US Pat. No. 9,165,369

MULTI-OBJECT DETECTION AND RECOGNITION USING EXCLUSIVE NON-MAXIMUM SUPPRESSION (ENMS) AND CLASSIFICATION IN CLUTTERED SCENES

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for multi-object detection and recognition, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a non-transitory computer-readable medium having executable instructions encoded thereon such that
when executed, the one or more processors perform operations of:

(a) receiving an image patch of an image as input, wherein the image patch is a portion of the image containing a plurality
of objects of interest;

(b) determining a set of overlapping sub-windows in the image patch;
(c) evaluating a likelihood of existence of an object of interest in each sub-window in the set of overlapping sub-windows;
(d) generating a confidence map comprising a plurality of confidence values corresponding to the set of overlapping sub-windows
indicating the likelihood of existence of an object of interest in each sub-window in the set of overlapping sub-windows;

(e) applying a non-maxima suppression technique to the confidence map to eliminate sub-windows in the set of overlapping sub-windows
having confidence values that are below a determined local maximum confidence value from the confidence map;

(f) determining a global maximum confidence value for a sub-window in the set of overlapping sub-windows which corresponds
to a location of an instance of an object of interest in the image patch;

(g) removing the sub-window in the set of overlapping sub-windows that corresponds to the location of the instance of the
object of interest in the image patch from the confidence map;

(h) repeating operations (e) through (g) until a predetermined stopping criteria is met; and
(i) outputting detection information related to a plurality of instances of the object of interest in the image patch.

US Pat. No. 9,087,854

THERMAL MANAGEMENT FOR HETEROGENEOUSLY INTEGRATED TECHNOLOGY

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of three dimensional heterogeneous integration comprising:
forming heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) devices comprising:
forming HBT devices on a first substrate, each HBT device having a collector;
removing the first substrate;
forming first bonding pads on each collector of the heterojunction bipolar transistor devices;
forming high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) devices comprising:
forming HEMT devices on a first side of a growth substrate, wherein the growth substrate comprises a thermally conductive
substrate;

forming second bonding pads on the first side of the growth substrate;
aligning and bonding the first bonding pads to the second bonding pads;
forming CMOS devices on a Si substrate;
bonding the CMOS devices on the Si substrate to a second side of the growth substrate; and
forming selectively interconnects between the HBT devices, the HEMT devices, and the CMOS devices by forming vias and first
and second level metal interconnects.

US Pat. No. 9,104,111

SOLUTION TO OPTICAL CONSTRAINT ON MICROTRUSS PROCESSING

GM Global Technology Oper...

1. A system for fabricating a radiation-cured structure, comprising:
a radiation-sensitive material having a first refractive index;
a radiation source configured to generate a plurality of radiation beams for at least one of initiating, polymerizing, crosslinking,
and dissociating the radiation-sensitive material; and

a mask disposed between the radiation-sensitive material and the radiation source, the mask abutting the radiation-sensitive
material and having a plurality of substantially radiation transparent apertures, wherein the mask is formed from a mask material
having a second refractive index, and at least one of a) an at least one normalizing surface is disposed between the radiation
source and the mask, and b) a refractive fluid having a third refractive index is disposed between the radiation source and
the mask.

US Pat. No. 9,224,070

SYSTEM FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL OBJECT RECOGNITION AND FOREGROUND EXTRACTION

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for object recognition, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a memory having instructions such that when the instructions are executed, the one or more processors
perform operations of:

in a training phase, extracting a set of features from a set of foreground training images of foreground objects captured
in a first lighting condition with a camera having a first viewpoint using a feature detection algorithm, resulting in a set
of foreground features;

in a testing phase, extracting at least one region of interest from an input image, wherein the at least one region of interest
represents a potential foreground object, wherein at least one of the following applies to the input image: the input image
is captured in a second lighting condition that is different from the first lighting condition, and the input image has a
second viewpoint that is different from the first viewpoint:

segmenting the input image, resulting in a set of segments;
processing the input image with a feature detection algorithm to detect a set of features, resulting in a set of detected
features;

assigning each feature in the set of detected features to a class, resulting in as set of assigned features;
classifying each segment in the set of segments as representing foreground or background based on the assigned features in
each segment; and

outputting the segments representing a foreground object in the input image.

US Pat. No. 9,362,379

GRAPHENE HETEROSTRUCTURE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of fabricating a heterostructure FET comprises:
forming graphene on a substrate;
forming a graphene mesa by dry etching;
forming a first ohmic contact for a source on one end of the graphene mesa;
forming a second ohmic contact for a drain on an opposite end of the graphene mesa;
forming an opening by masking and etching to expose a portion of the graphene between the first and second ohmic contacts;
doping an exposed portion of the graphene with Fluorine;
annealing to reduce defects;
depositing a gate dielectric over the opening; and
forming a gate over the gate dielectric.

US Pat. No. 9,222,229

TUNABLE SANDWICH-STRUCTURED ACOUSTIC BARRIERS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A sound attenuating barrier comprising:
a) face sheets;
b) a core structure between the face sheets;
c) a mass structure attached to at least one of the face sheets; and
d) the sound attenuating barrier further comprising at least one of: (1) a spatially varied stiffness distribution; or (2)
a spatially varied density across the sound attenuation barrier.

US Pat. No. 9,438,263

CONTROLLABLE OPTO-ELECTRONIC TIME STRETCHER, AN ELECTRO-OPTICAL ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER HAVING NON-UNIFORM SAMPLING USING THE SAME, AND RELATED METHODS OF OPERATION

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of sampling an analog signal having a predetermined spectrum, the method comprising:
when said analog signal corresponds to a K sparse vector of N coefficients, with K< spreading in time said analog signal according to a predetermined pseudo-random pattern into a pseudo-randomly time-spread
signal;

on a predetermined time period, taking M samples by sampling the pseudo-randomly time-spread signal at a predetermined rate,
said predetermined rate being lower than the Nyquist rate, where M?K.log(N/K);

associating the M samples to the time at which they would have been taken if said analog signal had been spread uniformly
during said time period by a spread factor equal to the mean of the pseudo-randomly spread factor on said time period; and

determining iteratively the closest output signal that would have allowed extracting the M samples at their associated times.

US Pat. No. 9,417,292

THERMOMAGNETIC TEMPERATURE SENSING

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A thermomagnetic sensor comprising:
a thermomagnetic probe comprising a ferromagnetic material having a temperature-dependent magnetic permeability characterized
by a maximum magnetic permeability value at a temperature below a Curie temperature of the ferromagnetic material, the temperature-dependent
magnetic permeability monotonically decreasing as a function of temperature between the maximum magnetic permeability value
and the Curie temperature;

an alternating magnetic field source to produce an alternating magnetic field in a vicinity of the thermomagnetic probe to
facilitate a measurement of the temperature-dependent magnetic permeability as a function of temperature, the alternating
magnetic field having a frequency between about 10 hertz and about 10 kilohertz; and

a sensing coil spaced apart from and operably connected to the thermomagnetic probe,
wherein a predetermined relationship between the temperature-dependent magnetic permeability and temperature in a range between
the maximum magnetic permeability value and the Curie temperature provides a measurement of a temperature local to the thermomagnetic
probe.

US Pat. No. 9,224,067

SYSTEM AND METHODS FOR DIGITAL ARTIFACT GENETIC MODELING AND FORENSIC ANALYSIS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A cyber security system for digital artifact genetic modeling and forensic analysis, comprising:
one or more processors and a memory, the memory having instructions encoded thereon such that upon execution of the instructions,
the one or more processors perform operations of:

receiving a plurality of digital artifacts, each digital artifact possessing features;
extracting the features from the digital artifacts;
classifying the features into descriptive genotype-phenotype structures, such that genotype features are those that carry
inheritance information, and phenotype features are those that carry behavioral information; and

determining a lineage, heredity, and provenance of the digital artifacts based on mapping of the genotype-phenotype structures.

US Pat. No. 9,425,769

OPTICALLY POWERED AND CONTROLLED NON-FOSTER CIRCUIT

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

16. An optically powered Artificial Impedance Surface (AIS) comprising:
a. a substrate with a two dimensional array of electrically conductive patches disposed thereon;
b. a plurality of non-Foster Circuits (NFCs) coupled with neighboring patches in said two dimensional array of patches disposed
on said substrate;

c. a plurality of photovoltaic cells coupled to the NFCs, the photovoltaic cells supplying (i) electrical energy to the NFCs
and (ii) control signals for controlling said NFCs using modulated electromagnetic energy impinging the AIS or using modulated
electromagnetic energy from a light source associated with said optically powered Artificial Impedance Surface (AIS), the
electromagnetic energy being modulated with said control signals.

US Pat. No. 9,129,158

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR EMBEDDING VISUAL INTELLIGENCE

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for embedding visual intelligence, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a memory having instructions such that when the instructions are executed, the one or more processors
perform operations of:

receiving an input video comprising input video pixels representing at least one action and at least one object having a location;
processing at least one input query to elicit information regarding the input video;
generating microactions from the input video using a set of motion sensitive filters derived from a series of filtering and
max operations in repeating layers;

learning of a relationship between the input video pixels and the microactions in both unsupervised and supervised manners;
learning, from the microactions, at least one concept, comprising spatio-temporal patterns, and a set of causal relationships
between the spatio-temporal patterns in an automatic, unsupervised manner using form and structure learning techniques;

learning to acquire new knowledge from the spatio-temporal patterns using mental imagery models in an unsupervised manner;
and
presenting a visual output to a user based on the learned set of spatio-temporal patterns and the new knowledge to aid the
user in visually comprehending the at least one action in the input video.

US Pat. No. 9,288,458

FAST DIGITAL IMAGE DE-HAZING METHODS FOR REAL-TIME VIDEO PROCESSING

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for image de-hazing for video processing, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a non-transitory computer-readable medium having executable instructions encoded thereon such that
when executed, the one or more processors perform operations of:

receiving a video comprising a series of image frames as input, wherein each image frame comprises a plurality of regions
comprising a plurality of pixels;

for each image frame in the series of image frames, determining if a predetermined image frame number threshold has been reached;
wherein if the predetermined image frame number has not been reached, a previously determined atmospheric veil value is used,
and wherein if the predetermined image frame number has been reached, a new atmospheric veil value is determined;

estimating a global atmospheric light value; and
generating a de-hazed image from the current image frame using either the previously determined atmospheric veil value or
the new atmospheric veil value and the global atmospheric light value.

