthest from the first transfer pipe.

US Pat. No. 9,120,033

MULTI-STAGE BUBBLE COLUMN HUMIDIFIER

Massachusetts Institute o...

1. A method for humidification of a vaporizable component from a feed liquid into a carrier gas, the method comprising:
flowing the feed liquid including the vaporizable component into a second-stage humidifier chamber of a multi-stage humidifier
to form a second-stage humidifier bath at a second humidification temperature, wherein the multi-stage humidifier is an integral
structure, with the stages separated only by a sparger plate;

flowing a first remnant of the feed liquid from the second-stage humidifier chamber into a first-stage humidifier chamber
of the multi-stage humidifier to form a first-stage humidifier bath at a first humidification temperature, wherein the first
humidification temperature is lower than the second humidification temperature; wherein the first- and second stage humidifier
baths each have a width, measured perpendicular to the flow of the carrier gas through the bath, and a height, measured parallel
to the flow of the carrier gas;

removing a second remnant of the feed liquid from the first-stage humidifier chamber;
injecting the carrier gas into the first-stage humidifier bath in the first-stage chamber and bubbling the carrier gas through
the feed liquid in the first-stage humidifier bath, where the carrier gas collects the vaporizable component in vapor form
from the first remnant of the feed liquid to partially humidify the carrier gas with the vaporizable component; wherein the
feed liquid remains a continuous and majority phase in the first-stage humidifier bath as the carrier gas is bubbled through
the first-stage humidifier bath, and wherein the width of the first-stage humidifier bath with the carrier gas bubbling through
it is at least twice as great as it height;

directing the partially humidified carrier gas directly from the first-stage humidifier chamber through the sparger plate
into the second-stage humidifier bath in the second-stage humidifier chamber without exiting the integral structure and bubbling
the carrier gas through the second-stage humidifier bath, where the carrier gas collects more of the vaporizable component
in vapor form from the feed liquid to further humidify the carrier gas with the vaporizable component, wherein the feed liquid
remains a continuous and majority phase in the second-stage humidifier bath, and wherein the width of the second-stage humidifier
bath with the carrier gas bubbling through it is at least twice as great as its height;

separating the first-stage humidifier bath from the second-stage humidifier bath by a top gas region in the first-stage humidifier
chamber filled with the partially humidified carrier gas from the bubbling in the first-stage humidifier bath before the partially
humidified carrier gas passes through the sparger plate; and

removing the humidified carrier gas from the second-stage humidifier chamber.

US Pat. No. 9,306,508

RECONFIGURABLE INTERGRATOR/DIFFERENTIATOR CIRCUIT BASED ON CURRENT FOLLOWER

King Fahd University of P...

1. A reconfigurable integrator/differentiator circuit, comprising:
a first input terminal input of the circuit;
a first output terminal output of the circuit;
a first current follower amplifier having a second input terminal of a first current follower, a second inverting output terminal,
and a third non-inverting output terminal, wherein the second inverting output terminal provides feed back to the first input
terminal and the third non-inverting output terminal is directly connected to the first output terminal;

a second current follower amplifier having a third input terminal of the second current follower, a fourth inverting output
terminal, and a fifth non-inverting output terminal, wherein the fourth inverting output terminal provides feed back to the
first input terminal and the fifth non-inverting output terminal is directly connected to the first output terminal;

a single resistor being connected between the first input terminal and the second input terminal of the first current follower
amplifier; and

a single capacitor being connected between the first input terminal and the third input terminal of the second current follower
amplifier.

