US Pat. No. 9,839,163

MODULAR IT RACK COOLING ASSEMBLIES AND METHODS FOR ASSEMBLING SAME

Inertech IP LLC, Danbury...

1. A modular server rack cooling structure for cooling at least one server in at least one rack of a data center, the modular
server rack cooling structure comprising:
a first supporting member including a first plurality of beam members, wherein the first plurality of beam members are directly
coupled to each other to form a substantially U-shaped configuration;

a second supporting member including a second plurality of beam members, wherein the second plurality of beam members are
directly coupled to each other to form a substantially U-shaped configuration, wherein the first and second supporting members
are disposed in a diametrically opposed orientation;

a third supporting member including a third plurality of beam members, wherein the third plurality of beam members are directly
coupled to an upper end of each of the first and second plurality of beam members;

a first heat exchanger directly coupled to the first plurality of beam members of the first supporting member such that the
first heat exchanger is positioned in heat transfer relationship with a first plurality of servers, wherein the first heat
exchanger is not attached to the at least one rack;

a second heat exchanger coupled to the second plurality of beam members of the second supporting member such that the second
heat exchanger is positioned in heat transfer relationship with a second plurality of servers, wherein the second heat exchanger
is not attached to the at least one rack;

a third heat exchanger coupled to the third plurality of beam members of the third supporting member, the third heat exchanger
positioned at a right angle with respect to the first heat exchanger and the second heat exchanger; and

a fourth heat exchanger coupled to the third plurality of beam members of the third supporting member and extending upward
from the third plurality of beam members at an acute angle with respect to the third plurality of beam members.

US Pat. No. 9,119,326

SYSTEM AND METHODS FOR COOLING ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

Inertech IP LLC, Danbury...

1. A cooling system for cooling an inverter of a variable frequency drive, the cooling system comprising:
a first fluid circuit configured to cool electronic equipment using a first fluid flowing through the first fluid circuit;
a second fluid circuit configured to free cool a second fluid flowing through the second fluid circuit, the second fluid circuit
further configured to cool the first fluid using the free-cooled second fluid; and

a third fluid circuit configured to mechanically cool the second fluid using a third fluid flowing through the third fluid
circuit as a function of a difference between a wet bulb temperature of atmospheric air and a first predetermined wet bulb
temperature when the wet bulb temperature exceeds the first predetermined wet bulb temperature, the third fluid circuit including
at least one compressor that compresses the third fluid, the at least one compressor being driven by a motor coupled to the
variable frequency drive,

wherein at least a portion of the first fluid flowing through the first fluid circuit is directed to cool the inverter of
the variable frequency drive.

US Pat. No. 9,648,784

SYSTEMS AND ASSEMBLIES FOR COOLING SERVER RACKS

INERTECH IP LLC, Danbury...

1. A cooling assembly for cooling server racks comprising:
a first server rack enclosure sub-assembly comprising:
one or more first panel members defining a volume for receiving one or more first server racks having a front portion and
a rear portion, at least one of the one or more first panel members being a rear panel member; and

at least one frame member defining an opening for receiving the rear portion of the one or more first server racks to form
a first hot space between the rear panel member and the combination of the at least one frame member and the rear portion
of the one or more first server racks; and

a first cooling sub-assembly disposed in thermal communication with the first hot space to enable cooling of at least one
first server supported in the at least one first server rack, the first cooling sub-assembly comprising a chassis configured
to receive at least one first heat exchange member for exchanging heat between a first fluid flowing through the at least
one first heat exchange member and a second fluid flowing through the first hot space that has been heated by the at least
one first server,

wherein the at least one frame member includes a selectively permeable material, and wherein the selectively permeable material
includes a brush assembly.

US Pat. No. 9,282,684

COOLING SYSTEMS FOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

INERTECH IP LLC, Danbury...

1. A cooling system for electrical equipment, comprising:
a first cooling circuit including a primary cooling device;
a heat exchange member in thermal communication with the electrical equipment and coupled to the first cooling circuit; and
a second cooling circuit coupled to the heat exchange member, the second cooling circuit including a secondary cooling device
that cools fluid flowing through the second cooling circuit,

wherein the first cooling circuit includes two supply lines and two return lines in a reverse-return configuration.

US Pat. No. 9,882,422

ENERGY EFFICIENT ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR MODULAR DATA CENTERS AND MODULAR DATA PODS

Inertech IP LLC, Danbury...

