US Pat. No. 9,422,492

PROCESS FOR THE CONVERSION OF A FEED CONTAINING BIOMASS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HYDROCARBONS, BY FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. An integrated process for the production of liquid hydrocarbons from a feed containing at least one fraction of biomass
and optionally at least one fraction of another feed, said process comprising:
a) pretreating said biomass fraction and optionally said at least one fraction of another feed comprising at least one of
a1), a2), a4):

a1) drying,
a2) torrefaction,
a4) grinding,
b) optionally combining the resultant pre-treated biomass fraction and said at least one fraction of another feed which may
or may not have been pre-treated,

c) gasifying the resultant effluent obtained from b) and/or of the pre-treated fraction obtained from step a) and optionally
of said at least one fraction of another feed introduced directly into gasification in an entrained flow reactor,

d) conditioning a synthesis gas obtained from c), comprising:
d1) scrubbing with water and fractionating said synthesis gas into at least two effluents: a first portion and a complementary
portion,

d2) eliminating halogenated compounds by passing said first portion through at least one suitable guard bed,
d3) carrying out a water gas shift reaction on the effluent obtained from d2),
d4) catalytic hydrolysis of COS and HCN compounds contained in said complementary portion from d1) into H2S and NH3,

e) recombining at least one fraction of each of the effluents obtained from d3) and d4),
f) scrubbing the recombined effluent obtained from e) with water in order to eliminate impurities,
g) eliminating acid gases CO2 and H2S contained in the effluent from f) with one or more chemical or physical solvents, used alone or as a mixture,

h) finally purifying the synthesis gas obtained from g) over at least one guard bed in order to adsorb traces of impurities,
i) subjecting the effluent obtained from h) to a catalytic Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reaction.

US Pat. No. 9,134,278

METHOD FOR TESTING THE INTEGRITY OF A FLEXIBLE TUBULAR PIPE

Technip FRANCE, (FR) IFP...

1. A method for monitoring a tubular pipe which transports hydrocarbons containing corrosive gases, the pipe comprising:
an internal polymer sheath through which the hydrocarbons pass, the sheath having an inner surface past which the hydrocarbons
pass and having an opposite radially outer surface and having a thickness between the inner and outer surfaces, the sheath
being comprised of a polymer through which the corrosive gases are liable to diffuse radially from the inner surface through
the thickness toward the outer surface thereof;

reactive-compound elements dispersed throughout the thickness of the sheath between the inner and the outer surfaces thereof,
and the reactive-compound elements reacting with the corrosive gases which diffuse through the sheath such that the reactive-compound
elements are operable to neutralize the corrosive gases diffusing through the sheath in a neutralizing reaction;

the incorporated reactive-compound elements and their neutralizing reaction with the corrosive gases and the radial diffusion
of the corrosive gases forming a first layer radially outward from the inner surface of the sheath in the thickness of the
sheath, and the first layer is where the reactive-compound elements have reacted with the corrosive gases, such that the first
layer gradually extends further radially through the thickness of the sheath from the inner surface as reactions occur, and
also forming a second layer of the sheath radially outward of the first layer and toward the outer layer and occupying a residual
thickness of the sheath with the reactive-compound elements dispersed in it, wherein the reactive-compound elements in the
second layer have not reacted with the corrosive layers, such that the second layer extends from in between the first layer
and the second layer and extends radially outwardly through the residual thickness toward the outer surface of the sheath;

the method comprising:
passing the hydrocarbons containing corrosive gases through the internal sheath and in contact with the inner surface thereof
for additionally causing radial diffusion of the corrosive gases outwardly through the thickness of the sheath and for causing
neutralizing of the corrosive gases by the reactive-compound elements in the sheath, and thereby developing an interface layer
in the thickness of the sheath between the first and the second layers;

determining the position of the interface between the first and second layers by application of ultrasound to the internal
sheath and sensing the ultrasound applied to the sheath for measuring in real time the progression of the diffusion of corrosive
gases through the thickness of the internal sheath by determining the position of the interface.

US Pat. No. 9,382,555

POLYPETIDE WITH ENHANCED BETA-GLUCOSIDASE ACTIVITY AT LOW TEMPERATURE

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A variant polypeptide having beta-glucosidase activity and comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1.

US Pat. No. 9,448,209

METHOD FOR TESTING THE INTEGRITY OF A FLEXIBLE TUBULAR PIPE AND DEVICE FOR IMPLEMENTING SAME

TECHNIP FRANCE, (FR) IFP...

1. A monitoring section for being attached to a tubular pipe, wherein the pipe transmits hydrocarbons containing corrosive
gases;
the monitoring section comprising, from a radial interior to an exterior of the monitoring section, an internal sheath on
the interior of the section, a cylindrical metal cover fitted around the internal sheath, and an integrated ultrasonic transducer
configured and operable to determine the position of the interface between the first and second layers using ultrasound to
measure, in real time, progression of the diffusion of the corrosive gases through the thickness of the internal sheath by
determining the location of the interface;

the internal sheath having an inner surface defining a path through and along which the hydrocarbons pass and having a radially
outer surface and a thickness between the inner and outer surfaces and the sheath permitting diffusion of the corrosive gases
radially through the sheath;

the internal sheath being comprised of a polymer in which reactive-compound elements are dispersed throughout the thickness
of the sheath between the inner and outer surfaces,

wherein the reactive-compound elements are operative to react with corrosive gases from the hydrocarbons which diffuse through
the thickness of the sheath to neutralize the corrosive gases, the polymer sheath being so constructed that the corrosive
gases are liable to diffuse radially through the thickness from the inner surface of the sheath to the outer surface of the
sheath, such that as the corrosive gases diffuse radially outwardly, they react with the reactive-compound elements to form
a first layer from the inner surface of the sheath radially outwardly in which the reactive-compound elements have reacted
with the corrosive gases, and the first layer gradually moving radially outwardly through the thickness of the sheath toward
the outer surface, and the sheath further comprising a second layer occupying the residual thickness of the sheath radially
outwardly from the first layer,

wherein the reactive-compound elements in the second layer of the sheath have not reacted with corrosive gases, such that
an interface is formed between the first and the second layers, which interface moves gradually radially outward through the
thickness of the sheath as corrosive gases react with the reactive-compound elements.

US Pat. No. 9,050,569

THIN LAYER FIXED BED REACTOR FOR THE CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF A FINELY DIVIDED CATALYTIC SOLID

-ENI S.P.A., Rome (IT) -...

1. A method for operating a fixed bed reactor with thin layers having a thickness in the range 10 to 500 mm, intended for
the treatment of solid particles with a size in the range 30 to 100 microns, said reactor comprising:
a plurality of similar modules (M) operating in parallel, enclosed in a common vessel (R) of said reactor, wherein each module
(M) comprises:

at least two thin layers (CM), having a thickness in the range 10 to 500 mm, of solid particles, with a size in the range
30 to 100 microns, wherein each thin layer is enclosed by a partially porous envelope (P) partially porous envelope (P) having
a porous inlet face and a porous outlet face;

each of the porous inlet faces of the partially porous envelopes is coupled with at least one diffuser (D) for introduction
of reagent gas, wherein diffusers between two adjacent modules are coupled to a porous inlet face of a partially porous envelope
in each of said two adjacent modules;

each of the porous outlet faces of the partially porous envelopes is coupled with at least one collector (CL) for removal
of effluents;

at least one pipe (E) for admitting reagent gas into said at least one diffuser (D), wherein said at least one pipe (E) for
admitting reagent gas communicates with the exterior of the reactor;

at least one pipe (C) for recovering reaction effluents, wherein said at least one pipe (C) for recovering reaction effluents
communicates with the exterior of the reactor;

at least one pipe (S) for admitting solid particles to be treated into the partially porous envelopes (P);
at least one pipe (V) for evacuating treated solid particles from the partially porous envelopes (P), distinct from said at
least one pipe (S) for admitting solid particles;

said plurality of modules (M) being arranged inside said common vessel (R) so as to form an assembly with a planar or cylindrical
geometry;

said method comprising the following phases in succession:
phase 1: charging solid particles to be treated into upstream metering devices (Dam) and flushing with an inert gas;

phase 2: charging solid particles into at least one of said plurality of modules via said at least one pipe (S) for admitting
solid particles;

phase 3: flushing the charged module or modules with an inert gas;
phase 4: treating the charged module or modules with H2 diluted with nitrogen, at a fixed pressure, and following a temperature ramp-up rate in the range 0.5° C. to 5° C./minute;

phase 5: treating the charged module or modules in H2, at fixed temperature and pressure, for a fixed period (stages of 4 to 20 hours);

phase 6: flushing the charged module or modules after treatment using an inert gas;
phase 7: discharging solid particles from the charged module or modules using said at least one pipe (V) for evacuating treated
solid particles to downstream metering devices (Dav);

phase 8: cooling treated solid particles to a temperature in the range 100° C. to 150° C.; and
phase 9: transferring cooled solid particles;
a) directly to a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reactor;
b) to a mixer (Mj) wherein the cooled solid particles are mixed with paraffin waxes having a melting point of close to 100° C. with a flush
of inert gas, and transferring solid particles which have been coated with waxes into barrels (Bs); or

to an intermediate capacity, and optionally transferring solid particles into barrels (Bs).

US Pat. No. 9,290,699

PROCESS FOR SYNTHESIZING HYDROCARBONS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS WITH CONTROL OF THE TEMPERATURE OF THE EXTERNAL LOOP

ENI S.P.A., Rome (IT) IF...

1. A process for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from a feed comprising synthesis gas, in which a solid catalyst comprising
cobalt is present in a three-phase reaction section operated such that said catalyst is maintained in suspension in a liquid
phase by movement of a gas phase from the bottom to the top of said reaction section, said process comprising separating waxes
in an external loop having a degassing means, wherein
1) a theoretical ratio PH20:PH2 in the external loop for separating waxes is determined by the following calculation:

PH20:PH2 theoretical=Cv/(R1?Rft×Cv)

where Cv=(COinlet?COdegas)/COinlet
R1=H2 inlet/COinlet
Rft=(H2 inlet?H2 degas)/(COinlet?COdegas)

wherein
COinlet is a measurement of the molar flow rate of carbon monoxide entering the reaction section,

COdegas is a measurement of the molar flow rate of carbon monoxide leaving the degassing means,

H2 inlet is a measurement of the molar flow rate of hydrogen entering the reaction section,

H2 degas is a measurement of the molar flow rate of carbon monoxide leaving the degassing means,

2) if the theoretical ratio PH20:PH2 determined in step 1) has a value of Rthreshold or higher, the temperature in the degassing means of the external loop for separating waxes is reduced,

3) steps 1) and 2) are repeated until the theoretical ratio PH20:PH2 has a value strictly less than Rthreshold,

where Rthreshold is a value in the range 0.1 to 1.1.

US Pat. No. 9,109,167

INTEGRATED PROCESS FOR TREATMENT AND GASIFICATION OF BITUMINOUS FEEDSTOCKS BY CHEMICAL LOOPING COMBUSTION

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for treating bituminous feedstocks, comprising:
a chemical loop combustion, the chemical loop combustion comprising:
oxidizing a reduced oxygen carrier to provide an oxidized oxygen carrier; and
combusting a fuel by contacting the hydrocarbon feedstock with the oxidized oxygen carrier;
separating organic and mineral components from a bituminous feedstock in a hot water treatment unit by exposing the bituminous
feedstock to hot water,

wherein the energy required to heat the water exposed to the bituminous feedstock is provided by the chemical loop combustion,
and

wherein a fraction of the organic components separated from the bituminous feedstock in the hot water treatment unit is used
as fuel for said chemical loop combustion, the fraction comprising bitumen.

US Pat. No. 9,156,738

PREPARATION OF A SOLID BASED ON ZINC OXIDE FOR USE IN PURIFYING A GAS OR A LIQUID

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for preparing a solid comprising ZnO and a binder, said process comprising:
a) pre-mixing powders comprising at least one ZnO powder and at least one binder;
b) forming a paste by:
i) bringing the pre-mixed powders and a solution containing a peptizing agent into contact, leading to the production of a
paste;

ii) mixing the paste;
c) extruding the paste obtained in b) at a pressure in the range 3 to 10 MPa to form extrudates:
d) drying the extrudates obtained in c) at a temperature in the range 70° C. to 160° C. for a period in the range 1 to 24
hours;

e) calcining the dried extrudates at a temperature in the range 200° C. to 800° C. for a period in the range 1 to 6 hours,
in a gaseous stream comprising oxygen;

and in which the peptizing agent used in b) is sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, ammonia or an organic base.

US Pat. No. 9,085,502

PROCESS FOR DEHYDRATION OF ETHANOL INTO ETHYLENE WITH LOW ENERGY CONSUMPTION

TOTAL PETROCHEMICALS RESE...

1. A process for dehydration of an ethanol feedstock into ethylene comprising:
a) vaporizing of said ethanol feedstock in a mixture with at least a portion of a purified water stream recycled from f) in
an exchanger owing to a heat exchange with the effluent that is obtained from a last adiabatic reactor, introducing said ethanol
feedstock in a mixture with at least a portion of said purified water stream that is recycled into said vaporization at a
pressure of between 0.1 and 0.4 MPa,

b) compressing vaporized ethanol feedstock purified water mixture, in a compressor,
c) introducing compressed vaporized ethanol feedstock purified water mixture, at an entrance temperature of between 350 and
500° C. and at an entrance pressure of between 0.2 and 1.3 MPa, in at least one adiabatic reactor that contains at least one
dehydration catalyst and in which dehydration reaction takes place,

d) separating effluent that is obtained from a last adiabatic reactor of stage c) in an effluent that comprises ethylene an
effluent that comprises water, wherein the effluent that comprises ethylene is at a pressure that is lower than 1 MPa,

e) purifying at least a portion of the effluent comprising water that is obtained from d) and separating at least one purified
water stream and at least one unconverted ethanol stream,

f) recycling at least a portion of the purified water stream that is obtained from e), upstream from a).

US Pat. No. 9,486,767

MULTI-TUBE RADIAL BED REACTOR

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A reactor (1) extending along a vertical axis, comprising:
a vessel provided with a reaction zone (10) with a moving bed of catalyst;

at least one feed inlet means located above the reaction zone (10);

at least one outlet means for an effluent produced by catalytic reaction, located below the reaction zone (10);

at least one catalyst inlet means (7) which is capable of introducing catalyst into an upper portion of the reaction zone (10);

at least one catalyst outlet means (8) opening into a lower portion of the reaction zone (10);

the reactor further comprising, inside the reaction zone (10):

at least two feed distribution tubes (9), each feed distribution tube (9) having a first end (11) in communication with said at least one feed inlet means and a second closed end (12), the feed distribution tubes (9) extending in a substantially vertical manner and being designed to allow feed to pass through the reaction zone (10) and to retain the catalyst; and

at least two effluent collection tubes (13), each effluent collection tube (13) having a first end (14) communicating with said at least one outlet means and a second closed end (15), the effluent collection tubes (13) extending in a substantially vertical manner and being designed to allow effluent to pass through the collection tube (13) and to retain the catalyst.

US Pat. No. 9,180,435

PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF A CATALYST USING A RAPID DRYING STAGE AND USE THEREOF FOR FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

ENI S.P.A., Roma (IT) IF...

1. A process for the preparation of a catalyst comprising an active phase comprising at least one metal from group VIII selected
from cobalt, nickel, ruthenium, iron, and mixtures thereof, and an oxide support, said process comprising the following in
sequence:
impregnating an oxide support with at least one solution containing at least one precursor of cobalt, nickel, ruthenium, or
iron,

rapidly drying the impregnated oxide support in a rapid drying stage by entraining said impregnated oxide support in a gas
and subjecting said impregnated oxide support to a temperature rise ramp of between 250 and 600° C./min, wherein the residence
time of said impregnated oxide support in said rapid drying stage is between 1 second and 1 minute, and

calcining the impregnated and dried oxide support.

US Pat. No. 9,115,236

COPOLYMER FOR INHIBITING INORGANIC DEPOSITS

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. Copolymer comprising:
A) at least one monomer unit a) derived from at least one ethylenically unsaturated aliphatic monocarboxylic or polycarboxylic
acid, a corresponding anhydride, or a corresponding water-soluble salt;

B) at least one monomer unit b) derived from an ethylenically unsaturated sulfonated or sulfated monomer unit b) with the
formula (I)

CH2?C(R1)—C(R2)(R3)—O—R?—Y?X+  (I)

in which formula the various symbols have the following meaning:
R1, R2, and R3, similar or different, represent

a hydrogen atom or
an alkyl radical
R? represents a linear or branched divalent aliphatic radical comprising at least one OH substituent
Y? represents SO3? or SO4?
X is a counterion
or at least one monomer unit b?) derived from an ethylenically unsaturated sulfonated monomer unit other than (b) with the
formula (II)

CH2?C(R1)—(Z)n—R?—SO3?X+  (II)

in which formula the various symbols have the following meaning:
R1 represents

a hydrogen atom or
an alkyl radical
n is equal to 0 or 1
Z represents a divalent group with the formula —C(O)—N(R4)—R5— where

R4 represents a hydrogen atom or an alkyl radical

R5 represents a linear or branched aliphatic divalent radical

R? represents a linear or branched divalent aliphatic radical
X is a counterion; and
C) at least one monomer unit (c), wherein the at least one monomer unit (c) comprises a diphosphate ester derived from polyoxyethylene
alkyl ether phosphate, wherein the polyoxyethylene alkyl ether phosphate has the general formula

[CH2?CH—CH2—R6—O—]xP(?O)(OM)3-x  (III)

Wherein:
R6 is a polyoxyethylene group

x is a number between 1 and 2 inclusive or exclusive
M is a hydrogen atom or a cation counterion.

US Pat. No. 9,395,119

ROTARY FURNACE FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF SOLIDS

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. A rotary furnace that is designed for heat treatment of solids by conduction of heat in the absence of oxygen, comprising
at least one rotary tube (1) into which the solids are introduced and a heater outside of the rotary tube that enables conducting the heat treatment,
wherein the rotary tube comprises—on its inside surface, in contact with the feedstock to be treated—at least one heating
blade (30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36) that is integral with the rotary tube (1), heated internally by conduction of the heat from the rotary tube (1), extends over the entire length of the rotary furnace is hollow to permit the internal passing of hot gases via piercing
of the tube, and
(a) the heating blade (30, 31, 32, 34, 37) is longitudinal, and is oriented along the radial axis of the rotary furnace, or

(b) the blade (33) is in the form of a helical propeller that is oriented along the radial axis of the furnace.

US Pat. No. 9,157,021

OPTIMIZED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY METHOD WITH POLYMER PRESERVATION THROUGH SACRIFICIAL COMPOUND ADDITION

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. An enhanced oil recovery method comprising:
injecting a solution into an oil well, said solution comprising:
an active polymer; and
a sacrificial polymer comprising monomers of the active polymer and having a higher molecular mass than the active polymer,
the sacrificial polymer present in a sufficient proportion with respect to the active polymers to limit the mechanical degradation
of the active polymers.

US Pat. No. 9,353,320

OPTIMIZED METHOD FOR PRODUCING MIDDLE DISTILLATES FROM A FEEDSTOCK ORIGINATING FROM THE FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS CONTAINING A LIMITED QUANTITY OF OXYGENATED COMPOUNDS

IFP Energies Nouvelles, ...

1. Method for producing middle distillates from a feedstock produced by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and containing oxygenated
compounds, said method comprising at least:
a) a step of bringing the feedstock into contact with a hydrotreating catalyst which results in methanation of the CO and
CO2 which is contained in the feedstock or is produced from decomposition of the oxygenated compounds present in the feedstock,
at a temperature between 320 and 450° C., at a pressure between 0.5 and 15 MPa, and introducing the hydrogen necessary for
the reaction of hydrotreating and of methanation at a flow rate such that the hydrogen/feedstock volume ratio is between 100
and 3000 normal liters per liter, and at an hourly space velocity between 0.1 and 40?1, to obtain a liquid and gaseous effluent,

b) a step of hydroisomerization/hydrocracking at least a part of the liquid and gaseous effluent originating from step a),
in the presence of a hydroisomerization/hydrocracking catalyst, to obtain an effluent,

c) a step of gas/liquid separation of the effluent originating from step b) into a gaseous fraction comprising predominantly
hydrogen and a hydroisomerized/hydrocracked liquid fraction,

d) a step of fractionation of the liquid fraction separated in step c) to obtain at least one fraction of middle distillate,
in which the hydrogen used in step a) is, at least partly, obtained from the gaseous fraction separated in step c).

US Pat. No. 9,200,010

ORGANIC/INORGANIC HYBRID SOLID IHM-2-N3 PROVIDED WITH AN AZIDE FUNCTION, AND METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING SAME

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...


and whereby H—N MR analysis confirms the presence of an N3 azid group on an aromatic cycle of a deprotonated terephthalic ligand: 8=7.73-7.83 ppm, m, 3H, ArH, 3 protons leading to the
detection of the multiplet corresponding to 3 protons carried by the aromatic cycle of the (N3-bdc) ligand.

US Pat. No. 9,174,202

CATALYST THAT CAN BE USED IN HYDROTREATMENT, COMPRISING METALS OF GROUPS VIII AND VIB, AND PREPARATION WITH ACETIC ACID AND DIALKYL SUCCINATE C1-C4

TOTAL RAFFINAGE MARKETING...

1. A catalyst comprising an alumina-based amorphous support, phosphorus, at least one C1-C4 dialkyl succinate, acetic acid
and a hydro-dehydrogenizing function comprising at least one group VIII element and at least one group VIB element, said catalyst
having a Raman spectrum which comprises the main bands at 990 and/or 974 cm?1 characteristic of at least one Keggin heteropolyanion, the bands characteristic of said succinate and the main band at 896
cm?1 characteristic of acetic acid.

US Pat. No. 9,109,522

METHOD OF CONTROLLING AN EGR VALVE INTEGRATED IN AN EGR CIRCUIT OF A COMBUSTION ENGINE

IFP ENERGIES nouvelles, ...

1. A method of controlling a combustion engine including at least one cylinder, an intake manifold, a compressor for compressing
intake air and a cooler for cooling compressed intake air and an exhaust gas recirculation circuit including an EGR valve
which injects exhaust gas into the intake manifold upstream from the compressor and the cooler comprising:
a) measuring a pressure difference in a portion of the exhaust gas recirculation circuit including the EGR valve which is
upstream from the compressor and the cooler;

b) selecting a burnt gas fraction set point in the intake manifold;
c) calculating an opening set point for the EGR valve from a pressure drop relation in the portion of the exhaust gas recirculation
circuit including the EGR valve, the pressure drop relation relating an opening of the EGR valve to the pressure difference
in the portion of the exhaust gas recirculation circuit including the EGR valve, and to the burnt gas fraction set point in
the intake manifold; and

d) controlling the EGR valve as a function of the opening set point of EGR valve.

US Pat. No. 9,079,174

CATALYST FOR USE IN HYDROCONVERSION, COMPRISING AT LEAST ONE ZEOLITE AND METALS FROM GROUPS VIII AND VIB, AND PREPARATION OF THE CATALYST

TOTAL RAFFINAGE MARKETING...

1. A catalyst containing a support comprising at least one binder and at least one zeolite having at least one series of channels
the opening of which is defined by a ring containing 12 oxygen atoms, said catalyst comprising phosphorus, at least one C1-C4
dialkyl succinate, acetic acid and a hydrodehydrogenating function comprising at least one element from group VIB and at least
one element from group VIII, the Raman spectrum of the catalyst comprising bands at 990 and/or 974 cm?1, characteristic of at least one Keggin heteropolyanion, the succinate having characteristic bands and the acetic acid having
a characteristic principal band at 896 cm?1.
US Pat. No. 9,399,781

PRODUCTION OF ISOPROPANOL BY IMPROVED RECOMBINANT STRAINS

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A vector comprising:
a nucleic acid represented by the sequence SEQ ID NO: 1, or a nucleic acid having a sequence identity of at least 85% with
the sequence SEQ ID NO: 1, coding for subunit A of the acetoacetyl-CoA transferase of C. acetobutylicum and

a nucleic acid represented by the sequence SEQ ID NO: 2 or a nucleic acid having a sequence identity of at least 85% with
the sequence SEQ ID NO: 2, coding for subunit B of the acetoacetyl-CoA transferase of C. acetobutylicum, and

optionally a nucleic acid represented by the sequence SEQ ID NO: 4 or a nucleic acid having a sequence identity of at least
85% with the sequence SEQ ID NO: 4, coding for the acetoacetate decarboxylase of C. acetobutylicum, and

a nucleic acid represented by the sequence SEQ ID NO: 3 or a nucleic acid having a sequence identity of at least 85% with
the sequence SEQ ID NO: 3, coding for the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase of C. beijerinckii,
the expression of said nucleic acids being controlled by a single constitutive promoter located upstream of the abovementioned
nucleic acids, said promoter being selected from the promoter represented by the sequence SEQ ID NO: 5(thl promoter) and the
promoter represented by the sequence SEQ ID NO: 6.

US Pat. No. 9,388,979

PARTICLE SEPARATION DEVICE FOR A CHEMICAL-LOOPING COMBUSTION LOOP

TOTAL SA, Courbevoie (FR...

1. A chemical-looping combustion device utilizing a solid fuel generating unburnt particles and using oxygen-carrying particles
such as metallic oxides, and comprising at least one combustion zone, a separator for the particles contained in a gaseous
mixture coming from said at least one combustion zone, and a gas-solid separator wherein:
the separator is arranged above the at least one combustion zone and comprises an enclosure having an upper part, a lower
part, at least one intake line for said gaseous mixture coming from the at least one combustion zone, a discharge line arranged
in the lower part of the enclosure and an outlet line arranged in the upper part of the enclosure, the intake and discharge/outlet
parameters being so selected as to create in the enclosure a dense phase in the lower part and a dilute phase in the upper
part, and wherein the at least one intake line opens into the dilute phase,

the gas-solid separator is fed through said outlet line and comprises a line capable of discharging a gas depleted in light
unburnt particles and a line communicating with the at least one combustion zone capable of recycling the unburnt particles
to the at least one combustion zone,

wherein the dense phase in the lower part of the enclosure of the separator created by the intake and discharge/outlet parameters
of the separator comprises metallic oxides, and

wherein the dilute phase in the upper part of the separator created by the intake and discharge/outlet parameters of the separator
comprises unburnt particles.

US Pat. No. 9,376,636

PROCESS FOR HYDRODESULPHURATION OF GASOLINE CUTS USING A CATALYST BASED ON HETEROPOLYANIONS TRAPPED IN A MESOSTRUCTURED SILICA SUPPORT

CNRS, Paris (FR) IFP ENE...

1. A hydrodesulphuration process of at least one gasoline cut implementing a catalyst comprising, in its oxide form, at least
one metal from group VIB and/or at least one metal from group VIII of the periodic table present in the form of at least one
polyoxometalate which is a Keggin heteropolyanion of the formula XM12O40q?, or a lacunary Keggin heteropoylanion of the formula XM11O39q?, wherein X is an element selected from phosphorus (P), silicon (Si), boron (B), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co), the said element
being taken alone, M is one or more element(s) selected from molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co), O
is oxygen, and q is an integer within the range 1 to 20, the polyoxometalate being present within a mesostructured silicon
oxide matrix having a pore size within the range 1.5 to 50 nm and having amorphous walls of thickness within the range 1 to
30 nm, the catalyst being sulphured before being implemented in the process, and the catalyst in its oxide form exhibiting
a form of each of the elementary particles of which it is composed that is non-spherical.

US Pat. No. 9,283,554

NICKEL-BASED CATALYTIC COMPOSITION, AND ITS USE IN A PROCESS FOR THE OLIGOMERIZATION OF OLEFINS

IFP Energies Nouvelles, ...

1. A composition comprising:
at least one precursor of nickel with an oxidation number of (0) or (+II),
at least one ligand with formula 1a), 1b) or 1c)

 in which
A and A?, which may be identical or different, are independently O, S, NR3 or a single bond between the phosphorus atom and a carbon atom,

the group R3 is either a hydrogen atom or an alkyl group, which may or may not be cyclic, which may or may not be substituted and which
may or may not contain heteroelements, or an aromatic group, which may or may not be substituted and which may or may not
contain heteroelements,

the groups R1a and R1b being mutually identical or different and which may or may not be bonded together, are selected from alkyl groups which may
or may not be cyclic, which may or may not be substituted and which may or may not contain heteroelements, and aromatic groups
which may or may not be substituted and which may or may not contain heteroelements,

the group R2 is selected from alkyl groups which may or may not be cyclic, which may or may not be substituted and which may or may not
contain heteroelements, and aromatic groups which may or may not be substituted and which may or may not contain heteroelements,
with the condition that when a precursor of nickel with an oxidation number of (+II) is in the composition, it is in the presence
of a reducing agent or in the presence of a Brönsted base.
US Pat. No. 9,309,538

BETA-GLUCOSIDASE VARIANTS HAVING IMPROVED ACTIVITY, AND USES THEREOF

IFP Energies Nouvelles, ...

1. An isolated or purified modified polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence in which at least one amino acid is modified
compared with the amino acid sequence SEQ ID No. 2, said modified amino acid being chosen from positions 225, 238, 240 and
241 of the amino acid sequence SEQ ID No. 2, wherein said modified polypeptide has the amino acid sequence SEQ ID No. 10;
or at least 85% identity with said amino acid sequences SEQ ID No. 2 or SEQ ID NO. 10, and wherein said modified polypeptide
has an improved beta-glucosidase activity compared with the beta-glucosidase activity of the wild-type protein having the
sequence set forth in SEQ ID No. 2.