US Pat. No. 9,165,297

VIRTUAL ACCOUNT AND TOKEN-BASED DIGITAL CASH PROTOCOLS

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A virtual account and token-based digital cash protocol method implementing digital cash for a user having multiple pairs
of user keys, the multiple pairs including at least a first pair of keys linked to the real identity of the user, the first
pair including a master public key and a master secret key, and the multiple pairs including at least a second pair of keys
linked to a pseudonym identity of the user, the second pair including a pseudonym public key and a pseudonym secret key, the
multiple pairs of user keys facilitating exchange of information among a network of servers and a user's computing device,
the network of servers including a first digital cash issuer server, a certificate authority server, a bank server, and a
shop server, the method comprising the steps of:
the user, via the user's computing device, transmitting a request for a license to the certificate authority server;
the certificate authority server issuing the license and transmitting the license to the user's computing device;
the user's computing device forwarding the license to the digital cash issuer server along with a request for registration
with the digital cash issuer;

upon successful registration with the digital cash issuer, the user computing device transmitting a request for a digital
check to user's bank server for digital spending, the request including a blind digital signature;

the user's bank server processing the request for digital check by verifying valid registration of the user with the digital
cash issuer via two-way communication with the digital cash issuer's server, the user's bank utilizing the user's master key
pair and the user's blind digital signature to authenticate the request;

the user's bank server transmitting a blinded check to the user's computing device upon successful validation of the user
registration with the digital cash issuer;

the user's computing device forwarding the blinded check to the digital cash issuer server, the user's computing device transmitting
the at least one pair of pseudonym keys associated with the pseudonym identity of the user to maintain privacy of the user;

the digital cash issuer server, responsive to receiving the blinded check from the user's computing device, transmitting digital
cash to the user, the digital cash being a primary virtual account having at least one digital cash token;

the user, via the user's computing device, transmitting a request for payment to the shop's server;
the shop's server forwarding the user's request for payment to the digital cash issuer;
the digital cash issuer's server decrementing the user's virtual account and spending the user's digital cash token therefrom;
the digital cash issuer's server causing an account of the shop maintained by the shop's bank server to increment;
wherein, the request for payment transaction initiated by the user is honored utilizing the digital cash as payment to the
shop from the user;

the network of servers and said user's computing device utilizing public-key encryption cryptography for all communication
among said network of servers and said user's computing device;

the digital cash issuer server performing verification that no double usage of said digital check is being attempted;
terminating, unblinding, and reporting said transaction if said verification step of claim is unsuccessful;
wherein said step of transmitting the request for a license further comprises the steps of:
said user's computing device generating said pseudonym key pair;
said user's computing device signing said pseudonym public key and a real identification of said user; and
transmitting to said certificate of authority said signed pseudonym public key and said real identification of said user as
a request for a certified pseudonym public key;

wherein said step of the digital cash issuer server transmitting digital cash to the user further comprises the steps of:
generating and storing on the digital cash issuer server a random number associated with said transaction;
signing a digital cash amount x, the random number Rd, and an issuer identity IID; and
transmitting the digital cash amount x, the random number Rd, and the issuer identity IID to said user's computing device
for cumulative storage of said digital cash therein;

wherein said step of the user's computing device transmitting a request for payment further comprises the step of utilizing
said certified pseudonym public key to maintain privacy in said transaction;

the digital cash issuer server transmitting a digital cash token to said user's computing device, the token exceeding the
value of goods being purchased from the shop by the user;

the digital cash issuer server crediting the difference between the value of the digital cash token and the value of the goods
being purchased to said user's virtual account under the pseudonym of the user;

the user's computing device forwarding said license to a second digital cash issuer server along with a request for registration
with the second digital cash issuer;

the second digital cash issuer opening a second virtual account credited with a second amount of digital cash tokens according
to a second blinded check forwarded by said user's computing device to the second digital cash issuer server;

transferring digital cash tokens between said primary virtual account and said second virtual account;
wherein said at least a second pair of keys linked to a pseudonym identity of the user comprises a third pair of keys linked
to a pseudonym identity of the user;

the user's computing device sending to said second digital cash issuer an action request with amount to be transferred, the
action request being formulated and authenticated using the third pair of keys;

the second cash issuer forwarding said action request with amount to be transferred to said first digital cash issuer;
the first digital cash issuer authenticating said action request with amount to be transferred, and then sending said authenticated
action request with amount to be transferred back to said second digital cash issuer; and

the second digital cash issuer, upon verification of said first digital cash issuer authentication, incrementing said user's
virtual account by the amount of digital cash specified in said action request and causing said new cumulative amount of digital
cash to be stored in said user's computing device;

wherein said user's computing device comprises a combination of a fixed user's computing device and a mobile user's computing
device, the mobile user's computing device initiating user requested digital cash transactions, the fixed user's computing
device mediating communication between the mobile user's computing device and said network of servers.