US Pat. No. 9,276,554

BROADBAND NON-FOSTER DECOUPLING NETWORKS FOR SUPERDIRECTIVE ANTENNA ARRAYS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A four port antenna decoupling network which has only two negative capacitors and four or more positive capacitors.

US Pat. No. 9,262,843

TIME ENCODED BASED NETWORK FOR IMAGE PROCESSING

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A circuit for detecting features in an image, the circuit comprising:
M time encoders, each time encoder having two inputs, Xi and Ti, where Xi is an ith element of an input vector X1 XM of the image and Ti is an ith element of a template vector T1 TM, and each time encoder having an oscillatory output;

wherein when the input vector X1 XM and the template vector T1 TM are more matched, the oscillatory outputs of the time encoders are more synchronized; and

wherein when the input vector X1 XM and the template vector T1 TM are less matched, the oscillatory outputs of the time encoders are less synchronized.

US Pat. No. 9,257,719

ELECTROLYTE ADDITIVES FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A lithium-ion battery electrolyte composition consisting essentially of a non-aqueous solvent, a lithium salt soluble in
said non-aqueous solvent, and one or more diamine additives having the formula H2N—R—NH2, wherein R is a saturated aliphatic chain organic group, having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms, wherein said diamine additive
is soluble in said electrolyte composition, and wherein said diamine additive is present in an amount from 1 wt % to 10 wt
%.

US Pat. No. 9,252,247

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR REDUCING THE INTERFACE RESISTANCE IN GAN HETEROJUNCTION FETS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of reducing the interface resistance in an HFET device, the method comprising:
forming a device comprising a substrate, a channel layer, a barrier layer, a gate and a gate region;
exposing a portion of the barrier layer in the gate region to form a ledge;
forming a doped cap layer on the channel layer and the ledge of the barrier layer, wherein the doped cap layer is formed such
that a downward projection of the doped cap layer would intersect with the ledge;

forming a gate, source and drain on the device.

US Pat. No. 9,430,737

SPIKING MODEL TO LEARN ARBITRARY MULTIPLE TRANSFORMATIONS FOR A SELF-REALIZING NETWORK

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A neural network circuitry, wherein a portion of the neural network circuitry comprises:
a first array circuitry having a first number of neurons, wherein the dendrite of each neuron of the first array circuitry
is provided for receiving an input signal indicating that a measured parameter gets closer to a predetermined value assigned
to said neuron; a second array circuitry having a second number of neurons, the dendrite of each neuron of the second array
circuitry forming an excitatory Spike-Timing-Dependent-Plasticity (STDP) synapse with the axon of a plurality of neurons of
the first array circuitry; and the dendrite of each neuron of the second array circuitry forming an excitatory Spike-Timing-Dependent-Plasticity
(STDP) synapse with the axon of neighboring neurons of the second array circuitry.

US Pat. No. 9,361,523

VIDEO CONTENT-BASED RETRIEVAL

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A data processing system for content-based video retrieval, comprising one or more processors configured to perform operations
of:
receiving a query video clip comprising a sequence of video frames, where the sequence of video frames depicts an activity;
performing an interest point selection on the query video to obtain a set of interest points describing locations in the video
frames that are relevant to the activity;

calculating a set of spatio-temporal descriptors within a local neighborhood of the set of interest points;
searching an indexed video database containing video clips of known activities using the set of spatio-temporal descriptors
as calculated from the query video clip to obtain a set of candidate videos which contain activities similar to the activity
in the query video, whereby the activity in the query video can be identified as a known activity in the candidate videos;

wherein the interest point selection comprises an operation of selecting points which have a high motion content, where the
motion content is measured by a degree of difference between pixel values in a pair of consecutive image frames, and where
high motion content exists when the measured motion content exceeds a predetermined threshold;

where the set of spatio-temporal descriptors are of a type selected from the group consisting of a self-similarity descriptor,
and a shift-invariant feature transform descriptor;

where each candidate video is given a similarity score describing a degree of similarity between the candidate video and the
query video, and the similarity score is evaluated based on relevance computed using visual word frequencies;

further configured to perform an operation of indexing a video database containing videos of known activities using a hierarchical
indexing mechanism; and

where the hierarchical indexing mechanism is a vocabulary tree having leaf nodes, and wherein in indexing the video database,
all descriptors for the video clips of known activities are computed, with a closest leaf node in the vocabulary tree for
each descriptor being found.

US Pat. No. 9,075,312

UNSATURATED MONOMERIC FORMULATIONS FOR THE FABRICATION OF POLYMERIC WAVEGUIDES

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of fabricating a polymeric micro-truss using a monomeric formulation, said method comprising:
(a) selecting at least one starting molecule containing one or more unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds and not containing essentially
any thiol groups;

(b) selecting a photoinitiator for initiating a free-radical polymerization of said at least one starting molecule, wherein
said photoinitiator is present in a photoinitiator concentration from about 0.01 wt % to about 10 wt % based on said monomeric
formulation;

(c) selecting a free-radical inhibitor for controlling said free-radical polymerization, wherein said free-radical inhibitor
is present in an inhibitor concentration of from about 0.005 wt % to about 5 wt % based on said monomeric formulation;

(d) combining said starting molecule, said photoinitiator, and said free-radical inhibitor to generate said monomeric formulation;
(e) transferring said monomeric formulation into a mold;
(f) placing a mask over said monomeric formulation;
(g) exposing selected regions of said monomeric formulation, through said mask, to beams of light, to induce free-radical
polymerization;

(h) optionally removing unreacted monomeric formulation; and
(i) recovering a polymeric micro-truss comprising a polymerized form of said monomeric formulation.

US Pat. No. 9,425,455

CATHODE PRECURSORS FOR ALUMINUM BATTERIES AND METHODS OF MAKING CATHODES FOR ALUMINUM BATTERIES

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A cathode precursor to a metal fluoride cathode for an aluminum battery, said cathode precursor comprising a conductive
scaffold with pores having at least one dimension below about one micrometer, a precursor material contained in said pores,
wherein said precursor material comprises one or more metals, in non-fluorinated form, selected from the group consisting
of Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, Mo, and Sn, and a fluorinating agent contained in said pores, wherein said fluorinating agent is capable
of fluorinating said precursor material.

US Pat. No. 9,417,290

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR DYNAMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. An apparatus for dynamic characterization of an electrochemical system within a sampling window, said apparatus comprising
a current sensor, a voltage sensor, and a computer disposed in operable communication with said electrochemical system, wherein
said current sensor is disposed in electrical communication with said computer, and wherein said voltage sensor is disposed
in electrical communication with said computer; said computer programmed using non-transitory memory with executable code
for executing the steps of:
(a) sensing, in said current sensor, a plurality of first data inputs each comprising measured current to or from said electrochemical
system at a plurality of times;

(b) sensing, in said voltage sensor, a plurality of second data inputs each comprising measured voltage across said electrochemical
system at said plurality of times;

(c) receiving, in said computer, a plurality of third data inputs each comprising the time derivative of said measured current
at said plurality of times;

(d) receiving, in said computer, a plurality of fourth data inputs each comprising the time derivative of said measured voltage
at said plurality of times; and

(e) calculating an impulse response from said first, second, third, and fourth data inputs using a recursive or matrix-based
algorithm, wherein said impulse response characterizes said electrochemical system within said sampling window.

US Pat. No. 9,385,083

WAFER-LEVEL DIE TO PACKAGE AND DIE TO DIE INTERCONNECTS SUSPENDED OVER INTEGRATED HEAT SINKS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of making an interconnect for electrically coupling pads formed on adjacent chips or on packaging material adjacent
said chips, with an electrically conductive heat sink disposed between said pads, the chips, electrically conductive heat
sink and the packaging material forming a wafer, the method comprising:
spin coating a photoresist and patterning the photoresist on the wafer;
reflowing the patterned photoresist on the wafer between at least two pads and over the electrically conductive heat sink;
and

applying and patterning a layer of metal on said wafer so that the layer of metal ohmically connects said pads and bridges
over the photoresist.

US Pat. No. 9,246,204

SURFACE WAVE GUIDING APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR GUIDING THE SURFACE WAVE ALONG AN ARBITRARY PATH

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A surface supporting transverse electric (TE) or transverse magnetic (TM) surface bound waves, said surface having one
or more arrays of electrically conductive patches arranged thereon to urge said transverse electric or a transverse magnetic
surface bound waves to follow an arbitrary path, having a smoothly changing radius of curvature, while maintaining a phase
preserving wavefront along said arbitrary path, wherein the one or more arrays of electrically conductive patches gradually
change size and/or shape and/or orientation within a defined region on said surface where the surface bound waves propagate,
in use, along said arbitrary path.

US Pat. No. 9,148,092

MONOLITHIC INTEGRATION OF FIELD-PLATE AND T-GATE DEVICES

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of monolithically integrating a field-plate transistor and T-gate transistor on a single wafer comprising:
depositing an insulating dielectric layer onto a single wafer comprising a substrate and an epitaxial semiconductor layer;
defining field-plate device and T-gate device sacrificial dummy-gate structures into the insulating dielectric layer and epitaxial
semiconductor layer;

removing the predefined sacrificial dummy-gate structures materials to create patterned features; and
metalizing the field-plate device and T-gate device.
US Pat. No. 9,102,694

METHOD FOR BOTTOM-UP GRAPHENE SHEET PREPARATION AND BANDGAP ENGINEERING

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method for preparing a graphene precursor which comprises:
condensing 1,4 dicyanobenzene with a 3 halo benzyl derivative to produce 1,4-bis(3-chlorophenylacetyl)benzene;
oxidizing at least a portion of the 1,4-bis(3-chlorophenylacetyl)benzene to produce an oxidized 1,4-bis(3-chlorophenylacetyl)benzene
wherein the methylene groups of the phenyl acetyl moieties were converted to carbonyl groups;

reacting the oxidized 1,4-bis(3-chlorophenylacetyl)benzene with optionally substituted dibenzyl ketone to produce a reacted
benzene compound; and

reacting at least a portion of the reacted benzene compound with an alkyne to convert at least one residual halo groups to
ethynyl groups.