US Pat. No. 9,290,704

FLEXIBLE PROCESS FOR TRANSFORMATION OF ETHANOL INTO MIDDLE DISTILLATES IMPLEMENTING A HOMOGENEOUS CATALYTIC SYSTEM AND A HETEROGENEOUS CATALYTIC SYSTEM

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for the production of a kerosene hydrocarbon base from an ethanol feedstock that is produced from a renewable
source that is obtained from biomass, said process comprising:
a) a stage for purification of said ethanol feedstock,
b) a stage for dehydration of the purified ethanol feedstock obtained from purification stage a) into an effluent, wherein
said effluent is for the most part ethylene and also comprises water, and wherein said dehydration is conducted in the presence
of an amorphous acid catalyst or a zeolitic acid catalyst,

c) at least one stage for separation of the water that is present in said effluent obtained from dehydration stage b),
d) a first stage for oligomerization of at least a portion of the effluent obtained from separation stage c) to form at least
one olefinic effluent that comprises at least 80% by weight of olefins that have four or more carbon atoms, relative to the
total mass of the olefins that are contained in said least one olefinic effluent, and wherein oligomerization is performed
in the presence of a homogeneous catalyst that comprises at least one bivalent nickel compound, said homogeneous catalyst
being soluble in a liquid phase of ethylene and its oligomerization products,

e) a second stage for oligomerization of at least a portion of the olefinic effluent obtained from first oligomerization stage
d), to produce an effluent comprising middle distillate hydrocarbon bases, wherein oligomerization in the second oligomerization
stage e) is performed in the presence of an amorphous catalyst, and wherein said second oligomerization stage e) is performed
in at least one fixed-bed reactor operating at a temperature of between 50 and 400° C., at an absolute pressure of between
2 and 15 MPa, and at an hourly speed by weight of between 0.1 and 50 h?1, and

f) a stage for fractionation of the effluent obtained from the second oligomerization stage e) to obtain said kerosene hydrocarbon
base.

US Pat. No. 9,174,864

BACTERIA OF THE GENUS PSEUDOXANTHOMONAS THAT ARE CAPABLE OF DEGRADING METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) INTO A SOLUTION IN EFFLUENT

IFP Energies Nouvelles, ...

1. A process for treating an effluent that comprises methyl tert-butyl ether and optionally tert-butyl alcohol as a growth
substrate in which said effluent is brought into contact, under aerobic conditions, with at least one bacterium of the genus
Pseudoxanthomonas deposited on Jul. 12, 2012 at the Pasteur Institute (CNCM, 25 rue du Docteur Roux, F-75724 PARIS Cedex 15, France) under No.
CNCM I-4657.

US Pat. No. 9,156,690

HYDROGEN GENERATION PROCESS USING PARTIAL OXIDATION/STEAM REFORMING

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. An efficient, integrated process for generating hydrogen from a hydrocarbon-containing feedstock in the essential absence
of a shift reaction zone comprising:
a. passing to a partial oxidation reformer at a pressure of between about 400 and 1500 kPa absolute feed comprising hydrocarbon-containing
feedstock, air, and steam wherein the molar ratio of steam to carbon in the hydrocarbon-containing feedstock is at least about
4:1, said reformer being at partial oxidation/steam reforming conditions to provide a reforming effluent stream comprising
at least about 40 volume percent (dry basis) hydrogen, nitrogen, steam, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide;

b. cooling the reforming effluent stream by indirect heat exchange with a stream containing liquid water to provide a steam-containing
stream which is cycled to the partial oxidation/steam reforming zone wherein at least about 40 percent of the steam in the
feed mixture is produced by said indirect heat exchange;

c. further cooling the cooled reforming effluent stream to pressure swing adsorption conditions, said cooling being sufficient
to condense water;

d. during or after the further cooling separating the condensed water;
e. subjecting the further cooled reforming effluent stream to pressure swing adsorption such that a purified hydrogen stream
is produced which (i) is at least about 98 mole percent hydrogen, and (ii) contains less than about 10 ppmv carbon monoxide,
and a sorption purge gas is produced at a pressure between about 5 and 100 kPa gauge which comprises less than about 30 volume
percent hydrogen (dry basis) and nitrogen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide;

f. withdrawing at least a portion of the purified hydrogen stream as hydrogen product;
g. combusting in the substantial absence of added fuel, the sorption purge gas with an oxygen-containing gas in the presence
of an oxidation catalyst to provide a combustion gas having a temperature of less than about 800° C.;

h. subjecting the combustion gas to at least one indirect heat exchange with a liquid water-containing stream to generate
steam which is cycled to the reformer;
and
i. exhausting the cooled combustion gas, wherein the Net Hydrogen Efficiency is at least about 50 percent.

US Pat. No. 9,352,272

PROCESS FOR CATALYTIC CRACKING ASSOCIATED WITH AN AMINE TREATMENT UNIT WITH IMPROVED CO2 BALANCE

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

5. The process according to claim 1, comprising using in the amine absorption unit (AMN) MEA (monoethanolamine).

US Pat. No. 10,118,824

PROCESS FOR PURIFYING SYNTHESIS GAS BY WASHING WITH AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF AMINES

AVRIL, Paris (FR) AXENS,...

1. A process for purification of synthesis gas, comprising at least the following stages:a) a stage for dividing the synthesis gas into at least a first synthesis gas flow and a second synthesis gas flow of the same composition,
b1) a stage for the steam conversion of carbon monoxide of the first synthesis gas flow leaving stage a), in order to produce a stage b1) gaseous effluent containing at least hydrogen H2 and carbon dioxide CO2, less than 15% volume (vol. %) of carbon monoxide CO and acid gases including H2S and CO2,
b2) a stage for the removal of acid gases including H2S and CO2 from the stage b1) gaseous effluent by contacting said stage b1) gaseous effluent with a solvent which is a first aqueous solution of amines comprising at least one secondary amine, said first aqueous solution of amines further comprising at least one tertiary amine or a sterically hindered secondary amine different from the secondary amine and containing at least one quaternary carbon atom in the ? or alpha position of the nitrogen atom or two tertiary carbon atoms in the ? and ?? positions, so as to remove acid gases including H2S and CO2 and produce at least one stage b2) gaseous effluent containing less than 5 vol. % of carbon dioxide CO2, and less than 50 ppm by volume of H2S,
c1) a stage for catalytic hydrolysis of COS and HCN present in the second synthesis gas flow that has not undergone the conversion reaction of carbon monoxide with steam, in order to produce a stage c1) gaseous effluent containing less than 25 ppm by volume of COS, and less than 5 ppm by volume of HCN, and containing acid gases including H2S and CO2,
c2) a stage for removal of acid gases including H2S and CO2 from said stage c1) gaseous effluent by contacting said stage c1) gaseous effluent with a solvent which is a second aqueous solution of amines containing at least one tertiary amine, so as to produce at least one stage c2) gaseous effluent containing less than 10 vol. % of carbon dioxide CO2, and less than 50 ppmv of H2S, wherein the second aqueous solution of amines contains between 25 and 50 wt. % of a tertiary amine and contains between 50 and 75 wt. % of water, and
d) recombination of at least a part of said stage b2) effluent and at least part of said stage c2) to obtain a purified synthesis gas,
wherein said first aqueous solution of amines and said second aqueous solution of amines are different.

US Pat. No. 9,714,764

CHEMICAL-LOOPING COMBUSTION METHOD WITH DILUTE PHASE REMOVAL OF ASHES AND FINES IN THE OXIDATIONZONE AND PLANT USING SAME

TOTAL SA, Courbevoie (FR...

1. A method for chemical-looping combustion of a hydrocarbon feedstock of solid particles, wherein an oxygen-carrying material
circulates in form of oxygen-carrying material particles, comprising:
contacting hydrocarbon feedstock particles with the oxygen-carrying material particles in a reduction zone R0,

contacting oxygen-carrying material particles from reduction zone R0 with an oxidizing gas stream in a reactive oxidation zone R1,

separating fly ashes, oxygen-carrying material fines and the oxygen-carrying material particles within a mixture from zone
R1 by dilute phase elutriation in a dilute phase separation zone S2 so as to discharge through a discharge line a gaseous effluent comprising the major part of the fly ashes and of the oxygen-carrying
material fines, and to send a particle stream comprising the major part of the oxygen-carrying material particles to reduction
zone R0, the driving force required for dilute phase elutriation in the dilute phase separation zone S2 being provided by the oxidizing gas stream coming from the reactive oxidation zone R1.

US Pat. No. 9,512,365

FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS USING A CATALYST BASED ON A METAL OF GROUP VIIIB AND AN OXIDES SUPPORT COMPRISING ALUMINA, SILICA AND PHOSPHORUS

ENI S.P.A., Rome (IT) IF...

4. A Fischer-Tropsch process for the synthesis of hydrocarbons comprising contacting a charge comprising synthesis gas with
at least one catalyst under a total pressure of between 0.1 and 15 MPa at a temperature of between 150 and 350° C. at an hourly
space velocity of between 100 and 20000 volumes of synthesis gas per volume of catalyst and per hour and with an H2/CO molar ratio in the synthesis gas of between 0.5 and 4, said catalyst containing an active phase comprising at least one
metal of group VIBE that is cobalt, nickel, ruthenium or iron, and an oxide support comprising alumina, silica and phosphorus
said oxides support not containing any spinel phase, wherein the phosphorus content of said support is between 0.1% by weight
and 10% by weight of said element with respect to the total weight of the support.

US Pat. No. 9,488,118

METHOD OF CONTROLLING A COMBUSTION ENGINE FROM ESTIMATION OF THE BURNT GAS MASS FRACTION IN THE INTAKE MANIFOLD

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method of controlling the combustion of a combustion engine comprising at least one cylinder, a turbocharger which includes
a compressor, an intake circuit including an intake manifold and a burnt gas recirculation circuit including an EGR valve,
comprising:
performing a measurement relative to fresh air or burnt gas flow rate, upstream from a mixing space wherein fresh air and
burnt gas are mixed;

estimating a burnt gas mass fraction present in the mixing space from the measurement and a model of mixing dynamics in the
mixing space wherein the mixing space has a volume beginning at the EGR valve and ending at the compressor, the model of mixing
dynamics being expressed by an equation:


wherein
BGRbp is the burnt gas mass fraction in a mixture of fresh air and burnt gas, at the EGR valve, Dgb(t) is a mass flow rate of burnt gas fed through the EGR valve, Dair(t) is fresh air mass flow rate at a intake line inlet, BGR is the burnt gas mass fraction in fresh air and burnt gas at the
intake manifold which conditions burnt gas present in the cylinder upon closure of intake valve, Patm and Tatm are atmospheric pressure and temperature, Tam is an upstream temperature at an EGR valve inlet, and r is a specific ideal gas constant;

estimating a transport delay from the mixing space to the intake manifold expressed by an equation: BGR(t)=BGRbp(t??(t)), wherein T is time, ? is gas transport delay between a time of fresh air and burnt gas mixing and delivery at the
manifold;

estimating in real time a burnt gas mass fraction in the intake manifold from the estimation of the burnt gas mass fraction
present in the mixing space and the transport delay; and

controlling the combustion from the real time estimation of the burnt gas mass fraction in the intake manifold.

US Pat. No. 9,441,943

METHOD OF DETERMINING THE POSITION AND THE SPEED OF A ROTOR IN A SYNCHRONOUS ELECTRIC MACHINE USING STATE OBSERVERS

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method for determining a position of a rotor of a salient-pole synchronous electric machine, wherein currents and voltages
of phases of the electric machine are measured, comprising:
a) providing a voltage to the phases of the electric machine, the imposed voltage having an amplitude greater than a control
voltage of the electrical machine and frequency greater than a control frequency of the electric machine;

b) constructing a state model of a total magnetic flux circulating in the electric machine which is a function of the position
of a rotor of the machine;

c) constructing a state observer of currents and of speed of the rotor by using a state model of the total magnetic flux and
the measured currents and the measured voltages; and

d) determining the position of the rotor by using the state observer of speed and of the voltage.

US Pat. No. 9,309,474

METHOD OF INCORPORATING ALCOHOL INTO FUELS HAVING A HIGH AROMATIC COMPOUND CONTENT

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. A method of incorporating alcohol or mixtures of alcohols into a fuel having an aromatic compound content of at least 70
wt. % that is a reformate gasoline cut, a pyrolysis gasoline cut or an LCO type diesel fuel, said method comprising:
liquid-liquid extraction of the alcohol or the alcohol mixture by at least one or more fuels, by directly contacting an aqueous
phase containing the alcohol or the alcohol mixture and a hydrocarbon phase comprising said fuel, and

drying the fuel enriched in alcohol or alcohol mixture.
US Pat. No. 9,486,789

FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYST BASED ON A METAL OF GROUP VIIIB AND AN OXIDES SUPPORT COMPRISING ALUMINA, SILICA, A SPINEL AND PHOSPHORUS

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. A catalyst containing an active phase comprising at least one metal of group VIIIB selected from cobalt, nickel, ruthenium
and iron deposited on an oxides support comprising alumina, silica, phosphorus and at least one simple spinel MAl2O4 or mixed spinel MxM?(1-x)Al2O4 which is or is not partial, wherein M and M? are separate metals selected from the group formed by magnesium (Mg), copper
(Cu), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), tin (Sn), zinc (Zn), lithium (Li), calcium (Ca), caesium (Cs), sodium (Na), potassium (K),
iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) and in which x is between 0 and 1, the values 0 and 1 being themselves excluded.

US Pat. No. 9,383,265

METHOD AND SYSTEM OF INTERNAL TEMPERATURES DETERMINATION IN A SYNCHRONOUS ELECTRICAL MACHINE USING STATE OBSERVERS

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method of determining internal temperatures in a synchronous electrical machine comprising a stator including three phases
to which in each phase at least one coil is connected, and a rotor comprising at least one magnet wherein an electromagnetic
field is provided from the at least one coil which causes rotation of the rotor, with speed of the rotor and voltages and
currents and of the phases being measured, comprising:
a) estimating a resistance of the at least one coil using a state observer of the resistance of the at least one coil provided
from the measurements and the resistance depending on a temperature of the at least one coil;

b) estimating an intensity of magnetic flux provided by the at least one magnet by using a state observer of intensity of
magnetic flux of the at least one magnet provided from the measurements and the magnetic flux intensity depending on temperature
of the at least one magnet;

c) determining a temperature of the at least one coil using the estimation of resistance of the at least one coil; and
d) determining a temperature of the at least one magnet by using the estimation of intensity of magnetic flux of the at least
one magnet.

US Pat. No. 9,333,480

HIGH-PERFORMANCE STRUCTURED PACKING FOR A FLUID CONTACTING COLUMN

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. A structured packing of a fluid contacting column defining an exchange surface for at least one liquid phase intended to
come into intimate contact with at least one gas phase, said packing consisting of a pile of rectangular plates comprising
corrugations, each plate being inscribed between two parallel planes, said corrugations forming a succession of channels comprising
fins inscribed between said two parallel planes, each one of said fins consisting of at least one band cut out in one of said
plates, width of the band ranging between 1 and 15 mm, the band remaining secured to the plate on at least one side and the
band being deformed so as to create an orifice forming a discontinuity on the surface of the plate, wherein direction of the
channels of a plate forms a non-zero angle with respect to direction of the channels of an adjacent plate, and wherein the
lengths of the fins of a channel are different from the lengths of the fins of a neighbouring channel.
US Pat. No. 9,249,402

PROCESS FOR THE CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF CELLULASES BY A FILAMENTOUS FUNGUS USING A CARBON SUBSTRATE OBTAINED FROM AN ACID PRETREATMENT

IFP Energies Nouvelles, ...

1. A process for the production of cellulases and hemicellulases with a strain of a filamentous fungus in a stirred and aerated
bioreactor, comprising:
producing cellulases and hemicellulases with a strain of a filamentous fungus in a stirred and aerated bioreactor in at least
two phases:

a phase a) for growth of said strain in the presence of at least one carbonaceous growth substrate in a closed reactor, said
growth phase being carried out with a concentration of carbonaceous growth substrate of 10 to 90 g/L; and

a phase b) for the continuous production of cellulases, in which at least one carbonaceous inducer substrate is supplied at
a supply rate which is constant over a period of at least more than 200 h, said carbonaceous inducer substrate being at least
one aqueous hemicellulosic hydrolysate solution obtained from an acid pre-treatment of a lignocellulosic substrate, said aqueous
hemicellulosic hydrolysate solution not undergoing prior sterilization and not undergoing pH rectification, said pH of the
aqueous solution being 0.5 to 3, the mass of the reaction volume being kept constant by withdrawing a fraction of said reaction
volume, said phase b) being operated at a dilution rate of 0.002 to 0.008 h?1.

US Pat. No. 9,193,922

PROCESS OF DIRECT CONVERSION OF A CHARGE COMPRISING OLEFINS WITH FOUR AND/OR FIVE CARBON ATOMS, FOR THE PRODUCTION OF PROPYLENE WITH CO-PRODUCTION OF GASOLINE

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for conversion of a C4/C5 olefin cut to propylene and gasoline, said C4/C5 olefin cut containing iso-olefins
and n-olefins, said process comprising the following succession of stages:
1) If said C4/C5 olefin cut contains greater than 1000 ppm of diolefinic and acetylenic impurities, conducting selective liquid
phase hydrogenation with at least one catalyst comprising at least one metal chosen from Ni, Pd, and Pt, deposited on a non-acid
refractory oxide support to obtain an effluent comprising said impurities of at most 1000 ppm,

2) Drying and desulphurization followed by selective oligomerization of the iso-olefins with an acid catalyst comprising silica-alumina,
3) Conducting distillation to obtain a gasoline fraction and at least one remaining cut containing the n-olefins and less
than 10 wt % iso-olefins,

4) Subjecting at least a part of the n-olefins in the remaining cut to oligocracking in a single stage with at least one shape
selective zeolite catalyst comprising a Si/Al atomic ratio of 50 to 500 to produce an oligocracked stream, and

5) Separating the oligocracked stream to obtain a second gasoline fraction, propylene, and a residual C4/C5 olefin cut.

US Pat. No. 9,381,487

DISTRIBUTION TRAY FOR DISTRIBUTING A POLYPHASIC MIXTURE WITH INCLINED PERIPHERAL CONDUITS

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A distributor plate (10) for distributing a polyphase mixture in a reactor terminating in a semi-spherical dome (2), the reactor having a wall, the distributor plate (10) to be located in an upper portion of the reactor above a bed of catalytic particles (30), said distributor plate comprising:
a plurality of chimneys (3) wherein each of said chimneys is provided with orifices (4) for passage of liquid distributed over the whole height (Hc) of each of said chimneys, and an orifice (5) for the passage of gas located at an upper end of each of said chimneys wherein the portion of the chimneys located at the
periphery of the, referred to hereafter as peripheral chimneys, have their upper portion inclined by an angle alpha with respect
to the vertical, said angle alpha having a value in the range 10° to 45° the inclination being approximately directed towards
the center of the distributor plate, and, when positioned within the reactor, said peripheral chimneys are located at a distance
(D1) in the range 25 to 450 mm from the wall of the reactor.

US Pat. No. 9,273,255

PRODUCTION OF MIDDLE DISTILLATES FROM AN EFFLUENT ORIGINATING FROM FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS COMPRISING A STEP OF REDUCING THE CONTENT OF OXYGENATED COMPOUNDS

ENI S.P.A., Rome (IT) IF...

1. A method for producing middle distillates from a feedstock produced by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and containing oxygenated
compounds, said method comprising at least:
a) hydrotreating said feedstock in the presence of a hydrotreating catalyst at a temperature of 100 to 450° C., at a pressure
of 0.2 to 15 MPa, the hydrogen necessary for the reaction of hydrotreating being introduced in hydrotreating at a flow rate
such that the hydrogen/feedstock volume ratio is 10 to 3000 normal liters per liter, and at an hourly space velocity of 0.1
to 40 h?1,

b) hydroisomerizing/hydrocracking of at least a part of a liquid and gaseous effluent originating from a), in the presence
of a hydroisomerization/hydrocracking catalyst,

c) gas/liquid separation of a stream originating from b) into a gaseous fraction comprising predominantly hydrogen, a hydroisomerized/hydrocracked
organic liquid fraction and an aqueous fraction,

d) fractionating of the organic liquid fraction separated in c) to obtain at least a gaseous fraction comprising predominantly
light gases (C1-C4), a gasoline fraction comprising naphtha, a middle distillate fraction comprising kerosene and gas oil and a residual fraction,

e) methanating CO and CO2 carried out in the presence of a methanation catalyst

on at least a part of said gaseous fraction separated in c) before recycle of hydrogen to the hydrotreating in a),
and/or on at least a part of the liquid and gaseous effluent originating from the hydrotreating a),
in which
if methanation e) is implemented between a) and b), the hydroisomerization/hydrocracking b) is carried out on at least a part
of the gaseous and liquid effluent originating from said e),

and
hydrogen in a) is obtained at least partly from the gaseous fraction separated in c).

US Pat. No. 9,222,036

PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF A GASOLINE WITH A LOW SULFUR CONTENT

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. Process for treatment of a gasoline comprising diolefins, olefins, and sulfur-containing compounds including mercaptans,
in which:
Gasoline is injected into a distillation column (3) comprising at least one reaction zone (4) including at least a first catalyst comprising a substrate and at least one element of group VIII, with the injection being
carried out at a level located below the reaction zone (4), in such a way as to bring into contact at least one fraction of the gasoline with the catalyst of the reaction zone (4) and to transform at least a portion of the mercaptans of said fraction into sulfur-containing compounds by reaction with
the diolefins and to produce a desulfurized light gasoline that is drawn off at the top of said distillation column (3); with the process also comprising the following stages:

An intermediate gasoline fraction is drawn off at a level located above the reaction zone (4) and below the top of the distillation column (3);

A heavy gasoline comprising the majority of the sulfur-containing compounds is drawn off at the bottom of the column;
In a demercaptization reactor (13), said intermediate gasoline fraction is brought into contact optionally with hydrogen, in the presence of a second catalyst
in sulfide form comprising a substrate, at least one element selected from group VIII and at least one element selected from
group VIB, with the element content of group VIII being between 1 and 30% by weight of oxide relative to the total weight
of catalyst, the element content of group VIB being between 1 and 30% by weight of oxide relative to the total weight of the
catalyst in such a way as to produce an effluent that contains sulfides;

The effluent that is obtained from the demercaptization reactor is recycled in the distillation column (3).

US Pat. No. 10,184,657

PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR CHEMICAL LOOPING REDOX COMBUSTION WITH CONTROL OF THE HEAT EXCHANGES

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for chemical looping oxidation-reduction combustion of a hydrocarbon feed wherein a redox active mass in form of particles circulates between an oxidation zone and a reduction zone so as to form a circuit, wherein:combustion of said hydrocarbon feed is carried out by contacting with the redox active mass particles in the reduction zone,
the redox active mass particles from the reduction zone are oxidized by contacting with an oxidizing gas stream in the oxidation zone,
the particles are sent to at least one heat exchanger positioned on a particle transport line between the reduction zone and the oxidation zone, and a fluidization gas is sent into said exchanger so as to create a dense fluidized bed comprising the active mass particles, said heat exchanger comprising a heat exchange surface in contact with the fluidized bed,
the heat recovery is controlled in said at least one heat exchanger by varying the fluidized bed level through controlled application of a pressure drop on a fluidization gas outlet positioned in an upper part of the heat exchanger,
wherein the active mass particles are sent to a reservoir zone provided upstream from the heat exchanger, the reservoir zone and the heat exchanger being contained in a single assembly,
the pressure drop applied in the heat exchanger is compensated by a level variation of an active mass particle bed in the reservoir zone communicating with the fluidized bed of the heat exchanger.

US Pat. No. 9,421,493

METHOD FOR ELIMINATING ACID COMPOUNDS FROM A GASEOUS EFFLUENT WITH AN ABSORBENT SOLUTION MADE FROM BIS(AMINO-3-PROPYL)ETHERS

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method of removing acid compounds contained in a gaseous effluent, the gaseous effluent being selected from the group
consisting of natural gas, syngas, combustion fumes, relinery gas, acid gas from amine units, Claus tail gas, biomass fermentation
gas, cement gas plant gas and incinerator fumes, the acid compounds including at least one selected from the group consisting
of CO2,H2S, mercaptans, COS, CS2, and SO2, the method comprising:
contacting the gaseous effluent with an absorbent solution during an acid compound absorption stage, the absorbent solution
comprising:

water,
at least one diamine selected from among the molecules with general formulas (I) and (II):

wherein each radical R is independently selected from among a methyl radical or an ethyl radical.

US Pat. No. 9,297,528

CHEMICAL LOOPING METHOD FOR THE COMBUSTION OF HEAVY LIQUID HYDROCARBON FRACTIONS

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method for combusting a liquid feed by fluidized-bed redox chemical looping combustion, comprising:
oxidizing a redox mass on contact with air in an oxidation reactor to produce an oxidized redox mass and oxygen depleted air;
separating the oxidized redox mass and the oxygen depleted air;
contacting a liquid feed comprising hydrocarbon fractions, alone or in admixture, less than 10 vol. % of which have a boiling
point temperature below 340° C., with the oxidized redox mass as a fluidized bed in a reduction or combustion reactor to produce
a reduced redox mass and an oxidized liquid feed; wherein a residence time of the redox mass in the reduction or combustion
reactor ranges between 1 and 5 minutes, the liquid feed is atomized within the fluidized bed, part of the liquid feed vaporizes
on contact with the redox mass, and another part of the liquid feed condenses so as to form a coke deposit at a surface of
the redox mass; and

reinjecting the reduced redox mass into the oxidation reactor,
wherein the liquid feed is selected from the group consisting of a residue from distillation and a residue from deasphalting,
and

wherein a utilization rate of the available oxygen ranges between 2 and 50 wt. %.

US Pat. No. 9,103,194

METHOD FOR CONSTRUCTING A FRACTURE NETWORK GRID FROM A VORONOI DIAGRAM

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. A method for optimizing the development of a fluid deposit traversed by a network containing fractures in which, based
on observations of the deposit, the deposit is discretized into a set of grid cells with each cell including a discrete fracture
network, each fracture being represented by an isotropic polygonal finite plane in terms of dynamic properties thereof with
the plane comprising at least one segment of intersection corresponding to an intersection between fractures of the network,
comprising:
constructing a Voronoi diagram on each fracture plane by positioning Voronoi cell centers on the at least one segment of intersection;
calculating transmissivities between centers of neighboring cells from a ratio between surface areas of the neighboring cells
and a distance between the neighboring cells;

using the cells and the transmissivities for constructing an image of the fluid deposit; and
using the image of the fluid deposit and a flow simulator to optimize the development of the fluid deposit.

US Pat. No. 9,468,884

PROCESS FOR REMOVING ACIDIC COMPOUNDS FROM A GASEOUS EFFLUENT WITH AN ABSORBENT SOLUTION BASED ON DIHYDROXYALKYLAMINES BEARING SEVERE STERIC HINDRANCE OF THE NITROGEN ATOM

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for removing acidic compounds contained in a gaseous effluent, in which a step of absorption of the acidic compounds
is performed by placing the gaseous effluent in contact with an absorbent solution comprising:
water
at least one nitrogenous compound chosen from di(hydroxyalkyl)monoamines corresponding to one of the formulae (I) and (II)
below:
formula (I) being
in whichR1 and R6 are independently chosen from a hydrogen atom and an alkyl radical containing from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, andR2, R3, R4 and R5 are chosen without preference from a hydrogen atom and an alkyl radical containing from 1 to 4 carbon atoms,
on conditions that at least two of the radicals chosen from R2, R3, R4 and R5 are independently chosen from alkyl radicals
containing from 1 to 4 carbon atoms and that two of the at least two of the radicals chosen from R2, R3, R4, and R5 that are
independently chosen from alkyl radicals containing from 1 to 4 carbon atoms are linked to one of the carbon atoms located
alpha to the nitrogen atom,formula (II) being
in whichR7 is an alkyl radical containing between 1 and 4 carbon atoms,R8 and R9 are independently chosen from a hydrogen atom and an alkyl radical containing from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, andR10 and R11 are independently chosen from a hydrogen atom and an alkyl radical containing from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, on condition
that at least one of the radicals R10 or R11 is an alkyl radical containing between 1 and 4 carbon atoms.

US Pat. No. 9,494,315

CHEMICAL-LOOPING COMBUSTION METHOD WITH ASHES AND FINES REMOVAL AT THE OXIDATION ZONE OUTLET AND PLANT USING SAME

TOTAL SA, Courbevoie (FR...

1. A method for chemical-looping combustion of a hydrocarbon feedstock of solid particles, wherein an oxygen-carrying material
circulates in form of particles, comprising:
contacting hydrocarbon feedstock particles with the oxygen-carrying material particles in a reduction zone R0,

contacting the oxygen-carrying material particles from the reduction zone R0 with an oxidizing gas stream in a reactive oxidation zone R1,

sending a transported phase from the reactive zone R1 comprising gas and solid to a gas-solid separation zone S2 so as to separate: a predominantly gaseous transported phase comprising fly ashes and oxygen-carrying material fines, and
a solid stream comprising the major part of the fines, the fly ashes and the major part of the oxygen-carrying material particles,

sending the solid stream from the gas-solid separation zone S2 to a dense fluidized phase elutriation separation zone S3 fluidized by a non-reducing gas allowing to separate the fines and the fly ashes from the oxygen-carrying material particles
so as to send a particle stream comprising the major part of the oxygen carrier particles to the reduction zone R0, and to discharge through a discharge line a predominantly gaseous effluent comprising the major part of the fly ashes and
of the oxygen-carrying material fines.