US Pat. No. 9,145,299

STEAM METHANE REFORMING REACTOR OF SHELL AND TUBE TYPE WITH CYLINDRICAL SLOTS

King Fahd University of P...

1. A steam methane reformer, comprising:
a tube and shell reactor having an outer shell and a reactor core inside the outer shell, wherein the outer shell and an exterior
wall of the reactor core define a shell side annulus configured to heat the reactor core present on the tube side of the tube
and shell reactor;

a plurality of hot fluid inlets connected to the shell of the tube and shell reactor to permit fluid passage of a heating
medium into the shell side annulus;

no more than one hot air outlet connected to the shell of the tube and shell reactor to permit fluid passage of the heating
medium out of the shell side annulus;

wherein the reactor core comprises a feed inlet, a porous zone containing a solid catalyst and a product outlet, wherein a
reaction takes place in the porous zone;

wherein the product outlet is connected to the reactor core and is configured to pass products of the reaction out of the
reactor core;

wherein the plurality of hot fluid inlets are fixed at a spiraled rotational pattern along the shell side of the tube and
shell reactor;

wherein the hot air outlet is positioned away from the feed inlet and is adjacent to the product outlet; and
wherein the hot air outlet lies parallel to the product outlet and is position along the axis of fluid flow.

US Pat. No. 10,138,404

HEAT TRANSFER MEDIUM CONTAINING MULTI-WALL CARBON NANOTUBES

King Fahd University of P...

1. A water-based nanofluid heat transfer medium comprising:a base fluid comprising an aqueous fluid;
a solid nanocomposite particle comprising a multi-wall carbon nanotube having a 10 to 20 nm outer diameter and a length from 10 to 30 ?m and a metal oxide nanoparticle selected from the group consisting of Fe2O3, Al2O3, and CuO wherein the metal oxide nanoparticle is affixed to the outer surface of the carbon nanotube;
wherein the carbon nanotube is not functionalized with reactive functional groups;
wherein the solid nanocomposite particle is homogeneously dispersed in the base fluid; and
wherein the nanofluid does not contain a surfactant.
US Pat. No. 9,518,308

HIGH-DENSITY AND HIGH-STRENGTH WC-BASED CEMENTED CARBIDE

King Fahd University of P...

1. A spark plasma sintered tungsten carbide-cobalt cemented carbide, comprising:
tungsten carbide particles having an average particle size of no greater than 20 nm,
a cobalt metal matrix,
a vanadium carbide as a first grain growth inhibitor, and
a chromium carbide as a second grain growth inhibitor,
wherein the cobalt metal matrix is present in the cemented carbide in an amount of from 9 to 12% by weight based on the total
weight of the tungsten carbide and the cobalt, and the total amount of the vanadium carbide and the chromium carbide is from
0.2 to 0.8 wt % based on the total weight of the tungsten carbide and the cobalt, and

wherein the tungsten carbide particles are dispersed in the cobalt metal matrix in disaggregated form.

US Pat. No. 9,470,086

INFLOW PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP FOR HORIZONTAL WELLS PRODUCING OIL FROM MULTI-LAYERED HETEROGENEOUS SOLUTION GAS-DRIVE RESERVOIRS

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method for assessing an inflow performance relationship (IPR) for a horizontal well in heterogeneous solution gas drive
reservoirs, comprising:
inputting permeability values of a heterogeneous reservoir;
determining spatial variability of the heterogeneous reservoir based on the permeability values, wherein determining the spatial
variability of the heterogeneous reservoir includes

inputting a value for a number of pairs of permeability values at a predetermined distance apart,
determining a summation including logarithms of the permeability values, and
dividing the summation by a value equal to twice the number of pairs of permeability values;
measuring a bottom hole pressure of the horizontal well; and
determining a production rate of the horizontal well based on a bottom hole pressure and the determined spatial variability.