1. A system for supplying power to a data center including a plurality of server rack assemblies and a plurality of cooling
distribution units (CDUs) in thermal communication with the plurality of server rack assemblies, the system comprising:
an electric generator;
an AC UPS electrically coupled between the electric generator and the plurality of CDUs; and
a plurality of DC UPSs, each of which is electrically coupled between the electric generator and a respective one of the plurality
of server rack assemblies.

US Pat. No. 9,772,123

COOLING SYSTEMS AND METHODS INCORPORATING A PLURAL IN-SERIES PUMPED LIQUID REFRIGERANT TRIM EVAPORATOR CYCLE

Inertech IP LLC, Danbury...

1. A cooling system comprising:
a first evaporator in thermal communication with an air intake flow to a heat load;
a first liquid refrigerant distribution unit in thermal communication with the first evaporator and a first fluid free-cooled
by a fluid cooler;

a second evaporator disposed in series with the first evaporator in the air intake flow and in thermal communication with
the air intake flow to the heat load; and

a second liquid refrigerant distribution unit in thermal communication with the second evaporator and the first fluid free-cooled
by the fluid cooler,

wherein the first liquid refrigerant distribution unit includes:
a third evaporator in fluid communication with the fluid cooler and configured to enable transfer of heat from the first fluid
flowing from the fluid cooler to a second fluid;

a first main condenser in fluid communication with the first and third evaporators and configured to enable transfer of heat
from a third fluid flowing from the first evaporator to the first fluid flowing from the third evaporator; and

a first trim condenser in fluid communication with the first main condenser and the third evaporator and configured to enable
transfer of heat from the second fluid flowing from the third evaporator to the first fluid flowing from the first main condenser,
and

wherein a trim compression cycle of the second liquid refrigerant distribution unit is configured to incrementally further
cool the air intake flow through the second evaporator when the temperature of the free-cooled first fluid flowing out of
the second liquid refrigerant distribution unit exceeds a predetermined temperature.

US Pat. No. 9,763,366

SPACE-SAVING HIGH-DENSITY MODULAR DATA SYSTEMS AND ENERGY-EFFICIENT COOLING SYSTEMS

INERTECH IP LLC, Danbury...

11. A method of cooling a plurality of computer racks, comprising:
arranging a plurality of computer racks within a first enclosure having the shape of a polygon to form a first volume between
wall members of the first enclosure and first sides of the plurality of computer racks and to form a second volume between
second sides of the computer racks;

enclosing the second volume to form a third volume coupling the first volume to the second volume;
disposing an auxiliary enclosure adjacent an external surface of at least one wall member of the first enclosure, wherein
the first enclosure is disposed external to the auxiliary enclosure and the auxiliary enclosure is separate and distinct from
the first enclosure;

circulating air between the first volume and the second volume via the third volume and the computer racks; and
cooling the air via a cooling system disposed within the auxiliary enclosure, the cooling system comprising:
a first fluid circuit in thermal communication with the first enclosure;
a second fluid circuit in thermal communication with the first fluid circuit;
a condenser in fluid communication with the first and second fluid circuits;
a third fluid circuit in thermal communication with the second fluid circuit; and
a trim condenser in fluid communication with the second and third fluid circuits.

US Pat. No. 9,985,473

TRANSFORMERLESS MULTI-LEVEL MEDIUM-VOLTAGE UNINTERRUPTABLE POWER SUPPLY (UPS) SYSTEM

Inertech IP LLC, Danbury...

1. A transformerless uninterruptible power supply for an electrical load, comprising:an energy storage device;
a two-stage DC-DC converter including a first stage that generates a first output DC voltage and a second stage that generates a second output DC voltage higher than the first output DC voltage;
a DC-DC converter controller configured to control the first stage with pulse width modulation control signals and configured to control the second stage in a flying mode configuration with fixed duty cycle control signals;
a multi-level inverter configured to output a medium AC voltage; and
a multi-level inverter controller configured to control the multi-level inverter using space vector PWM control signals so as to perform neutral point voltage balancing,
wherein a negative terminal of the energy storage device, a negative terminal of the two-stage DC-DC converter, and a negative terminal of the multi-level inverter are electrically coupled to a common negative bus.

US Pat. No. 9,774,190

MULTI-LEVEL MEDIUM VOLTAGE DATA CENTER STATIC SYNCHRONOUS COMPENSATOR (DCSTATCOM) FOR ACTIVE AND REACTIVE POWER CONTROL OF DATA CENTERS CONNECTED WITH GRID ENERGY STORAGE AND SMART GREEN DISTRIBUTED ENERGY SOURCES

INERTECH IP LLC, Danbury...