US Pat. No. 9,331,735

GAN BASED ACTIVE CANCELLATION CIRCUIT FOR HIGH POWER SIMULTANEOUS TRANSMIT AND RECEIVE SYSTEMS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A cancellation circuit for a simultaneous transmit and receive system comprising:
a coupler coupled to a transmitter for providing a portion of a transmit signal;
a variable attenuator coupled to the coupler;
a variable coarse true time delay coupled to an output of the variable attenuator;
a variable fine true time delay coupled to an output of the variable coarse true time delay, the variable fine true time delay
having a cancellation signal output;

a circulator coupled to the transmit signal and having a receive signal input and having an output having a sum of the receive
signal and a leakage signal, the leakage signal being a portion of the transmit signal leaking through the circulator;

a 180° hybrid having a first input coupled to the cancellation signal output of the variable fine true time delay, a second
input coupled to the output having the sum of the receive signal and the leakage signal, and a delta output having a difference
between the first input and the second input, the delta output coupled to a receiver;

a power detector coupled to the delta output; and
a control circuit coupled to the power detector, the control circuit coupled to the variable attenuator, the variable coarse
true time delay, and the variable fine true time delay to adjust an amplitude and phase of the cancellation signal.

US Pat. No. 9,082,075

COMBINED SPIKE DOMAIN AND PULSE DOMAIN SIGNAL PROCESSING

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of processing analog data comprising the steps of:
time encoding the analog data;
setting weighting factors in an array of 1-bit DACs for processing the time encoded analog data;
summing and filtering outputs of the array of 1-bit DACs;
time encoding the filtered outputs of the outputs of the array of 1-bit DACs; and
coupling the time encoded filtered outputs and analog input data into inputs of the array of 1-bit DACs.

US Pat. No. 9,251,417

FAST OPEN DOORWAY DETECTION FOR AUTONOMOUS ROBOT EXPLORATION

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for open doorway detection for autonomous robot exploration, the system comprising:
an onboard range sensor, the range sensor operable for constructing a three-dimensional (3D) point cloud of a scene;
one or more processors and a memory, the memory being a non-transitory computer-readable medium having executable instructions
encoded thereon, such that upon execution of the instructions, the one or more processors perform operations of:

receiving a 3D point cloud from the range sensor, the 3D point cloud having a plurality of cloud points;
filtering and downsampling the 3D point cloud to remove cloud points outside of a predefined range and reduce a size of the
point cloud and, in doing so, generating a filtered and downsampled 3D point cloud;

extracting vertical planes from the filtered and downsampled 3D point cloud; and
identifying open doorways from each extracted vertical plane.

US Pat. No. 9,196,053

MOTION-SEEDED OBJECT BASED ATTENTION FOR DYNAMIC VISUAL IMAGERY

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for object detection from dynamic visual imagery, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a memory having instructions such that when the instructions are executed, the one or more processors
perform operations of:

receiving, as input, video imagery comprising a plurality of frames;
processing each frame to detect at least one motion region exhibiting unexpected motion, wherein the at least one motion region
represents a moving object in the video imagery;

applying object-based feature extraction to each frame containing a detected motion region;
dividing each frame containing a detected motion region into a plurality of feature-consistent regions;
identifying, in each frame containing a detected motion region, at least one motion seeded region (MSR) in the plurality of
feature-consistent regions, wherein the MSR corresponds to a spatial location of the detected motion region in the frame;

joining a plurality of similar feature-consistent regions that are adjacent to and include the MSR to compute a boundary around
the plurality of similar feature-consistent regions; and

outputting, for each frame containing a detected motion region, a computed boundary surrounding an object in the detected
motion region.

US Pat. No. 9,398,587

REAL-TIME SIGNAL DETECTION OVER VERY WIDE BAND IN LOW SNR ENVIRONMENTS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method for detecting of a plurality of relatively narrowbanded signals in a relatively widebanded input signal, the method
comprising:
(i) compressively sensing a strongest narrowbanded signal in said input signal and determining a center frequency of said
first narrowbanded signal;

(ii) utilizing the center frequency and the bandwidth of said strongest narrowbanded signal to remove the strongest narrowbanded
signal from said input signal and to produce a version of the input signal which version corresponds to said input signal
without said strongest narrowbanded signal;

(iii) repeatedly compressively sensing additional narrowbanded signals in the input signal and repeatedly utilizing a center
frequency and a bandwidth of each additional narrowbanded signal to remove the each additional narrowbanded signal from said
input signal and thereby to produce said version of the input signal which version corresponds to said input signal less said
strongest narrowbanded signal and less each additional narrowbanded signal as the additional narrowbanded signals are repeatedly
compressively sensed and removed from said input signal;

(iv) assigning each compressively sensed narrowbanded signal which is removed from the input signal to a separate narrowband
receiver for signal analysis; and

wherein the compressive sensing which occurs for said strongest narrowbanded signal and with respect to each additional narrowbanded
occurs with respect to both said input signal less all previously detected narrowbanded signals and a frequency shifted version
of said input signal less all previously detected narrowbanded signals.

US Pat. No. 9,378,949

MONOLITHIC INTEGRATION OF GROUP III NITRIDE EPITAXIAL LAYERS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A monolithically integrated device comprising:
a substrate;
a first set of Group III nitride epitaxial layers grown on a first region of the substrate for a first heterostructure field
effect transistor; and

a second set of Group III nitride epitaxial layers grown on a second region of the substrate for a second heterostructure
field effect transistor;

wherein the first set of epitaxial layers comprises an AlN barrier layer;
wherein the second set of epitaxial layers comprises an AlGaN barrier layer;
wherein the first heterostructure field effect transistor comprises a low noise amplifier; and
wherein the second heterostructure field effect transistor comprises a power amplifier.

US Pat. No. 9,086,229

OPTICAL COMPONENTS FROM MICRO-ARCHITECTED TRUSSES

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A mirror structure comprising:
a) a first face sheet having an exterior facing mirror surface and a side opposite the exterior facing mirror surface;
b) three-dimensional ordered cellular microtrusses connected with the side opposite the exterior facing mirror surface of
the first face sheet such that there is a continuous coating material extending from the three-dimensional ordered cellular
microtrusses onto the face sheet;

c) wherein the three-dimensional ordered cellular microtrusses form an ordered network comprising a plurality of continuous
interpenetrating microtruss members, each forming a plurality of nodes with other microtruss members, the plurality of microtruss
members comprising at least one of: (1) interconnected hollow tubular microtruss members; or (2) interconnected solid microtruss
members; and

d) wherein the ordered network comprises a plurality of first microtruss elements defined by a plurality of first self-propagating
polymer waveguides extending along a first direction, a plurality of second microtruss elements defined by a plurality of
second self-propagating polymer waveguides extending along a second direction, and a plurality of third microtruss elements
defined by a plurality of third self-propagating polymer waveguides extending along a third direction, wherein the first,
second, and third microtruss elements interpenetrate each other at a plurality of nodes to form a continuous material.

US Pat. No. 9,059,200

III-NITRIDE METAL-INSULATOR-SEMICONDUCTOR FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTOR

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of fabricating a field effect transistor (FET) comprising:
forming a III-Nitride channel layer above a substrate;
forming a III-Nitride barrier layer on the channel layer, wherein the barrier layer has an energy bandgap greater than the
channel layer;

forming a source electrode electrically coupled to one of the III-Nitride layers;
forming a drain electrode electrically coupled to one of the III-Nitride layers;
forming a gate insulator layer stack for electrically insulating a gate electrode from the barrier layer and the channel layer,
the gate insulator layer stack comprising:

an insulator layer; and
an AlN layer; and
forming a gate electrode on the insulator layer in a region between the source electrode and the drain electrode;
wherein the AlN layer is in contact with one of the III-Nitride layers;
wherein the AlN layer has a thickness ranging from 1.5 nanometers to 50 nanometers.

US Pat. No. 9,276,529

HIGH PERFORMANCE GAN OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER WITH WIDE BANDWIDTH AND HIGH DYNAMIC RANGE

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. An operational amplifier comprising:
a first transconductance stage having a first differential input and a first differential output, the first differential input
having a positive and negative input, and the first differential output having a positive and negative output;

a second transconductance stage having a second differential input and a second differential output, the second differential
input having a positive and negative input, and the second differential output having a positive and negative output; and

a third transconductance stage having a third differential input and a third differential output, the third differential input
having a positive and negative input, and the third differential output having a positive and negative output;

wherein the positive and negative output of the first differential output are coupled to the positive and negative input,
respectively, of the second differential input; and

wherein the positive and negative output of the second differential output are coupled to the positive and negative input,
respectively, of the third differential input;

a first resistor coupled between the negative output of the first differential output and the positive input of the first
differential input;

a second resistor coupled between the positive output of the first differential output and the negative input of the first
differential input;

a third resistor coupled between the negative output of the third differential output and the positive input of the first
differential input;

a fourth resistor coupled between the positive output of the third differential output and the negative input of the first
differential input;

a first capacitor coupled between the positive output of the third differential output and the negative input of the third
differential input; and

a second capacitor coupled between the negative output of the third differential output and the positive input of the third
differential input;

wherein the first, second, and third transconductance stages each comprise:
a differential input amplifier coupled to the differential input of the respective transconductance stage;
a differential output amplifier coupled to the differential output of the respective transconductance stage; and
a plurality of Schottky diodes coupled between the differential input amplifier and the differential output amplifier for
shifting a voltage level of the differential input amplifier.

US Pat. No. 9,443,189

BIO-INSPIRED METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FEATURE DETECTION WITH SPIKING DYNAMICS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for feature detection with spiking dynamics, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a memory having instructions such that when the instructions are executed, the one or more processors
perform operations of:

receiving an input pattern in a rate-coded domain comprising a plurality of features;
translating the input pattern in the rate-coded domain into a spike-coded representation of the input pattern;
transmitting the spike-coded representation of the input pattern to a feature detector layer of a feature detector network
comprising a set of feature detector neurons having input weights comprising excitatory inputs and inhibitory inputs such
that the feature detector neurons are arranged in an on-center (excitatory) off-surround (inhibitory) manner;

activating of the set of feature detector neurons in the feature detector layer;
competing of the set of feature detector neurons in the feature detector layer for the feature detector neuron whose input
weights encode the input pattern best, such that each feature detector neuron in the set of feature detector neurons only
excites itself, receives tonic excitation, and receives inhibition from all feature detector neurons except itself; and

updating the input weights which encode frequently seen input patterns according to a learning rule selected from the group
consisting of Instar learning, spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) learning, and Instar STDP learning.