US Pat. No. 9,461,597

WEIGHTED MEMORY POLYNOMIAL METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR POWER AMPLIFIERS PREDISTORTION

King Fahd University of P...

1. A system for linearizing a power amplifier through digital predistortion, comprising:
processing circuitry configured to:
obtain an input signal sample that depends on an input signal to the power amplifier;
predisort the input signal sample using a static weight function to generate a first intermediate predistorted signal sample;
predistort the same input signal sample using a dynamic weight function to generate a second intermediate predistorted signal
sample;

combine additively the first intermediate predistorted signal sample and the second intermediate predistorted signal sample
together to obtain an output signal sample of the predistorter,

wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to determine the output signal sample of the predistorter using:

wherein yWMP (n) and x(n) are output and input baseband complex samples, respectively, ?i and ?ij are coefficients of the static and dynamic functions of the weighted memory polynomial predistorter, respectively, M is the
memory depth of the model, NS and ND are nonlinearity order of the static and dynamic parts of the predistorter, respectively, and wS(|x(n)|,i) and wD(|x(n)|,i,j) are the weight functions applied on the static and dynamic terms of the predistorter, respectively.

US Pat. No. 9,298,952

CMOS LOGARITHMIC CURRENT GENERATOR AND METHOD FOR GENERATING A LOGARITHMIC CURRENT

King Fahd University of P...

1. A complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) logarithmic current generator circuit, comprising:
a first metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) and a second MOSFET matched with each other and configured
in the (CMOS) logarithmic current generator circuit as a first MOSFET pair biased in a weak inversion region to provide a
first function generator core cell;

a third MOSFET and a fourth MOSFET matched with each other and configured in the (CMOS) logarithmic current generator circuit
as a second MOSFET pair biased in the weak inversion region to provide a second function generator core cell;

a fifth MOSFET connected to a source voltage and the first function generator core cell, the fifth MOSFET contributing to
an output current Iout of the CMOS logarithmic current generator circuit;

a sixth MOSFET connected to the source voltage and the second function generator core cell, the sixth MOSFET contributing
to the output current Iout of the CMOS logarithmic current generator circuit;

a seventh MOSFET in operable communication with the first function generator core cell, the seventh MOSFET providing an input
current IX to the CMOS logarithmic current generator circuit to produce a corresponding first voltage VA; and

an eighth MOSFET in operable communication with the second function generator core cell, the eighth MOSFET providing an input
current IY to the CMOS logarithmic current generator circuit to produce a corresponding second voltage VB,

wherein the first function generator core cell and the second function generator core cell are each biased by a biasing current
Ib that varies based upon the first voltage VA and the second voltage VB applied to the first function generator core cell and the second function generator core cell, the first voltage VA being determined by the input current IX and the second voltage VB being determined by the input current IY, wherein the weak inversion region is defined by a current, I2, where


 where n is a weak inversion slope factor and UT=KbT/q, where Kb is Boltzmann's constant, q is electron charge, and T represents temperature, and

wherein the CMOS logarithmic current generator circuit provides the output current Iout based upon a current mode logarithmic function defined by the relation:


US Pat. No. 10,115,006

MOVING PART IMAGE PARTITIONING FOR WALKING GAIT IDENTIFICATION

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method of identifying a human subject by gait recognition, the method comprising:obtaining a number of image frames of the human subject showing the human subject's walking style and storing the image frames in a memory,
receiving by circuitry a gait sequence, the gait sequence including a predetermined number of the image frames of the human subject;
processing by circuitry, the received gait sequence to generate a gait-energy-image (GEI), wherein the GEI is a sum of walking silhouette images divided by the number of the image frames;
computing by circuitry, a plurality of Gabor filter responses by convoluting the generated GEI with a bank of Gabor filters, the filter bank including a first predetermined number of unique scales, and a second predetermined number of unique orientations,
partitioning by circuitry, each Gabor filter response of the computed plurality of Gabor filter responses, into a predetermined number of overlapping regions, wherein the partitioning separates the walking silhouette images into moving parts of the human subject selected from the group consisting of a head, an arms, a leg and a torso;
extracting by circuitry, a predetermined number of statistical features only from the overlapping regions, the extracted statistical features corresponding to texture content of the subject; and
identifying by circuitry, the human subject based on a classification of the extracted statistical features.