US Pat. No. 9,365,470

SIMULATED COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION PROCESS AND DEVICE WITH LOW PRESSURE DROP AND HIGH NUMBER OF ZONES

IFP Energies Nouvelles, ...

1. A process for simulated counter-current (SCC) chromatographic separation of a feed F having at least one adsorption column
divided into zones, each zone comprising a certain number of beds, said column being composed of a plurality of beds of adsorbent
separated by plates Pi each comprising a distribution/extraction system, in which process the feed F is supplied to at least one supply point and
a desorbant D is supplied to at least one supply point, and at least one extract E and at least one raffinate R are extracted,
the supply and withdrawal points being shifted over time by a value corresponding to one bed of adsorbent with a switch period
ST and determining a plurality of functional zones of the SMB, each zone being included between an injection point and the
immediately consecutive withdrawal point, or between a withdrawal point and the immediately consecutive injection point;
the process being characterized in that the feed and desorbant injection streams are each divided into N streams (N being
a whole number strictly greater than 1), injected respectively into N distinct feed injection points and N distinct desorbant
injection points, and in that the extract and raffinate withdrawal streams are also each divided into N streams each withdrawn
from N distinct withdrawal points, the device being constituted by 4×N chromatographic zones, in which process the injection
and withdrawal points are positioned such that:

a desorbant injection point is positioned between the raffinate withdrawal point and an extract withdrawal point, the 3 points:
raffinate withdrawal, desorbant injection and extract withdrawal, being consecutive;

an extract withdrawal point is positioned between a desorbant injection point and a feed injection point, the 3 points: desorbant
injection, extract withdrawal and feed injection, being consecutive;

a feed injection point is positioned between an extract withdrawal point and a raffinate withdrawal point, the 3 points: extract
withdrawal, feed injection and raffinate withdrawal, being consecutive;

a raffinate withdrawal point is positioned between a feed injection point and a desorbant injection point, the 3 points: feed
injection, raffinate withdrawal and desorbant injection, being consecutive.

US Pat. No. 9,346,773

THERMO-MECHANICALLY INTEGRATED PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHYLENE OXIDE FROM A FLOW OF ETHANOL

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for the dehydration of an ethanol feed to ethylene then oxidation of the ethylene to ethylene oxide, comprising:
a) optionally preheating said ethanol feed to a temperature in the range 70° C. to 130° C. by exchange of heat with the effluent
obtained from e);

b) optionally pre-treating of the ethanol feed over an acidic solid operating at a temperature in the range 70° C. to 130°
C. in order to produce a pre-treated ethanol feed;

c) vaporization of a vaporization feed comprising said pre-treated ethanol feed and at least a portion of a flow of diluting
water comprising ethanol recycled to an outlet from g) to an exchanger by means of an exchange of heat with effluent obtained
from the last reactor of e), said vaporization feed being introduced into said vaporization at a pressure in the range 0.1
to 1.4 MPa so as to produce a vaporized feed;

d) compressing and superheating said vaporized feed in a compressor so as to produce a feed which is compressed and at a temperature
for supplying to dehydration e), said compressor being driven by a condensing turbine having an intake which is a quench flow
vaporized in oxidation i), exhaust flow leaving the condensing turbine being recycled to the oxidation i);

e) dehydration of the compressed feed, said feed having a ratio of water to ethanol in the range 1 to 4 by weight, in at least
one adiabatic reactor containing at least one dehydration catalyst and in which a dehydration reaction takes place, operating
at an inlet temperature in the range 350° C. to 550° C. and at an inlet pressure in the range 0.3 to 1.8 MPa;

f) separating effluent obtained from the last adiabatic reactor of e) into an effluent comprising ethylene at a pressure of
less than 1.6 MPa and an effluent comprising water;

g) purification of at least a portion of the effluent comprising water obtained from f) and separation into at least a flow
of treated water and a flow of diluting water comprising ethanol, the latter being recycled upstream of the vaporization c);

h) compression of the effluent comprising ethylene obtained from f);
i) oxidation of the effluent obtained from h) into ethylene oxide, said oxidation comprising at least one tubular oxidation
reactor cooled by vaporization of said quench flow obtained from d), said quench flow which has thus been reheated being recycled
to d).

US Pat. No. 9,321,970

PRODUCTION OF PARAFFIN FUELS USING RENEWABLE MATERIALS BY A CONTINUOUS HYDROTREATMENT COMPRISING A PRE-TREATMENT STEP

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for the hydrotreatment of a feed originating from renewable sources in order to produce paraffinic hydrocarbons
comprising:
a) mixing a total feed flow F0 with a flow RPP comprising at least a portion of a liquid fraction R containing paraffinic hydrocarbons from the separation
d), said mixture being heated to a temperature of between 130 and 320° C.;

b) introducing said mixture into a pre-treatment zone in which flow of said mixture takes place via a porous medium comprising
a fixed particle bed , said fixed bed having a void fraction of between 0.25 and 0.8;

c) hydrotreating effluent from the pretreatment zone in the presence of hydrogen in excess of theoretical hydrogen consumption
and under hydrotreatment conditions in a fixed bed reactor having a plurality of catalytic zones disposed in series and comprising
a hydrotreatment catalyst, by dividing effluent resulting from the pre-treatment zone (F+?RPP), ? being between 0 and 1, into
at least a certain number of different part flows (F1+?1RPP) to (Fn+?nRPP) equal to the number of catalytic zones n in a fixed bed reactor, injecting a first part flow (F1+?1RPP) into a first catalytic zone, injecting a second part flow (F2+?2RPP) into the second catalytic zone and so on, if n greater than 2, the sum of the ?i being equal to ?; the various part flows are injected into successive catalytic zones in increasing proportions such that
F1/F is less than or equal to F2/F, which itself is less than or equal to F3/F and so on until F(n-1)/F is less than or equal to Fn/F, in order to produce an effluent containing paraffinic hydrocarbons;

d) subjecting said effluent containing paraffinic hydrocarbons to at least one separation allowing separation of at least
one gaseous fraction and at least one liquid fraction containing the paraffinic hydrocarbons;

e) dividing at least a portion R of said liquid fraction containing the paraffinic hydrocarbons from b) mixing RPP into at
least a flow RLC and into said recycle flow RPP upstream of a) and with the total feed flow F0, dividing said flow RLC into at least a certain number of different part flows R1-Rn less than or equal to the number of catalytic zones n in the reactor, said flows R1-Rn being recycled upstream of the catalytic zones 1-n, the flow of paraffinic hydrocarbons (R1+?1RPP) sent to the first catalytic zone and the part flow F1 of the feed introduced into the first catalytic zone having a weight ratio greater than or equal to 10.

US Pat. No. 9,452,400

SYSTEM FOR DENSE LOADING OF CATALYST INTO BAYONET TUBES FOR A STEAM REFORMING EXCHANGER-REACTOR USING REMOVABLE DEFLECTORS

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A device for densely filling catalyst specially adapted to a steam reforming exchanger-reactor consisting of a plurality
of bayonet tubes enclosed in a shell, the catalyst being constituted by particles occupying at least part of the annular space
(4) included between an internal tube (5) and an external tube (6), the assembly of these two tubes constituting a bayonet tube, the width of said annular space being in the range 30 mm to
80 mm, and its height being in the range 10 to 20 meters, the catalyst particles being in the form of cylinders with an approximate
height of 10 mm to 20 mm and an approximate diameter of 10 mm to 20 mm, said annular space (4) being divided into two or three substantially identical horizontal sectors, each sector extending the entire length of the
bayonet tube, by means of a “centralizer” system disposed at the head of the annular space, each sector being equipped with
its own system of deflectors, each system of deflectors consisting of:
a series of deflectors (7) distributed in a regular vertical manner along the annular space (4) and separated by a vertical distance in the range 50 cm to 150 cm;

said deflectors (7) being connected together via a chain (8) which winds around a spooler (10) located outside the tube to be filled, and the particles of catalyst being contained in:

a central feed hopper (1) for delivering the particles onto a conveyor belt or a shaker conveyor (2) supplying the annular space (4), via:

a funnel (3) via which the particles flow into the interior of the annular space (4).

US Pat. No. 9,090,832

INJECTION OF ADDITIVE INTO A UNIT FOR SYNTHESISING HYDROCARBONS STARTING FROM SYNTHESIS GAS ENABLING A HOMOGENOUS CONCENTRATION OF CATALYST TO BE CONTROLLED AND MAINTAINED

ENI S.P.A., Roma (IT) IF...

1. A process for synthesizing hydrocarbons starting from a feedstock containing synthesis gas, comprising:
reacting said feedstock in a three-phase reaction section in which solid Fischer-Tropsch catalyst particles are maintained
in suspension in a liquid phase by circulation of a gaseous phase from the bottom to the top of said reaction section, the
catalyst suspension in the liquid phase forming a slurry,

wherein the following stages are carried to control and maintain homogeneity of the concentration of said solid Fischer-Tropsch
catalyst particles in said reaction section:

(a) measuring the differential pressures ?Pi between two consecutive pressure measuring points spaced apart by ?hi and calculating the pressure drops per meter ?Gi=?Pi/?hi for all i between 1 and n-1, wherein i is a natural number between 1 and n-1 and n represents the number of pressure measuring
points disposed along the longitudinal axis of the reactor and being at least equal to 3 wherein measurement point 1 is the
lowest measurement point and measurement point n is the highest measurement point in said reaction section,

(b) calculating a value corresponding to the difference between two consecutive pressure drops per meter divided by their
mean (?Gi+1—?Gi)/((?Gi+1+?Gi)/2), for each pressure drop per meter ?Gi in the catalyst suspension in the liquid phase,

(c) injecting at least one additive comprising at least one organosilicon polymer at least at the bottom of said reaction
section when at least one of the values calculated in the stage (b) is greater than or equal to 5%.

US Pat. No. 9,321,973

PROCESS FOR THE HYDROCRACKING OF HYDROCARBON CUTS USING A CATALYST BASED ON HETEROPOLYANIONS TRAPPED IN A MESOSTRUCTURED OXIDE SUPPORT

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for hydrocracking at least one hydrocarbon-containing feedstock, in which at least 50% by weight of the compounds
boil between 340° C. and 540° C., by a catalyst comprising, in its oxide form, at least one metal selected from the group
consisting of the metals of group VIB, the metals of group VIII and the metals of group VB of the periodic table, alone or
in a mixture, said metals being present in the form of at least one polyoxometallate of formula (HhXxMmOy)q? in which X is an element selected from the group consisting of phosphorus (P), silicon (Si), boron (B), nickel (Ni) and cobalt
(Co), said element being alone, M is one or more element(s) selected from the group consisting of vanadium (V), niobium (Nb),
tantalum (Ta), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co), O is oxygen, H is hydrogen, h is an integer between
0 and 12, x is an integer between 0 and 4, m is an integer equal to 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 or 18, y is an integer between
17 and 72 and q is an integer between 1 and 20, said polyoxometallates being present within a mesostructured matrix based
on oxide of at least one element Y selected from the group consisting of silicon, aluminium, titanium, zirconium, gallium,
and cerium and a mixture of at least one of these elements, said matrix having a pore size between 1.5 and 50 nm and having
amorphous walls of thickness between 1 and 30 nm, said polyoxometallates present within said matrix are trapped in the walls
of said matrix, said catalyst having been sulphurized.
US Pat. No. 9,227,873

MATERIAL BASED ON ALUMINA, WITH A MULTISCALE STRUCTURE, COMPRISING AN ALUMINIUM PHOSPHATE BINDER WITH GOOD MECHANICAL STRENGTH, AND PROCESS FOR ITS PREPARATION

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A material in the form of a millimetric article constituted by coarse alumina particles with a median diameter in the range
10 to 200 ?m, said coarse particles being at a distance, from one interface to another, of less than 10 ?m, fine alumina particles
with a median diameter in the range 0.5 to 10 ?m, said fine particles being at a distance, from one interface to another,
of less than 5 ?m and being located in the space between the coarse particles, and a binder constituted by aluminium phosphate,
said binder being located in the space between said fine and coarse particles, said material having a mesoporous volume, measured
by mercury porosimetry, in the range 0.2 to 2 mL/g, a macroporous volume, measured by mercury porosimetry, in the range 0.05
to 0.2 mL/g and a BET specific surface area in the range 80 to 350 m2/g.

US Pat. No. 9,211,495

ABSORBENT SOLUTION CONTAINING A BREAKDOWN INHIBITOR DERIVED FROM PYRIMIDINE OR FROM TRIAZINE AND ABSORPTION PROCESS FOR ACID COMPOUNDS CONTAINED IN A GASEOUS EFFLUENT

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. A method of absorbing acidic compounds contained in a gaseous effluent, comprising:
bringing a gaseous effluent containing acidic compounds into contact with a solution comprising:
a) at least one amine selected from the group consisting of N,N,N?,N?,N?-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine, piperazine, monoethanolamine,
diethanolamine, methyldiethanolamine, diisopropanolamine, diglycolamine, a glycine salt and a taurine salt,

b) water,
c) at least one degradation-inhibiting compound for limiting the degradation of said amine, said degradation-inhibiting compound
corresponding to one of the following general formulas:

in which X is selected from
a hydrogen atom,
an alkali or alkaline-earth element,
a monovalent or multivalent metal,
NH4+ or ammonium cation resulting from the protonation of an amine function,

a phosphonium cation,in which each of the radicals R1, R2 and R3 is selected independently from:
a hydrogen atom,
a hydrocarbon radical comprising 1 to 12 carbon atoms,
a radical

 in which W is selected from a sulfur atom and an oxygen atom and Y is selected from:
a hydrogen atom,
a hydrocarbon radical comprising 1 to 12 carbon atoms,
an alkali or alkaline-earth element,
a monovalent or multivalent metal,
NH4+ or an ammonium cation resulting from the protonation of an amine function,

a phosphonium cation,and in which each of the radicals R4 and R5 is selected independently from:
a hydrogen atom,
a hydrocarbon radical comprising 1 to 12 carbon atoms.

US Pat. No. 9,556,024

INTEGRATED METHOD FOR GASIFICATION AND INDIRECT COMBUSTION OF SOLID HYDROCARBON FEEDSTOCKS IN A CHEMICAL LOOP

TOTAL SA, Courbevoie (FR...

1. An integrated method for gasification and indirect combustion of a solid hydrocarbon feedstock in a chemical loop, comprising:
contacting solid hydrocarbon feedstock with water in a gasification reaction zone RG to conduct an endothermic gasification
reaction, discharge ashes and produce a gaseous effluent comprising syngas CO, H2 and H2O, wherein oxygen for the endothermic gasification reaction is supplied only from the water or the water and CO2;

supplying reduction reaction zone RR of a redox chemical loop wherein oxygen-carrying solid particles Me/MeO circulate with
at least part of gaseous effluent comprising syngas CO, H2 and H2O produced in the gasification reaction zone to reduce the oxygen-carrying solid particles Me/MeO and combust the syngas to
produce a CO2 and H2O-concentrated gaseous effluent; and

reoxidizing the oxygen-carrying solid particles from reduction reaction zone RR of the chemical loop in oxidation reaction
zone RO by means of an oxidizing gas and discharging fumes;

wherein contacting of the solid feedstock with water in the gasification reaction zone is performed without direct contact
with the oxygen-carrying solid particles Me/MeO, and

wherein energy required for the endothermic gasification reaction in gasification reaction zone RG is provided at least partly
by exothermic combustion of all or part of the syngas in the redox chemical loop.

US Pat. No. 9,475,999

FLEXIBLE PROCESS FOR TRANSFORMATION OF ETHANOL INTO MIDDLE DISTILLATES

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. A process for the production of middle distillate hydrocarbon bases from an ethanol feedstock that is produced from a renewable
source that is obtained from biomass, said process comprising at least:
a) purification of said ethanol feedstock to produce a purified feedstock,
b) transformation of said purified feedstock obtained from a) into an olefinic effluent comprising at least 50% by weight
of olefins having between four to six carbon atoms relative to the total mass of the hydrocarbon compounds that are formed,
whereby said transformation is conducted in the presence of a catalyst comprising at least one ferrierite zeolite,

c) separation of the olefinic effluent that is obtained from b) by eliminating at least a portion of water that is formed
during b) and thereafter producing at least one hydrocarbon gaseous effluent that for the most part has three or fewer carbon
atoms and at least one olefinic hydrocarbon liquid effluent that for the most part has more than four carbon atoms,

d) oligomerization of at least a portion of the hydrocarbon gaseous effluent and a portion of the olefinic hydrocarbon liquid
effluent obtained from c) in the presence of a zeolitic catalyst comprising ZSM-5, NU-10, or ZBM-30 or a mixture thereof,
producing an effluent comprising middle distillate hydrocarbon bases, and

e) fractionation of the effluent that is obtained from d).
US Pat. No. 9,504,990

THIORESISTANT CATALYST, MANUFACTURING PROCESS AND USE IN SELECTIVE HYDROGENATION

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A thioresistant catalyst comprising an active phase deposited on a support,
said active phase consisting of at least one noble metal from group VIIIB in the reduced form, which is selected from the
group consisting of platinum and palladium and at least 2% to 50% by weight of a metallic oxide from group IB or from group
IIB with respect to the total catalyst weight, said metallic oxide being selected from the group consisting of copper oxide,
zinc oxide and cadmium oxide,

said support being selected from the group consisting of refractory oxides, coal, clays, silica-alumina and their mixtures,
and

said support having a specific surface area of 110 to 300 m2/g.

US Pat. No. 9,132,375

SHAPING CAPTURE MASSES FOR THE PURIFICATION OF A LIQUID OR GAS FEED CONTAINING HEAVY METALS

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A fixed bed process for the elimination of heavy metals contained in a gaseous or liquid effluent, comprising bringing
the effluent into contact with a capture mass in the form of a monolithic or supported extrudate comprising an active phase
containing at least sulphur in the elemental form or cuprous copper sulphide, CuS, or the metallic sulphide FeS2, said extrudate being characterized by a length h in the range 0.5 to 100 mm and a section comprising at least three lobes.
US Pat. No. 9,505,686

PROCESS FOR THE SELECTIVE HYDROGENATION OF A GASOLINE

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. A process of selective hydrogenation of a gasoline comprising polyunsaturated compounds and sulphurous light compounds,
said process enables, conjointly, hydrogenation of the polyunsaturated compounds into monounsaturated compounds, weighting
of the sulphurous saturated light compounds by reaction with the monounsaturated compounds, and isomerisation of the monounsaturated
compounds comprising an external C?C double bond into their isomer having an internal C?C double bond, said process is conducted
in the presence of a catalyst containing at least one group VIb metal and at least one group VIII metal deposited on a porous
support, wherein:
the content by weight of oxide of the group VIb element with reference to the weight of the catalyst is 6 to 18%;
the content by weight of oxide of the group VIII element with reference to the weight of the catalyst is 4 to 12%;
the specific surface area of the catalyst is 200 to 270 m2/g;

the density of the group VIb element, expressed as being the ratio of the said content by weight of oxide of the group VIb
element to the specific surface area of the catalyst, is 4×10?4 g/m2 to 6×10?4; and

the molar ratio between the group VIII metal and the group VIb metal is 0.6 to 3 mol/mol.
US Pat. No. 10,544,276

PROCESS FOR THE DEPOLYMERIZATION OF A POLYESTER COMPRISING OPAQUE POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE

IFP Energies Nouvelles, ...

1. A process comprising depolymerization of a polyester feedstock comprising opaque PET, the said feedstock comprising from 0.1% to 10% by weight of pigment, the said process comprising at least:a) conditioning the polyester feedstock;
b) depolymerization by glycolysis of the effluent from a) with diol, carried out at a temperature of between 200 and 400° C., with from 1 to 20 mol of diol per mole of diester in the said polyester feedstock and a residence time of the polyester of between 0.1 and 5 h, converting the PET into BHET monomer and BHET oligomers;
c) separation of the diol from the effluent from b), carried out at a temperature of between 100 and 250° C., at a lower pressure than that of b) and producing a diol effluent and a liquid effluent rich in monomers, carried out in 1 to 5 successive gas/liquid separation sections, the liquid effluent from a preceding section feeding a subsequent section, all of the gas effluents being condensed to form the diol effluent, a liquid effluent resulting from the final gas/liquid separation section comprising the liquid effluent rich in monomers;
d) separation of the liquid effluent rich in monomers resulting from c) into a heavy impurities effluent and a prepurified monomers effluent carried out at a temperature of less than 250° C. and a pressure of less than 0.001 MPa with a liquid residence time of less than 10 min; and
e) decoloration of the prepurified monomers effluent, carried out at a temperature of between 100 and 250° C. and at a pressure of between 0.1 and 1.0 MPa in the presence of an adsorbent and producing a purified monomers effluent.
US Pat. No. 9,395,272

METHOD OF DETECTING NITROGEN COMPOUNDS CONTAINED IN EXHAUST GASES, NOTABLY OF INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method of detecting nitrogen compound emissions in exhaust gases treated with selective catalytic reduction achieved
by injecting a reducing agent into the gases and by passing these gases through a catalyst, characterized in that the method
consists in:
sending to a computing unit the signal collected by a gas detector arranged in the exhaust gas downstream from the catalyst
and representative of the amount of NOx (NOxsonde) at the catalyst outlet,

decomposing this signal into a value representative of the effective NOx amount (NOxréel) at the outlet of the catalyst established by the SCR catalyst model, into a detector perturbation coefficient (k) and into
a value representative of the ammonia amount (NH3réel) via an integrated model so as to obtain NOxsonde=NOxréel+k.NH3réel,

evaluating coefficient (k) from this decomposition,
determining the presence of nitrogen compounds downstream from the catalyst when coefficient (k) is greater than or equal
to 1.

US Pat. No. 9,321,041

PROCESS FOR HYDROTREATING A HYDROCARBON CUT WITH A BOILING POINT OF MORE THAN 250° C. IN THE PRESENCE OF A SULPHIDE CATALYST PREPARED USING A CYCLIC OLIGOSACCHARIDE

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for preparing a catalyst comprising at least one metal from group VIII, at least one metal from group VIB and
at least one support formed from at least one oxide, said process comprising, in succession, at least:
i) at least one of i1)-i3):
i1) bringing at least one pre-catalyst comprising at least said metal from group VIII, at least said metal from group VIB
and at least said support into contact with at least one organic compound formed from at least one cyclic oligosaccharide
composed of at least 6 ?-(1,4)-bonded glucopyranose subunits;

i2) bringing at least said support into contact with at least one solution containing at least one precursor of at least said
metal from group VIII, at least one precursor of at least said metal from group VIB and at least one organic compound formed
from at least one cyclic oligosaccharide composed of at least 6 ?-(1,4)-bonded glucopyranose subunits; or

i3) bringing at least said support into contact with at least one organic compound formed from at least one cyclic oligosaccharide
composed of at least 6 ?-(1,4)-bonded glucopyranose subunits followed by at least once bringing the solid derived from (i3)
into contact with at least one precursor of at least said metal from group VIII and at least one precursor of at least said
metal from group VIB;

ii) drying at least once; and
iii) heat treatment at least once to decompose said organic compound.

US Pat. No. 9,260,358

PROCESS FOR OLIGOMERIZATION OF OLEFINS THAT USES A CATALYTIC COMPOSITION THAT COMPRISES AN ORGANOMETALLIC COMPLEX THAT CONTAINS A PHENOXY LIGAND THAT IS FUNCTIONALIZED BY A HETEROATOM

IFP Energies Nouvelles, ...

1. A process comprising catalytically oligomerizing olefins into compounds or into a mixture of compounds of formula CpH2p with 4?p?80, the catalyst being a catalytic composition comprising at least one organometallic complex of an element of group
IV, which is titanium, zirconium or hafnium, wherein said organometallic complex contains at least one aryloxy ligand functionalized
by a heteroatom, which is nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus or sulfur or by an aromatic group, said organometallic complex having
the following formula:
[M(OAr)nY(4-n)]

wherein:
M is an element from group IV, which is titanium, zirconium, or hafnium,
Y is an atom of chlorine, or bromine, or a hydrocarbyl radical that comprises 1 to 30 carbon atoms, or a radical, which is
alkoxy R?O—, amido R?2N—, or carboxylate R?COO—, where R? is a hydrocarbyl radical comprising 1 to 30 carbon atoms,

n is an integer of 1 to 4,
the ligand —OAr is an aryloxy ligand of the formula:

in which:
R2, R3, R4 and R5, identical or different, represent a hydrogen atom, a halogen, or a hydrocarbyl radical that comprises 1 to 30 carbon atoms,

B is methoxy (—OMe), dimethylamino (—NMe2), or pyrrolidino, and A is —CH2—, —C(CH3)2— or —(CH2)2—.

US Pat. No. 9,089,825

EXCHANGER-REACTOR FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN WITH AN INTEGRATED STEAM GENERATION BUNDLE

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. An exchanger-reactor for carrying out endothermic reactions, comprising a plurality of bayonet tubes (4) suspended on the upper dome (2) of said reactor and extending to the lower bottom (3), the bayonet tubes (4) being used to carry out the endothermic chemical reaction or reactions and being enclosed in a shell (1) comprising an inlet pipe (E) for the hot flue gas supplying heat to the bayonet tubes (4) and at least one outlet pipe (S) for evacuating cold flue gas following heat exchange, the exchanger-reactor further comprising
a steam generation bundle constituted by a plurality of vertical tubes (5) also suspended on the upper dome (2) of the exchanger-reactor and contained in a peripheral space (8) included between an internal baffle (Bi) substantially parallel to the vertical wall of the shell (1) and said vertical wall (1), said internal baffle (Bi) having at least one opening (Oi) for transferring flue gas (10) from the core of the reactor to the peripheral space (8), the vertical tubes (5) for steam generation being supplied with water via a lower feeder head (9) located in the lower portion of the peripheral space (8), and the liquid-steam mixture coming from the vertical tubes (5) being collected in an upper collector (7) located above the upper dome (2) of the reactor exchanger, the lower line (14) connecting the liquid phase of the separator drum (6) to the upper collector (7) and the upper line (13) connecting the upper collector (7) to the vapour phase of the separator drum (6).
US Pat. No. 9,079,774

INORGANIC MATERIAL MADE OF SPHERICAL PARTICLES OF SPECIFIC SIZE AND HAVING METALLIC NANOPARTICLES TRAPPED IN A MESOSTRUCTURED MATRIX

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. An inorganic material comprising at least two elementary spherical particles, each one of said spherical particles comprising
metallic nanoparticles of size ranging between 1 and 300 nm and a mesostructured matrix based on an oxide of at least one
element X that is silicon, aluminium, titanium, tungsten, zirconium, gallium, germanium, tin, antimony, lead, vanadium, iron,
manganese, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, yttrium, cerium, gadolinium, europium neodymium, or a mixture of at least two of these
elements, said mesostructured matrix having a pore diameter ranging between 1.5 and 30 nm and having amorphous walls of thickness
ranging between 1 and 30 nm, said elementary spherical particles having a diameter D greater than 10 ?m and less than or equal
to 100 ?m.

US Pat. No. 9,286,737

METHOD OF DETERMINING AN ECO-DRIVING INDICATOR FOR THE TRAVEL OF A VEHICLE

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method of determining at least one eco-driving indicator of travel of a vehicle, the travel corresponding to motion of
the vehicle between two successive stops of the vehicle, comprising:
a) measuring an instantaneous speed of the vehicle during the travel;
b) identifying at least one breakpoint of the travel with each breakpoint being associated with a travel constraint where
the instant speed has been modified according to conditions external to the travel;

c) dividing the travel into at least one segment with each segment being defined between two successive breakpoints and determining
for each segment a distance and an average speed of the segment by the measured instant speed; and

d) determining, as a first eco-driving indicator, an optimal speed of the travel, the optimal speed being calculated for each
segment by an optimization algorithm implemented in a program executed on a computer that determines a speed minimizing energy
consumption of the vehicle with the algorithm being constrained by the measured instant speed at the breakpoints, by the distance
and by the average speed of the segment.

US Pat. No. 9,101,919

OLEFIN OLIGOMERIZATION METHOD INVOLVING A CATALYTIC SYSTEM BASED ON ORGANOMETALLIC COMPLEXES AND A POROUS SOLID

IFP Energies Nouvelles, ...