US Pat. No. 9,275,328

NEUROMORPHIC COMPILER

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

13. A method of neuromorphic compiling of a synaptic time-multiplexed (STM) neuromorphic network, the method comprising:
providing analytic placement of neurons in a neural network description, the analytic placement to produce placed neurons;
performing diffusion-based smoothing of the placed neurons;
providing legalization of the placed neurons following the diffusion-based smoothing, wherein providing legalization comprises
adjusting locations of the placed neurons according to legal locations of neuromorphic neurons within a neural fabric; and

performing simulated annealing of the placed neurons following legalization to refine placed neuron locations within the neural
fabric,

wherein the neural fabric comprises a plurality of nodes comprising neuromorphic neurons and a plurality of switches to provide
selectable interconnections between the nodes to define synaptic pathways between neuromorphic neurons within an STM time
slot during an STM cycle of the STM neuromorphic network.

US Pat. No. 9,404,748

ELECTRIC GRADIENT FORCE DRIVE AND SENSE MECHANISM FOR A MICRO-ELECTRO-MECHANICAL-SYSTEM GYROSCOPE

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

6. A gyroscope for sensing a motion comprising:
a mass spring system in a conventional Cartesian x, y, z coordinate system wherein an x, a y, and a z direction are mutually
orthogonal to each other, the mass spring system comprising:

a dielectric mass;
a first anchor;
a first spring coupled between the first anchor and the dielectric mass, the first spring oriented along the x direction;
a second anchor; and
a second spring coupled between the second anchor and the dielectric mass, the second spring oriented along the y direction;
a first substrate adjacent the dielectric mass in the x direction opposite the first anchor; and
a first electrode and a second electrode on the first substrate;
a second substrate adjacent the dielectric mass in the y direction opposite the second anchor; and
a third electrode and a fourth electrode on the second substrate;
wherein the gyroscope is configured so that when an alternating current voltage having a frequency matching or near a resonant
frequency is applied between the first and second electrodes, the dielectric mass has a sustained oscillation, and an electric
field gradient is generated in the dielectric mass and causes the dielectric mass to move relative to the first and second
anchors; and

wherein the gyroscope is configured so that when a voltage is applied between the third and fourth electrodes, the sustained
oscillation of the dielectric mass generates a current at the third and fourth electrodes proportional to the motion of the
dielectric mass.

US Pat. No. 9,352,529

PROGRESSIVE STIFFNESS STRUCTURAL-ACOUSTIC SANDWICH PANEL

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A sandwich structure, comprising:
an architected core having a first major surface and a second major surface facing away from the first major surface;
a first facesheet secured to the first major surface; and
a second facesheet secured to the second major surface,
the core comprising, at the first major surface, a first plurality of pedestals,
each of the first plurality of pedestals
being separated from the first facesheet by a base gap of a first plurality of base gaps, the base gap having a width, and
being joined to the first facesheet by a compliant base layer of a first plurality of compliant base layers in the first base
gap, a thickness of the compliant base layer being equal to the width of the base gap, and a Young's modulus of the compliant
base layer being less than a Young's modulus of the first facesheet, wherein the core comprises, as a major component, a micro-truss
material comprising: a plurality of first truss members defined by a plurality of first self-propagating polymer waveguides
and extending along a first direction.

US Pat. No. 9,286,538

ADAPTIVE 3D TO 2D PROJECTION FOR DIFFERENT HEIGHT SLICES AND EXTRACTION OF ROBUST MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES FOR 3D OBJECT RECOGNITION

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for adaptive three-dimensional (3D) to two-dimensional (2D) projection for different height slices and extraction
of morphological image features, comprising:
one or more processors and a memory, the memory having instructions encoded thereon, such that upon execution of the instructions,
the one or more processors perform operations of:

receiving the 3D point cloud data;
selecting an image pixel number to point cloud number ratio;
determining image row and image column numbers for desired height slices; and
accumulating the 3D point cloud on the desired height slices to generate a plurality of 2D height slices.

US Pat. No. 9,281,526

BATTERIES WITH REPLENISHABLE STORAGE CAPACITIES

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A lithium-ion battery comprising an anode, a cathode, an electrolyte, an additional lithium-containing electrode for replenishing
lithium ions to said anode or said cathode, a current collector layer disposed between said additional lithium-containing
electrode and said anode, and a separator layer that separates said current collector layer from said additional lithium-containing
electrode, wherein said additional lithium-containing electrode is configured to operate after a normal operation of the cell
and when exposed to an electrical current, supplies lithium ions to said anode or said cathode, and wherein said current collector
layer is permeable to lithium ions.

US Pat. No. 9,230,302

FOVEATED COMPRESSIVE SENSING SYSTEM

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for foveated compressive sensing, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a memory, the memory being a non-transitory computer-readable medium having executable instructions
encoded thereon, such that upon execution of the instructions, the one or more processors perform operations of:

receiving an input image f of a scene;
initializing a measurement matrix;
performing global measurements of the input image f;
reconstructing a lower resolution image of the scene;
extracting task salient regions from the low resolution image;
estimating a task-specific operator and detecting regions-of-interest (ROI) based on the task salient regions;
generating an ROI-adapted and foveated measurement matrix;
performing local measurements on task-relevant ROIs; and
reconstructing a higher resolution image of the scene to allow for identification of objects in the ROI.

US Pat. No. 9,154,172

TIME ENCODED CIRCUITS AND METHODS AND A TIME ENCODER BASED BEAMFORMER FOR USE IN RECEIVING AND TRANSMITTING APPLICATIONS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of delaying a pulse domain signal comprising:
a. applying an inputted pulse domain signal to a time encoder circuit; and
b. controlling an amount of true time delay imposed by said time encoder on said inputted pulse domain signal by controlling
the gains of an input transconductance amplifier or 1-bit Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) and a feedback 1-bit DAC in said
time encoder.

US Pat. No. 9,064,992

METHOD OF FABRICATING DUAL-BAND TYPE-II SUPERLATTICE DETECTORS BASED ON P-B-P DESIGN

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of making a Type II Superlattice Dual Band Photodetector comprising the steps of:
receiving a substrate and disposing an etch stop layer on the substrate;
disposing a first contact layer on the etch stop layer;
disposing a first absorber layer on the first contact layer;
disposing a Type II Super Lattice (T2SL) barrier layer on the first absorber layer;
wherein the barrier layer comprises a plurality of monolayers;
the plurality of monolayers comprise repeating sets of monolayers of a first type, a second type and third type, wherein the
first type of monolayer comprises AlSb, the second type of monolayer comprises InSb and the third type of monolayer comprises
InAs;

disposing a second absorber layer on the barrier layer;
disposing a second contact layer on the second absorber layer.

US Pat. No. 9,490,292

DUAL-BAND DETECTOR ARRAY

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. An infrared photo-detector array of a plurality of photo-detectors, comprising:
a collector layer:
a first absorber layer that absorbs incident light of a first wavelength band and generates first electrons and first holes;
a second absorber layer that absorbs incident light of a second wavelength band and generates second electrons and second
holes; and

wherein the wavelengths of the incident light in the first wavelength band are shorter than the wavelengths of the incident
light in the second wavelength band;

wherein the second absorber layer is laterally contiguous across at least two photo-detectors; and
wherein the thickness of the second absorber layer is smaller than the wavelengths of light of the second wavelength band.

US Pat. No. 9,349,092

NEURAL NETWORK FOR REINFORCEMENT LEARNING

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A neural network for reinforcement-learning and for action-selection comprising:
a plurality of channels;
a population of input neurons in each of the channels;
a population of output neurons in each of the channels, each population of input neurons in each of the channels coupled to
each population of output neurons in each of the channels by first synapses; and

a population of reward neurons in each of the channels, wherein each population of reward neurons receives input from an environmental
input, and wherein each channel of reward neurons is coupled only to output neurons in a channel that the reward neuron is
part of by second synapses;

wherein if the environmental input for a channel is positive, the corresponding channel of a population of output neurons
are rewarded and have their responses reinforced;

wherein if the environmental input for a channel is negative, the corresponding channel of a population of output neurons
are punished and have their responses attenuated; and

wherein the neural network comprises memristors.

US Pat. No. 9,342,759

OBJECT RECOGNITION CONSISTENCY IMPROVEMENT USING A PSEUDO-TRACKLET APPROACH

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for object recognition improvement, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a non-transitory computer-readable medium having executable instructions encoded thereon such that
when the instructions are executed, the one or more processors perform operations of:

receiving object detection results and classification results for a sequence of image frames as input, wherein each object
detection result is represented by a detection box and each classification result is represented by an object label corresponding
to the object detection result;

forming a pseudo-tracklet by linking object detection results representing the same object in consecutive image frames;
determining whether there is at least one of an inconsistent object label and a missing object detection result in the pseudo-tracklet;
and

improving the object detection results and the classification results by correcting the at least one inconsistent object label
and missing object detection result.

US Pat. No. 9,096,722

METHOD FOR CURING STRUCTURES USING A DUAL PHOTOINITIATOR SYSTEM AND A STRUCTURE MADE USING THE SAME

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A monomeric formulation for fabrication of microlattice structures, the monomeric formulation comprising:
a plurality of monomers comprising thiol;
a first photoinitiator configured to substantially activate above a wavelength of light; and
a second photoinitiator configured not to substantially activate above the wavelength of light and to substantially activate
below the wavelength of light,

wherein a concentration of the second photoinitiator in the monomeric formulation is greater than that of the first photoinitiator,
the first photoinitiator being about 0.01% to about 0.1% by weight of the monomeric formulation, and the second photoinitiator
being about 0.1% to about 1% by weight of the monomeric formulation.

US Pat. No. 9,415,562

ULTRA-LIGHT MICRO-LATTICES AND A METHOD FOR FORMING THE SAME

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A micro-lattice, comprising:
four or more layers of truss, each layer of truss having a plurality of truss members that intersect with one another, the
truss members formed of hollow tubes;

wherein the micro-lattice is formed of a material and having a relative density in a range of 0.00001 to 0.0005 in relation
to the theoretical density of the material;

wherein the hollow tubes have a diameter such that the diameter is between 10 and 1000 microns; and
wherein the hollow tubes are formed by tube walls having a wall thickness between 0.01 and 2 microns.