US Pat. No. 9,851,325

CATHODIZED GOLD NANOPARTICLE GRAPHITE PENCIL ELECTRODE AND METHOD FOR GLUCOSE DETECTION

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A method for forming a cathodized gold nanoparticle graphite electrode, comprising the steps of:
placing a solid graphite member into a tube filled with a prepared solution of L-ascorbic acid (AA) and Gold(III) chloride;
placing the filled tube and solid graphite member combination into a water bath preheated to approximately 75° centigrade
(C.);

retaining said filled tube and solid graphite member combination in said water bath for approximately 15 minutes to form a
gold nanoparticle graphite electrode (AuNP-GPE);

removing said solid graphite member from said tube, said solid graphite member being transformed into said AuNP-GPE;
washing said AuNP-GPE in deionized water;
drying said AuNP-GPE at approximately 60° C. for approximately 5 minutes prior to use; and
cathodizing said AuNP-GPE by placing said AuNP-GPE in a basic solution and applying ?1.0 volts to said AuNP-GPE for approximately
30 seconds.

US Pat. No. 9,689,245

QUANTIFICATION OF SKIN IN HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OF LOW AND TIGHT RESERVOIRS

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method of operating a computer system to perform a reservoir simulation, the method comprising:
generating a first model of a portion of earth containing the reservoir, the first model including a predetermined number
of grid-blocks, and being specified by a first set of parameters including at least a permeability of each grid block;

computing, for a first predetermined number of iterations, a first productivity index of the first model, the first productivity
index at each iteration being computed based on a flow rate of a fluid obtained by changing the permeability of each grid-block
by a predetermined amount;

generating a second model of the reservoir that includes fractures;
computing a second productivity index of the second model by simulating the second model for a second predetermined number
of iterations, each iteration including, changing a value of exactly one parameter of a second set of parameters by a predetermined
amount;

calculating a skin factor based on the computed first productivity index, and the computed second productivity index; and
computing, by regression analysis, a correlation of the computed skin factor (S), with the second set of parameters, wherein
the second set of parameters includes a matrix permeability (Km), a fracture permeability (Kf), a fracture half length (Xf), and a fracture width (W), and wherein the correlation is computed as:

S=?2.7798+0.1183Km?0.0003Xf?4.4211W?0.0477*Ln(Kf)?0.0634*Ln(Cfd),
where Cfd is a dimensionless quantity;
selecting a candidate well for stimulation; and
stimulating the selected candidate well based on the computed correlation.

US Pat. No. 9,650,296

NANOCLAY AS AN ADDITIVE FOR HIGH PRESSURE AND HIGH TEMPERATURE WELL CEMENTING

King Fahd University of P...

1. A dry cement blend composition, comprising:
hydraulic cement and an organically modified nanoclay in an amount of from 1% to less than 4% by weight of the hydraulic cement,
wherein the organically modified nanoclay is a montmorillonite nanoclay formed from chlorite clay mineral having octahedral
sheets, where Fe or Mg is a central cation, wherein the organically modified nanoclay is modified by a quaternary organo-ammonium
salt and comprises nanolayers of less than 1 nm in thickness and about 2-10 microns in width or length.

US Pat. No. 9,572,822

TREATMENT OF CERVICAL CANCER WITH GOLD(I) COMPLEXES

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method for treating cancer or a tumor comprising administering, in a cytotoxically effective amount, a gold complex of
formula:
Au{P(t-Bu)3}(S2CN(R)2)

where R is CH3 or C2H5,

to a subject in need of treatment for a human cervical cancer,
wherein the gold complex is administered in the form of a solution.

US Pat. No. 10,040,996

CLAY SOIL SITE PREPARATION FOR BUILDING STRUCTURES

King Fahd University of P...