1. A catalytic method of oligomerizing olefins M selectively to oligomers Mn, comprising selectively oligomerizing olefins M to oligomers Mn by contacting said olefins M with a catalytic system comprising
at least one organometallic complex of a metal of groups 4 to 10 of the periodic table of molecular volume Vmo, and

a microporous or mesoporous solid selected from the group consisting of zeolites, organic-inorganic hybrid materials, and
mesoporous materials, whose pore diameter ? expressed in nm is between 1.01*?min and 1.6*?min, wherein ?minis defined as a function of the volume (Vmo+nVmM), expressed in nm3, where n is the number of monomeric olefins strung together upon obtaining a metallacycle intermediate obtained through the
contact between the olefins M and said organometallic complex of a metal of groups 4 to 10 of the periodic table, and VmM is defined as the molecular volume of the monomeric olefin, wherein the relation between diameter ?min and volume (Vmo+nVmM) is as follows:

?min=1.579(Vmo+nVmM)1/3?0.323,

wherein molecular volume Vm is defined as the volume delimited by the envelope surface of Van der Waals spheres centered on
the atomic nuclei belonging to the organometallic complex and the olefin M in its geometry in the fundamental state as given
by a crystallographic experiment or an ab initio theoretical calculation,

wherein
oligomer Mn is decene-1 and M is ethylene, or

n is 14.
US Pat. No. 9,623,363

PROCESS FOR CAPTURING SULPHUR IMPURITIES USING SPECIFIC RETAINING MATERIALS

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. A process for capturing sulphur impurities, present in gas feeds containing H2 and/or CO, consisting of:
a. desulfurization by bringing the feed to be treated into contact, at a temperature of between 20 and 450° C., with a retaining
material containing an active phase consisting of:

ZnMoO4
b. optionally, rendering the sulfurized retaining material inert,
c. oxidative regeneration of said retaining material,
d. optionally, rendering the regenerated retaining material inert, and
e. desulfurization by bringing the feed to be treated into contact, at a temperature of between 20 and 450° C., with said
retaining material that has been regenerated and rendered inert,

said retaining material having been regenerated at a temperature of between 20 and 600° C.

US Pat. No. 9,422,875

METHOD OF CONTROLLING THE BURNT GAS FRACTION IN AN ENGINE CYLINDER WITH EGR AND IGR

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method of controlling an internal-combustion engine comprising at least one cylinder, at least one intake valve in the
at least one cylinder and at least one exhaust valve for discharging burnt gas from the at least one cylinder, an external
exhaust gas recirculation circuit and a variable timing means, including a first actuator of the at least one intake valve
and a second actuator of the at least one exhaust valve comprising:
acquiring a torque setpoint for the engine;
determining a position setpoint for the first actuator and a position setpoint for the second actuator by using a burnt gas
flow model which relates position setpoints of the actuators to the engine torque setpoint and includes a cylinder filling
model, the burnt gas flow model characterizing burnt gas flow in the external exhaust gas recirculation circuit and through
the variable timing means; and

controlling a burnt gas fraction in the at least one cylinder by controlling the first and second actuators respectively with
the position setpoints; and wherein the burnt gas flow model is constructed using engine maps as a function of the engine
torque setpoint associated with the filling model of the at least one cylinder by

a) determining setpoints relative to pressure in the burnt gas fraction in the intake manifold and a position of the variable
timing means and desired at steady state as a function of the engine torque setpoint;

b) determining a setpoint for the burnt gas fraction in the at least one cylinder by applying the cylinder filling model from
the intake pressure setpoint the burnt gas fraction setpoint in the intake manifold and position setpoints for the first and
second actuators at the steady state; and

c) determining setpoints for the actuators at transient states by inverting the cylinder filling model from an estimated burnt
gas fraction in the intake manifold, a burnt gas fraction setpoint in the at least one cylinder and an estimated pressure
in the intake manifold.

US Pat. No. 9,334,799

METHOD OF ESTIMATING THE INTENSITY OF THE KNOCKING OF AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE BY INVERSION OF A WAVE EQUATION

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method of estimating and controlling in real time intensity of knocking of an internal combustion engine comprising a
cylinder-head, at least one cylinder and at least one vibration sensor providing a continuous vibration signal representative
of vibrations in the at least one cylinder at an output of the cylinder-head which signal is a function of the crankshaft
angle, comprising:
constructing a wave equation model of the cylinder-head based on a physical model describing propagation of waves in a solid
medium;

determining coefficients of a Fourier decomposition of the vibration signal in real time by inverting dynamics of the wave
equation model with an estimator;

computing energy contained in the vibration signal by summing squares of the coefficients of the Fourier decomposition;
determining in real time a parameter correlated with intensity of knocking equal to a square root of a maximum of the energy;
and

using the real time parameter correlated with intensity of knocking in controlling the combustion of the internal combustion
engine to control the intensity of knocking in real time.

US Pat. No. 9,206,094

PROCESS FOR SELECTIVELY HYDROGENATING A GASOLINE CUT IN THE PRESENCE OF A SUPPORTED SULPHIDE CATALYST PREPARED USING AT LEAST ONE CYCLIC OLIGOSACCHARIDE

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for the selective hydrogenation of a gasoline cut containing hydrocarbons having at least 2 double bonds and
containing at least 2 carbon atoms per molecule and having an end point of 250° C. or less, said cut having a fraction of
hydrocarbons with at least two double bonds in the range of 0.5% to 5% by weight and a sulphur content in the range of 200
to 5000 ppm by weight, said process consisting of bringing said gasoline cut into contact with that least one catalyst the
active phase of which comprises at least one metal from group VIII and at least one metal from group VIB deposited on a support
formed from at least one oxide, said catalyst being prepared using a process comprising at least:
i) at least one step for bringing at least said support into contact with at least one solution containing at least one precursor
of at least said metal from group VIII and at least one precursor of at least said metal from group VIB;

ii) at least one step for bringing at least said support into contact with at least one organic compound formed from at least
one cyclic oligosaccharide composed of at least 6 ?-(1,4)-bonded glucopyranose subunits;

iii) at least one calcining step to obtain at least said metal from said group VIII and at least said metal from group VIB
in the oxide form; then

iv) at least one sulphurization step such that said active phase is in the sulphide form; the steps i) and ii) possibly being
carried out separately, in any order, or simultaneously.

US Pat. No. 9,834,731

PROCESS FOR CONVERTING PETROLEUM FEEDSTOCKS COMPRISING A STAGE OF FIXED-BED HYDROTREATMENT, A STAGE OF EBULLATING-BED HYDROCRACKING, A STAGE OF MATURATION AND A STAGE OF SEPARATION OF THE SEDIMENTS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FUEL OILS

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for treating a hydrocarbon-containing feedstock containing at least one hydrocarbon fraction having a sulphur
content of at least 0.1% by weight, an initial boiling temperature of at least 340° C. and a final boiling temperature of
at least 440° C. for obtaining a liquid hydrocarbon-containing fraction having a sediment content after ageing of less than
or equal to 0.1% by weight, said process comprising:
a) treating said hydrocarbon-containing feedstock in a fixed-bed hydrotreatment stage, wherein said hydrocarbon-containing
feedstock and hydrogen are brought into contact with a hydrotreatment catalyst to produce a hydrotreatment effluent,

b) optionally separating said hydrotreatment effluent in a separation stage into at least one light hydrocarbon fraction containing
a fuel base and a heavy fraction containing compounds boiling at at least 350° C.,

c) treating either at least a part of the hydrotreatment effluent originating from a) or at least a part of the heavy fraction
originating from b), in a hydrocracking stage comprising at least one ebullating-bed reactor containing a supported ebullating-bed
catalyst to produce a hydrocracked effluent,

d) separating the hydrocracked effluent in another separation stage to obtain at least one gaseous fraction and at least one
heavy liquid fraction,

e) subjecting said heavy liquid fraction to maturation in a maturation stage during which a part of potential sediments are
converted into existing sediments, wherein said maturation is carried out for a duration of between 60 and 1500 minutes, at
a temperature between 50 and 350° C., at a pressure of less than 20 MPa, and in the presence of an inert gas and/or an oxidizing
gas,

f) separating existing sediments from said heavy liquid fraction originating from e) in a separation stage to obtain a liquid
hydrocarbon-containing fraction having a sediment content after ageing of less than or equal to 0.1% by weight.

US Pat. No. 9,785,802

METHOD OF DETERMINING AN AMOUNT OF ALKALINE AGENT TO BE INJECTED WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method for enhanced recovery of hydrocarbons contained in a porous medium provided underground, comprising a technique
of sweeping the porous medium by an aqueous solution comprising at least one chemical product intended to improve sweeping
of the porous medium, wherein an amount of a buffer alkaline agent solution comprising a buffer alkaline agent is additionally
introduced so as to limit the adsorption of the at least one chemical product, characterized in that the amount of the buffer
alkaline agent to be injected is determined by carrying out the following stages:
modelling an evolution of a pH value in the porous medium after injection of an amount of the buffer alkaline agent solution
into the porous medium, by using a flow simulator modelling a transport of the buffer alkaline agent solution through the
porous medium, characterized in that:

during the modelling, the buffer alkaline agent is considered as a soda pseudo-constituent of concentration equal to an OH—
concentration corresponding to the pH value of the buffer alkaline agent solution injected,

an OH— ions adsorption equation depending on parameters to be calibrated is used, this equation being calibrated to experimental
data for determining an amount of soda pseudo-constituent adsorbed from the concentration of the soda pseudo-constituent,
wherein the adsorption equation has the form of a Langmuir isotherm relative to an OH— concentration, the adsorption equation
is written as follows:

with:
CwOH—: amount, concentration, of the soda pseudo-constituent in the buffer alkaline agent solution

CrOH—: amount, mass fraction, of the soda pseudo-constituent adsorbed

qmax, Ke: parameters of the adsorption equation to be calibrated, and calibration of the adsorption equation is performed by applying
the following stages:

determining an experimental pH profile describing a pH evolution as a function of a volume of solution injected, by injecting
the buffer alkaline agent solution into a sample of the porous medium, and by measuring the pH value of effluents leaving
the sample,

determining a simulated pH profile by modelling the injection of the buffer alkaline agent solution into the sample with the
flow simulator and the adsorption equation,

modifying parameters of the adsorption equation until differences between the simulated profile and the experimental profile
are minimized,

the evolution of the pH value is modelled by modelling the transport of the buffer alkaline agent solution using the determined
amount of soda pseudo-constituent adsorbed and the flow simulator, by considering the buffer alkaline agent to be the soda
pseudo-constituent,

repeating the modelling of an evolution of the pH value for various amounts of the buffer alkaline agent solution injected,
selecting the amount of the buffer alkaline agent solution to be added so as to optimize the enhanced recovery of hydrocarbons.

US Pat. No. 9,089,824

CATALYTIC REACTOR WITH BOX DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A catalytic reactor comprising:
a chamber (1) and at least one solid catalyst bed (2) contained in said chamber (2),

a pipe (3) for supplying said chamber with gas and liquid effluents to be treated, wherein said pipe (3) is in fluid communication with a separation means (4) for separating gas and liquid,

a tank (7) in fluid communication with said separation means for collecting liquid discharged from said separation means (4),

a plate (9) positioned within said chamber between said separation means (4) and said at least one solid catalyst bed (2), wherein said plate (9) comprises at least two closed boxes (10) and at least two vertical tubes (11), each of said vertical tubes being provided with openings (12), each of said vertical tubes (11) being in fluid communication with the interior of one of said at least two boxes (10) and each of said vertical tubes (11) providing passage of fluid through said plate (9),

liquid distribution means (8) for providing fluid of liquid from said tank (7) into said at least two boxes (10) of said plate (9).

US Pat. No. 9,809,504

PROCESS FOR TRANSFORMATION OF A FEEDSTOCK COMPRISING A LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS USING AN ACIDIC HOMOGENEOUS CATALYST IN COMBINATION WITH A HETEROGENEOUS CATALYST COMPRISING A SPECIFIC SUBSTRATE

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for transformation of a feedstock that is selected from among a lignocellulosic biomass and carbohydrates, by
themselves or in a mixture, into mono-oxidized or poly-oxidized compounds, in which said feedstock is brought into contact,
simultaneously, with a catalytic system that comprises one or more homogeneous catalyst(s) and one or more heterogeneous catalyst(s),
in the same reaction chamber, in the presence of at least one solvent, with said solvent being water by itself or in a mixture
with at least one other solvent, under a reducing atmosphere, and at a temperature of between 50° C. and 300° C., and at a
pressure of between 0.5 MPa and 20 MPa, in which
said homogeneous catalyst(s) is/are selected from among inorganic Brønsted acids and organic Brønsted acids
said heterogeneous catalyst(s) is/are selected from among heterogeneous catalyst(s) comprising: at least one metal that is
selected from among the metals of groups 6 to 11 and the metals of group 14 of the periodic table; and a substrate that is
selected from among perovskites of formula ABO3, in which A is selected from among elements Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba, and La, and B is selected from among: elements Fe, Mn, Ti,
and Zr; oxides of elements selected from among lanthanum (La), neodymium (Nd) and yttrium (Y), cerium (Ce) and niobium (Nb),
by themselves or in a mixture; and mixed oxides that are selected from among aluminates of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and cobalt
(Co), by themselves or in a mixture.

US Pat. No. 9,586,828

PROCESS FOR PRODUCING MIDDLE DISTILLATES BY HYDROCRACKING OF FEEDSTOCKS OBTAINED BY THE FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS IN THE PRESENCE OF A CATALYST COMPRISING AN IZM-2 SOLID

ENI S.P.A., Rome (IT) IF...


where ss=very strong; s=strong; m=moderate; mw=moderately weak; w=weak; ww=very weak and having a chemical composition, expressed
on an anhydrous base, in terms of oxide moles, by the following general formula: XO2:aY2O3:bM2/nO, wherein X represents at least one tetravalent element, Y represents at least one trivalent element and M is at least one
alkali metal and/or an alkaline earth metal of valency n, a and b representing respectively the number of moles of Y2O3 and M2/nO and a is between 0 and 0.5 and b is between 0 and 1
wherein the paraffinic feedstock are obtained from lignocellulosic feedstocks, oils, fats from vegetables or animals, or from
mixtures thereof, and

wherein the process operates a temperature from 320 to 420° C.
US Pat. No. 9,132,414

PROCESS FOR DEHYDRATION AND ISOMERIZATION OF C4 ALCOHOLS USING AN AMORPHOUS SOLID WITH SUITABLE POROSITY

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method of producing C4 olefins, comprising passing a feed of C4 monohydric alcohol over a catalyst, dehydrating of the
monohydric alcohol to at least one olefin, and skeletal isomerization of at least one of the olefins produced in one and the
same reaction vessel, wherein the reactions of dehydration and of isomerization are carried out in the presence of the catalyst,
optionally containing a promoter, said catalyst being based on alumina, free from halogens and having a pore distribution
such that the volume of pores with diameter greater than 0.1 ?m measured by mercury porosimetry according to standard ASTM
D4284-83 is between 10 mL/100 g and 30 mL/100 g, and a total pore volume defined by analysis using mercury porosimetry between
0.45 and 0.9 ml/g wherein said catalyst has a surface area SBET between 180 and 270 m2/g.

US Pat. No. 9,079,812

PROCESS FOR DEHYDRATION OF DILUTE ETHANOL INTO ETHYLENE WITH LOW ENERGY CONSUMPTION WITHOUT RECYCLING OF WATER

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for dehydration of an ethanol feedstock, comprising ethanol of between 2 and 55% by weight, into ethylene comprising:
a) vaporizing dilute ethanol feedstock in an exchanger, said exchanger exchanging heat with effluent that is obtained from
a last adiabatic reactor, said dilute ethanol feedstock being introduced into said exchanger at a pressure that is lower than
that of the effluent that is obtained from the last reactor,

b) compressing vaporized dilute ethanol feedstock in a compressor,
c) introducing vaporized and compressed feedstock, at an entrance temperature of between 350 and 550° C. and at an entrance
pressure of between 0.3 and 1.8 MPa, in at least one adiabatic reactor that contains at least one dehydration catalyst and
in which the dehydration reaction takes place,

d) separating effluent that is obtained from a last adiabatic reactor of c) into an effluent that comprises ethylene at a
pressure that is lower than 1.6 MPa and an effluent that comprises water,

e) purifying at least a portion of the effluent that comprises water that is obtained from d) and separating at least one
stream of unconverted ethanol, with no recycling upstream from a) of purified water that is obtained from e).

US Pat. No. 9,851,335

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR ANALYZING A GASEOUS FLUID COMPRISING AT LEAST ONE RARE GAS BY MEANS OF A GETTERIZING SUBSTRATE

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. Method for analyzing a gaseous fluid comprising at least one rare gas, characterized in that the following steps are carried
out:
a) the vacuum is created in an accumulation chamber comprising a getterizing substrate, said getterizing substrate being suitable
for trapping the components of said gaseous fluid except for said rare gas;

b) the flow rate of said fluid entering into said accumulation chamber is controlled by means of a flow rate restrictor;
c) said rare gas is extracted and accumulated from said gaseous fluid and separated from other components of said gaseous
fluid by the passage of said gaseous fluid into said getterizing substrate of said accumulation chamber;

d) said extracted rare gas, separated from the other components of the gaseous fluid, is compressed such that the pressure
and the volume of said compressed rare gas are adapted to the pressure and the volume of said analysis; and

e) said compressed rare gas, separated from the other components of the gaseous fluid, is analyzed.
US Pat. No. 9,499,455

PROCESS FOR THE SELECTIVE DIMERISATION OF ETHYLENE TO 1-BUTENE

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for the selective dimerization of ethylene to 1-butene, said process comprising selectively dimerizing ethylene
in the presence of a catalytic composition comprising at least one alkoxy or aryloxy titanium compound, at least one ether
compound, and at least one aluminum compound, in which the molar ratio between the ether compound and the alkoxy or aryloxy
titanium compound is more than 10 and the molar ratio between the aluminum compound and the alkoxy or aryloxy titanium compound
is more than 4.

US Pat. No. 9,486,737

ABSORBENT TERTIARY MONOALKANOLAMINE SOLUTION BELONGING TO THE 3-ALCOXYPROPYLAMINE FAMILY, AND METHOD FOR REMOVING ACIDIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINED IN A GAS EFFLUENT

IFP Energies Nouvelles, ...

1. A process for the removal of the acid compounds present in a gaseous effluent, in which a stage of absorption of the acidic
compounds is carried out by bringing the gaseous effluent into contact with an absorbent solution comprising:
water;
at least one amine corresponding to the following general formula (A):

in which:
R1 is an alkyl radical including from 1 to 6 carbon atoms,

R2, R3 and R4 are independently chosen from a hydrogen atom and an alkyl radical including from 1 to 6 carbon atoms,

R5 is an alkyl radical including from 1 to 6 carbon atoms,

R6 is an alkyl radical including from 1 to 6 carbon atoms.

US Pat. No. 9,340,733

PROCESS FOR HYDRODESULPHURATION OF GASOIL CUTS USING A CATALYST BASED ON HETEROPOLYANIONS TRAPPED IN A MESOSTRUCTURED SILICA SUPPORT

CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA REC...

1. A hydrodesulphuration process of at least one gasoil cut implementing a catalyst comprising, in its oxide form, at least
one metal from group VIB and/or at least one metal from group VIII of the periodic table present in the form of at least one
polyoxometalate, which is
an Anderson heteropolyanion of formula XM6O24q?,

a Keggin heteropolyanion of formula XM12O40q?,

a lacunary Keggin heteropolyanion of formula XM11O39q?, or

a Strandberg heteropolyanion of formula HhP2Mo5O23(6?h)?,

wherein
X is an element selected from the group consisting of phosphorus (P), silicon (Si), boron (B), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co),
the said element being taken alone,

M is one or more element(s) selected from the group consisting of molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co),
O is oxygen,
H is hydrogen,
h is an integer in the range 0 to 12, and
q is an integer in the range 1 to 20,
the said polyoxometalates being present within a mesostructured silicon oxide matrix having a pore size within the range 1.5
to 50 nm and having amorphous walls of thickness within the range 1 to 30 nm, the said catalyst being sulphured before being
implemented in the said process.

US Pat. No. 9,091,675

CELLS AND CONNECTING CHANNELS FOR CENTRIFUGAL PARTITION CHROMATOGRAPHY DEVICES

IFP Energies Nouvelles, ...

1. Cells for a centrifugal partition chromatography column including stacked discs, comprising:
a network of three-dimensional cells, wherein the cells are distributed over a periphery of at least one disc driven into
rotation about a main axis, the cells have a spherical, spheroid, or ovoid geometric shape of revolution defined by three
main dimensions along three axes X-X?, Y-Y? and Z-Z?, the axis Z-Z? being parallel to the axis of rotation of the disc, the
axis Y-Y? being radial with respect to the disc, the axis X-X? being orthogonal to the other two axes, and a cross-section
of a cell being perpendicular to the axis Y-Y? across the axis X-X? and the axis Z-Z?, wherein each of the cells is formed
from a first half cell formed on a first disc and mated with a second half cell formed on a second disc, the first half cell
having a structure mirroring the second half cell, and wherein the cells are grouped two by two in series forming pairs of
cells; and

liquid phase circulation channels interconnected to, and communicating with, the cells in series, wherein the channels have
a substantially circular, elliptical or parallelepipedic section, and the main two dimensions of the section of the channels
are smaller than the largest dimensions of the cross-section of the cell, wherein the two cells of each pair of cells are
connected to one another by an S-shaped liquid phase circulation channel, and each pair of cells connected with another pair
of cells by another S-shaped liquid phase circulation channel.

US Pat. No. 9,090,916

METHOD FOR PRODUCING SWEET JUICE FROM LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS WITH IMPROVED ENZYME RECYCLE

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method of producing a lignocellulosic hydrolyzate (sweet juice) for alcoholic fermentation from a lignocellulosic substrate
by enzymatic hydrolysis, comprising
(a) a lignocellulose conversion stage, comprising
(1) contacting the lignocellulosic substrate with a cellulase solution in a first reactor to produce a first hydrolyzate,
wherein said lignocellosic substrate has been pretreated to improve the susceptibility of the substrate to enzymatic hydrolysis;

(2) sending the thus-produced first hydrolyzate obtained at the outlet of said first reactor to a separation means, whereby
cellulases in the first hydrolyzate are extracted from the first hydrolyzate and retained by the separation means for return
to the first reactor, to produce a cellulase-free first hydrolyzate;

(3) sending the cellulase-free first hydrolyzate to a second reactor comprising immobilized ?-glucosidases, wherein said second
reactor is separate from said first lignocellulose enzymatic hydrolysis reactor, to produce a second hydrolyzate, and separating
the second hydrolyzate from the immobilized ?-glucosidases;

(b) a sweet juice production stage, comprising
(1) adding the retained cellulases from the separation means in step (a)(2) to the second hydrolyzate;
(2) contacting said second hydrolyzate including retained cellulases with new lignocellulosic substrate, whereby retained
cellulases in the second hydrolyzate are adsorbed by the new substrate and a third hydrolyzate (first sweet juice) for alcoholic
fermentation is produced, and

(3) recycling the cellulases adsorbed to the new substrate to said first reactor; and
(c) a reactor emptying stage, comprising completely emptying the first and second reactors.

US Pat. No. 9,074,144

PROCESS FOR HYDROGENATION OF BENZENE

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for hydrogenation of benzene contained in a catalytic reformate comprising the steps of:
separating, in a separator tank, hydrogen present in the catalytic reformate from the remainder of the reformate, said separating
being conducted at a medium pressure ranging from 10 to 20 bar,

separating resultant hydrogen-depleted reformate into a benzene-enriched light reformate fraction and a heavy reformate fraction,
hydrogenating the benzene-enriched light reformate fraction through contact with a nickel-based hydrogenation catalyst comprising
10-60% by weight of nickel, having an active surface whose dispersion is at least 10% at a pressure ranging from 10 to 20
bar, at a temperature of between 90° C. and 150° C., a VVH of between 0.5 and 10, and with at least one portion of hydrogen
obtained from said separator tank at said pressure of 10 to 20 bar without recompression of said hydrogen, so as to provide
a hydrogenated product stream.

US Pat. No. 10,088,465

METHOD FOR DETERMINING QUANTITIES OF HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS CONTAINED IN ROCK FROM A GEOLOGICAL SAMPLE

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method for determining quantities of hydrocarbon compounds contained in rock obtained from a geological sample by pyrolysis of the rock from the geological sample, by heating the sample in an inert atmosphere during a temperature sequence, comprising:a) raising a temperature of the rock from the geological sample from a first temperature ranging between 50° C. and 120° C., according to a first temperature gradient ranging between 1° C./min and 50° C./min, to a second temperature ranging between 180° C. and 220° C., maintaining the rock from the geological sample at the second temperature for a first predetermined time duration of greater than one half minute and measuring a quantity of hydrocarbons released from the rock from the geological sample during the heating of the rock from the geological sample for the first predetermined time duration;
b) raising the temperature of the rock from the geological sample from the second temperature according to a second temperature gradient ranging between 1° C./min and 50° C./min to a third temperature ranging between 330° C. and 370° C., maintaining the rock from the geological sample at the third temperature for a second predetermined time duration of greater than one half minute and measuring a quantity of hydrocarbons released from the rock from the geological sample during the heating of the rock from the geological sample for the second predetermined duration;
c) raising the temperature of the rock from the geological sample from the third temperature according to a third temperature gradient ranging between 1° C./min and 50° C./min to a fourth temperature ranging between 630° C. and 670° C. and measuring a quantity of hydrocarbons released from the rock from the geological sample during the heating of the rock from the geological sample from the third temperature until the fourth temperature is reached; and
d) determining the quantities of hydrocarbon compounds contained in the rock from the geological sample from the measured quantities of hydrocarbon compounds released in step a), step b) and step c) respectively.

US Pat. No. 10,072,221

PROCESS FOR THE HYDROTREATMENT OF A GAS OIL IN A SERIES OF REACTORS WITH RECYCLING OF HYDROGEN

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. Process for the hydrotreatment of a hydrocarbon-containing feedstock comprising sulphur- and nitrogen-containing compounds, in which the following stages are carried out:a) the hydrocarbon-containing feedstock is separated (SEP) into a fraction rich in heavy hydrocarbon compounds and a fraction rich in light hydrocarbon compounds,
b) a first stage of hydrotreatment is carried out by bringing the fraction rich in heavy hydrocarbon compounds and a gas flow comprising hydrogen into contact with a first hydrotreatment catalyst in a first reaction zone (Z1) in order to produce a first desulphurized effluent comprising hydrogen, H2S and NH3,
c) the first desulphurized effluent is separated (D1) into a first gaseous fraction comprising hydrogen, H2S and NH3, and a first liquid fraction,
d) the first gaseous fraction is purified (LA) in order to produce a hydrogen-rich flow,
e) the fraction rich in light hydrocarbon compounds is mixed with the first liquid fraction obtained in stage c) in order to produce a mixture,
f) a second stage of hydrotreatment is carried out by bringing the mixture obtained in stage e) and at least part of the hydrogen-rich flow produced in stage d) into contact with a second hydrotreatment catalyst in a second reaction zone (Z2) in order to produce a second desulphurized effluent comprising hydrogen, NH3 and H2S,
g) the second desulphurized effluent is separated (D2) into a second gaseous fraction comprising hydrogen, H2S and NH3 and a second liquid fraction, and
h) at least part of the second gaseous fraction comprising hydrogen, H2S and NH3 is recycled to stage b) as at least part of the gas flow comprising hydrogen.
US Pat. No. 9,669,387

METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING OF SPHEROIDAL ALUMINA PARTICLES

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. Spheroidal alumina particles comprising a nitrogen adsorption isotherm volume, termed Vmeso, which is representative of the mesoporous volume, which is in the range 0.65 to 0.85 mL/g and a volume of pores with a diameter
of less than 7 ?m, termed Vmeso+macro, measured by mercury porosimetry, which is in the range 0.65 to 0.85 mL/g and for which the ratio Q=[(Vmeso+macro?Vmeso)/(Vmeso+macro)] is less than 10%, said particles comprising a mean diameter in the range 1.2 to 3 mm, a BET specific surface area in the
range 150 to 300 m2/g and a settled packing density in the range 0.5 to 0.6 g/mL.
US Pat. No. 9,339,787

POLYMETALLIC CAPTURE MASS FOR CAPTURING HEAVY METALS

IFP Energies Nouvelles, ...

1. A capture mass for capturing heavy metals in a liquid or gaseous effluent, comprising a porous solid support, copper sulphide
and at least one second metal sulphide the metal of which is selected from the group consisting of chromium, manganese, iron,
cobalt and nickel, wherein the ratio of the percentage by weight of the metal or metals other than copper to the percentage
by weight of copper is in the range of 0.01 to 2, and wherein the copper sulphide is distributed homogeneously throughout
the capture mass and the metal or metals other than copper is super-concentrated at the periphery of the capture mass.

US Pat. No. 9,135,378

METHOD OF DEVELOPING A RESERVOIR FROM A TECHNIQUE OF SELECTING THE POSITIONS OF WELLS TO BE DRILLED

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. A computer implemented method of developing an underground reservoir traversed by at least a first well from which a fluid
is produced, wherein a position of at least a second well to be drilled is determined by a production indicator map comprising
a set of cells with each cell being associated with a production indicator defining an impact, on fluid production, of an
addition of the at least the second well in a cell, comprising:
1) constructing the map by:
a) determining, using a computer, production indicators for a first group of cells of the map, by a flow simulation over a
predetermined period of time using a flow simulator and a reservoir model;

b) determining, using the computer, production indicators for a second group of cells of the map, by the flow simulation wherein
at least one of the predetermined period of time, the flow simulator, or the reservoir model is modified; and

c) interpolating, using the computer, the production indicators for all cells of the map, by an interpolation model constrained
by the production indicators; and

2) defining, using the computer, a position of the at least the second well in the cell where the production indicator is
a maximum.

US Pat. No. 9,783,745

METHOD FOR SELECTIVE HYDROGENATION USING A CATALYST CONTAINING COPPER AND AT LEAST ONE METAL SELECTED FROM BETWEEN NICKEL OR COBALT

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method for selective hydrogenation of a hydrocarbon feedstock that contains at least 2 carbon atoms per molecule and
that has a final boiling point that is less than or equal to 250° C. and that comprises at least one polyunsaturated compound,
comprising, in the presence of hydrogen, contacting said feedstock with at least one catalyst that comprises a substrate and
an active metal phase that is deposited on said substrate; said active metal phase comprises copper and at least one metal
that is nickel or cobalt in a molar ratio of Cu:(Ni and/or Co) of 1 to 4.