1. A transformerless static synchronous compensator for an Information Technology (IT) electrical load, comprising:
an energy storage device;
a two-stage bi-directional direct current (DC)-DC converter;
a DC-DC converter controller configured to control a first stage of the two-stage bi-directional DC-DC converter with pulse
width modulation control signals and configured to control a second stage in a flying mode configuration of the two-stage
bi-directional DC-DC converter with fixed duty cycle control signals;

a multi-level inverter that outputs a medium alternating current (AC) inverter voltage, the multi-level inverter coupled to
the two-stage bi-directional DC-DC converter and a point of common coupling (PCC); and

a controller configured to control a magnitude of the medium AC inverter voltage of the multi-level inverter to generate or
absorb reactive power to achieve a power factor equal to or approximately equal to unity at the PCC, the controller further
configured to charge or discharge the energy storage device by adjusting the angle of the medium AC inverter voltage with
respect to a medium AC grid voltage,

wherein the controller is further configured to control the multi-level inverter using space vector PWM control signals so
as to perform neutral point voltage balancing, and

wherein a negative terminal of the energy storage device, a negative terminal of the two-stage DC-DC converter, and a negative
terminal of the multi-level inverter are electrically coupled to a common negative bus.

US Pat. No. 9,912,251

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR CONTROLLING MULTI-LEVEL DIODE-CLAMPED INVERTERS USING SPACE VECTOR PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (SVPWM)

INERTECH IP LLC, Danbury...

1. A control system for a multi-level inverter, comprising:
a digital logic circuit comprising:
a plurality of digital logic comparators including a first comparator and a second comparator;
a plurality of inverters coupled to respective outputs of a respective plurality of comparators, the plurality of inverters
including a first inverter; and

a plurality of AND gates including an AND gate, the AND gate having a first input and a second input, the first input coupled
to the output of the first inverter and the second input coupled to the output of the second comparator;

a digital up/down counter coupled to first inputs of the plurality of comparators, the up/down counter counting from 0 to
Ts/2 and then from Ts/2 to 0, where Ts is a sampling period; and

a processor and memory configured to:
identify a sector location based on an actual angle of a reference voltage vector;
convert the actual angle into a converted angle located in a first sector;
identify a reference region location based on the magnitude of the reference voltage vector and the converted angle in the
first sector;

select a switching sequence and turn-on time values based on the corresponding actual region location and actual sector;
transmit turn-on time values to second inputs of the plurality of comparators; and
provide the output of the first comparator, the outputs of the plurality of AND gates, and the output of a last inverter of
the plurality of inverters as switching signals, which are transmitted to gate drivers for driving power transistors of the
multi-level inverter.

US Pat. No. 10,448,539

SYSTEMS AND ASSEMBLIES FOR COOLING SERVER RACKS

INERTECH IP LLC, Plano, ...

6. A cooling assembly for cooling server racks comprising: a server rack enclosure sub-assembly comprising:a plurality panel members defining a volume for receiving at most two server racks having a front portion and a rear portion, at least one of the plurality of panel members being a rear panel member and at least two of the plurality of panel members being side panel members: and
at least one frame member defining an opening for receiving the rear portion of the at most two server racks to form a hot space between the rear panel member, the side panel members, and a combination of the at least one frame member and the rear portion of the at most two server racks; and
a cooling sub-assembly disposed over and in thermal communication with the hot space to enable cooling of at least one server supported in the at most two server racks, the cooling sub-assembly comprising a set of one or more structural members configured and disposed to support at least one heat exchange member to enable the thermal communication with the at least one server rack enclosure sub-assembly for the cooling of the at least one server, the at least one heat exchange member configured to exchange heat between a first fluid flowing through the at least one heat exchange member and a second fluid flowing through the hot space that has been heated by the at least one server,
wherein the set of one or more structural members is configured and disposed to support a plurality of fans which are (a) in fluid communication with the at least one heat exchange member to enable the cooling of the at least one server and (b) disposed to draw the second fluid flowing in the hot space through the at least one heat exchange member and over a top of the cooling sub-assembly.

US Pat. No. 10,348,125

DEVICES AND METHODS FOR RELIABLE POWER SUPPLY FOR ELECTRONIC DEVICES

INERTECH IP LLC, Plano, ...