1. A method of preparing a site having an expansive clayey soil comprising at least one expansive clay mineral to build a structure, the proportion of the weight of the at least one expansive clay mineral relative to the total weight of the expansive clayey soil being PECM, the expansive clayey soil having a swell potential Ssoil at or above a pre-set limit T*, a first water content, and a cation exchange capacity (CEC) expressed in meq/100 g dry expansive clayey soil, the method comprising:(a) assessing the site to build the structure by calculating a first amount of a swelling reduction agent to be incorporated into the expansive clayey soil to form a first swelling reduction agent comprising gypsum incorporated expansive clayey soil with a reduced swell potential S1i(soil) that is no greater than the pre-set limit T* with a nano-level constitutive modeling based on the first water content as an initial water content (IWC) and the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the expansive clayey soil,
wherein the first swelling reduction agent incorporated expansive clayey soil comprises a first swelling reduction agent incorporated at least one expansive clay mineral having a swell potential represented by S1i(ECM),
wherein the swelling reduction agent is at least one selected from the group consisting of calcite, gypsum, potassium chloride, a composition comprising exchangeable K+, a composition comprising exchangeable Ca2+, and a composition comprising exchangeable Mg2+,
wherein the incorporation of the first amount of the swelling reduction agent produces a modified total cohesive energy density (TCEDm) of the first swelling reduction agent incorporated at least one expansive clay mineral calculated according to Equation (6):
TCEDm=0.0625(IWC)3?3.575(IWC)2+10.5(IWC)+2830+7100(C/0.1)+5050(G/0.2)+3010(KCl/0.1)+Ca(500)+Mg(300)+K(100)  (6)
where TCEDm=modified TCED, C=Proportion of calcite weight relative to the total weight of the first swelling reduction agent incorporated expansive clayey soil×PECM, G=Proportion of gypsum weight relative to the total weight of the first swelling reduction agent incorporated expansive clayey soil×PECM, KCl Proportion of potassium chloride weight relative to the total weight of the first swelling reduction agent incorporated expansive clayey soil×PECM, Ca=Proportion of the number of calcium exchangeable cation relative to the total number of exchangeable cations in the first swelling reduction agent incorporated expansive clayey soil, Mg=Proportion of the number of magnesium exchangeable cation relative to the total number of exchangeable cations in the first swelling reduction agent incorporated expansive clayey soil, K=Proportion of the number of potassium exchangeable cation relative to the total number of exchangeable cations in the first swelling reduction agent incorporated expansive clayey soil, IWC=initial water content,
wherein the TCEDm of the first swelling reduction agent incorporated at least one expansive, clay mineral results in S1i(ECM) calculated according to Equations (2), (3), and (5):
IDD={?2E-15(TCEDm)4+5E-11(TCEDm)3?5E-07(TCEDm)2+0.0023(TCEDm)?1.5378}*1.85*(ABS(CEC?90)/90)  (2)
where IDD is initial dry density of the first swelling reduction agent incorporated at least one expansive clay mineral,
FDD=?2E-22(TCEDm)6+5E-18(TCEDm)5?6E-14(TCEDm)4+3E-10(TCEDm)3?7E-07(TCEDm)2+0.0005(TCEDm)+0.3747  (3)
where FDD is final dry density of the first swelling reduction agent incorporated at least one expansive clay mineral when the first swelling reduction agent incorporated at least one expansive clay mineral reaches the swell potential S1i(ECM),
S1i(ECM)(%)=(FDD?IDD)/FDD*100  (5); and
 wherein the reduced swell potential of the first swelling reduction agent incorporated expansive clayey soil S1i(soil) equals S1i(ECM)×PECM, and then
(b) incorporating the first amount of the swelling reduction agent into the expansive clayey soil at the site to form the first swelling reduction agent incorporated expansive clayey soil, then
(c) building the structure on the expansive clayey soil at the site.

US Pat. No. 9,863,188

MULTI-MOTOR STEERABLE DRILLING SYSTEM AND METHOD

King Fahd University of P...