US Pat. No. 9,738,839

GENERATION EBULLATED-BED REACTOR SYSTEM

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for the conversion or hydrotreatment of petroleum or coal-derived liquids comprising:
a) feeding one or more liquid hydrocarbon feedstreams and a hydrogen feedstream to a mixing vessel or apparatus wherein said
one or more liquid hydrocarbon feedstreams are fully-saturated with hydrogen within said mixing vessel or apparatus and resulting
in a mixture that is greater than 90 weight percent liquid phase with the remaining amount undissolved vaporous hydrogen;

b) directly processing said mixture that is greater than 90 weight percent liquid phase from said mixing vessel or apparatus
in an ebullated-bed reactor for conversion, hydrotreatment, and consumption of hydrogen resulting in a vapor products stream
and a liquid products stream;

c) routing said vapor products stream for further processing and recovery of liquids and fuel gas;
d) routing of a portion of said liquid products stream to an ebullating pump to create an ebullating recycle stream;
e) sending a separate portion of said liquid products stream for depressurization and further separation into final liquid
and gas products; and
wherein said ebullating recycle stream from step d) is one of said hydrocarbon feedstreams from step a).
US Pat. No. 9,670,112

PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF KEROSENE FROM BUTANOLS

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for the production of middle-distillate hydrocarbon-containing bases from a butanol feedstock, with said process
comprising at least:
a) isomerizing and dehydrating said butanol feedstock in the presence of an amorphous or zeolitic acid catalyst in at least
one reactor having a reactor inlet, operating at an absolute pressure at the reactor inlet of between 0.5 and 1.2 MPa and
at a temperature at the reactor inlet of between 350 and 450° C. in such a way as to produce a butylenic effluent that contains
water and more than 95% by weight butylene relative to the total mass of the carbon-containing compounds that are present
in said butylenic effluent,

b) separating the water that is present in said butylenic effluent at a pressure of between 0.5 and 1.2 MPa and at a temperature
of between 35 and 60° C., in such a way as to produce an organic liquid effluent,

c) purifying the organic liquid effluent that comes from b) in such a way as to produce a purified organic effluent,
d) oligomerizing a first oligomerization feedstock in the presence of an amorphous catalyst in at least one reactor that operates
at an absolute pressure of between 0.5 and 10 MPa, at a temperature of between 60 and 90° C., and at an hourly volumetric
flow rate of between 0.1 and 10 h?1, in such a way as to produce a first oligomerization effluent, comprising at least 50% by weight of olefins having a number
of carbon atoms that is greater than or equal to 8, with the percentage by weight being expressed relative to the total mass
of olefins contained in said first oligomerization effluent,

e) oligomerizing said first oligomerization effluent, in the presence of an amorphous catalyst in at least one reactor that
operates at an absolute pressure of between 2 and 15 MPa, at a temperature of between 100 and 200° C., and at an hourly volumetric
flow rate of between 0.1 and 10 h?1, in such a way as to produce a second oligomerization effluent,

f) fractionating said second oligomerization effluent into at least three products which are: a light product that contains
more than 50% by weight of C2 to C4 compounds, an intermediate product that contains more than 50% by weight of C5 to C9 compounds, and a middle distillate product that contains more than 50% by weight of compounds that have at least 10 carbon
atoms,

g) oligomerizing at least a portion of said intermediate product in the presence of an amorphous catalyst in at least one
reactor that operates at an absolute pressure of between 2 and 15 MPa, at a temperature of between 100 and 200° C., and at
an hourly volumetric flow rate of between 0.1 and 5 h?1, to obtain a third oligomerization effluent, and

h) hydrogenating at least a portion of said middle distillate product in the presence of a catalyst that comprises at least
one metal of group VIII in at least one reactor that operates at an absolute pressure of between 2 and 4 MPa, at a temperature
of between 100 and 350° C., and at an hourly volumetric flow rate of between 1 and 5 h?1 with a hydrogen to hydrocarbon molar ratio of between 10 and 450 to obtain a hydrogenation effluent, wherein said hydrogenation
effluent comprises said middle-distillate hydrocarbon-containing bases,

wherein the first oligomerization feedstock in d) comprises at least a portion of the purified organic effluent that comes
from c), the entire third oligomerization effluent that comes from g), and at least a portion of the light product that comes
from f).

US Pat. No. 9,541,065

WIND TURBINE CONTROL METHOD USING AN ESTIMATION OF THE INCIDENT WIND SPEED

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method for controlling a wind turbine, comprising a rotor to which at least one blade is attached and an electrical machine
connected to the rotor, wherein pitch angle of the at least one blade and electrical recovery torque of the electrical machine
are measured or determined, comprising:
a) constructing a model of dynamics of the rotor using a principle of dynamics to describe the rotor, the model relating incident
wind speed at the wind turbine to rotating speed of the rotor, the pitch angle of at least one blade and the electrical recovery
torque;

b) measuring the rotating speed of the rotor;
c) determining an incident wind speed by using the model of dynamics of the rotor, of the measured rotating speed of the rotor,
of the pitch angle of the at least one blade and of the electrical torque; and

d) controlling the pitch angle of at least one blade and/or the electrical recovery torque as a function of the incident wind
speed to optimize production of energy by the wind turbine.

US Pat. No. 9,480,957

FILTERING DISTRIBUTOR PLATE FOR SUPPLYING A FIXED BED REACTOR HAVING A CO-CURRENT DOWNFLOW OF GAS AND LIQUID FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEAVY CLOGGING FEEDS

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. A fixed bed reactor with a co-current downflow gas-liquid flow comprising a distribution and filtration plate suitable
for said gas-liquid flow, said fixed bed reactor optionally comprising a plurality of beds of catalyst staged along the reactor,
each plate being positioned upstream of each catalytic bed, said plate comprising the following elements from top to bottom:
a perforated support (3) not covering the whole section of the reactor, but leaving free an annular zone (11) corresponding to 5% to 50% of the section of said reactor,

a filtration layer (4) supported by said perforated support (3),

a full plate (2) located at a distance of 50 mm to 150 mm with respect to the perforated support (3), comprising a plurality of substantially vertical distribution elements (5) crossing the filtration layer (4) and the full plate (2), these distribution elements being disposed in a rectangular or triangular pattern, said distribution elements (5) having a height of 200 mm to 400 mm, being open at their upper end to admit gas and comprising at least one row of holes
located in the portion of said distribution elements which is comprised between the perforated support (3) and the full plate (2), in order to admit the liquid, and the gas-liquid mixture being evacuated by the lower end of said distribution element
(5),

at least one high porosity dispersive element (7) located below the full plate (2) at a distance of 20 mm to 300 mm with respect to said full plate (2).

US Pat. No. 9,452,411

DEVICE FOR INJECTING AND MIXING FLUIDS IN A DOWNWARD-FLOW REACTOR

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A catalytic reactor with downward flow comprising:
a chamber (1) containing at least two solid catalyst beds (2, 14) separated by an intermediate zone comprising a device for mixing fluids, said device comprising:

at least one essentially horizontal collecting plate (5) communicating with a vertical collecting pipe (7) for receiving fluids collected by said collecting plate (5),

at least one means for injecting a quenching fluid (8) emptying into said collecting pipe (7),

an annular mixing chamber (9) located below the plate (5), said mixing chamber (9) comprising an input end (6) directly connected to said vertical collecting pipe (7) and an output end (10) for evacuating fluids, and

a predistribution plate (11) comprising a number of perforations and comprising at least one shaft (13), said predistribution plate (11) being located below said mixing chamber (9),
wherein said means for injecting a quenching fluid (8) comprises a tubular portion that is connected to and empties into said vertical collecting pipe (7), and said tubular portion having an axis at the end of the tubular portion that is connected to said vertical collecting
pipe (7), wherein said axis of said tubular portion forms an angle ? with a direction D, and wherein direction D corresponds to the
direction of the axis of said mixing chamber (9) at the connection between said mixing chamber (9) and said vertical collecting pipe (7), and wherein said angle ? is between 45° and 135°.

US Pat. No. 9,329,289

METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING A GRID REPRESENTATIVE OF A PROPERTY DISTRIBUTION BY CONDITIONAL MULTIPOINT STATISTICAL SIMULATION

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method of constructing with a programmed computer a grid representative of a distribution of a physical property of an
underground formation by multipoint statistical simulation, from at least one conditioning point where a value of the property
is known and each cell of the grid is associated with a geographical position, comprising:
a) defining a set of initial cells containing at least one of the conditioning points;
b) visiting each initial cell of the set of initial cells and assigning to each cell a value representative of the property
using a filling method constrained by at least one of the conditioning points;

c) identifying at least one unvisited cell adjacent to at least one already visited cell and determining a number of adjacent
visited cells for each unvisited cell;

d) visiting each unvisited cell according to a decreasing order of a value of the number and assigning to each unvisited cell
a value representative of the property using a filling method constrained by at least one adjacent visited cell;

e) repeating c) to d) until each cell of the grid has been visited; and
f) using the grid to develop the underground formation.

US Pat. No. 9,308,528

NICKEL-BASED COMPLEXES AND THEIR USE IN A PROCESS FOR THE TRANSFORMATION OF OLEFINS

UNIVERSITEIT VAN AMSTERDA...

1. A nickel-based complex having formula (I)

in which
the atoms P, N, S, O constitute a ligand fragment,
A and A?, which may be identical or different, are independently O, S, NR3 or a single bond between the phosphorus atom and a carbon atom of R1a or R1b,

the group R3 is either a hydrogen atom or an alkyl group, which may or may not be cyclic, which may or may not be substituted and which
may or may not contain heteroelements, or an aromatic group, which may or may not be substituted and which may or may not
contain heteroelements,

the groups R1, represented in the formula by R1a and R1b, with R1a and R1b being mutually identical or different and which may or may not be bonded together, are selected from alkyl groups which may
or may not be cyclic, which may or may not be substituted and which may or may not contain heteroelements, and aromatic groups
which may or may not be substituted and which may or may not contain heteroelements,

the group R2 is selected from alkyl groups which may or may not be cyclic, which may or may not be substituted and which may or may not
contain heteroelements, and aromatic groups which may or may not be substituted and which may or may not contain heteroelements,

L1 and L2, which may be identical or different, represent a Lewis base,

X1 is a carbon atom bonded to or forming part of at least one alkyl group, which may or may not be cyclic, which may or may not
be unsaturated, which may or may not be substituted and which may or may not contain heteroelements, and an aromatic group
which may or may not be substituted and which may or may not contain heteroelements,

L1, L2 and X1 are such that the oxidation number of the nickel is respected, and ?? represents the delocalisation of the negative charge over the ligand fragment constituted by the atoms P, N, S and O.

US Pat. No. 9,163,036

MIL-53-AL-N3 ORGANIC/INORGANIC HYBRID SOLID PROVIDED WITH AN AZIDE FUNCTION AND METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING SAME

CNRS, Paris Cedex (FR) I...


where FF=Very High; F=High; m=Medium; mf=Medium Low; f=Low; and ff=Very Low, with the relative intensity I/Io being provided in relation to a relative intensity scale where a value of 100 is assigned to the most intense line of the
X-ray diffraction diagram: ff<15; 15?f<30; 30?mf<50; 50?m<65; 65?F<85; and

FF?5, and whereby H—N MR analysis confirms the presence of an N3 azid group on an aromatic cycle of a deprotonated terephthalic ligand: 8=7.73-7.83 ppm, m, 3H, ArH, 3 protons leading to the
detection of the multiplet corresponding to 3 protons carried by the aromatic cycle of the (N3-bdc) ligand.

US Pat. No. 9,896,390

METHODS OF UPGRADING BIOOIL TO TRANSPORTATION GRADE HYDROCARBON FUELS

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method for treating a feed containing biooil comprising:
(a) dispersing the feed containing biooil in a hydrocarbon liquid in the presence of a dispersing agent to obtain a dispersed
mixture, wherein the hydrocarbon liquid is a biomass fuel derived hydrocarbon liquid and/or a recycled hydrocarbon liquid
obtained from hydrotreating and/or hydrocracking and/or mild hydrocracking in step (d), and wherein the dispersing agent is
(i) an oxygen-containing solvent, pure or blended, that is an alkanol, ketone, ester or phenolic compound, or (ii) a recycled
partially upgraded biooil optionally with the hydrocarbon liquid contained in an organic phase obtained from hydroreforming
in step (c), wherein the dispersing is conducted at a ratio of biooil/dispersing agent/hydrocarbon liquid of 2/4/2 to 2/1/0.5;

(b) subjecting the dispersed mixture obtained from step (a) to hydroreforming with hydrogen in the presence of at least one
transition metal catalyst, wherein the hydroreforming is carried out at an absolute pressure from about 3.8 MPa to 27.6 MPa;

(c) separating an effluent from the hydroreforming in step (b) into an aqueous phase and at least one organic phase containing
a partially upgraded biooil and the hydrocarbon liquid; and

(d) hydrotreating and/or hydrocracking and/or mild hydrocracking the partially upgraded biooil optionally with the hydrocarbon
liquid contained in the organic phase to produce a hydrocarbon liquid product.

US Pat. No. 9,835,143

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION METHOD AND SYSTEM

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. An ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) method comprising:
circulating a motive fluid in a closed loop between a deep cold ocean water source providing deep cold ocean water and a warm
surface ocean water source providing warm surface ocean water, the deep cold ocean water source comprising a first heat exchanger
disposed between the motive fluid and the deep cold ocean water and the warm water source comprising a second heat exchanger
disposed between the motive fluid and the warm surface ocean water for heating the motive fluid from heat provided from the
warm surface ocean water;

compressing the motive fluid circulating in the loop downstream from an outlet of the first heat exchanger;
heating the compressed motive fluid circulating in the loop with the second heat exchanger to be at least substantially vaporized
at an outlet thereof;

heating the substantially vaporized motive fluid circulating in the loop downstream from the outlet of the second heat exchanger
with a secondary heat source;

recovering thermal energy with a first and a second turbine stage from the heated substantially vaporized motive fluid circulating
in the closed loop which has been heated by the secondary heat source and second heat exchanger; and

condensing the motive fluid flowing in the closed loop through the deep cold ocean water source, and wherein
the secondary heat source is a heat pump;
heating the motive fluid in a third heat exchanger downstream from the first turbine stage and upstream from the second turbine
stage; and

splitting the motive fluid downstream from the turbine stages into a first portion and a second portion, compressing the first
portion and recirculating the compressed first portion back to the third heat exchanger to transfer heat to the motive fluid
flowing through the third heat exchanger, expanding the first portion downstream from the third heat exchanger, and combining
the first portion with the second portion.

US Pat. No. 9,638,412

OPTIMISED METHOD AND DEVICE LOOP COMBUSTION ON LIQUID HYDROCARBON FEEDSTOCK

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. An improved method for chemical looping combustion of at least one liquid hydrocarbon feed, comprising:
atomizing the at least one liquid hydrocarbon feed with an atomization gas so as to form an atomized liquid hydrocarbon feed
comprising finely dispersed liquid droplets in the atomization gas and to feed it into a substantially elongated and substantially
vertical metal oxide particle transport zone, the metal oxide particle transport zone being provided upstream from a combustion
zone comprising at least one dense-phase fluidized bed, the metal oxide particle transport zone opening into the at least
one dense-phase fluidized bed of the combustion zone;

feeding metal oxide particles to the metal oxide particle transport zone;
vaporizing the atomized liquid hydrocarbon feed when in contact with the metal oxide particles in the transport zone to provide
a vaporized hydrocarbon feed, the operating conditions in the transport zone being so selected that the superficial gas velocity
in the transport zone after vaporization of the atomized liquid hydrocarbon feed is higher than the transport velocity of
the metal oxide particles allowing the metal oxide particles to be transported while minimizing the energy dissipation in
form of pressure drop;

sending all of the effluents from the transport zone to the at least one dense-phase fluidized bed of the combustion zone,
the vaporized hydrocarbon feed and metal oxide particles flowing together in the same direction into a first portion of the
at least one dense-phase fluidized bed of the combustion zone, the combustion zone allowing reduction of the metal oxide particles.

US Pat. No. 9,593,355

PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF OPTIMISED LIQUEFIED LIGNOCELLULOSIC SUBSTRATE

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for the production of liquefied lignocellulosic substrate by enzymatic reaction and saccharification thereof,
said process comprising:
(i) conducting liquefaction of pre-treated lignocellulosic substrate by feeding pre-treated lignocellulosic substrate, water
and one or more enzymes at desired flow rates into a reactor to form a reaction medium having a reaction volume, wherein the
amount of said one or more enzymes is in the range of 0.1 to 60 mg per gram of cellulose and said pre-treated lignocellulosic
substrate is at a concentration of 10% to 40% by weight dry matter,

whereby said pretreated lignocellulosic substrate, is brought into contact, with said water and with said one or more enzymes,
under agitation, for a time period in the range of 1 to 24 hours, to produce liquefied lignocellulosic substrate by enzymatic
reaction,

wherein dry matter concentration, expressed as percentage by weight, is the ratio of the mass of a sample of said pre-treated
lignocellulosic substrate obtained after drying at 105° C. for 24 hours over the initial mass of said sample,

wherein said pre-treated lignocellulosic substrate is introduced into said reactor in fed-batch mode or in continuous mode,
wherein an electrical powered motor is used to provide said agitation, and
wherein over time, at least the value of one of the rheological characteristics of the reaction medium is measured and in
that if a reduction in said value is detected over time, a) is carried out:

a) increasing the feeding flow rate of pretreated lignocellulosic substrate, with or without modification of the feeding flow
rate of enzymes and/or water;

and in that if an increase in said value is detected over time, b) is carried out as follows:
b) increasing the feeding flow rate of water and/or said one or more enzymes, with or without modification of the feeding
flow rate of pre-treated lignocellulosic substrate; and

wherein the value that is measured is the electrical power consumed by said motor, and
wherein the electrical power consumed by said motor with respect to the mass of the reaction volume remains in the range of
0.05 to 4 kW/ton; and

(ii) subjecting liquefied lignocellulosic substrate from (i) to a saccharification step for production of sugar by enzymatic
hydrolysis under agitation, wherein agitation is performed at lower power during saccharification than during said liquefaction
of pre-treated lignocellulosic substrate, and saccharification is performed for longer than said liquefaction.

US Pat. No. 9,586,982

NICKEL-BASED COMPLEX AND USE THEREOF IN A METHOD FOR THE OLIGOMERISATION OF OLEFINS

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A dissymmetric nickel complex of formula (I):
in which
the groups R1 and R?1, which may be identical or different, and may or may not be linked, are each selected from non-aromatic groups that do not
contain silicon,

the groups R2 and R?2, which may be identical or different, and may or may not be linked, are each selected from aromatic groups,

R3 is selected from hydrogen,

halogens,
aliphatic hydrocarbon groups which are cyclical or acyclical and which optionally contain heteroelements, and
aromatic groups which optionally contain heteroelements, and which are unsubstituted or substituted,
X is an anion or an electron donor selected from hydrogen,
halogens,
aliphatic hydrocarbon groups which are cyclical or acyclical, which optionally contain heteroelements, and are unsubstituted
or substituted,

aromatic groups which optionally contain heteroelements, which are unsubstituted or substituted,
olefins which optionally contain heteroelements and which are unsubstituted or substituted,
borates, phosphates, sulphates, phosphorous ligands which optionally contain heteroelements, and which are unsubstituted or
substituted, and

—OR4 or —N(R5)(R6) where R4, R5 and R6 are each selected from cyclical aliphatic hydrocarbons groups which optionally contain heteroelements, and aromatic groups
which optionally contain heteroelements, and which are unsubstituted or substituted,

wherein if a plurality of X groups are present these X groups may or may not be linked,
a is a whole number between 1 and 4,
b is a whole number between 0 and 6, and
c is a whole number between 1 and 4.

US Pat. No. 9,514,096

METHOD OF DEVELOPING A SEDIMENTARY BASIN FROM A STRATIGRAPHIC SIMULATION OF MULTILITHOLOGIC FILLING TAKING ACCOUNT OF FINE SEDIMENT TRANSPORT

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A sedimentary basin development method wherein an image describing a geometry of geologic layers forming the basin and
a distribution of the sediments within the layers of the sedimentary basin is constructed, comprising:
dividing the sedimentary basin into geologic layers with each geologic layer corresponding to a sediment deposition for a
given time period;

subdividing each geologic layer into a series of climatic layers with each climatic layer being associated with at least one
constant climatic parameter;

constructing the image describing a geometry of the geologic layers forming the basin by carrying out a computer-implemented
iterative stratigraphic simulation, from a past time to a more recent time, within each climatic layer using a computer-implemented
stratigraphic model wherein:

a sediment transport in a continental domain is modeled using a first nonlinear diffusion equation under a maximum erosion
rate constraint;

a suspended sediment transport in the marine and lacustrine domain is modeled using an advection-diffusion equation accounting
for a particle fall rate and of a marine and lacustrine current velocity;

a sediment bottom layer transport in the marine and lacustrine domain is modeled using a second nonlinear diffusion equation
under a maximum erosion rate constraint;

homogenizing the climatic layers belonging to a single geologic layer to form the geologic layers; and
developing the sedimentary basin from the image comprising the homogenized layers to at least one of locate hydrocarbons in
the basin, to acquire hydrocarbons from the basin, to store gas, or to store fluids in the basin.

US Pat. No. 9,453,245

METHOD FOR PRODUCING ETHANOL AND SOLVENTS FROM LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS INCLUDING THE RECIRCULATION OF A BUTYL WINE OBTAINED BY FERMENTING PENTOSES

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for the production of alcohols, solvents, or both starting from cellulosic or lignocellulosic biomass comprising
the following steps:
a) pretreating a cellulosic or lignocellulosic substrate by thermochemical pretreatment to produce a pretreated substrate;
b) optionally washing said pretreated substrate and adjusting the pH of said pretreated substrate;
c) hydrolyzing said pretreated, optionally washed, substrate, with cellulolytic and/or hemicellulolytic enzymes, wherein an
aqueous stream comprising a hydrolysate and a water-insoluble residue is produced;

d) fermenting hexoses contained in said hydrolysate obtained from step c) in the presence of an alcohologenic microorganism
of the genus Saccharomyces to produce an ethyl wine comprising ethanol and solvents;

e) extracting said ethyl wine of step d), said extracting comprising
e1) separating and purifying ethanol and/or solvents obtained from step d), and
e2) separating a solid cake containing said water-insoluble residue to produce vinasses;
f) fermenting pentoses contained in said vinasses obtained from step e2) in the presence of a solventogenic microorganism
of the genus Clostridium to produce a butyl wine, wherein said butyl wine comprises a mixture of solvents comprising acetone, butanol, and ethanol,
or comprises a mixture of solvents comprising isopropanol, butanol, and ethanol;

g) recycling at least a portion of said butyl wine upstream from at least one of step c) and/or step d), wherein after said
recycling of at least a portion of said butyl wine said aqueous stream in step c) contains between 0.1 and 20 g/L of solvents,
and a butanol portion of said solvents is present in a concentration of between 0.1 and 15 g/L.

US Pat. No. 9,333,442

LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMN CONTAINING TWO DISTINCT TYPES OF PLATES

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A counter-current liquid-liquid extraction column comprising:
a column having a diameter and upper, middle and lower parts,
a plurality of spaced perforated plates with associated downpipes, each downpipe having an inlet and an outlet,
wherein said perforated plates with associated downpipes comprise a number of open plates between 4 and 25, defined by a degree
of perforation p % of between 2% and 6% of the empty cross-section of the column, and a number of closed plates between 1
and 3,

wherein each closed plate is defined by a degree of perforation between 0.3 and 0.5 times that of the open plates,
each closed plate is situated between two open plates so that each closed plate is adjacent to two open plates,
said closed plates are situated in the middle part of the column,
wherein said downpipes associated with the closed plates have cross-sections between 0.25 and 1 times the cross-sections of
the downpipes associated with the open plates, and said downpipe associated with at least one of said closed plates comprises
a part crossing the column substantially along the diameter of said column, so that the outlet of said downpipe is located
opposite the inlet of said downpipe relative to the cross section of said column.

US Pat. No. 9,243,194

PROCESS FOR HYDROCONVERSION OF HEAVY CARBON-CONTAINING FEEDSTOCKS THAT INTEGRATE A BOILING-BED TECHNOLOGY AND A SLURRY TECHNOLOGY

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for hydroconversion of heavy carbon-containing feedstock comprising (1) hydroconversion of the feedstock in at
least one reactor that contains a substrate catalyst in a boiling bed, and then (2) hydroconversion of at least one portion
of effluent that is obtained in at least one reactor that contains a slurry catalyst and optionally a solid additive; next
subjecting the effluent that is obtained from (2) to one or more separations; in which in the hydroconversion (1), catalyst
slurry is prevented from passing into the boiling bed.

US Pat. No. 9,187,985

METHOD FOR OPTIMIZING THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN UNDERGROUND MEDIUM BY MEANS OF A RESERVOIR STUDY COMPRISING OPTIMIZED UPSCALING

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method for optimizing developments of an underground medium containing a fluid according to a development scheme utilizing
petrophysical measurements acquired relative to the medium and/or the fluid comprising the steps:
a) constructing a geological model with a programmed computer having a first grid having a set of cells discretizing the medium
with a value of at least one petrophysical property being assigned to each cell from a geostatistical simulation and from
the measurements;

b) constructing by upscaling the geological model a reservoir model having a second grid including a set of cells discretizing
the medium with each cell of the second grid containing a set of cells of the first grid;

c) identifying for each cell of the second grid, cells of the first grid that are contained in the cell of the second grid
by use of the coordinates of the cells of the first and second grids, defining a geometrical link between the identified cells
of the first grid and the cell of the second grid and storing the links to reduce subsequent computer computation time;

d) performing flow simulations with a programmed computer using a reservoir simulator, the reservoir model, and the links;
e) repeating steps a), b) and d) without repeating c), by modifying parameters of at least the development scheme, the geostatistical
simulation, the upscaling, and the flow simulation, to optimize the development scheme; and

f) drilling wells according to the optimized development scheme for producing the fluid from the underground medium.

US Pat. No. 9,096,617

CAU-1-N3 ORGANIC-INORGANIC HYBRID SOLID, EQUIPPED WITH AN AZIDE GROUP, AND PROCESS FOR ITS PREPARATION

CNRS, Paris Cedex (FR) I...

6. A process for the preparation of a CAU-1-N3 crystallized hybrid solid according to claim 1, starting from a CAU-1 crystallized hybrid solid, wherein the process comprises at least the following:
i/ introducing, into a polar solvent S, of said CAU-1 crystallized hybrid solid, an organic compound Q that contains an N3 azide group, and is trimethylsilyl azide (TMS-N3), triflyl azide (TfN3), p-tosyl azide (TsN3), or sodium azide (NaN3) and an intermediate reagent R that contains an NO2 nitrite group, and is tert-butyl nitrate, in a proportion such that the reaction mixture has the following molar composition,
based on a molar equivalent of the —NH2 group that is present in the CAU-1 solid:

1CAU-1:1-40R:1-30Q:100-400S
ii/reacting of said reaction mixture at a temperature of between 0 and 100° C. for a period of between 1 and 24 hours to obtain
said CAU-1-N3 crystallized hybrid solid,

iii/ filtering and washing of said CAU-1-N3 crystallized hybrid solid,

iv/drying said CAU-1-N3 crystallized hybrid solid.

US Pat. No. 9,045,701

METHOD OF HYDROTREATING FEEDS FROM RENEWABLE SOURCES WITH INDIRECT HEATING

IFP Energies Nouvelles, ...

1. A method of treating feeds from renewable sources containing double bonds comprising:
Providing a hydrotreatment stage a) comprising at least a first catalytic zone serially flow-wise connected to a second catalytic
zone;

Forming an entry stream comprising a hydrogen rich gas, a first portion of a hydrotreated liquid effluent from a separation
stage b), and a renewable feed comprises at least one selected from the group consisting of triglycerides, free fatty acids
and esters;

Introducing the entry stream to the first catalytic zone wherein a majority of the double bonds in the renewable feed are
hydrogenated at a temperature of 180-210° C. to produce a hydrogenated effluent, and wherein the hydrogenated effluent has
a temperature 50-60° C. higher than the entry stream;

Preheating a second portion of the hydrotreated liquid effluent from separation stage b) to produce a preheated hydrotreated
liquid effluent;

Mixing the preheated hydrotreated liquid effluent with the hydrogenated effluent to produce a second entry stream;
Introducing the second entry stream to a second catalytic zone at a temperature of 280-320° C. to deoxygenate-hydrodenitrogenate
the hydrogenated effluent and to produce an effluent;

Passing the effluent from the second catalytic zone to the separation stage b) to obtain a gaseous hydrogen-containing effluent
and said hydrotreated liquid effluent,

wherein at least a part of the hydrotreated liquid effluent is recycled as said first and said second portions with an overall
recycle rate of greater than 0.5 and less than 3, and wherein the overall recycle rate is defined as the ratio of the mass
flow rate of total recycled hydrotreated liquid effluent to the mass flow rate of fresh renewable feed.