US Pat. No. 9,293,699

METHOD TO MAKE RF SWITCHES AND CIRCUITS WITH PHASE-CHANGE MATERIALS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A radio frequency switch comprising:
a first transmission line;
a second transmission line;
a first electrode directly connected to the first transmission line;
a second electrode directly connected to the second transmission line; and
a phase change material;
wherein the first transmission line is coupled to a first area of the phase change material and the second transmission line
is coupled to a second area of the phase change material;

wherein when a direct current is sent from the first electrode to the second electrode through the phase change material,
the phase change material changes state from a high resistance state to a low resistance state allowing transmission from
the first transmission line to the second transmission line; and

wherein the radio frequency switch is integrated on a substrate.

US Pat. No. 9,190,534

ENHANCEMENT MODE NORMALLY-OFF GALLIUM NITRIDE HETEROSTRUCTURE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

7. A normally “off” GaN heterostructure field effect transistor having a source and a drain comprising:
a substrate;
a buffer layer on the substrate;
a channel layer on the buffer layer;
a charge providing layer on the channel layer;
a gate between the source and the drain, the gate having a first length dimension along a direction of current flow between
the source and the drain;

ions in an implant area in the charge providing layer, wherein the implant area is under the gate;
wherein the implant area has a second length dimension along the direction of current flow shorter than the first length dimension;
and

wherein the implant area has a relative position under the gate that is offset towards the drain.

US Pat. No. 9,111,182

SYSTEM, METHOD, AND COMPUTER PROGRAM PRODUCT FOR MULTISPECTRAL IMAGE PROCESSING WITH SPIKING DYNAMICS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A computer program product for multispectral image processing with spiking dynamics, the computer program product comprising
computer-readable instructions stored on a non-transitory computer-readable medium that are executable by a computer having
one or more processors for causing the one or more processors to perform operations of:
receiving an input image having image coordinates;
translating the image coordinates into neuron coordinates;
compressing, the image, using the neuron coordinates, through spatially and spectrally variant sampling;
modeling center-surround dynamics, based on the neuron coordinates, to control high dynamic ranges of the image and provide
gain control;

modeling habituative dynamics, based on the neuron coordinates, to produce outputs specialized for static or dynamic image
content; and

generating neural spikes based on the habituative dynamics, the neural spikes being saved or provided to other systems for
further image processing.

US Pat. No. 9,312,602

CIRCULARLY POLARIZED SCALAR IMPEDANCE ARTIFICIAL IMPEDANCE SURFACE ANTENNA

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A circularly polarized artificial impedance surface antenna (AISA) comprising:
an impedance modulated substrate having a modulated scalar impedance to a surface wave traversing a top surface of the substrate;
wherein the impedance modulated substrate has a plurality of intertwined lines of constant impedance; and
wherein each line of constant impedance follows a spiral elliptical path.

US Pat. No. 9,269,027

SYSTEM FOR OPTIMAL RAPID SERIAL VISUAL PRESENTATION (RSVP) FROM USER-SPECIFIC NEURAL BRAIN SIGNALS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for optimizing rapid serial visual presentation, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a memory having instructions such that when the instructions are executed, the one or more processors
perform operations of:

dividing an input image into a plurality of image chips;
computing a set of motion channel feature maps from the image chips;
computing a set of motion channel surprise maps from the set of motion channel feature maps;
labeling the image chips as static or moving;
preparing rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) datasets of the image chips;
presenting RSVP datasets for visualization and recording of neural brain signals;
computing an electroencephalography (EEG) score from the neural brain signals based on a response to the image chips in the
RSVP datasets; and

classifying each image chip as containing an item of interest or not containing an item of interest based on the EEG score.

US Pat. No. 9,177,228

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR FUSION OF FAST SURPRISE AND MOTION-BASED SALIENCY FOR FINDING OBJECTS OF INTEREST IN DYNAMIC SCENES

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for object detection from dynamic visual imagery, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a non-transitory memory having instructions encoded thereon such that when the instructions are
executed, the one or more processors perform operations of:

receiving dynamic visual input obtained from a stationary sensor;
processing the dynamic visual input by a surprise-based module, wherein the surprise-based module detects at least one stationary
object in a scene to generate a plurality of surprise scores;

processing the dynamic visual input by a motion-based saliency module, wherein the motion-based saliency module detects foreground
in the scene to generate a plurality of motion scores; and

fusing at least one of the plurality of surprise scores with at least one of the plurality of motion scores into a single
score, wherein the single score is used to determine the presence of at least one object of interest in the dynamic visual
input.

US Pat. No. 9,111,355

SELECTIVE COLOR PROCESSING FOR VISION SYSTEMS THAT ENABLES OPTIMAL DETECTION AND RECOGNITION

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for selective color processing, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a non-transitory computer-readable medium having executable instructions encoded thereon such that
when executed, the one or more processors perform operations of:

receiving a multi-band image as input;
applying a metric function to the multi-band image to generate a distance map, wherein the distance map comprises a plurality
of intensities which vary based on a similarity between an intensity of a pixel color and an intensity of a target color of
interest;

applying a contrast enhancement process to the distance map to normalize the distance map to a range of values;
expanding the range of values of the distance map near the intensity of the target color of interest; and
generating an output response map for the target color of interest having value ranges to aid in detection and recognition
processes, wherein the output response map comprises a plurality of regions, and wherein the output response map has high
responses in regions which contain colors similar to the target color of interest in the multi-band image.

US Pat. No. 9,093,394

METHOD AND STRUCTURE FOR ENCAPSULATION AND INTERCONNECTION OF TRANSISTORS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A semiconductor device comprising:
a substrate;
one or more transistors mounted on said substrate, each of said one or more transistors having a respective gate terminal;
two or more layers of dielectric material encapsulating a front side of said one or more transistors, at least one of said
two or more layers of dielectric material comprising one or more cavities;

wherein the respective gate terminal of each of said one or more transistors is located within one of said one or more cavities
and physically separated from said at least one layer of dielectric material.

US Pat. No. 9,337,332

III-NITRIDE INSULATING-GATE TRANSISTORS WITH PASSIVATION

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A field-effect transistor (FET) comprising:
a plurality of semiconductor layers;
a source electrode contacting at least one of the semiconductor layers;
a drain electrode contacting at least one of the semiconductor layers;
a first dielectric layer covering a portion of semiconductor top surface between the source electrode and the drain electrode;
a first trench extending through the first dielectric layer and having a bottom located on a top surface of the semiconductor
layers or within one of the semiconductor layers;

a second dielectric layer lining the first trench and covering a portion of the first dielectric layer;
a third dielectric layer over the semiconductor layers, the first dielectric layer, and the second dielectric layer;
a second trench extending through the third dielectric layer and having a bottom located in the first trench on the surface
of or within the second dielectric layer, and extending over a portion of the second dielectric layer on the first dielectric
layer; and

a gate electrode filling the second trench;
wherein the second dielectric layer comprises a single-crystalline AlN layer at the bottom of the first trench; and
wherein the second dielectric layer comprises a polycrystalline AlN layer on the single crystalline AlN layer.

US Pat. No. 9,317,776

ROBUST STATIC AND MOVING OBJECT DETECTION SYSTEM VIA ATTENTIONAL MECHANISMS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for object detection via attentional mechanisms, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a non-transitory computer-readable medium having executable instructions encoded thereon such that
when executed, the one or more processors perform operations of:

receiving a multi-band image as input, the multi-band image having a size;
performing an anti-aliasing process and a downsampling process to reduce the size of the multi-band image;
performing targeted contrast enhancement on the multi-band image to enhance at least one target color of interest;
generating a response map for each target color of interest;
processing each response map independently through a saliency process to generate at least one saliency map;
converting the at least one saliency map into a set of detections representing potential objects of interest, wherein each
detection in the set of detections is associated with a plurality of parameters selected from the group consisting of: position
parameters, size parameters, an orientation parameter, and a score parameter;

filtering the set of detections in a post-processing process to reduce false alarms, resulting in a final set of detections;
and

outputting the final set of detections and their associated plurality of parameters representing objects of interest.

US Pat. No. 9,231,213

METHODS FOR INTEGRATING AND FORMING OPTICALLY TRANSPARENT DEVICES ON SURFACES

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A device, comprising:
one of a transparent and substantially transparent substrate;
an optically transparent active device on the substrate, wherein the optically transparent active device comprises a plurality
of silver nanowire contacts and a graphene channel;

a silver nanowire film, the silver nanowire film disposed on at least a portion of the substrate; and
a dielectric material disposed on at least a portion of the silver nanowire film.

US Pat. No. 9,165,208

ROBUST GROUND-PLANE HOMOGRAPHY ESTIMATION USING ADAPTIVE FEATURE SELECTION

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for homography estimation, the system comprising one or more processors and a non-transitory computer-readable
medium having executable instructions encoded thereon such that when the instructions are executed, the one or more processors
perform operations of:
determining feature correspondences that correspond with at least one moving object in each image in a set of images;
determining feature correspondences that correspond with at least one above-ground object in each image in the set of images;
excluding feature correspondences that correspond with each moving object in each image in the set of images;
excluding feature correspondences that correspond with each above-ground object in each image in the set of images;
dividing each image in the set of images into a plurality of sub-regions comprising feature correspondences;
limiting the number of feature correspondences in each sub-region to a predetermined threshold to ensure that feature correspondences
are evenly distributed over each image in the set of images; and

generating a ground-plane homography estimation between the set of images by excluding the feature correspondences that correspond
with moving and above-ground objects in the set of images and limiting the number of feature correspondences in each sub-region
to ensure that feature correspondences are evenly distributed over each image in the set of images.

US Pat. No. 9,116,428

MICRO-TRUSS BASED ENERGY ABSORPTION APPARATUS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A micro-truss based structural apparatus intended to absorb an impact energy upon impact comprising:
a first face plate;
a second face plate; and
a first three-dimensional ordered truss core between the first face plate and the second face plate, and
wherein the first three-dimensional ordered truss core comprising:
a plurality of first truss elements defined by a plurality of first self-propagating polymer waveguides and extending along
a first direction;

a plurality of second truss elements defined by a plurality of second self-propagating polymer waveguides and extending along
a second direction; and

a plurality of third truss elements defined by a plurality of third self-propagating polymer waveguides and extending along
a third direction;

wherein the first, second, and third truss elements interpenetrate each other at a plurality of first nodes to form a first
continuous material;

wherein the first, second, and third truss elements define a first open space enabling densification in response to a force
applied to at least one of the first face plate or the second face plate; and

wherein the impact energy is absorbed by the densification of the first three-dimensional ordered truss core.