1. A directional drilling system comprising:
a drilling head assembly connected to a drilling string,
wherein the drilling head assembly comprises a motor control unit, a log while drilling unit and four or more independently
controlled motors wherein each motor is connected to a respective drill bit assembly, wherein:

a top motor drives a top drill bit assembly;
a bottom motor drives a bottom drill bit assembly;
a left motor drives a left drill bit assembly;
a right motor drives a right drill bit assembly;
wherein all of the drill bit assemblies are coplanar on a front face of the directional drilling assembly;
wherein two of the motors each rotates their respective drill bit assembly clockwise and two of the motors each rotates their
respective drill bit assembly counterclockwise to control the roll angle of the drilling head assembly in a bore hole;

the drilling string attached to the drilling head assembly and containing an inner pipe to transport a drilling fluid to the
drilling head assembly, and

a drilling head control panel to translate steering commands in the form of an inclination angle, an azimuth angle, a roll
position and a rate of penetration to the motors.

US Pat. No. 9,540,918

SOLAR POWER AND ION TRANSPORT-BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY SYSTEM AND METHOD

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. An enhanced oil recovery system, comprising:
a first compressor unit generating a flow of compressed atmospheric air;
a solar tower having at least one solar collector, the solar tower receiving the flow of compressed atmospheric air from the
first compressor unit and heating the compressed air;

a gas turbine receiving the heated compressed air from the solar tower;
an ion transport membrane unit receiving the heated compressed air from the gas turbine, the ion transport membrane unit having
an ion transport membrane permeable to oxygen for separating oxygen from the heated compressed air, leaving a nitrogen-rich
portion of the air;

means for injecting the separated oxygen into an aged oil well for combustion with a portion of the oil in the well, heat
from the combustion resulting in thermally enhanced oil recovery, the combustion producing carbon dioxide;

a splitter disposed between said gas turbine and said ion transport membrane unit; and
a storage tank connected to the splitter, the splitter splitting the heated compressed air from the gas turbine into a portion
stored in the storage tank for night operations and a portion sent to said ion transport membrane unit for production of oxygen.

US Pat. No. 9,437,096

SLOUCHING MONITORING AND ALERTING SYSTEM

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF P...

1. A slouching monitoring and alerting system, comprising:
a first patch and a second patch, the first patch adapted to be coupled to the second patch, the first patch having a first
tilt sensor configured for sensing tilt of a user's upper back and the second patch having a second tilt sensor configured
for sensing tilt of the user's lower back, the first sensor and the second sensor being configured to determine a degree of
slouch for an occurrence of a slouch and each of the first timer and the second timer configured to measure a corresponding
duration of a corresponding slouch;

at least one connecting member connecting the first patch to the second patch, the at least one connecting member being adapted
to stretch when a movement of a user of the slouching monitoring and alerting system varies from a pre-defined posture to
indicate an occurrence of a slouch;

an adjustment member adapted to selectively adjust a length of the at least one connecting member between the first patch
and the second patch so as to position the first patch and the second patch to correspond to the pre-defined posture of the
user;

an alarm coupled to at least one of the first patch or the second patch, the alarm configured to generate an alert adapted
to notify the user of a movement differing from the pre-defined posture to indicate the occurrence of a corresponding slouch,
the alarm being disposed in a circuit having a normally open switch connected to the connecting member so that stretching
the connecting member closes the circuit and activates the alarm;

at least one controller/processor adapted to receive information from the first sensor and the second sensor and adapted to
communicate information related to an occurrence of at least one slouch with a communication device;

means for selectively determining by the at least one controller/processor of the slouching monitoring and alerting system
if the degree of slouch corresponds to a “Little” slouch associated with movement of the upper back detected by the first
sensor or if the degree of slouch corresponds to an “Acute” slouch associated with movement of the upper back detected by
the first sensor and movement of the lower back detected by the second sensor, based on information received by the at least
one controller/processor from the first sensor and the second sensor; and

means for transmitting information related to at least one occurrence of a slouch to a communication device.
US Pat. No. 9,382,160

WASTE CRUMB-RUBBER AUGMENTED MASONRY BLOCKS

King Fahd University of P...

1. A sand-free masonry block, consisting of:
a homogeneously dispersed mixture of cement, water, and crumb rubber.