1. A system, comprising:a medium voltage uninterruptible power supply (UPS) associated with a first voltage range and configured to be electrically and directly connected to a power grid, the medium voltage UPS configured to transition between a first configuration, in which electric power flows between the power grid and a load, and a second configuration, in which a flow of electric power between the power grid and the load is interrupted;
a first switching circuit connected to the medium voltage UPS and configured to switch an electrical connection between the medium voltage UPS and the power grid;
a transformer connected to the first switching circuit and configured to step down electric power having a voltage within the first voltage range to electric power having a voltage within a second voltage range;
a power distribution assembly coupled to the transformer and configured to (1) receive a flow of electric power having the voltage within the second voltage range from the transformer and (2) supply a flow of electric power having the voltage within the second voltage range less than the first voltage range to the load;
a power generation device associated with the second voltage range and electrically connected to the power distribution assembly, the power generation device configured to transition from a first mode to a second mode when the medium voltage UPS transitions from the first configuration to the second configuration, the power generation device configured to temporarily supply a flow of electric power to the power distribution assembly in the second mode when the medium voltage UPS is in the second configuration such that the power distribution assembly supplies a substantially uninterrupted flow of electric power having the voltage within the second voltage range to the load; and
a second switching circuit directly connected between the transformer and the power distribution assembly, the second switching circuit configured to switch an electrical connection between the transformer and the power generation device in response to the transition to the second mode.

US Pat. No. 10,389,272

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR CONTROLLING MULTI-LEVEL DIODE-CLAMPED INVERTERS USING SPACE VECTOR PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (SVPWM)

INERTECH IP LLC, Plano, ...

1. A control system for a multi-level inverter, comprising:a processor and a memory configured to:
sample a reference voltage vector and an angle;
identify a sector among a plurality of sectors of the multi-level inverter;
convert the reference voltage vector and the angle into X and Y coordinate point values in the identified sector;
identify a region among a plurality of regions of the multi-level inverter based on the X and Y coordinate point values; and
select a switching sequence and a plurality of turn-on time values based on the identified sector and region; and
a circuit configured to generate pulse width modulation (PWM) switching signals for the plurality of regions of the multi-level inverter and the plurality of sectors of the multi-level inverter based on the turn-on time values and the selected switching sequence.

US Pat. No. 10,345,012

COOLING SYSTEMS AND METHODS INCORPORATING A PLURAL IN-SERIES PUMPED LIQUID REFRIGERANT TRIM EVAPORATOR CYCLE

Inertech IP LLC, Plano, ...

1. A cooling system comprising:a first evaporator in thermal communication with an air intake flow to a heat load;
a first liquid refrigerant distribution unit in fluid communication with the first evaporator and in thermal communication with a cooling water circuit that is free-cooled by an outdoor fluid cooler;
a second evaporator disposed in series with the first evaporator in the air intake flow and in thermal communication with the air intake flow to the heat load;
a second liquid refrigerant distribution unit in fluid communication with the second evaporator and in thermal communication with the cooling water circuit; and
a trim compression circuit in thermal communication with the cooling water circuit and the second liquid refrigerant distribution unit, the trim compression circuit including a compressor, which is activated when wet bulb conditions are insufficient for the outdoor fluid cooler to cool the cooling water so that the cooling water can fully condense the refrigerant in the second liquid refrigerant distribution unit to a liquid,
wherein the first evaporator is disposed upstream from the second evaporator in the air intake flow.

US Pat. No. 10,254,021

COOLING SYSTEMS AND METHODS USING TWO COOLING CIRCUITS

Inertech IP LLC, Plano, ...

1. A cooling system comprising:a first evaporator coil in thermal communication with an air intake flow from a heat load;
a first liquid refrigerant distribution unit coupled to the first evaporator coil to form a first fluid circuit;
a second evaporator coil disposed in series with the first evaporator coil and in thermal communication with an air output flow to the heat load;
a second liquid refrigerant distribution unit coupled to the second evaporator coil to form a second fluid circuit;
a water circuit in thermal communication with the first fluid circuit through a first condenser; and
a first compressor circuit in thermal communication with the second fluid circuit through a second condenser and in thermal communication with the water circuit through a third condenser,
wherein the water circuit has a closed loop in which water flows through the first condenser and the third condenser, and
wherein the first compressor circuit has a closed loop in which refrigerant flows through the second condenser and the third condenser.

US Pat. No. 10,193,380

POWER SOURCES AND SYSTEMS UTILIZING A COMMON ULTRA-CAPACITOR AND BATTERY HYBRID ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM FOR BOTH UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY AND GENERATOR START-UP FUNCTIONS

Inertech IP LLC, Danbury...