US Pat. No. 9,486,764

SYSTEM FOR DENSE LOADING OF CATALYST INTO BAYONET TUBES FOR A STEAM REFORMING EXCHANGER-REACTOR USING REMOVABLE HELICAL ELEMENTS

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. A device for densely filling catalyst specially adapted to a steam reforming exchanger-reactor containing a plurality of
bayonet tubes enclosed in a shell, the catalyst being constituted by particles occupying at least a portion of the annular
space (4) included between an internal tube (5) and an external tube (6), the assembly of said two tubes constituting a bayonet tube, the width of said annular space being in the range 30 mm to
80 mm, and its height being in the range 10 to 20 meters, the particles of catalyst being in the form of cylinders with an
approximate height of 10 mm to 20 mm and an approximate diameter of 10 mm to 20 mm, the device containing:
a series of shaftless helical elements (7) distributed vertically along the length of the annular space (4) in a regular manner with a length in the range 1 to 1.5 pitches of the helix, said elements being separated by a vertical
distance in the range 50 cm to 150 cm;

said helical elements (7) being connected together via a chain (8) which is wound around a spooler (10) located outside the tube to be filled, and the particles of catalyst being contained in:

a central feed hopper (1) for delivering the particles onto a conveyor belt (2) supplying the annular space (4) by:

a funnel (3) via which the particles flow into the interior of the annular space (4).

US Pat. No. 9,222,724

NATURAL GAS LIQUEFACTION METHOD WITH HIGH-PRESSURE FRACTIONATION

IFP Energies Nouvelles, ...

1. A method of liquefying a natural gas, comprising:
a) cooling the natural gas by heat exchange with a cooling fluid circulating in a cooling circuit,
b) feeding the cooled natural gas into a fractionating column so as to separate a methane-rich gas phase and a liquid phase
rich in compounds heavier than ethane,

c) discharging said liquid phase at the bottom of the fractionating column and discharging said gas phase at the top of the
fractionating column,

d) partly liquefying said gas phase so as to produce a condensate and a gaseous stream, said condensate being recycled to
the top of the fractionating column as a first liquid reflux,

e) liquefying said gaseous stream, wherein the gas stream is cooled by heat exchange at a pressure above 50 bars;
f) feeding said liquid phase into a separation column to separate a methane-rich gas fraction at the top and a liquid fraction
comprising hydrocarbons heavier than ethane at the bottom, said separation column having a top and below the top a supply
point, partly condensing said methane-rich gas fraction obtained in stage f) by heat exchange with a portion of said cooling
fluid, so as to obtain a second liquid reflux, and feeding the second liquid reflux into the top of the separation column
at a temperature ranging between ?10° C. and ?40° C., wherein said portion of said cooling fluid is subcooled before such
heat exchange with said methane-rich gas fraction obtained in stage f) by heat exchange with a liquid discharged from the
fractionating column,

g) withdrawing an ethane-enriched liquid portion from an intermediate level in the separation column, and
h) extracting from said liquid portion from step g) a liquid stream comprising more than 95% by mole of ethane,
wherein the fractionating column is operated at operating conditions selected such that said liquid phase from step c) comprises
a molar proportion of methane ranging between 40% and 70% of a molar proportion of ethane contained in said liquid phase,
said fractioning column being operated at a pressure between 40-60 bar.

US Pat. No. 9,174,901

TEMPORARY DESULPHURIZATION REACTOR FOR PRE-TREATING A HYDROCARBON FEED BEFORE STEAM REFORMING WITH A VIEW TO HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for pre-treating a steam reforming feed containing sulphur-containing compounds, said process comprising:
adsorption of said sulphur-containing compounds onto an adsorbent solid, using two desulphurization reactors:
a temporary desulphurization reactor containing an active adsorbent solid;
a permanent desulphurization reactor placed upstream of a steam reforming unit, which contains an adsorbent solid in the passivated
state, necessitating a depassivation phase in order to be rendered active;

wherein said temporary desulphurization reactor is disconnected as soon as the adsorbent solid of the permanent desulphurization
reactor has been activated, and

wherein the volume of said temporary desulphurization reactor is in the range of 1/20 to 1/200 times the volume of said permanent
desulphurization reactor.

US Pat. No. 9,139,512

ABSORBENT SOLUTION CONTAINING A DEGRADATION INHIBITOR DERIVED FROM A TRIAZOLE OR FROM A TETRAZOLE AND METHOD OF ABSORBING ACID COMPOUNDS CONTAINED IN A GASEOUS EFFLUENT

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. An absorbent solution for absorbing the acid compounds contained in a gaseous effluent, said solution comprising:
a) at least one amine,
b) water,
c) at least one degradation inhibiting compound for limiting the degradation of said amine, the degradation inhibiting compound
being a derivative of a triazole or of a tetrazole, at least one substituent of which comprises a sulfur atom.

US Pat. No. 9,120,064

DISTRIBUTOR TRAY FOR OFFSHORE GAS/LIQUID CONTACT COLUMN

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. A distributor tray for a column for at least one of heat and material exchange between a gas and a liquid, comprising:
a plurality of passages, each passage providing passage of gas from a bottom side of the tray through the tray to a top side
of the tray and which projects upward from the top side of the tray, the plurality of passages comprising a plurality of groups
of passages, each group of passages respectively surrounding an individual tray compartment with the individual tray compartments
being of substantially equal surface area and each tray compartment including at least one passage for passing liquid through
the tray.

US Pat. No. 9,091,480

ROTARY FURNACE FOR RADIATIVE HEAT TREATMENT OF SOLIDS

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. Rotary furnace (1) for the heat treatment of solids comprising: at least one rotary tube in which the solids are introduced and which is adapted
to be heated by a heater outside of the rotary tube for conducting a portion of the heat treatment in the absence of oxygen,
a second heater element for heating the feedstock to improve the heat treatment, the second heater element formed by a heating
element (4, 4?, 4?), which does not rotate with the furnace, positioned inside the rotary tube and above the feedstock when the furnace rotates,
and

at least one deflector panel that surrounds the second heating element (4, 4?, 4?) at the side opposite to the feedstock (2) and positioned inside the rotary tube, wherein the deflector panel is attached by its ends independently of the tube of
the furnace and does not rotate with the furnace, and

wherein the second heating element (4, 4?, 4?) is rectilinear, extends longitudinal within the tube, and extends the entire length of the rotary furnace.

US Pat. No. 9,073,803

METHOD FOR PRODUCING HYDROCARBONS WITH CONTINUOUS CHARGING OF THE CATALYST

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method for continuous production of hydrocarbons from synthesis gas in the presence of a catalyst, comprising a synthesis
in which a synthesis gas is reacted in the presence of a catalyst in a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reactor (4),
comprising, at the same time as the synthesis, carrying out the following successively:
a) charging a catalyst precursor comprising cobalt oxide in a dedicated reduction reactor (2);

b) reducing the catalyst precursor charged in a) by placing it in contact with a reduction gas comprising hydrogen (H2) and/or carbon monoxide (CO); and

c) introducing the catalyst reduced in b) into the synthesis reactor (4), wherein reduction of the catalyst precursor in the dedicated reduction reactor (2) is carried out at the actual site of the Fischer-Tropsch, synthesis reactor (4).

US Pat. No. 9,683,180

VACUUM DISTILLATE HYDROTREATMENT PROCESS EMPLOYING A CONCATENATION OF CATALYSTS

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A fluid catalytic cracking process implementing a process for the hydrotreatment of a hydrocarbon feed containing nitrogen-containing
compounds in an amount of more than 250 ppm by weight and having a weighted average temperature of more than 380° C., comprising
the following steps:
a) bringing said hydrocarbon feed into contact, in the presence of hydrogen, with at least one first catalyst comprising an
amorphous support based on alumina, phosphorus, and an active phase formed by at least one metal from group VIB in the oxide
form and at least one metal from group VIII in the oxide form, said first catalyst being prepared in accordance with a process
comprising at least one calcining step;

b) bringing the effluent obtained in step a) into contact, in the presence of hydrogen, with at least one second catalyst
comprising an amorphous support based on alumina, phosphorus, an active phase formed by at least one metal from group VIB
and at least one metal from group VIII, and at least one organic compound containing oxygen and/or nitrogen, said second catalyst
being prepared in accordance with a process comprising the following steps:

i) bringing at least one component of a metal from group VIB, at least one component of a metal from group VIII, phosphorus
and at least one organic compound containing oxygen and/or nitrogen into contact with the support, so as to obtain a catalyst
precursor;

ii) drying said catalyst precursor obtained from step i) at a temperature of less than 200° C., without subsequent calcining;
in order to obtain a hydrotreated effluent,
wherein said hydrotreated effluent is brought into contact, under catalytic cracking operating conditions, with at least one
catalytic cracking catalyst so as to obtain a cracked effluent.

US Pat. No. 9,556,780

METHOD FOR DIAGNOSING A PARTICLE FILTER BY MEANS OF A SOOT CAPTURING DEVICE

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method for diagnosing a particulate filter incorporated in an exhaust circuit of a heat engine, in which a signal is
acquired from a soot sensor arranged downstream of said particulate filter, said signal from the sensor being made up of a
plurality of charging times of said soot sensor corresponding to the soot build-up time until the regeneration of said soot
sensor, characterized in that:
a multidimensional space is constructed of which one dimension corresponds to an indicator determined by means of said sensor
signal and of which the other dimensions correspond to at least one parameter linked to the operating conditions of said engine;

then, at each end of charging of said soot sensor:
a value of said indicator is determined by means of said signal from the sensor;
the values of said parameters are determined;
the position of a point in said multidimensional space is determined by means of the values of said indicator and of said
parameters; and

the diagnosis of the state of said particulate filter is produced as a function of the position of said point in said multidimensional
space.

US Pat. No. 9,486,738

CAPTURE MASS COMPOSED OF ELEMENTAL SULPHUR DEPOSITED ON A POROUS SUPPORT FOR CAPTURING HEAVY METALS

IFP Energies Nouvelles, ...

1. A capture mass for capturing mercury, said mass comprising an active phase deposited on a porous support, the active phase
comprising elemental sulphur, the porous support having a pore volume V0.004>0.1 mL/g, V0.004 corresponding to the cumulative volumes of pores with a size of less than 0.004 ?m, and a pore volume V0.002<0.002 mL/g, V0.002 corresponding to the cumulative volumes of pores with a size of less than 0.002 ?m, and a pore volume V0.1-0.01<0.15 mL/g, V0.1-0.01 corresponding to the cumulative volumes of pores with a size in the range 0.1 ?m to 0.01 ?m.

US Pat. No. 9,486,766

PNEUMATIC SYSTEM FOR DENSELY LOADING CATALYST INTO BAYONET TUBES FOR A STEAM REFORMING REACTOR-EXCHANGER WITH A DETACHABLE FEED TUBE FOR GAS

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A device for densely filling catalyst particles into a steam reforming reactor-exchanger, to form a catalyst bed composed
of catalyst particles therein, said steam reforming reactor-exchanger containing a plurality of bayonet tubes enclosed in
a shell wherein each bayonet tubes having an inner tube (5) and an outer tube (6) with an annular space between said inner tube (5) and said outer tube (6), said catalyst bed occupying at least in part the annular space (4) between said inner tube (5) and said outer tube (6), wherein the width of said annular space (4) is between 40 mm and 80 mm, and the height of said annular space (4) is between 10 and 20 meters, said catalyst particles being in the shape of cylinders with a height between 10 mm and 20
mm, and a diameter between 5 mm and 20 mm, wherein said device comprises:
a detachable flexible tube (7), having a first end, adapted to enter inside said annular zone (4) of one of said bayonet tubes so that said first end can be maintained at a distance between 150 mm and 200 mm from the surface
of said catalyst bed, said flexible tube capable of introducing between 70% and 85% of a gas flow introduced into said annular
space during the filling thereof with said catalyst particles, the remaining portion of said gas flow being introduced into
the annular space by said inner tube (5), the diameter of said detachable flexible tube (7) being between 0.5 and 0.9 times the width of said annular space (4) or between 0.5 and 0.9 times of the smallest width of said annular space (4) in the case where said outer tube (6) has a changing diameter,

a winder (10) located outside of the bayonet tube to be filled for winding and unwinding said detachable flexible tube (7),

a central hopper (1) containing catalyst particles for delivering catalyst particles onto a conveyor belt or onto a shaking conveyor (2) for feeding catalyst particles into said annular space (4) via a funnel (3), through which the catalyst particles flow into said annular space (4).

US Pat. No. 9,447,334

PROCESS FOR CONVERTING FEEDS DERIVED FROM RENEWABLE SOURCES WITH PRE-TREATMENT OF FEEDS BY HOT DEPHOSPHATATION

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. A process for the production of middle distillate bases, comprising:
a) pre-treating of a semi-refined vegetable or animal oil, comprising passing said oil through a reactor comprising at least
one fixed bed of at least one adsorbent comprising 100% porous refractory oxide that is optionally activated alumina, or silica-alumina,
which porous refractory oxide is free of catalytic metals from group 6 and groups 8 to 12, at a temperature in the range of
130° C. to 320° C., at a pressure in the range of 0.1 to 7 MPa and with a residence time for said oil on said fixed bed in
the range of 0.1 to 1 hour; said adsorbent having a macroporous volume, measured by mercury intrusion, of pores with a mean
diameter of 500 Å of more than 0.1 ml/g, a total pore volume of more than 0.60 ml/g, and a specific surface area, expressed
as the SBET, of 30 m2/g to 320 m2/g,

b) hydrotreating, in the presence of at least one fixed bed catalyst, of the pre-treated effluent from a) at a temperature
in the range 200° C. to 450° C., at a pressure in the range 1 MPa to 10 MPa, at an hourly space velocity in the range 0.1
h?1 to 10 h?1 and in the presence of a total quantity of hydrogen mixed with the feed such that the hydrogen/feed ratio is in the range
70 to 1000 Nm3 of hydrogen/m3 of feed;

c) separating from the hydrotreated effluent derived from b), of the hydrogen, the gases and at least one middle distillate
base,

in which said semi-refined vegetable or animal oil is obtained by pre-refining an unrefined vegetable or animal oil before
the pre-treatment process, the pre-refining comprising:

degumming, comprising eliminating at least a portion of the phospholipids or gums by precipitation in the presence of acidulated
water;

neutralizing, in the presence of a sodium hydroxide solution, of the degummed oil in order to neutralize at least a portion
of the free fatty acids present in the oil;

washing with water to eliminate traces of sodium salts; and
vacuum drying.

US Pat. No. 9,422,800

METHOD OF DEVELOPING A PETROLEUM RESERVOIR FROM A TECHNIQUE FOR SELECTING THE POSITIONS OF THE WELLS TO BE DRILLED

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method of developing an underground reservoir, crossed by at least a first well from which a fluid is produced, wherein
a position of at least a second well to be drilled is determined by a map comprising a set of cells with each cell being associated
with a production indicator that is a function of impact on fluid production upon addition of a well in the cell, comprising:
constructing the map by:
a) selecting cells from the set of cells of the map;
b) determining the production indicators in the selected cells including performing a flow simulation for each selected cell
for a flow toward the at least first well from which the flued is produced;

c) interpolating the production indicators determined in b) and estimating production indicators of cells which were not selected,
the interpolation being on the set of cells of the map by an interpolation model accounting for a distance between a cell
to be interpolated and a closest well to the cell to be interpolated and defining a position of the second well adjacent to
a cell where the production indicator is a maximum.

US Pat. No. 9,249,364

PROCESS FOR CONVERTING A HEAVY FEED USING A CATALYTIC CRACKING UNIT AND A STEP FOR SELECTIVE HYDROGENATION OF THE GASOLINE OBTAINED FROM CATALYTIC CRACKING

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for converting a heavy hydrocarbon feed having great flexibility for the production of propylene, gasoline and
middle distillate, carrying out the following steps when the process operates in maxi propylene mode:
a) catalytic cracking (FCC) of the heavy cut, producing a C5-220° C. gasoline cut when the FCC is orientated towards the production
of gasoline and C5-150° C. when the FCC is orientated towards the production of middle distillate;

b) selective hydrogenation (SHU) of the gasoline cut obtained from the catalytic cracking unit (FCC), operating under the
following conditions: a pressure in the range 0.5 to 5 MPa, a temperature in the range 80° C. to 220° C., with a liquid hourly
space velocity (LHSV) in the range 1 h?1 to 10 h?1, the liquid hourly space velocity being expressed in liters liters of feed per liter of catalyst per hour (L/L·h);

c) separating the gasoline obtained from step b) by distillation (SPLIT) in order to separate two cuts: a light C5-Pf gasoline
cut and a heavy Pf-220° C. gasoline cut, the temperature Pf, being the boundary between light gasoline and heavy gasoline,
being in the range 50° C. to 150° C.;

d) purification (PUR) of the light C5-Pf gasoline obtained from step c) which reduces the nitrogen to less than 1 ppm by weight;
e) oligomerization (OLG) of the light C5-Pf gasoline obtained from the purification step (PUR), the operating conditions for
said oligomerization step (OLG) being as follows:

temperature in the range 60° C. to 350° C.;
pressure in the range 1 to 10 MPa (1 MPa=106 Pascal);

catalysts based on silica-alumina or amorphous aluminosilicate, or organic acid resin, or zeolites;
f) separating the oligomers obtained from step e) in order to release at least two cuts:
a C5-150° C. gasoline cut;
a 150° C.+ distillate cut;
the process operating in maxi propylene mode wherein the C5-150° C. gasoline cut and the 150° C.+ distillate cut obtained
from the oligomer separation step are recycled to the FCC.

US Pat. No. 9,234,158

PROCESS FOR PRETREATMENT OF VEGETABLE OILS BY HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS OF THE ESTERIFICATION OF FATTY ACIDS

IFP Energies Nouvelles, ...

1. Continuous process for pretreatment of an oil feedstock comprising at most 20% by weight of free fatty acids by esterification
of free fatty acids in which a vertical liquid/liquid contactor containing an esterification catalyst in solid form is supplied
in counter-current by an alcohol feedstock comprising at least 20% by weight of an alcohol and said oil feedstock, with said
contactor being operated at a temperature of between 25 and 120° C., with said contactor performing the contact in liquid-liquid
counter-current between a heavy phase and a light phase, with said heavy phase being able to be either an oil-rich phase or
an alcohol-rich phase.

US Pat. No. 9,162,578

SPEED VARIATION TRANSMISSION DEVICE FOR MOTOR VEHICLE POWERTRAIN AND HYBRID MOTOR VEHICLE USING SAME

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. A hybrid type motor vehicle comprising a powertrain with a speed variation transmission device, the transmission device
comprising an epicyclic gear train, the epicyclic gear train comprising a first sun gear and a first crown, the first sun
gear and the first crown being connected to an engine shaft of a thermal engine of the vehicle, the epicyclic gear train further
comprising a planet gear carrier connected by a motion transmission track to a drive axe of the vehicle, characterized in
that the first sun gear is connected to the engine shaft by a first controlled coupling and to a first fixed part of the vehicle
by a first one-way coupling, the first crown is connected to the engine shaft by a second controlled coupling and to a second
fixed part of the vehicle by a second one-way coupling, and a second sun gear and a second crown are not connected between
the first sun gear and the first controlled coupling or the first crown and the second controlled coupling,
characterized in that the vehicle further comprises an electric machine electrically connected to electric accumulators, and
a rotor of the electric machine is connected to the motion transmission track, and

characterized in that the transmission track comprises a sliding pinion, and the sliding pinion is configured to connect a
toothed wheel to the epicyclic gear train and/or to the drive axle.

US Pat. No. 9,156,748

PROCESS FOR CONVERSION OF PARAFFINIC FEEDSTOCKS OBTAINED FROM THE BIOMASS OF MIDDLE DISTILLATE BASES EMPLOYING AT LEAST ONE IZM-2 ZEOLITE-BASED CATALYST

IFP Energies Nouvelles, ...

1. A hydroisomerization process for conversion of a paraffinic feedstock that has a number of carbon atoms of 10 to 22, wherein
said paraffinic feedstock that has a number of carbon atoms of 10 to 22 is produced starting from renewable resources, excluding
paraffinic feedstocks that are obtained by a process that involves a stage for upgrading by the Fischer-Tropsch method, wherein
said hydroisomerization process is performed in the presence of a catalyst that comprises at least one hydrogenating-dehydrogenating
noble metal of group VIII of the periodic table, a substrate comprising at least one IZM-2 zeolite and at least one binder,
and 0.1 to 0.5% by weight of tin relative to the total catalyst mass, wherein said process is carried out at a temperature
of between 150 and 500° C., at a pressure of between 0.1 MPa and 15 MPa, at an hourly volumetric flow rate of between 0.1
and 10 h1, and in the presence of a total quantity of hydrogen that is mixed with the feedstock such that the hydrogen/feedstock ratio
is between 70 and 2,000 Nm3/m3 of feedstock.
US Pat. No. 10,131,547

AMORPHOUS MESOPOROUS ALUMINA WITH AN OPTIMIZED PORE DISTRIBUTION, AND PROCESS FOR ITS PREPARATION

IFP Energies Nouvelles, ...

1. A process for preparing an amorphous mesoporous alumina, said process comprising at least the following steps:a) a first step for precipitating, in an aqueous reaction medium to form a suspension, at least one basic precursor selected from the group consisting of sodium aluminate, potassium aluminate, ammonia, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide and at least one acidic precursor selected from the group consisting of aluminium sulphate, aluminium chloride, aluminium nitrate, sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid and nitric acid, in which at least one of the basic or acidic precursors comprises aluminium, the relative flow rate of the acidic and basic precursors being selected so as to obtain a pH of the reaction medium in the range of 8.5 to 10.5 and the flow rate of the acidic and basic precursor or precursors containing aluminium being adjusted in order to obtain a state of advance for the first step in the range of 5% to 13%, the state of advance being defined as the proportion of alumina formed, in Al2O3 equivalents, during said first step for precipitating with respect to the total quantity of alumina formed at the end of step c) of the process, said first step being operated at a temperature in the range of 20° C. to 90° C. and for a period in the range of 2 minutes to 30 minutes;
b) a step for heating the suspension to a temperature in the range of 40° C. to 90° C. for a period in the range of 7 minutes to 45 minutes;
c) a second step for precipitating the suspension obtained at the end of the heating step b), to obtain a second suspension, by adding to the suspension obtained at the end of the heating step b), at least one basic precursor selected from the group consisting of sodium aluminate, potassium aluminate, ammonia, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide and at least one acidic precursor selected from the group consisting of aluminium sulphate, aluminium chloride, aluminium nitrate, sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid and nitric acid, in which at least one of the basic or acidic precursors comprises aluminium, the relative flow rate of the acidic and basic precursors being selected so as to obtain a pH of the reaction medium in the range of 8.5 to 10.5 and the flow rate of the acidic and basic precursors containing aluminium being adjusted in order to obtain a state of advance for the second step in the range of 87% to 95%, the state of advance being defined as the proportion of alumina formed, in Al2O3 equivalents, during said second step for precipitating with respect to the total quantity of alumina formed at the end of step c) of the process, said second step being operated at a temperature in the range of 40° C. to 90° C. and for a period in the range of 2 minutes to 50 minutes;
d) a step for filtering the second suspension obtained at the end of the second precipitation step c) to obtain an alumina gel;
e) a step for drying said alumina gel to obtain a powder;
f) a step for shaping the powder to obtain a green material; and
g) a step for heat treating the green material at a temperature in the range of 500° C. to 1000° C., in the presence of a stream of air containing up to 60% by volume of water.

US Pat. No. 9,505,993

PROCESS FOR THE HYDRODESULPHURIZATION OF HYDROCARBON CUTS

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for the concomitant production of at least two hydrocarbon cuts with low sulphur contents from a mixture of hydrocarbons
having an initial boiling temperature in the range 35° C. to 100° C. and a final boiling temperature in the range 260° C.
to 340° C. and having a total sulphur content in the range 30 to 10000 ppm by weight, said hydrocarbon mixture comprising:
at least one first fraction comprising hydrocarbons having a boiling temperature range in the range from the initial boiling
temperature of the mixture to 160° C. and with an olefins content in the range 20% to 80% by weight of said first fraction;
and

at least one second fraction comprising hydrocarbons having a boiling temperature range in the range 160° C. to the final
boiling temperature of the mixture, said second fraction comprising at least 10% by weight of hydrocarbons with a boiling
temperature range in the range 220° C. to the final boiling temperature of the mixture;

the process comprising the following steps:
a) in a first reactor, treating the mixture in a first hydrodesulphurization step in the presence of hydrogen and a catalyst
comprising at least one metal from group VIII, at least one metal from group VIB and a support, the first hydrodesulphurization
step being carried out at a temperature in the range 200° C. to 400° C., at a pressure in the range 1 to 10 MPa, with a liquid
hourly space velocity in the range 0.1 to 10 h?1 and with a (volume of hydrogen/volume of hydrocarbon mixture) ratio in the range 50 to 500 Nliter/liter;

b) separating at least a portion of the hydrogen sulphide from the partially desulphurized effluent obtained from step a);
c) in a second reactor, treating the partially desulphurized mixture obtained from step b) in a second hydrodesulphurization
step in the presence of hydrogen and a catalyst comprising at least one element from group VIII, at least one element from
group VIB and a support, the second hydrodesulphurization step being carried out at a temperature in the range 205° C. to
500° C., at a pressure in the range 1 to 3 MPa, with a liquid hourly space velocity in the range 1 to 10 h?1 and with a (volume of hydrogen/volume of mixture) ratio in the range 50 to 500 Nliter/liter, the temperature of the second
hydrodesulphurization step c) being higher than that of the first hydrodesulphurization step a); and

d) fractionating the desulphurized mixture obtained from step c) into at least two desulphurized hydrocarbon cuts, light and
heavy, the light hydrocarbon cut having an initial boiling temperature in the range 35° C. to 100° C. and a final boiling
temperature in the range 160° C. to 220° C. and wherein the total sulphur content is less than 50 ppm by weight and the heavy
hydrocarbon cut has an initial boiling temperature in the range 160° C. to 220° C. and a final boiling temperature in the
range 260° C. to 340° C.

US Pat. No. 9,452,399

PNEUMATIC SYSTEM FOR DENSE LOADING OF CATALYST INTO BAYONET TUBES FOR A STEAM REFORMING EXCHANGER-REACTOR USING AN AUXILIARY TUBE FOR INTRODUCING SOLID PARTICLES

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. A method for loading catalyst using a pneumatic device for densely filling catalyst into a steam reforming exchanger-reactor
consisting of a plurality of bayonet tubes enclosed in a shell, the catalyst being constituted by particles occupying at least
part of the annular space (4) included between an internal tube (5) and an external tube (6), the assembly of these two tubes constituting a bayonet tube, the width of said annular space being in the range 30 mm to
80 mm, and its height being in the range 10 to 20 meters, the catalyst particles being in the form of cylinders with an approximate
height of 10 mm to 20 mm and with an approximate diameter of 5 mm to 20 mm, the device consisting of:
at least one rigid auxiliary tube (7) penetrating inside the annular zone (4) and maintained at a distance from the surface of the bed being formed which is in the range 50 mm to 150 mm, with a diameter
in the range 0.5 to 0.9 times the width of the annular space (4), said rigid auxiliary tube (7) allowing the introduction of solid particles to be loaded into the annular zone (4) and being traversed by a counter-current flow of gas introduced via the internal tube (5);

said rigid auxiliary tube (7) being divided into a plurality of sections with a length in the range 50 cm to 200 cm, which are placed end to end at the
start of loading, then gradually withdrawn as and when the bed of particles is formed so as to maintain the desired distance
with respect to the surface of the bed, and the particles of catalyst being contained in:

a central feed hopper (1) for delivering the articles to a shaker conveyor or a conveyor belt (2) supplying the auxiliary tube (7) via:

a funnel (3), via which the particles flow into the interior of the annular space (4); wherein said method comprises:

the rigid auxiliary tube (7) is initially dismantled into sections and is outside the bayonet tube, the feed hopper (1) being filled with solid;

the rigid auxiliary tube (7) is gradually introduced into the annular zone (4) by placing the necessary number of sections end to end so that its lower end is positioned at a distance in the range 50
cm to 100 cm with respect to the bottom of the annular zone (4);

a suitable flow of gas is introduced in its entirety into the internal tube (5);

the conveyor belt or the shaker conveyor (2) is started up so as to provide a flow of solid in the range 150 kg/h to 500 kg/h, preferably in the range 250 kg/h to 500
kg/h, said solid particles being introduced into the annular zone (4) via the rigid auxiliary tube (7);

as and when the annular zone (4) is filled, the rigid auxiliary tube (7) is raised from the annular zone (4) by removing sections with the aid of an external winding system (10) so as to keep the distance with respect to the surface of the bed which is gradually being formed constant, said distance
always being in the range 50 cm to 150 cm;

the rigid auxiliary tube (7) is withdrawn at a speed equivalent to the speed of loading of the tube in the range 0.1 m/min to 0.4 m/min, preferably in
the range 0.2 to 0.4 m/min;

once the bayonet tube has been loaded and the loading system has been withdrawn, the rigid auxiliary tube (7) is displaced in order to load the next tube.