US Pat. No. 9,377,567

SELF-FORMING DIFFRACTION GRATINGS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method for fabricating a diffraction grating, the method comprising:
applying a layer of photo-monomer to a substrate; and
generating the diffraction grating in the layer of photo-monomer by polymerizing the layer of photo-monomer,
wherein the generating of the diffraction grating comprises:
exposing the photo-monomer to a first collimated beam of light wherein the intensity of the first collimated beam of light
incident on the layer of photo-monomer has substantially no spatial variation across the first collimated beam of light, forming
polymer planes of the diffraction grating that are parallel to the direction of propagation of the first collimated beam of
light, and

exposing the photo-monomer to a second collimated beam of light.

US Pat. No. 9,356,564

BROADBAND LINEAR AMPLIFIER ARCHITECTURE BY COMBINING TWO DISTRIBUTED AMPLIFIERS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A broadband linear amplifier comprising:
an input;
a first distributed amplifier coupled to the input and having a bias for one of Class A or Class AB operation, the first distributed
amplifier comprising a first plurality of field effect transistors (FETs), each FET of the first plurality of FETs having
a gate, a drain and a source, and wherein the first distributed amplifier has a first output;

a second distributed amplifier coupled to the input and having a bias for Class C operation, the second distributed amplifier
comprising a second plurality of field effect transistors, each FET of the second plurality of FETs having a gate, a drain
and a source, and wherein the second distributed amplifier has a second output;

a first plurality of serially connected variable delay lines or transmission line lengths, wherein each respective variable
delay line or transmission line length of the first plurality of serially connected variable delay lines or transmission line
lengths is connected to a respective drain of a respective FET of the first plurality of field effect transistors for tuning
the first distributed amplifier, and wherein the first plurality of serially connected variable delay lines or transmission
line lengths has a first serial delay line output;

a second plurality of serially connected variable delay lines or transmission line lengths, wherein each respective variable
delay line or transmission line length of the second plurality of serially connected variable delay lines or transmission
line lengths is connected to a respective gate of a respective FET of the first plurality of field effect transistors for
tuning the first distributed amplifier, and wherein the second plurality of serially connected variable delay lines or transmission
line lengths has a second serial delay line output;

a first passive feedback circuit coupled between the second serial delay line output and the first serial delay line output;
and

a summed output coupled to the first output and the second output;
wherein for Class AB operation, the bias for the first distributed amplifier is set above a turn-on threshold voltage for
the first distributed amplifier;

wherein for Class A operation, the bias for the first distributed amplifier is set higher than for class AB operation and
relatively high compared to the turn-on threshold voltage for the first distributed amplifier; and

wherein for Class C operation, the bias for the second distributed amplifier is set below a turn-on threshold voltage for
the second distributed amplifier;

wherein the first passive feedback circuit comprises a resistor connected in series to a capacitor.

US Pat. No. 9,311,595

NEURAL NETWORK DEVICE WITH ENGINEERED DELAYS FOR PATTERN STORAGE AND MATCHING

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A computer implemented method for forming a database of stored patterns, each stored pattern being string of characters,
the method comprising an act of causing a computer having a processor to execute instructions encoded upon a memory, such
that upon execution, the processor performs operations of:
creating an output neuron for each stored pattern;
creating a connection for each character in the stored pattern to the output neuron;
setting a delay of the connection depending on a location of each character in the stored pattern; and
summing a number of connections for each stored pattern.

US Pat. No. 9,310,471

SINGLE CHIP SCANNING LIDAR AND METHOD OF PRODUCING THE SAME

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of fabricating a chip-scale scanning lidar comprising:
forming a two dimensional (2D) scanning micromirror for a transmit beam on a substrate;
forming a two dimensional (2D) scanning micromirror for a receive beam on the substrate;
forming a laser diode on the substrate;
forming a photodetector on the substrate;
forming a first waveguide on the substrate connected on one end of the first waveguide to a first facet of the laser diode;
forming a first grating outcoupler on the substrate connected to another end of the first waveguide;
forming a second waveguide on the substrate connected on one end of the second waveguide to a second facet of the laser diode;
forming a second grating outcoupler on the substrate connected to another end of the second waveguide;
forming a first fixed micromirror and a second fixed micromirror in a first dielectric layer;
forming a third fixed micromirror in a second dielectric layer;
forming a focusing component in a third dielectric layer;
bonding the first, second and third dielectric layers together to form a composite structure;
aligning the composite structure to the substrate over the laser diode and photodetector; and
bonding the composite structure to the substrate over the laser diode and photodetector.

US Pat. No. 9,250,074

RESONATOR ASSEMBLY COMPRISING A SILICON RESONATOR AND A QUARTZ RESONATOR

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A resonator assembly comprising:
a semiconductor substrate;
a resonator gyroscope, the resonator gyroscope including a first resonator formed in a layer of a first material; and
an oscillator on the semiconductor substrate, the oscillator including a second resonator formed of a second material;
the second resonator being attached in a cavity; the cavity comprising a first recess in said layer of a first material and
the edges of the first recess being attached to the substrate, or the cavity comprising a second recess in said substrate
and the edges of the second recess being attached to said layer of a first material;

said first resonator being formed by etching said layer of a first material after said attaching the edges of the first recess
to the substrate or said attaching the edges of the second recess to said layer of a first material; and

said cavity being located below a portion of said layer of a first material that is not etched when forming said first resonator.

US Pat. No. 9,217,084

CONSTRAINED MICROLAYER CELLULAR MATERIAL WITH HIGH STIFFNESS AND DAMPING

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method for forming a three-dimensional open-celled cellular structure, the method comprising:
forming a three-dimensional open-celled cellular template;
forming a second coating layer of a second substance on the three-dimensional template;
forming a first coating layer of a first substance on the second coating layer;
forming a third coating layer of a third substance on the first coating layer; and
removing the three-dimensional template,
the first substance having a shear modulus
less than one tenth the Young's modulus of the second substance, and
less than one tenth the Young's modulus of the third substance.

US Pat. No. 9,449,177

GENERAL PROTOCOL FOR PROACTIVELY SECURE COMPUTATION

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for proactively secure multi-party computation (MPC), the system comprising:
a plurality of computing devices, each computing device having one or more processors and a non-transitory memory having instructions
encoded thereon such that when the instructions are executed, one or more of the computing devices perform operations of:

constructing secret shares representing data to perform computations between the plurality of computing devices modeled as
probabilistic polynomial-time interactive turing machines;

specifying a number of rounds of communication where the plurality of computing devices jointly compute on the secret shares;
specifying a threshold of a number of the plurality of computing devices that can be corrupted by an adversary;
periodically refreshing and resharing the secret shares among the plurality of computing devices before and after computations
in each of the rounds of communication;

wherein the data the secret shares represent is proactively secured such that a computation is securely executed by the plurality
of computing devices while maintaining functionality and security despite successful corruption of the plurality of computing
devices; and

wherein for any of a plurality of distinct functionalities that can be described by an arithmetic circuit, a group of n computing
devices in the plurality of computing devices can jointly and securely compute the functionality despite corruption of up
to n/4 of the computing devices.

US Pat. No. 9,378,420

SYSTEM FOR DETECTING AN OBJECT OF INTEREST IN A SCENE

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. An system for detecting an object of interest in a scene, comprising:
one or more processors and a memory, the memory having executable instructions encoded thereon, such that upon execution of
the instructions, the one or more processors perform operations of:

receiving an image frame of a scene;
extracting features from the image frame, the features being descriptors, wherein the features are extracted from the image
frame by performing operations of:

creating three threads, one for each of three independent scales;
providing, for each thread, a link to the image frame and a set of running parameters;
running each thread, in parallel, to identify descriptors in each of the three threads;
upon completion of the three threads, compiling the results from each of the three threads into a full set of dense Scale
Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) descriptors (DSIFT);

quantizing the DSIFT descriptors to generate a pyramid histogram of visual word (PHOW) features;
implementing a sliding window protocol to slide a window over the image and analyze PHOW features that fall inside the window;
and

determining if the PHOW features represent the object of interest and, if so, then designating the window as a location in
the image with a detected object of interest.

US Pat. No. 9,489,596

OPTIMAL RAPID SERIAL VISUAL PRESENTATION (RSVP) SPACING AND FUSION FOR ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY (EEG)-BASED BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE (BCI)

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) spacing and fusion, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a non-transitory computer-readable medium having executable instructions encoded thereon such that
when executed, the one or more processors perform operations of:

receiving a sequence of a plurality of rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) image chips having an order, wherein the plurality
of RSVP image chips are generated from an image via a pre-processing step and have a high probability of containing a target
of interest; and

altering the order of the sequence of the plurality of RSVP image chips to increase the probability of detection of a true
target of interest when presented to a human subject.

US Pat. No. 9,379,195

HEMT GAN DEVICE WITH A NON-UNIFORM LATERAL TWO DIMENSIONAL ELECTRON GAS PROFILE AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURING THE SAME

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A high electron mobility field effect transistor (HEMT) having a substrate, a channel layer on the substrate and a barrier
layer on the channel layer, the HEMT comprising:
a stress inducing layer on and in contact with the barrier layer, wherein the stress inducing layer varies a piezo-electric
effect in the barrier layer in a drift region between a gate and a drain, and wherein the stress inducing layer extends from
the gate to under the drain;

wherein the piezo-electric effect in the barrier layer varies a two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the drift region between
the gate and the drain;

wherein the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) has a non-uniform lateral distribution in the drift region between the gate
and the drain;

wherein the stress inducing layer comprises a material having a plurality of varying size openings that decrease in size or
increase in size from the gate towards the drain;

wherein the plurality of openings in the stress inducing layer are between the gate and the drain; and
wherein the plurality of openings in the stress inducing layer extend through the stress inducing layer to the barrier layer.

US Pat. No. 9,231,137

INFRARED PHOTODETECTOR WITH RETICULATED CONTACT

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A photodetector with a reduced dark current, comprising:
an absorber layer of a first area and comprising a first semiconductor;
a barrier layer of the first area and comprising a second semiconductor disposed on the absorber layer;
a contact layer with a second area and comprising a third semiconductor disposed on the barrier layer; and
a cap layer comprising the third semiconductor disposed on the barrier layer with an area approximately equal to the first
area less the second area,

wherein the contact layer is electrically isolated from the cap layer by a dielectric;
wherein the barrier layer comprises a first sublayer, a second sublayer, and a third sublayer;
wherein the first sublayer substantially comprises Al0.3In0.7As0.7Sb0.3 and is disposed on the absorber layer;

wherein the second sublayer is disposed on the first sublayer;
wherein the third sublayer substantially comprises Al0.7In0.3As0.4Sb0.6 and is disposed on the second sublayer.