1. A power source comprising:a first ultra-capacitor module;
a battery module coupled in parallel with the first ultra-capacitor module;
a two-level inverter coupled to the first ultra-capacitor module and the battery module;
a high frequency DC-DC converter coupled to the first ultra-capacitor module and the battery module;
a fast charger coupled to the first ultra-capacitor module and the battery module, and operable to charge the first ultra-capacitor module and the battery module; and
a second ultra-capacitor module coupled to an output of the high frequency DC-DC converter and configured for starting up a generator.

US Pat. No. 10,488,061

SYSTEM AND METHODS UTILIZING FLUID COOLERS AND CHILLERS TO PERFORM IN-SERIES HEAT REJECTION AND TRIM COOLING

INERTECH IP LLC, Plano, ...

1. A cooling system comprising:a fluid cooler comprising:
wet media defining an outer wall of the fluid cooler and through which air flows;
a free cooling air to fluid heat exchanger disposed adjacent to the wet media within the fluid cooler;
an air to refrigerant heat exchanger disposed adjacent to the free cooling air to fluid heat exchanger within the fluid cooler so that the air flows from the wet media to the air to refrigerant heat exchanger via the free cooling air to fluid heat exchanger;
a water circuit configured to distribute water or a water solution across the wet media and not across the free cooling air to fluid heat exchanger or the air to refrigerant heat exchanger; and
at least one fan configured to facilitate air flow through the fluid cooler;
a chiller comprising:
a first heat transfer fluid circuit in fluid communication with the free cooling air to fluid heat exchanger;
a chiller evaporator in fluid communication with the first heat transfer fluid circuit; and
a refrigerant circuit in fluid communication with the chiller evaporator and in fluid communication with the air to refrigerant heat exchanger, the refrigerant circuit including a compressor;
a first cooling unit comprising:
a first condenser in fluid communication with the chiller evaporator and the free cooling air to fluid heat exchanger; and
a first cooling unit evaporator in fluid communication with the first condenser;
a second cooling unit coupled in series with the first cooling unit, the second cooling unit comprising:
a second condenser in fluid communication with the chiller evaporator; and
a second cooling unit evaporator in fluid communication with the second condenser; and
at least one fan configured to facilitate air flow through the first and second cooling unit evaporators.

US Pat. No. 10,716,241

AIR FLOW DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM FOR DATA CENTER SERVER RACKS

INERTECH IP LLC, Plano, ...

1. An air flow distribution system for cooling server racks comprising:at least one server rack partially defining a hot aisle and a cold aisle;
a first air foil disposed above the at least one server rack;
a second air foil disposed above the first air foil; and
an electrical enclosure receptacle configured to receive at least one cable or a support member for the at least one cable for the at least one server rack,
wherein the first air foil and the second air foil are configured to receive air from the hot aisle, and to form turbulent wake patterns in the cold aisle partially defined by the at least one server rack, and
wherein the first air foil is configured and movably coupled to cover the electrical enclosure receptacle.

US Pat. No. 10,693,312

ENERGY EFFICIENT ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR MODULAR DATA CENTERS AND MODULAR DATA PODS

INERTECH IP LLC, Plano, ...

1. A modular system for supplying DC power to at least one server, comprising:a DC uninterruptible power supply (UPS) including:
an AC-DC converter; and
an energy storage device electrically coupled to an output of the AC-DC converter; and
a high-frequency DC-DC converter directly connected to the output of the AC-DC converter of the DC UPS, the high-frequency DC-DC converter including a plurality of MOSFETs and a zero-voltage switching controller electrically coupled to the plurality of MOSFETs to output a plurality of DC voltages from the high frequency DC-DC converter,
wherein a single power conversion is performed between the energy storage device and the at least one server.

US Pat. No. 10,673,327

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR ISOLATED LOW VOLTAGE ENERGY STORAGE FOR DATA CENTERS

Inertech IP LLC, Plano, ...

1. A power source comprising:a plurality of DC-DC converter circuits coupled together, each DC-DC converter circuit comprising:
a low voltage energy storage device;
a first H-bridge circuit coupled to the low voltage energy storage device;
a high frequency transformer, a primary side of the high frequency transformer being coupled to the first H-bridge circuit;
a second H-bridge circuit coupled to a secondary side of the high frequency transformer;
a first plurality of switching device drivers coupled to the first H-bridge circuit;
a second plurality of switching device drivers coupled to the second H-bridge circuit; and
a controller coupled to the first plurality of switching device drivers and the second plurality of switching device drivers, the controller configured to control the first plurality of switching device drivers and the second plurality of switching device drivers to charge or discharge the low voltage energy storage device, by controlling a phase shift between a first drive signal output from the first plurality of switching device drivers and a second drive signal output from the second plurality of switching device drivers.