US Pat. No. 9,447,001

PROCESS AND DEVICE FOR SIMULATED-COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION FOR THE PRODUCTION OF METAXYLENE WITH HIGH YIELD

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. A process for separation of metaxylene by simulated countercurrent chromatography (CCS) starting from a feedstock F that
comprises metaxylene and its C8 aromatic isomers, said process comprising contacting said metaxylene and C8 aromatic isomers
with a zeolitic adsorbent solid based on Y zeolite crystals and a non-zeolitic phase, in which the Y zeolite crystals have
a mean diameter of a number that is less than or equal to 1.7 ?m in which process at least one adsorber is divided into 4
chromatographic zones that are defined in the following manner:
Zone 1: a zone desorbing metaxylene, encompassed between injection of a desorbent D and sampling of an extract E,
Zone 2: a zone desorbing isomers of metaxylene, encompassed between the sampling of the extract E and injection of a feedstock
F that is to be fractionated,

Zone 3: a zone desorbing metaxylene, encompassed between injection of the feedstock and draw-off of a raffinate R,
Zone 4: a zone located between the draw-off of raffinate R and the injection of the desorbent D,
with the number of beds of each adsorber being between 6 and 18 beds with the beds all being identical, and the height of
each bed being between 0.7 m and 1.40 m, wherein in said process the adsorber(s) have a cumulative level (Hcu) of adsorbent
solid of between 6 m and 21 m, a mean surface velocity over each adsorber (Vsl) between 0.9 cm/s and 1.8 cm/s, with said surface
velocity being defined as the volumetric flow rate of mean recycling at the temperature of the process that is divided by
the area of the cross-section of the adsorber and the cumulative height (Hcu) of adsorbent solid being distributed in the
following manner:

the cumulative level of adsorbent solid in zone 1, on average over a cycle, is 17%±5% of (Hcu),
the cumulative level of adsorbent solid in zone 2, on average over a cycle, is 41.5%±5% of (Hcu),
the cumulative level of adsorbent solid in zone 3, on average over a cycle, is 25%±5% of (Hcu),
the cumulative level of adsorbent solid in zone 4, on average over a cycle, is 16.5%±5% of (Hcu).

US Pat. No. 9,315,743

PROCESS FOR MILD HYDROCRACKING OF HEAVY HYDROCARBON FRACTIONS WITH OPTIMIZED THERMAL INTEGRATION FOR THE PURPOSE OF REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. A process for mild hydrocracking of a fraction of the VGO type for the purpose of constituting the feedstock of a catalytic
cracking unit, comprising:
hydrocracking a VGO stream in a zone R wherein the VGO stream has been heated by a diesel-circulating reflux and a furnace
F-1,

separating a hydrogen rich gaseous phase and a liquid stream from the reaction effluent of zone R in a high-pressure hot separator
tank B-1,

separating a hydrogen rich gas stream and a liquid stream from the hydrogen rich gaseous phase stream from B-1 which has been cooled, wherein the separation occurs in a high-pressure cold separator tank B-2,

storing the liquid stream from B-2 which has been compressed, wherein the storage occurs in a low-pressure cold separator tank B-3,

washing the hydrogen rich stream with an amine and compressing the washed rich hydrogen stream, wherein both washing and compressing
occur in a zone K-1,

compressing a VGO feedstock and mixing the compressed VGO feedstock with the washed and compressed hydrogen rich stream obtained
from K-1,

stripping a mixture of the liquid streams obtained from B-1 and B-3 in a stripper C-1,

separating naphtha, diesel, and residue from the stripped stream obtained from C-1, where the separating occurs in a fractionator C-2 wherein the striped stream obtained from C-1 has been heated by a furnace F-2,

stripping the diesel obtained from C-2, wherein said stripping occurs in a second stripper C-3,

wherein the VGO stream is heated in exchanger E-8 with the stripped diesel obtained from C-3, in exchanger E-4 with the diesel-circulating reflux, and in exchanger train E-7 with the bottom of the fractionator C2, wherein train E-7 comprises at least one calendar, and/or

the hydrogen rich gaseous phase stream from B-1 is cooled in exchanger E-2 A and exchanger E-2 B with the liquid stream from B-3, in exchanger E-9 with a high-pressure feedstock mixed with hydrogen, and in E-3 A and E-3 B with a mixture of addition hydrogen and a part of a recycled hydrogen stream, where the heat exchange occurs in the following
order: E-2 A, E-9, E-3 A, E-2 B, and E-3 B, and/or

the effluent of zone R is cooled in exchanger train E-1 with the VGO feedstock, wherein train E-1 comprises at least one calendar; and in exchanger train E-10 with the feedstock of the fractionator C-2, wherein exchanger train E-10 comprises at least one calendar and wherein the calendars are located between calendars of exchanger train E-1, and/or

the bottom of the fractionator C-2 is cooled by exchanger E-5 with the diesel for reboiling the diesel stripper C-3 and the exchanger E-6 with the feedstock of the fractionator C-2.

US Pat. No. 9,109,168

PRODUCTION OF PARAFFINIC FUELS FROM RENEWABLE MATERIALS USING A CONTINUOUS HYDROTREATMENT PROCESS

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for the hydrotreatment of a feed originating from renewable sources producing paraffinic hydrocarbons in the
presence of hydrogen in excess of the theoretical hydrogen consumption and under hydrotreatment conditions in a fixed bed
reactor having a plurality of catalytic zones disposed in series and comprising a hydrotreatment catalyst, wherein:
a) a total feed flow F is divided into a certain number of part flows F1 to Fn equal to the number of catalytic zones n in the reactor, a first part flow F1 is injected into a first catalytic zone, a second part flow F2 is injected into a second catalytic zone up to n catalytic zones, if n is greater than 2;

the part flows are injected into successive catalytic zones in increasing proportions such that F1/F is less than or equal to F2/F, which itself is less than or equal to F3/F until F(n?1)/F is less than or equal to Fn/F, in order to produce an effluent containing paraffinic hydrocarbons;

b) said effluent undergoes at least one separation in order to separate a gaseous fraction containing hydrogen, CO, CO2, H2S, water and light gases and a liquid fraction containing the paraffinic hydrocarbons;

c) at least a portion of said liquid fraction containing paraffinic hydrocarbons is recycled to the first catalytic zone such
that the weight ratio between said recycle sent to the first catalytic zone and the part flow F1 introduced into the first catalytic zone is 10 or more.

US Pat. No. 9,095,814

PROCESS FOR MEMBRANE SEPARATION OF AN OLEFIN THAT IS CONTAINED IN A HYDROCARBON MIXTURE

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for membrane separation of hydrocarbons, comprising selective separation of an olefin that is ethylene or propylene
from an alkane of corresponding carbon number as that of the olefin that is to be separated, by subjecting the olefin and
alkane to a membrane having a selective layer comprising a dense polymer film that is a polyimide obtained from polycondensation
of 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)-hexafluoropropanoic acid dianhydride and 9,9-bis(4-aminophenyl)fluorene diamine;
a polyimide obtained from polycondensation of 3,3?,4,4?-biphenyltetracarboxylic acid dianhydride and 9,9-bis(4-aminophenyl)fluorene
diamine;

a polyimide obtained from polycondensation of 3,3?,4,4?-benzophenone-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride and 9,9-bis(4-aminophenyl)fluorene
diamine;

a polyimide obtained from polycondensation of (1) a 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)-hexafluoropropanoic acid dianhydride and
(2) a mixture of 9,9-bis(4-aminophenyl)fluorene diamine and 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trimethylbenzene diamine;

a polyimide obtained from polycondensation of (1) 3,3?,4,4?-biphenyltetracarboxylic acid dianhydride and (2) a mixture of
9,9-bis(4-aminophenyl)fluorene diamine and 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trimethylbenzene diamine, or

a polyimide obtained from polycondensation of (1) 3,3?,4,4?-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid dianhydride and (2) a mixture
of 9,9-bis(4-aminophenyl)fluorene diamine and 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trimethylbenzene diamine.

US Pat. No. 9,051,520

METHOD OF HYDROCRACKING AND OLIGOMERIZING A PARAFFINIC PRODUCT OF FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS USING A DISPERSED ZEOLITE BETA BASED CATALYST

UNIVERSITE DE POITIERS, ...

1. A process for the production of middle distillates, said process comprising at least one hydrocracking stage that oligomerizes
a paraffinic feedstock produced by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, by contacting said feedstock with a catalyst that comprises
at least one hydrogenating-dehydrogenating metal of group VIB or group VIII of the periodic table, alone or in a mixture,
and a substrate that comprises a beta zeolite in the form of crystallites with a size that is less than 100 nm dispersed in
at least one porous mineral matrix, whereby said beta zeolite has a mesopore volume of less than 0.4 ml/g, said feedstock
comprising an n-paraffin content that is greater than 60% by weight relative to the total mass of said feedstock, a content
of oxidized products that is less than 10% by weight, a content of unsaturated products, less than 20% by weight, and a content
of iso-paraffins, less than 10% by weight relative to the total mass of said feedstock.

US Pat. No. 10,046,635

POWERTRAIN FOR A HYBRID TYPE VEHICLE

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A powertrain for a hybrid vehicle, comprising a thermal engine having a drive shaft, an electric machine connected to an axle shaft of the vehicle, a transmission device comprising a primary transmission shaft connected to the drive shaft of thermal engine through a disengageable coupling and carrying at least two first gear wheels cooperating with at least two second gear wheels carried by a secondary transmission shaft connected to the axle shaft, wherein the at least two second gear wheels comprise a second large diameter gear wheel arranged on the secondary transmission shaft by interposing a one way coupling and a second small diameter gear wheel mounted rotatingly idle on the secondary transmission shaft and rotatingly securable to the secondary shaft by a disengageable coupling, and an auxiliary electric machine connected to the primary transmission shaft, wherein the auxiliary electric machine is configured to operate selectively as an electric motor operably connected to an axle shaft of the vehicle for driving an axle shaft of the vehicle, including in an electric mode configuration in which the thermal engine does not drive the axle shaft of the vehicle, and as an energy generator machine for charging a battery of the vehicle.

US Pat. No. 9,561,487

PERFORMANCE TRAPPING MASS AND USE THEREOF IN HEAVY METAL TRAPPING

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A capture mass for heavy metals, capable of capturing mercury contained in a gaseous or liquid feed, said mass comprising
a porous support comprising gel alumina obtained from aluminum oxy (hydroxide), at least one metal M present at least in part
in a sulfide form said metal M being copper, molybdenum, tungsten, iron, nickel or cobalt and in which the porous support
comprises a quantity of sodium in the range 1 to 700 ppm by weight of sodium and has a pore diameter distribution such that:
0.4 mL/g
and V0.005/V0.03>1;
Vx being the pore volume of the porous support (mL/g) corresponding to the cumulative volume of its porosity, wherein the pore
diameter, taken over the whole of the pores of the support, is more than x (in ?m).

US Pat. No. 9,477,009

METHOD OF EVALUATING AND SELECTING AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STRATEGY FOR FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method of evaluating a recovery potential of hydrocarbons contained in porous matrix blocks of a reservoir limited by
fractures, using a recovery technique wherein a fluid is injected into the reservoir, for at least one matrix block comprising:
i) acquiring data characteristic of the reservoir, data obtained from well tests and data relative to development conditions
of the reservoir;

ii) estimating a pressure gradient related to a flow of the fluid in the fractures, from data acquired in i),
iii) calculating a recovery coefficient for the hydrocarbons initially in place in the at least one block, by estimating a
fluid saturation for a state of equilibrium of the a least one matrix block, from the pressure gradient and from data acquired
in i); and

iv) estimating a hydrocarbon recovery time under an effect of flow of the fluid in the fractures by determining a time required
for changing from an initial state to an equilibrium state of the matrix block, by applying two-phase displacement laws, from
the pressure gradient and from data acquired in i).

US Pat. No. 9,452,370

PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR SIMULATED COUNTER-CURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION FOR HIGH-PRODUCTIVITY PRODUCTION OF PARAXYLENE

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for separation of paraxylene by simulated counter-current (SCC) chromatography from a charge F essentially comprising
paraxylene and its aromatic C8 isomers, comprising contacting the charge with a zeolitic adsorbent solid based on zeolite
crystals X and a non-zeolitic phase, in which the zeolite crystals X have an average diameter by number of between 0.1 and
1.5 microns, said process using at least one adsorber divided into 4 chromatographic zones defined in the following fashion:
Zone 1: zone for desorption of the paraxylene, between injection of a desorbent D and withdrawal of an extract E;
Zone 2: zone for desorption of the isomers of the paraxylene, between the withdrawal of the extract E and injection of the
charge F to be fractionate;

Zone 3: zone for adsorption of the paraxylene, between injection of the charge and withdrawal of a raffinate R;
Zone 4: zone between withdrawal of the raffinate R and injection of the desorbent D; the number of adsorption beds being between
6 and 18, the beds all being identical, and the height of each bed being between 0.7 m and 1.4 m, said process being characterised
in that it has a cumulated height of adsorbent solid in relation to the different adsorber or adsorbers (Hcu) of between 6
m and 21 m and that the mean superficial velocity over each adsorber (Vsl) is between 1 cm/s and 2 cm/s, said superficial
velocity being defined as the mean recycling flow rate by volume at the temperature of the process divided by the area of
the section of the adsorber, and the cumulated height (Hcu) of adsorbent solid being distributed in the following fashion:

the cumulated height of adsorbent solid in zone 1 on average over a cycle is 21%±5% of Hcu,
the cumulated height of adsorbent solid in zone 2 on average over a cycle is 37.5%±5% of Hcu,
the cumulated height of adsorbent solid in zone 3 on average over a cycle is 29%±5% of Hcu,
the cumulated height of adsorbent solid in zone 4 on average over a cycle is 12.5%±5% of Hcu.

US Pat. No. 9,339,786

HIGH-PERFORMANCE STRUCTURED PACKING FOR A FLUID CONTACTING COLUMN

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. A structured packing of a fluid contacting column defining an exchange surface for at least one liquid phase intended to
come into intimate contact with at least one gas phase, said packing consisting of a pile of plates comprising corrugations,
each plate being inscribed between two parallel planes, said corrugations forming a succession of positive and negative edges,
each edge comprising fins inscribed between said two parallel planes, each one of said fins consisting of at least one band
cut out in one of said plates, width of the band ranging between 1 and 15 mm, the band remaining secured to the plate on at
least one side and the band being deformed so as to create an orifice forming a discontinuity on the surface of the plate,
wherein direction of the edges of a plate forms a non-zero angle with respect to direction of the edges of an adjacent plate,
characterized in that each plate comprises at least one longitudinal zone parallel to one lip of the plate, where the edges
comprise no orifice, said zones being positioned in such a way that two adjacent plates have their said zone one above the
other so as to form at least one point of contact between a positive edge and a negative edge of two adjacent plates.

US Pat. No. 9,334,983

HOOP WINDING METHOD FOR REINFORCING THE AXIAL STRENGTH AND THE INTERNAL PRESSURE STRENGTH OF A TUBE

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A hoop winding method for manufacturing a reinforced tube, wherein the following operations are carried out:
a) providing a metal tube, then
b) depositing a reinforcing layer around the metal tube, the reinforcing layer comprising elongate internal pressure and axial
traction reinforcement elements, by alternating deposition of the reinforcement elements forming an angle between 60 and 90°
to the axis of the tube with deposition of the reinforcement elements forming an angle between 0 and 30° to the axis of the
tube, then

c) imposing a tensile force at the ends of the metal tube so as to plastically deform the metal tube, the tensile force being
oriented parallel to the metal tube axis, wherein a residual deformation of the metal tube caused by the tensile force induces
tensional stresses in the reinforcement elements forming an angle between 0 and 30° to the axis of the metal tube, and the
reinforcement elements forming an angle between 0 and 30° to the axis of the metal tube induce an axial compressive stress
in the metal tube after release of the force, and

d) imposing a pressure onto the inner wall of metal tube so as to plastically deform the metal tube, wherein a residual deformation
of the metal tube caused by the pressure induces tensional stresses on the reinforcement elements forming an angle between
60 and 90° to the axis of the tube, and the reinforcement elements forming an angle between 60 and 90° to the axis of the
tube induce a radial compressive stress in the metal tube after release of the pressure,

the method being characterized in that the value of said pressure is set independently of the value of said tensile force.
US Pat. No. 9,187,770

PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOLS AND/OR SOLVENTS FROM LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS WITH WASHING OF THE SOLID RESIDUE OBTAINED AFTER HYDROLYSIS

IFP Energies Nouvelles, ...

1. A process for preparing alcohol and/or solvent from a biomass feedstock, comprising:
a) heating and bringing into contact the biomass feedstock with water and an acid or basic compound to obtain a pretreated
substrate,

b) bringing the pretreated substrate into contact with at least a cellulase enzyme and a liquid washing stream to obtain a
hydrolyzate that comprises a solid material and a liquid phase containing sugars,

wherein, the pretreated substrate has a flow rate and the liquid washing stream has a flow rate of between 50% and 1500% by
weight of the flow rate of said pretreated substrate, and further wherein, said cellulase enzyme is produced by a microorganism
that is a fungus or an anaerobic bacterium, wherein said fungus is selected from a mushroom of the Genus Schizophyllum, or fungi that belong to the genera Trichoderma, Aspergillus, or Penicillium, and said anaerobic bacterium belongs to the Genus Clostridium;
c) extracting at least a portion of the solid material contained in the hydrolyzate to obtain a hydrolyzate that is low in
solid material and a stream that is enriched with solid material,

d) washing the stream that is enriched with solid material with a liquid stream to obtain a liquid washing stream, wherein
at least a portion of the liquid washing stream is recycled to stage b) to provide at least a portion of the liquid washing
stream,

e) fermenting the hydrolyzate that is low in solid material obtained in stage c) with an alcohologenic microorganism under
alcoholic fermentation conditions to produce a fermentation wine; and

f) separating the fermentation wine to obtain at least a purified stream comprising an alcohol or a solvent and at least one
vinasse stream, wherein at least a portion of the vinasse stream is recycled to stage d) to provide at least a portion of
the liquid stream.

US Pat. No. 9,172,257

CONVERTER FOR BALANCING THE CELLS OF AN ELECTRIC BATTERY

IFP Energies Nouvelles, ...

1. A cell balancing converter of an electric battery, wherein the battery includes an even number N of cells connected in
series, the converter comprising:
a first circuit as a quasi-resonant circuit;
a second circuit, as a pseudo-control circuit;
a transformer coupling the quasi-resonant circuit to the pseudo-control circuit, and including a primary winding and N/2 secondary
windings, wherein one end of the primary winding is connected to a first terminal of the quasi-resonant circuit, and the other
end is connected to a second terminal of the quasi-resonant circuit;

the quasi-resonant circuit includes an inductor connecting the first terminal to a middle-point of a first branch including
a first element forming a switch, and a second element forming a switch, wherein the second terminal is connected to a middle-point
of a second branch including a first capacitor and a second capacitor, wherein the first end of the first branch is connected
to the first end of the second branch by a first electrical conductor, wherein the second end of the first branch is connected
to the second end of the second branch by a second electrical conductor, and wherein the electrical conductors power the quasi-resonant
circuit by a direct voltage;

the elements forming switches of the quasi-resonant circuit include inputs for receiving signals sent by a driving circuit
of the quasi-resonant circuit to close or open the elements forming switches;

wherein the pseudo-control circuit comprises:
switching modules which include inputs for receiving signals sent by a driving circuit of the pseudo-control circuit to put
the switching modules into an on-state or off-state each cell of the battery having a switching module connected in series
with the respective cell of the battery, and

a given secondary winding of the transformer closing two electrical circuits, each of which consists of a switching module
and a cell, connected in series, and

wherein the signals sent by the driving circuit of the pseudo-control circuit are transferred to the reception inputs of the
switching modules by high-pass filters, where each high-pass filter is an RC filter including a capacitor and a resistor with
a diode installed in parallel with the resistor such that an entire control signal is transmitted.

US Pat. No. 9,050,590

CATALYTIC COMPOSITION AND PROCESS FOR OLIGOMERIZATION OF OLEFINS USING SAID CATALYTIC COMPOSITION

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A catalytic composition comprising at least one iron dichloride tetrahydrate, at least one bis(imino)pyridine, and an activating
agent consisting of at least one trimethyl aluminum and at least one organic 2,2-biphenol-diol compound.

US Pat. No. 10,030,574

METHOD FOR MONITORING THE FUEL INJECTION OF AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH DIRECT INJECTION, IN PARTICULAR WITH COMPRESSION IGNITION, AND ENGINE USING SUCH A METHOD

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A fuel injection method for a compression-ignition internal-combustion engine including at least an intake, a cylinder, a cylinder head carrying fuel injectors, a piston sliding in the cylinder, a combustion chamber delimited on one side by an upper face including a projection extending in a direction of the cylinder head and located in a center of a concave bowl with at least upper and lower fuel mixing zones comprising:projecting fuel as at least upper and lower fuel jet sheets with the sheets having different sheet angles, different fuel jet axes with the upper fuel jet sheet projecting fuel into the upper fuel mixing zone of the combustion chamber and the lower fuel jet sheet projecting fuel into the lower fuel mixing zone;
injecting at least two fuel jets in one of the upper and lower fuel jet sheets that form a non-zero angular offset with fuel jets of another of the upper and lower fuel jet sheets; and
admitting an oxidizer inside of the combustion chamber through the intake of the engine which initiates a swirling motion having a swirl number equal to or less than 1.5.

US Pat. No. 9,790,924

WIND TURBINE CONTROL AND MONITORING METHOD USING A WIND SPEED ESTIMATION BASED ON A LIDAR SENSOR

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method for at least one of controlling and monitoring a wind turbine equipped with a LIDAR sensor performing a measurement
of the wind at a point located upstream from the wind turbine, comprising:
a) acquiring a sensor signal corresponding to the measurement performed by the LIDAR sensor;
b) constructing an estimator for estimating wind speed at the rotor of the turbine from processing the sensor signal using
a mathematical representation of the wind, a model of the LIDAR sensor and a model of wind propagation which relates the sensor
signal to the wind speed at the rotor;

c) estimating the wind speed at the rotor of the turbine by applying the sensor signal to the estimator which converts the
sensor signal at the point upstream from the rotor into an output signal expressing an estimation of wind speed at a plane
of the rotor; and

d) at least one of controlling and monitoring the wind turbine in response to the estimation of the wind speed at the plane
of the rotor.

US Pat. No. 9,638,682

METHOD FOR FAST ESTIMATION OF DISTILLATION RESIDUES AND COKE CHARACTERISTICS

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

4. A method of estimating, for crude oil, values representative of the distribution of sulfur and carbon in atmospheric and
vacuum distillation residues, and a value representative of the sulfur in the coke, a method wherein the following stages
are carried out:
from a crude oil sample, measuring at least parameters S2b, SulfS2b, RC, Sulfoxy using a device comprising at least one oven for pyrolysis in an inert atmosphere and at least one oxidation oven, said device
comprising a sulfur measurement module, S2b being the mass proportion of heavy pyrolyzable compounds contained in said sample,
SulfS2b being the mass proportion of sulfur in the heavy pyrolyzable compounds contained in said sample, RC being the mass proportion
of carbon of the pyrolysis residue of said sample, and Sulfoxy being the mass proportion of sulfur in the pyrolysis residue of said sample,

deducing from said measurements of said parameters said values of the sulfur and carbon distributions in the distillation
residues, and a sulfur content in relation to the carbon content in the coke,
wherein said representative values of the sulfur and carbon distributions in the distillation residues are determined as follows:
SPHF=SulfS2b/[SulfS2b+Sulfoxy], where SPHF corresponds to the proportion of sulfur in the pyrolyzable heavy fraction, with said parameters SulfS2b, SulfS2b and Sulfoxy expressed in gram of sulfur per 100 grams of said sample,

SCOKE=Sulfoxy [Sulfs2b+Sulfoxy], where SCOKE corresponds to the proportion of sulfur in the coke, with said parameters SulfS2b, SulfS2b and Sulfoxy expressed in gram of sulfur per 100 grams of said sample, with SPHF+SCOKE=1,

CPHF=S2b*0.083/[S2b*0.083+RC], where CPHF corresponds to the proportion of carbon in the pyrolyzable heavy fraction, with said parameters S2b expressed in gram of organic
compounds per 1000 grams of said sample and RC expressed in gram of carbon per 100 grams of said sample,

CCOKE=RC/[S2b*0.083+RC], where CCOKE corresponds to the proportion of carbon in the coke, with said parameters S2b expressed in gram of organic compounds per 1000
grams of said sample and RC expressed in gram of carbon per 100 grams of said sample, with CPHF+CCOKE=1, and
wherein the value representative of the richness in sulfur in relation to the carbon content in the coke is determined as
follows:
Sulfoxy/RC, with said parameters Sulfoxy and RC expressed in gram of sulfur and carbon respectively per 100 grams of said sample.

US Pat. No. 9,505,681

PROCESS FOR ISOMERIZING AN AROMATIC C8 CUT IN THE PRESENCE OF A CATALYST BASED ON AN EUO ZEOLITE AND A PARTICULAR SODIUM CONTENT

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. A process for isomerizing an aromatic cut containing at least one aromatic compound containing 8 carbon atoms per molecule
to produce p-xylene, comprising contacting the aromatic cut with a catalyst comprising a support and wherein the support comprises
at least one zeolite with structure type EUO,
wherein a method of preparing the catalyst comprises:
obtaining the at least one zeolite with structure type EUO having an overall Si/AI atomic ratio of 5 to 45, a sodium content
of 1000 to 3000 ppm by weight, and a Na/AI ratio of 5% to 15% by mole, and

performing steps i) and ii) in either order such that the catalyst contains a final sodium content of 75 to 600 ppm by weight:
i) preparing the support by mixing the at least one zeolite with a matrix such that a zeolite content is from 8% to 15% by
weight with respect to the support; and

ii) depositing at least one metal from group VIII of the periodic table of the elements onto the support or onto the at least
one zeolite.

US Pat. No. 9,328,039

PROCESS FOR SELECTIVE HYDROGENATION IN THE PRESENCE OF A CATALYST BASED ON A METAL FROM GROUP VIII PREPARED USING AT LEAST ONE CYCLIC OLIGOSACCHARIDE

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for the selective hydrogenation of a hydrocarbon feed comprising at least 2 carbon atoms per molecule and having
an end boiling point of 250° C. or less, said hydrocarbon feed comprising acetylenes, diolefins or a mixture thereof, said
process comprising bringing said feed into contact with at least one catalyst the active phase of which comprises at least
one metal from group VIII deposited on a support formed by at least one oxide, said catalyst being prepared using a process
comprising at least:
i) at least once contacting said support with at least one solution containing at least one precursor of at least said metal
from group VIII;

ii) at least once contacting at least said support with at least one organic compound formed from at least one cyclic oligosaccharide
having at least 6 ?-(1,4)-bonded glucopyranose subunits;

iii) calcining at least once to obtain at least said metal from said group VIII in the oxide form;
i) and ii) being carried out separately, in any order, or simultaneously.

US Pat. No. 9,261,070

METHOD OF CONTROLLING A DEVICE FOR CONVERTING WAVE ENERGY TO ELECTRICAL ENERGY

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. A method of converting wave energy into electrical energy using a device including a moving element oscillating with respect
to an electrical machine in response to waves comprising:
a) selecting a relationship expressing a position of the moving element as a function of a force exerted by the machine on
the moving element as a function of wave force applied to the moving element;

b) actuating the machine to produce a given force on the moving element;
c) measuring a position of the moving element with respect to the machine over time;
d) determining a wave force using the relationship which accounts for the given force of the machine and the measured position
of the moving element;

e) determining a new value of force exerted by the machine on the moving element corresponding to a force for maximizing an
average electrical power generated by the machine, which depends on the wave force on a new value of the force exerted by
the machine on the moving element and on a position of the moving element with respect to the machine; and

f) actuating the machine to produce the new value of force by supplying electrical energy to the machine when the force provided
by the machine drives the moving element and for recovering electrical energy from the machine when the force provided by
the machine resists motion of the moving element.

US Pat. No. 9,260,385

PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SURFACTANTS FROM RENEWABLE MATERIALS, COMPRISING A STEP FOR HYDROTREATMENT AND A STEP FOR TRANSFORMING PARAFFINS INTO SURFACTANTS

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for the production of surfactant compounds from a feed obtained from renewable sources, comprising an oil or
fat of vegetable or animal origin, or mixtures thereof, said oil or fat containing triglycerides and/or free fatty acids and/or
esters, said process comprising:
a) hydrotreatment of said feed in the presence of hydrogen in excess of theoretical hydrogen consumption and under hydrotreatment
conditions, in a fixed bed reactor having a plurality of catalytic zones disposed in series and comprising a hydrotreatment
catalyst, in order to produce an effluent containing at least linear paraffin hydrocarbon compounds,

i) dividing the total flow of feed F into a certain number of different part flows, F1 to Fn, equal to the number of catalytic
zones Zn in the reactor, injecting the first part flow F1 into a first catalytic zone Z1, injecting a second part flow F2
into a second catalytic zone, if n is greater than 2, up to n, various part flows being injected into successive catalytic
zones in increasing proportions such that F1/F is less than or equal to F2/F, which itself is less than or equal to F3/F if
present until F(n?1)/F is less than or equal to Fn/F,

the temperature of a flow injected into the inlet to the first catalytic zone Z1 comprising part flow of the feed F1 mixed
with a hydrogen-rich flow H1 entering the zone Z1 and with a liquid recycle R, (F1+R+H1), being greater than 250° C. and the
temperature of flows at the inlet to the subsequent zones Z2 to Zn being greater than 300° C.;

ii) separating from said effluent containing linear paraffin hydrocarbon compounds, a gaseous fraction containing hydrogen,
CO, CO2, H2S, water and light gases and a liquid hydrocarbon fraction containing linear paraffins;

iii) recycling at least a portion R of said liquid hydrocarbon fraction containing linear paraffins is recycled to the first
catalytic zone Z1 such that the weight ratio between flows of said recycle R and the part flow F1 introduced into the first
catalytic zone Z1, R/F1, is 8 or more;

b) transforming at least a portion of said liquid hydrocarbon fraction containing linear paraffins obtained from a) into surfactant
compounds, by

alkylating of at least a portion of said liquid hydrocarbon fraction containing linear paraffins obtained from a), with aromatic
hydrocarbons that are benzene, toluene, xylenes or mixtures of these hydrocarbons, in order to produce aromatic compounds
alkylated by long chain paraffins;

or sulfonating of at least a portion of said liquid hydrocarbon fraction containing linear paraffins obtained from a) in order
to produce paraffinic sulfonate compounds.