US Pat. No. 9,527,261

HOLLOW POLYMER MICRO-TRUSS STRUCTURES CONTAINING PRESSURIZED FLUIDS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A three-dimensional hollow micro-truss, comprising:
at least three sets of interconnected hollow tubes extending along at least three different directions;
the at least three sets of interconnected hollow tubes having walls;
the tubes intersecting each other at a plurality of hollow nodes to form a structure;
the hollow tubes and the hollow nodes having interior surfaces collectively enclosing a first fluid region;
the hollow tubes and the hollow nodes having exterior surfaces defining a second fluid region;
wherein:
the first fluid region is not in fluid communication with the second fluid region,
the micro-truss is configured to inflate elastically from a reversibly collapsed state in response to a difference between
a first pressure in the first fluid region and a second pressure in the second fluid region, and

the length of the hollow tubes is at least 40 microns and at most 25 millimeters.

US Pat. No. 9,383,266

TEST STRUCTURE TO MONITOR THE IN-SITU CHANNEL TEMPERATURE OF FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method for monitoring a temperature in a field effect transistor (FET) having a source, a drain and a gate, the method
comprising:
providing the FET with a first connection electrically connected to the gate near a first end of the gate, a second connection
electrically connected to the gate near the first end of the gate, a third connection electrically connected to the gate near
a second end of the gate, and a fourth connection electrically connected to the gate near the second end of the gate;

sensing a first ambient temperature of the FET;
forcing a first current from the third connection to the first connection;
sensing a first voltage across the second and fourth connection; and
dividing the sensed first voltage by the first current to obtain a first gate resistance associated with the first ambient
temperature.

US Pat. No. 9,146,157

DUAL BAND SWIR/MWIR AND MWIR1/MWIR2 INFRARED DETECTORS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A dual band detector comprising:
a substrate;
a composite barrier;
a first absorber on the substrate and on a light incident side of the composite barrier, the first absorber for detecting
light of a first range of infrared wavelengths;

a second absorber on the composite barrier on a side opposite the light incident side, the second absorber for detecting light
of a second range of infrared wavelengths;

wherein a bandgap of the first absorber is larger than that of the second absorber;
wherein the composite barrier comprises:
a first secondary barrier;
a primary barrier; and
a second secondary barrier;
wherein the first and second secondary barriers have a lower bandgap energy than the primary barrier;
wherein the first or the second secondary barrier have a doping level and type different from that of the primary barrier;
and

wherein at least the primary barrier blocks majority carriers and allows minority carrier flow.

US Pat. No. 9,467,451

GENERIC PROACTIVELY-SECURE SECRET-SHARING PROTOCOL FROM ANY SUITABLE HONEST-MAJORITY SECRET-SHARING PROTOCOL

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for implementing a proactively secure secret sharing (PSS) protocol, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a non-transitory computer-readable medium having executable instructions encoded thereon such that
when executed, the one or more processors perform operations of:

transforming a SHARE protocol into a proactively secure secret sharing (PSS) protocol by performing a PREFRESH protocol that
includes execution of the SHARE protocol,

wherein the PREFRESH protocol refreshes shares of secret data among a plurality of parties of a distributed infrastructure
connected through a network,

wherein the SHARE protocol is a non-proactively secure secret sharing protocol, and
wherein the PSS protocol is used to store data in a distributed fashion across the plurality of parties such that the PSS
protocol provides security of the stored data despite unexpected network delays and failures due to malicious attacks on the
network by an adversary.

US Pat. No. 9,214,404

APPARATUS FOR MOUNTING MICROELECTRONIC CHIPS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. An interconnection, packaging and cooling apparatus for microelectronic chips, said apparatus comprising:
an arrangement for disposing the microelectronic chips in a desired configuration with their active or frontside faces all
facing a common direction and with their active or frontside faces defining a common planar surface for all of said microelectronic
chips;

a metallic seed material disposed on backsides of said microelectronic chips, the metallic seed material making void-free
contact with the backsides of the microelectronic chips; and

a thermal heat sink disposed on the seed metallic material which formed on the backsides of the microelectronic chips, the
thermal heat sink also disposed in spaces between adjacent microelectronic chips and on sidewalls of the microelectronic chips.

US Pat. No. 9,444,001

LOW COST, HIGH PERFORMANCE BARRIER-BASED POSITION SENSITIVE DETECTOR ARRAYS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A position sensitive detector comprising:
a substrate;
an absorber layer on the substrate;
a barrier layer on the absorber layer, wherein the barrier layer comprises a first barrier layer on the absorber layer and
a second barrier layer on the first barrier layer;

a contact layer on the barrier layer; and
a first contact and a second contact on the contact layer, wherein the first contact is not in contact with the second contact;
wherein the contact layer is a continuous layer between the first contact and the second contact;
wherein the barrier layer has a conduction band barrier that prevents a flow of majority carrier electrons from the absorber
layer to the contact layer;

wherein the first barrier layer and the second barrier layer have valence bands that are not a barrier to minority carrier
holes and allow minority carrier holes generated by an incident light to flow to the contact layer;

wherein the position sensitive detector is sensitive to a lateral position between the first contact and the second contact
of the incident light on the contact layer.

US Pat. No. 9,291,837

RE-CIRCULATION ENHANCED ELECTRO-OPTIC MODULATOR

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. An optical modulator comprising
a waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer having a first and a second input and a first and a second output,
a feedback waveguide segment connecting the second output with the second input, and
a traveling-wave electrode;
wherein the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, feedback waveguide segment and traveling-wave electrode are substantially arranged
at or adjacent the perimeter of a smooth curve defining a closed geometric figure, the traveling-wave electrode extending
along at least 50% of the length of said perimeter.

US Pat. No. 9,450,597

HARDWARE BASED COMPRESSIVE SAMPLING ADC ARCHITECTURE FOR NON-UNIFORM SAMPLED SIGNAL RECOVERY

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. Aback end-circuit for randomized non uniform and alias-free subsampling, comprising: an analog-to-digital converter (ADC)
configured for sampling an input signal at random non uniform times;
a compressive sensing processor, coupled to the ADC, to recover a sparse spectral representation of the input signal; and
a Fourier transformer for converting the sparse spectral representation to a time sampled representation of the input signal.

US Pat. No. 9,064,136

ACCURATE RECONSTRUCTION OF FREQUENCY-SPARSE SIGNALS WITH ARBITRARY FREQUENCIES FROM NON-UNIFORM SAMPLES

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for accurately reconstructing analog signals, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a non-transitory memory encoded thereon having instructions such that when the instructions are
executed, the one or more processors perform operations of:

receiving an unknown continuous analog signal comprising a set of arbitrary frequencies and a set of arbitrary amplitudes;
obtaining a set of non-uniform samples of the unknown continuous analog signal at a plurality of times; and
utilizing an iterative reconstruction process to determine a set of frequencies and a set of amplitudes that best fit the
set of non-uniform samples in a global minimum problem in order to accurately reconstruct the continuous analog signal.

US Pat. No. 9,171,247

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR FAST TEMPLATE MATCHING IN 3D

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for pattern matching, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a memory, the memory having instructions encoded thereon such that upon execution of the instructions,
the one or more processors perform operations of:

converting a test array into neural inputs;
receiving the neural inputs into a template neural network to generate output neurons; and
evaluating the output neurons to identify a location of a template in the test array.

US Pat. No. 9,483,729

MINING GROUP PATTERNS IN DYNAMIC RELATIONAL DATA VIA INDIVIDUAL EVENT MONITORING

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for detecting group behaviors in data, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a memory having instructions such that when the instructions are executed, the one or more processors
perform operations of:

downloading files from an Internet-based social network at predetermined time intervals and storing the downloaded files,
wherein the downloaded files contain interactions between users of the Internet-based social network;

comparing each newly downloaded file with a set of previously downloaded files to detect changes in the downloaded files that
represent changes in the relationships between users;

storing any detected changes in the downloaded files;
defining, by an analyst, at least one local event of interest to monitor in the downloaded files based on a group behavior
of interest, wherein the at least one local event of interest is a detected change between an individual user of the Internet-based
social network and the individual user's immediate relationships with a group of users on the Internet-based social network;

generating, with an analysis engine, visual results representing the relationship between the at least two monitored local
events of interest across the group of users of the internet-based social network;

detecting and analyzing any group pattern between the at least two monitored local events of interest using the visual results;
and

detecting any instance of group behavior between the at least two monitored local events of interest for presentation to the
analyst.

US Pat. No. 9,450,938

INFORMATION SECURE PROACTIVE MULTIPARTY COMPUTATION (PMPC) PROTOCOL WITH LINEAR BANDWIDTH COMPLEXITY

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for secure proactive multi-party computation, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a non-transitory computer-readable medium having executable instructions encoded thereon such that
when executed, the one or more processors perform operations of:

securely evaluating a circuit in the presence of an adversary, wherein the circuit receives inputs of secret values from a
set of servers of a synchronous network, and wherein inputs of secret values are transmitted electronically via a secure authenticated
broadcast channel;

wherein the circuit is divided into a plurality of layers, and wherein the circuit comprises at least one of input gates,
random gates, addition gates, multiplication gates, and output gates;

wherein the circuit is securely evaluated as follows:
i. initializing a RobustShare protocol to allow each server in the set of servers to distribute their inputs of secret values
among other servers in the set of servers;

ii. initializing a RanDouSha protocol to generate random sharings of the secret values for each random gate in the circuit;
iii. initializing a Block-Redistribute protocol to redistribute the secret values amount the set of servers;
iii. for each layer of the circuit, performing a permutation of the secret values;
iv. evaluating each layer of the circuit;
v. initializing the Block-Redistribute protocol to re-randomize the secret values such that privacy of the secret values is
preserved;

vi. determining a sharing of the secret values for each output gate;
vii. initializing a Reco protocol to reveal each sharing of secret values to an intended recipient; and
viii. periodically erasing, by each server, the secret values to preserve security against an adversary.