US Pat. No. 9,163,180

PROCESS FOR THE CONVERSION OF CARBON-BASED MATERIAL BY A HYBRID ROUTE COMBINING DIRECT LIQUEFACTION AND INDIRECT LIQUEFACTION IN THE PRESENCE OF HYDROGEN RESULTING FROM NON-FOSSIL RESOURCES

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. Process for the conversion of carbon-based material to fuel bases, comprising the following stages:
a) liquefaction of at least a portion of the said carbon-based material in the presence of hydrogen in at least one reactor
comprising a supported catalyst as an ebullated bed,

b) separation of the effluent obtained on conclusion of stage a) into at least one light fraction of fuel base hydrocarbons
and a residual fraction comprising compounds boiling at at least 340° C.,

c) production of hydrogen using at least one non-fossil resource, the hydrogen thus produced being at least in part introduced
into the liquefaction stage a), and the subsequent reverse water gas reaction stage e) and subsequent Fischer-Tropsch reaction
stage f),

d) gasification of a portion of the carbon-based material and/or of a portion at least of the residual fraction resulting
from stage b) in order to produce synthesis gas comprising hydrogen, CO and CO2, and a residual fraction from the gasification,

e) separation of a portion at least of the CO2 present in the synthesis gas and conversion of the separated CO2 by a reverse water gas reaction in the presence of hydrogen resulting from stage c), to produce CO and water,

f) conversion of the synthesis gas, supplemented with at least a portion of the CO resulting from stage e) and at least a
portion of hydrogen resulting from stage c), by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to give fuel bases.

US Pat. No. 10,137,404

METHOD OF ABSORBING ACID COMPOUNDS CONTAINED IN A GASEOUS EFFLUENT USING AN AMINE-BASED AQUEOUS SOLUTION

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method of absorbing acid compounds contained in a gaseous effluent comprising the following stages:contacting the gaseous effluent with an aqueous solution comprising at least one amine and at least one amine degradation inhibiting compound,
determining a corrosion resistance of each of a plurality of stainless steels of grades 1.4462 or 1.4410 or 1.4547 upon contact with a triazole or tetrazole derivative comprising at least one substituent having a sulfur atom,
selecting a stainless steel of grade 1.4462 or 1.4410 or 1.4547 based on the determination of the corrosion resistances of the plurality of stainless, and
using equipments whose surfaces in contact with said aqueous solution are made from the selected stainless steel.

US Pat. No. 10,041,473

METHOD OF OPTIMIZING THE POWER RECOVERED BY A WIND TURBINE BY REDUCING THE MECHANICAL IMPACT ON THE STRUCTURE

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method of optimizing electrical power production of a horizontal axis wind turbine comprising a tower supporting a nacelle provided with a rotor to which blades are fastened with an angle of inclination of the blades being controlled, comprising:a) determining a first angle of inclination of the blades allowing recovered power to be maximized as a function of wind velocity by generating an electrical torque setpoint value as a function of a rotor measurement, generating a rotor velocity setpoint value as a function of a wind velocity measurement using mappings, generating an aerodynamic torque setpoint value which follows the rotor velocity setpoint value and the electrical torque setpoint value; and determining the first angle of inclination allowing achieving the aerodynamic torque setpoint value and providing regulation of a rotor velocity;
b) providing a model of an aerodynamic force produced on the nacelle as a function of a wind velocity, of the angle of inclination of the blades and of a velocity of the rotor;
c) determining the aerodynamic force produced on the nacelle when the blades are directed with the first angle of inclination;
d) determining a setpoint value for the aerodynamic force produced on the nacelle when the blades are directed with the first angle of inclination by decreasing the aerodynamic force determined in c) by a term defined to minimize velocity variations at a top of the tower to lessen structural fatigue of the tower for electrical power generation during wind speed variation;
e) determining a second angle of inclination of the blades allowing obtaining the aerodynamic force by inverting the model of the aerodynamic force while using a wind velocity measurement, a rotor velocity measurement and the setpoint value of the aerodynamic force; and
f) directing the blades to the second angle to provide maximum power generation during the wind speed variation while minimizing the velocity variations at the top of the tower.
US Pat. No. 10,029,237

CATALYST COMPRISING DISPERSED GOLD AND PALLADIUM, AND ITS USE IN SELECTIVE HYDROGENATION

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. A catalyst comprising gold, palladium, and a porous support, in the form of at least one grain, wherein:the gold content in the catalyst is in the range 0.5% to 3% by weight with respect to the total weight of catalyst;
the mean particle size of the gold, estimated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), is in the range 0.5 nm to 5 nm;
the gold is distributed homogeneously in said porous support;
at least 80% by weight of the palladium is distributed in an eggshell at the periphery of said porous support;
the gold/palladium molar ratio is more than 2.
US Pat. No. 9,725,376

PROCESS FOR DEHYDRATION OF ETHANOL INTO ETHYLENE USING PRETREATMENT OF THE FEEDSTOCK

IFP Energies Nouvelles, ...

1. A process for dehydration of an ethanol feedstock into ethylene comprising at least the stages:
a) pretreating the ethanol feedstock on an acidic solid operating at a temperature of between 100 and 130° C. in such a way
as to produce a pretreated ethanol feedstock,

wherein from 3% to 20% by weight of the ethanol that is present in said feedstock is converted into diethyl ether,
b) evaporating an evaporation feedstock comprising said ethanol feedstock that is pretreated in a heat exchanger, with said
evaporation feedstock being introduced into said evaporation stage at a pressure of between 0.1 and 2.5 MPa in such a way
as to produce an evaporated feedstock,

c) superheating said evaporated feedstock in such a way as to bring it to an inlet temperature that is compatible with the
temperature of the dehydration reaction and,

d) dehydrating said feedstock that is obtained from stage c) in at least one adiabatic reactor that contains at least one
dehydration catalyst and in which the dehydration reaction takes place, operating at an inlet temperature of between 350 and
550° C. and at an inlet pressure of between 0.3 and 1.8 MPa.

US Pat. No. 9,650,580

INTEGRATED PROCESS FOR THE TREATMENT OF OIL FEEDS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FUEL OILS WITH A LOW SULPHUR AND SEDIMENT CONTENT

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. A process for the treatment of a hydrocarbon feed having a sulphur content of at least 0.5% by weight, an asphaltenes content
of at least 1% by weight, an initial boiling point of at least 340° C., and a final boiling point of at least 480° C., in
order to obtain at least one deasphalted oil fraction with a sulphur content of 0.5% by weight or less and a sediment content
of 0.1% by weight or less, comprising, in succession:
a) fixed bed hydrotreatment, in which the hydrocarbon feed and hydrogen are brought into contact over at least one hydrotreatment
catalyst,

b) optionally, separating effluent obtained from the hydrotreatment a) into at least one light fraction and at least one heavy
fraction,

c) hydroconversion of at least a portion of effluent obtained from a) or at least a portion of the heavy fraction obtained
from b) and optionally at least a portion of the light fraction obtained from b) in at least one reactor containing at least
one supported ebullated bed catalyst,

d) separating effluent obtained from c) in order to obtain at least one gaseous fraction and a liquid hydrocarbon fraction,
by an atmospheric distillation, in which the effluent obtained at the end of c) is fractionated by atmospheric distillation
into at least one atmospheric distillate fraction and at least one atmospheric residue fraction, then a vacuum distillation
in which at least a portion of the atmospheric residue fraction obtained after atmospheric distillation is fractionated by
vacuum distillation into at least one vacuum distillate fraction and at least one vacuum residue fraction; and at least a
portion of the vacuum residue fraction is recycled to the hydrotreatment a),

e) at least one selective deasphalting in order to separate at least one asphalt fraction and at least one deasphalted oil
fraction, the deasphalting being carried out at least by bringing at least a portion of the liquid hydrocarbon fraction obtained
from d), comprising at least a portion of said vacuum residue fraction and optionally a portion of said vacuum distillate
fraction, into contact with a mixture of at least one polar solvent and at least one apolar solvent under subcritical conditions
for the mixture of solvents used,

f) recycling at least a portion of said deasphalted oil fraction obtained from e) upstream of the hydrotreatment a) and/or
to the inlet for the hydroconversion c).

US Pat. No. 9,598,442

CRYSTALLIZED HYBRID SOLID HAVING A THREE-DIMENSIONAL DMOF-1-N3 ORGANIC-INORGANIC MATRIX AND METHOD FOR PREPARING THE SAME

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...


US Pat. No. 9,586,875

PROCESS FOR PURIFICATION OF OLEFINIC FEEDSTOCKS USING AN ADSORBENT COMPRISING A 12 MR-TYPE ZEOLITE

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. Process for purification of a hydrocarbon feedstock comprising olefins and at least one impurity comprising at least one
heteroatom:
wherein the process comprises a stage for bringing the feedstock into contact with an adsorbent,
wherein, before said contacting, the adsorbent has been obtained by:
a) providing a zeolite,
b) mixing the zeolite with a binder and shaping the resulting mixture in the form of grains, with the mixture comprising between
10% and 50% by weight of binder,

c) conducting zeolithization of the grains obtained in b),
wherein the adsorbent comprises between 93% by weight and 99.8% by weight of zeolite and between 0.2 and 7% by weight of binder,
the zeolite is of the 12 MR type, the zeolite contains silicon and an element T selected from the group that consists of aluminum,
boron, gallium and iron, and in which the Si/T atomic ratio of the zeolite, calculated before conducting the zeolithization,
is less than 20.

US Pat. No. 9,486,752

DISTRIBUTOR PLATE FOR A GAS-LIQUID MIXTURE, PROVIDED WITH DISTRIBUTION ELEMENTS HAVING LOW SENSITIVITY TO A LACK OF HORIZONTALITY

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. A distributor plate for a gas-liquid flow in downflow co-current mode positioned at various levels of a reactor which may
comprise a plurality of catalytic beds, in order to ensure homogeneous distribution of the resulting gas-liquid mixture over
a catalytic bed located downstream of said plate,
said plate being provided with distribution elements distributed regularly over the surface of the plate in a square or triangular
pattern, a distribution element containing two substantially coaxial cylinders termed the inner cylinder (1) with a diameter (d1) and height (h1), and the outer cylinder (2) with a diameter (d2) and height (h2), raised by a height (h3) with respect to the plane of the plate, a lower horizontal surface (5) separating the two cylinders being closed and located at a height (h3) above the base of the distributor plate which is in the range of 10 to 100 mm, and the lateral wall of the outer cylinder
(2) being provided with at least one substantially vertical slot (4) for admitting gas and liquid into an annular zone (3), the gas-liquid mixture being capable of entraining in the annular zone (3) as an upflowing stream, then passing into the inner cylinder (1) via an upper opening (6) thereof and dropping inside the inner cylinder (1), then evacuated via an opening (7) located at the lower end of the inner cylinder (1).

US Pat. No. 9,309,167

PROCESS FOR OLIGOMERIZATION OF OLEFINS THAT USES A CATALYTIC COMPOSITION THAT COMPRISES AN ORGANOMETALLIC COMPLEX THAT CONTAINS AN ALKOXY LIGAND THAT IS FUNCTIONALIZED BY A HETEROATOM

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for oligomerization of olefins into compounds or into a mixture of compounds of the formula CpH2p with 4?p?80, said process comprising:
oligomerizing an olefin feedstock in the presence of a catalytic composition comprising at least one organometallic complex
of an element of group IV selected from titanium, zirconium, and hafnium, wherein said organometallic complex contains at
least one alkoxy ligand functionalized by a heteroatom that is selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur or by
an aromatic group, and said organometallic complex is of the following formula:

[M(OR)mY(4-m)]
in which:
M is an element from group IV selected from titanium, zirconium, and hafnium,
Y is an atom of chlorine or bromine, a hydrocarbyl radical having 1 to 30 carbon atoms, or a radical selected from alkoxy
R?O—, amido R?2N—, and carboxylate R?COO—, where R?is a hydrocarbyl radical having 1 to 30 carbon atoms,

m is an integer of 1 to 4, and
the ligand —OR is an organic compound selected from alkoxy ligands of the formula:
O—(CR10R11)n—X-L

in which:
(CR10R11)n is —CH2—, —(CH2)2—, —(CH2)3—, —(CH2)4—, —(CH2)5—, —C(CH3)2—, —C(CH3)2—CH2—, —C(CH3)2—CH2—CH2—, —C(CF3)2—, —C(CF3)2—CH2— or —C(CF3)2—CH2—CH2—,

R10and R11each represent a hydrogen atom, —CH3, or —CF3
L is —PR4R5,

X is a hydrocarbon group CR7R8, an oxygen atom, or a group that comprises —NR9,

R4 and R5 are each an alkyl or aryl group that is substituted or unsubstituted,

R7, R8, and R9 each represent a hydrogen atom or a hydrocarbon chain, that may or may not be cyclic, having 1 to 30 carbon atoms, and

n is an integer in the range of 1 to 5.

US Pat. No. 10,137,410

METHOD OF DEACIDIZING A GASEOUS EFFLUENT BY AN ABSORBENT SOLUTION WITH VAPOR INJECTION INTO THE REGENERATED ABSORBENT SOLUTION AND DEVICE FOR IMPLEMENTING SAME

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A method of deacidizing a gaseous effluent containing acid compounds, comprising:a) contacting the gaseous effluent with an absorbent solution in an absorption column to obtain a gaseous effluent depleted of acid compounds and an absorbent solution laden with acid compounds, the absorbent solution forming two separable liquid phases when an amount of acid compounds have been absorbed and is heated;
b) separating the absorbent solution laden with acid compounds into a first liquid fraction depleted of acid compounds and a second liquid fraction enriched with acid compounds;
c) regenerating the second liquid fraction in a regeneration column to release part of the acid compounds and to obtain a regenerated absorbent solution, by injecting vapor resulting from a partial vaporization in a reboiler of a first part of the regenerated absorbent solution withdrawn from the regeneration column, the vapor injection being in a liquid reserve including a second part of the regenerated absorbent solution located in a bottom of the regeneration column to provide stirring of the second part of the regenerated absorbent solution; and
d) recycling the first liquid fraction obtained in b) and the regenerated absorbent solution obtained in c) as the absorbent solution in a); and wherein the vapor is injected into the liquid reserve at a superficial velocity and the superficial velocity is controlled by separating the partly vaporized absorbent solution from the reboiler into a first stream forming the vapor injected into the liquid reserve and into a second vapor stream injected above the liquid reserve which controls the first and second streams to prevent decanting of the liquid reserve.
US Pat. No. 9,862,653

USE OF A CATALYST COMPRISING A PHOSPHOROUS MODIFIED ZEOLITE IN AN ALCOHOL DEHYDRATION PROCESS

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process comprising:
converting an alcohol in a dehydration process in the presence of a catalyst to make an olefin having the same number of carbon
atoms as the alcohol, wherein the catalyst comprises a phosphorus modified zeolite and wherein the method of making the catalyst
comprises:

a) providing a zeolite comprising at least one ten member ring in the structure thereof, and optionally steaming the zeolite;
b) mixing the zeolite of step a) with at least a component selected among one or more binders and shaping additives, and then
shaping the mixture to form a shaped catalyst precursor;

c) optionally making a ion-exchange;
d) optionally steaming the shaped mixture, optionally before step c), wherein at least one of the steaming of step d) or the
steaming of step a) is mandatory;

e) introducing phosphorus on the shaped catalyst precursor to introduce at least 0.1 wt % of the phosphorus to form a phosphated
catalyst, wherein the introduction is made by incipient wetness impregnation;

f) introducing an alkaline earth metal, M, to the phosphated catalyst by incipient wetness impregnation to form an M-containing
and phosphated catalyst, optionally simultaneously with step e);

g) optionally washing the catalyst;
h) optionally calcinating the catalyst; and
i) steaming the M-containing and phosphated catalyst at a temperature of 625° C. or above.

US Pat. No. 9,835,028

DEVICE FOR SAMPLING FLUID UNDER PRESSURE FOR GEOLOGICAL SITE DEVELOPMENT MONITORING

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A device for sampling at least one fluid under pressure, comprising a sample chamber defining an inner volume intended
to receive said fluid, a lower piston arranged in the lower part of said chamber, an upper piston arranged in the upper part
of said chamber, and an intermediate piston arranged between said lower and upper pistons, wherein said lower piston is configured
to move between a closed position closing said chamber and an open position opening said chamber, and said intermediate piston
configured to move to define a substantially constant volume for said chamber upon moving of said lower piston to the closed
position for closing of said chamber.

US Pat. No. 9,745,524

PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF A GASOLINE WITH A LOW SULFUR CONTENT

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for treating a gasoline comprising diolefins, olefins, and sulfur-containing compounds including mercaptans,
consisting of a stage for treating gasoline in the presence of hydrogen in a distillation column (2) comprising at least one reaction zone (3) including at least one catalyst, with the catalyst being in sulfide form and comprising a substrate that consists of gamma-alumina
or delta-alumina with a specific surface area of between 70 m2/g and 350 m2/g, a content by weight of oxide of the element of group VIb of between 1 and 30% by weight relative to the total weight of
the catalyst, a content by weight of oxide of the element of group VIII of between 1 and 30% by weight relative to the total
weight of the catalyst, a sulfurization rate of the metals that constitute said catalyst that is at least equal to 60%, a
molar ratio between the metal of group VIII and the metal of group VIb of between 0.6 and 3 mol/mol, in which:
gasoline is injected into the distillation column at a level located below the reaction zone (3) in such a way as to separate a desulfurized light gasoline at a point located above the reaction zone and a heavy gasoline
comprising the majority of the sulfur-containing compounds at the bottom of the column, and

concurrently the gasoline that distills at the top of the catalytic column is brought into contact with the catalyst of the
reaction zone (3) and the hydrogen in such a way as to provide desulfurized light gasoline, and
in which the distillation column is configured for operating as a depentanizer in such a way as to provide a light gasoline
that has at most 5 carbon atoms orin which the distillation column is configured for operating as a dehexanizer in such a way as to provide a light gasoline
that has at most 6 carbon atoms.
US Pat. No. 9,718,050

CATALYST COMPRISING AT LEAST ONE ZEOLITE NU-86, AT LEAST ONE ZEOLITE USY AND A POROUS MINERAL MATRIX AND PROCESS FOR HYDROCONVERSION OF HYDROCARBON FEEDS USING SAID CATALYST

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A catalyst comprising at least one metal of group VIB or of group VIII of the periodic table, used alone or as a mixture,
and a support comprising at least one zeolite NU-86, at least one zeolite Y and at least one porous mineral matrix containing
at least aluminium and/or at least silicon, said catalyst comprising, in wt % relative to the total weight of the catalyst:
0.2 to 10%, of at least one zeolite NU-86,
0.4 to 40%, of at least one zeolite Y,
from 0.5 to 50% of at least one hydrogenating-dehydrogenating metal of group VIB or of group VIII,
1 to 99% of at least one porous mineral matrix comprising at least aluminium and/or at least silicon.
US Pat. No. 9,656,421

PROCESS FOR PREPARING A SPHERICAL MATERIAL WITH A HIERARCHICAL POROSITY COMPRISING METALLIC PARTICLES TRAPPED IN A MESOSTRUCTURED MATRIX

CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA REC...

1. A process for the preparation of an inorganic material with a hierarchical porosity in the micropore and mesopore domains,
said material being constituted by at least two elementary spherical particles having a maximum diameter of 200 microns, each
of said spherical particles comprising metallic particles containing at least one or more metals selected from vanadium, niobium,
tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, iron, copper, zinc, cobalt and nickel, said metallic particles being present within a matrix,
which is mesostructured, based on silicon oxide, having microporous walls with a thickness in the range 1 to 60 nm, said process
comprising at least the following steps:
a) preparing a solution containing zeolitic nanocrystals with a maximum nanometric dimension equal to 60 nm based on silicon
and/or precursor elements of proto-zeolitic entities based on silicon;

b) mixing, in solution, said metallic particles or at least one metallic precursor of said metallic particles, at least one
surfactant and at least said solution obtained in accordance with a) such that the ratio of the volumes of inorganic and organic
materials, Vinorganic/Vorganic, is in the range 0.29 to 0.50;

c) aerosol atomization of said solution obtained in step b) in order to result in the formation of spherical particles;
d) drying said particles;
g) eliminating any remaining precursor elements of proto-zeolitic entities based on silicon and at least said surfactant;
h) regenerating said metallic particles to the form of a polyoxometallate which have decomposed during step g); and
i) drying the regenerated particles;
wherein said metallic particles are in the form of a polyoxometallate with formula (XxMmOyHh)q? where H is a hydrogen atom, 0 is an oxygen atom, X is an element selected from phosphorus, silicon, boron, nickel and cobalt
and M is one or more elements selected from vanadium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, iron, copper, zinc, cobalt
and nickel, x being equal to 0, 1, 2, or 4, m being equal to 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 or 18, y being in the range 17 to 72,
h being in the range 0 to 12 and q being in the range 1 to 20 and y, h and q being whole numbers.

US Pat. No. 9,579,642

PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF A CATALYST BASED ON TUNGSTEN FOR USE IN HYDROTREATMENT OR IN HYDROCRACKING

IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES, ...

1. A process for the preparation of a catalyst comprising at least one support, optionally at least one metal from group VIII
of the periodic classification of the elements and at least tungsten, said process comprising:
introducing tungsten onto at least one support, in an organic solvent A, in the form of at least one mononuclear precursor
compound based on W, in its monomeric or dimeric form, having at least one W?O or W—OR bond or at least one W?S or W—SR bond,

where
R?CxHy,

x?1, and
(x?1)?y?(2x+1),
or
R?Si(OR?)3 or R?Si(R?)3,

R??Cx?Hy?,

x??1, and
(x??1)?y??(2x?+1),
and comprising at least one final step for gas phase sulphurization, in situ and/or ex situ.

US Pat. No. 9,458,396

PROCESS FOR CONVERSION OF FEEDSTOCKS OBTAINED FROM RENEWABLE SOURCES BASED ON MARINE FUELS

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. Process for the production of diesel fuel bases comprising a sulfur content of less than 100 ppm, starting from a feedstock
that is obtained from a renewable source, comprising the following stages:
a) A stage for bringing the feedstock into contact with a fixed-bed hydrotreatment catalyst, at a temperature of between 200
and 450° C., at a pressure of between 1 MPa and 10 MPa, at an hourly volumetric flow rate of between 0.1 h?1 and 10 h?1 and in the presence of a total quantity of hydrogen mixed with the feedstock such that the hydrogen/feedstock ratio is between
150 and 750 Nm3 of hydrogen/m3 of feedstock for producing an effluent that comprises a gaseous fraction comprising hydrogen and a hydrocarbon-based liquid
fraction,

b) A stage where at least a portion of the effluent that is obtained from stage a) is subjected to separation into a gaseous
fraction comprising hydrogen and a hydrocarbon-based liquid fraction,

c) A stage where at least a portion of the separated hydrocarbon-based liquid fraction obtained from stage b) is subjected
to elimination of hydrogen sulfide dissolved in said hydrocarbon-based liquid fraction before stage d),

d) A stage for bringing into contact at least one portion of the hydrocarbon-based liquid fraction in the presence of a selective
hydroisomerization catalyst in a fixed bed, said catalyst comprising at least one group VIII metal and/or at least group VIB
metal, said stage d) being carried out at a temperature of between 300 and 380° C., at a pressure of between 3 MPa and 7 MPa,
at an hourly volumetric flow rate of between 0.5 and 5 h?1, and in the presence of a total quantity of hydrogen mixed with said hydrocarbon-based liquid fraction such that the hydrogen/hydrocarbon-based
liquid fraction ratio is between 70 and 1,000 Nm3/m3,

e) A stage for separating the effluent that is obtained from stage d) into a gaseous fraction that comprises hydrogen and
at least one diesel-fuel-based fraction,

and in which the hydrogen that is used in stage a) and/or in stage d) is obtained at least in part from the separated gaseous
fraction of stage e) and in part from the separated gaseous fraction of stage b).

US Pat. No. 9,145,343

PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR THE SIMULATED COUNTER-CURRENT PRODUCTION OF PARA-XYLENE, CONSTITUTED BY TWO ADSORBERS IN SERIES WITH A TOTAL NUMBER OF 22 OR FEWER BEDS

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. A process for separating xylenes by simulated counter-current (SCC) using two adsorbers, the process containing a bed wherein
the total number of beds Nt is at most 22, and having a line for introducing feed (F), a line for introducing eluent (D),
a line for withdrawing extract (E) and a line for withdrawing raffinate (R) and being divided into 4 chromatographic zones
defined as follows:
zone 1: para-xylene desorption zone, included between the injection of desorbant D and the removal of extract E;
zone 2: isomers of para-xylene desorption zone, included between the removal of the extract E and the injection of the feed
to be fractionated F;

zone 3: para-xylene adsorption zone, included between the injection of the feed and the withdrawal of the raffinate R;
zone 4: zone located between the withdrawal of the raffinate and the injection of the desorbant;the two adsorbers functioning in series wherein the last bed of the first adsorber is connected to the first bed of the second
adsorber via a line containing a recirculation pump, and the last bed of the second adsorber is connected to the first bed
of the first adsorber via a line containing a recirculation pump which is distinct from the preceding pump, and said process
operating under the following operating conditions:
a temperature of 100° C. to 250° C.;
a pressure in the range between the bubble pressure of the xylenes at the process temperature and 30×105 Pa (1 bar=105 Pa);

a ratio of desorbent to feed flow rates of 0.7 to 2.5;
a recycle ratio of 2.5 to 12, wherein the recycle ratio is defined as the ratio between the mean flow rate in the various
beds of the adsorber to the flow rate of injection of feed into this adsorber;

a cycle time for the adsorbers in the range 14 to 30 minutes;
a mean linear velocity with respect to the empty reactor in the range 0.7 cm/s to 1.4 cm/s;
a water content in the liquid phase maintained at an amount in the range 70 to 140 ppm by weight.

US Pat. No. 9,982,203

PROCESS FOR THE CONVERSION OF A HEAVY HYDROCARBON FEEDSTOCK INTEGRATING SELECTIVE CASCADE DEASPHALTING WITH RECYCLING OF A DEASPHALTED CUT

IFP Energies nouvelles, ...

1. Process for the conversion of a heavy hydrocarbon feedstock having an initial boiling point of at least 300° C. comprising the following stages:a) a stage of hydroconverting at least a part of said feedstock in the presence of hydrogen in at least one three-phase reactor, said reactor containing at least one hydroconversion catalyst and operating as an ebullating bed, with ascending flow of liquid and of gas and comprising at least one means for drawing off said catalyst from said reactor and at least one means for supplying fresh catalyst to said reactor, under conditions to obtain a liquid feedstock with a reduced content of Conradson carbon, metals, sulphur and nitrogen;
b) a stage of separating the effluent originating from stage a) in order to obtain a light liquid fraction with a boiling point lower than 300° C. and a heavy liquid fraction with a boiling point greater than 300° C.;
c) at least two stages of deasphalting in series on at least a part of the heavy liquid fraction originating from stage b), making it possible to separate at least one fraction of asphalt, at least one fraction of heavy deasphalted oil, referred to as heavy DAO, and at least one fraction of light deasphalted oil, referred to as light DAO, at least one of said stages of deasphalting being carried out by means of a mixture of at least one polar solvent and at least one apolar solvent, the proportions of said polar solvent and said apolar solvent in the mixture of solvents being adjusted depending on the properties of the feedstock treated and depending on the desired yield of asphalt and/or quality of the deasphalted oil, said stages of deasphalting being implemented under the subcritical conditions of the mixture of solvents used; and
d) a stage of recycling at least a part of said heavy deasphalted oil cut referred to as heavy DAO originating from stage c) upstream of the stage a) of hydroconverting and/or to the inlet of the stage b) of separating.

US Pat. No. 9,927,118

CHEMICAL LOOPING COMBUSTION METHOD WITH A REACTION ZONE INCLUDING A GAS-SOLID SEPARATION ZONE AND PLANT USING SAME

TOTAL SA, Courbevoie (FR...

1. A combustion method for a solid feed using a chemical loop wherein an oxygen-carrying material circulates, said method comprising at least:supplying metallic oxide particles to a first reaction zone, the first reaction zone comprising a chamber,
contacting the solid feed particles with the supplied metallic oxide particles in the first reaction zone operating in dense fluidized bed mode,
transferring the supplied metallic oxide particles and gaseous effluents from the first reaction zone to a second reaction zone, the second reaction zone comprising an elongated reactor positioned above the first reaction zone,
carrying out combustion of the gaseous effluents from the first reaction zone in the presence of the metallic oxide particles supplied to the first reaction zone in the second reaction zone operating in dilute fluidized bed mode,
separating in a separation zone the unburnt particles and the metallic oxide particles within a mixture coming from second reaction zone comprising combustion gas, unburnt particles and metallic oxide particles,
re-oxidizing the metallic oxide particles in an oxidation zone prior to sending them back to first zone.