US Pat. No. 9,250,452

TUNABLE PHOTONIC RF CIRCULATOR FOR SIMULTANEOUS TRANSMIT AND RECEIVE

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A photonic RF circulator comprising:
an Electro Optic Modulator;
wherein the Electro Optic Modulator comprises at least one optical waveguide with an optical grating disposed thereon;
the optical grating having a first end and a second end;
at least one pair of RF electrodes in electro-optic communication with the at least one optical waveguide;
wherein the pair of RF electrodes are adapted to receive an RF Receive signal at a first end of the RF electrodes and an RF
Transmit signal at a second end of the RF electrodes;

wherein the first end of the optical grating is coincident with the first end of the RF electrode and the second end of the
optical grating is coincident with the second end of the RF electrode;

at least one laser light source transmitting laser light into the Electro Optic Modulator at the first end of the optical
grating;

at least one photodetector generating an electrical signal from the laser light received from the Electro-Optic Modulator
wherein the optical grating is adapted to have a notch in a link gain of the RF Transmit signal more than 40 dB less than
a link gain of the RF Receive signal.

US Pat. No. 9,117,935

CURRENT APERTURE DIODE AND METHOD OF FABRICATING SAME

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A diode comprising:
a cathode;
an anode;
a plurality of semiconductor layers disposed between said cathode and said anode, said plurality of semiconductor layers forming
a heterointerface between two of said plurality of semiconductor layers, and wherein said two semiconductor layers are formed
of different materials, one material of said two semiconductor layers having a higher bandgap than a material of the other
of said two semiconductor layers, with the semiconductor layer formed of the higher bandgap material being disposed (i) closer
to a main portion of said anode and (ii) further from said cathode than the semiconductor layer formed of said other material;
and

a dielectric layer disposed between the semiconductor layer having the higher bandgap material and the main portion of said
anode, the dielectric layer having one or more openings or trenches formed therein through which said anode projects into
said at least said semiconductor layer having the higher bandgap material.

US Pat. No. 9,202,880

ETCH-BASED FABRICATION PROCESS FOR STEPPED FIELD-PLATE WIDE-BANDGAP

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of making a stepped field gate for a field effect transistor (FET) comprising:
forming a first set of layers having a first passivation layer on a barrier layer of the FET and a first etch stop layer over
the first passivation layer;

forming at least one additional set of layers over the first etch stop layer, wherein additional sets of layers each have
a passivation layer and an etch stop layer on the passivation layer;

forming a top passivation layer over the additional sets of layers;
forming a field plate mask on the top passivation layer to define a source side of a stepped field-plate gate;
successively removing portions of the top passivation layer and of each set of layers using lithography and reactive ion etching
to form stepped passivation layers, wherein the field plate mask defines a boundary for the etching on the source side;

applying a mask having an opening defining an extent of the stepped field-plate gate; and
forming the stepped field-plate gate by plating through the opening in the mask.

US Pat. No. 9,191,043

DIRECT DIGITAL RF CONVERSION

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

21. A digital quantizing apparatus for sampling an incoming stream of data, the digital quantizing apparatus comprising:
i. an input sample and hold circuit coupled to said incoming stream of data, the input sample and hold circuit sampling the
incoming stream of data at a rate equal to fs;

ii. plurality of downstream sample and hold circuits connected in a parallel arrangement with each other and also coupled
to sample a portion of the data sampled by the input sample and hold circuit, the parallel arrangement of downstream sample
and hold circuits comprising M sample and hold circuits each of which samples data at a rate equal to fs/M.

US Pat. No. 9,162,416

BASAL PLANE REINFORCED MICROLATTICE

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A three-dimensional microlattice structure, comprising:
a plurality of interconnected struts extending along at least three different directions;
a plurality of intermediate nodes defined at intersections between the plurality of struts; and
a basal plane structure extending laterally between and interconnecting at least two of the intermediate nodes, wherein the
basal plane structure is between upper and lower ends of the plurality of interconnected struts, the basal plane structure
defining a plurality of apertures, each aperture of the plurality of apertures receiving one intermediate node of the plurality
of intermediate nodes or one strut of the plurality of interconnected struts.

US Pat. No. 9,117,763

QUANTUM DOTS (QD) FOR SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for coding a semiconductor substrate, the system comprising:
on said substrate, at least one quantum dot target having a predetermined chemistry and emitting a substantially repeatable
photoluminescence spectra;

positioned for illuminating each said target, an illumination source having photoemissions of a predetermined wavelength associated
with said predetermined chemistry for instigating said photoluminescence spectra;

a detector positioned for receiving said photoluminescence spectra instigated by said illumination source;
associated with said detector, a photoluminescence spectra reading and mapping subsystem for generating data records from
said quantum dot photoluminescence spectra; and

a data processor for storing maps associated with said data records and for comparing said maps to subsequently received data
records associated with subsequent photoluminescence spectra emissions instigated by said illumination source.

US Pat. No. 9,682,533

METHODS TO FORM ELECTRICAL-MECHANICAL CONNECTIONS BETWEEN TWO SURFACES, AND SYSTEMS AND COMPOSITIONS SUITABLE FOR SUCH METHODS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method for forming an electrical and mechanical connection between two dissimilar surfaces, said method comprising:
(a) obtaining a first component comprising a solid metal;
(b) obtaining a second component comprising a liquid metal, wherein said liquid metal has a melting temperature of about 100°
C. or less;

(c) introducing said first and second components to a region of space between a first surface and a second surface, wherein
said first and second components form, or are present as, a metallic paste; and

(d) solidifying said metallic paste to form a solid metallic filler that electrically and mechanically connects said first
and second surfaces to each other,

wherein said first surface is metallic and said second surface is non-metallic and polymeric.

US Pat. No. 9,466,887

LOW COST, 2D, ELECTRONICALLY-STEERABLE, ARTIFICIAL-IMPEDANCE-SURFACE ANTENNA

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. An artificial impedance surface antenna having a primary gain lobe steerable in phi and theta angles comprising:
a dielectric substrate;
a plurality of metallic strips on a first surface of the dielectric substrate, the metallic strips spaced apart across a length
of the dielectric substrate and each metallic strip extending along a width of the dielectric substrate;

surface wave feeds spaced apart along the width of the dielectric substrate near an edge of the dielectric substrate;
a first circuit coupled to the surface wave feeds for controlling relative phase differences between each surface wave feed,
wherein the phi angle is controlled by the relative phase differences between each surface wave feed; and

a second circuit coupled to the plurality of metallic strips for controlling voltages on each of the metallic strips, wherein
the theta angle is controlled by the voltages on the plurality of metallic strips;

wherein the dielectric substrate is substantially in an X-Y plane defined by an X axis and a Y axis;
wherein the phi angle is an angle in the X-Y plane relative to the X axis; and
wherein the theta angle is an angle relative to a Z axis orthogonal to the X-Y plane.

US Pat. No. 9,449,259

OPPORTUNISTIC CASCADE AND CASCADE TRAINING, EVALUATION, AND EXECUTION FOR VISION-BASED OBJECT DETECTION

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A classifier cascade object detection system, comprising a non transitory memory and one or more processors, the non transitory
memory having executable instructions encoded thereon, such that upon execution of the instructions by the one or more processors,
the one or more processors perform operations of:
inputting an image patch into parallel feature generation modules, each of the feature generation modules operable for extracting
different features from the image patch;

providing the different features to a classifier cascade, the classifier cascade having a series of different classifiers;
and

executing the classifier cascade by progressively evaluating, in each classifier in the classifier cascade, one or more of
the different features to produce a response, if each classifier produces a response that exceeds a predefined threshold then
the image patch is classified as a target object, and if the response from any of the classifiers in the classifier cascade
does not exceed the predefined threshold, then the image patch is classified as a non-target object;
wherein the classifier cascade is trained by performing operations of:
loading parameters of the image patch, including window position (x,y) with respect to a larger image and window height (h);
loading a cascade template file, the cascade template file defining a number of classifier stages in the classifier cascade,
one or more feature types, a classifier type to use in each classifier stage, an aspect ratio of the image patch, and a height
of an image storage container which all image patches are re-sampled to;

computing features based on features specified in the cascade template file;
compiling the features for a classifier trainer, the classifier trainer generating a trained classifier;
generating a Receiver-Operating-Characteristics (ROC) curve, which includes false-alarm rate and true-detection rate pairs
(FAR,TDR) for a given stage threshold; and

tuning the stage threshold.

US Pat. No. 9,413,420

ADAPTIVE INTERFERENCE REMOVAL FOR COMPRESSIVE SIGNAL DETECTION AND RECONSTRUCTION IN REAL TIME

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method for detecting a plurality of relatively narrowbanded signals in a relatively widebanded input signal x(t), the
plurality of relatively narrowbanded signals having locations in said relatively widebanded input signal x(t) which are not
known prior to utilizing said method, the method comprising:
(i) detecting a first narrowbanded signal in a subband of said input signal x(t) wherein said first narrowbanded signal is
more dominant than any other narrowbanded signal in any other subband of said input signal x(t) and determining a center frequency
of the subband in which said first narrowbanded signal is detected;

(ii) utilizing the center frequency and the bandwidth of the subband in which said first narrowbanded signal is detected to
remove the first narrowbanded signal from said input signal at a signal summing junction and to produce a cleaner version
of the input signal which version corresponds to said input signal x(t) without said first narrowbanded signal at said signal
summing junction;

(iii) repeatedly detecting additional narrowbanded signals in the cleaner version of the input signal and repeatedly utilizing
a center frequency and a bandwidth of the subband in which each additional narrowbanded signal to remove the each additional
narrowbanded signal from said input signal at said signal summing junction and thereby to produce said cleaner version of
the input signal which version corresponds to said input signal x(t) less first narrowbanded signal and less each additional
narrowbanded signal as the additional narrowbanded signals are repeatedly detected and removed from said input signal x(t).

US Pat. No. 9,337,493

METAL-FOAM ELECTRODES FOR BATTERIES AND FUEL CELLS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A battery comprising an electrode that includes a non-reticulated, electrically conductive metal foam, wherein said metal
foam includes cells and pores, wherein said cells have an average cell diameter of about 25 ?m or less, wherein said pores
have an average pore size less than said average cell diameter, and wherein said cells contain an energy-storage material.

US Pat. No. 9,336,480

SELF-AWARE SWARMS FOR OPTIMIZATION APPLICATIONS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

5. A computer program product for distributed network optimization, the computer program product comprising computer-readable
instruction means stored on a non-transitory computer-readable medium that are executable by a computer having a processor
for causing the processor to perform operations of:
causing a plurality of software agents to operate as a cooperative swarm to locate and converge at an objective function optima
in a multi-dimensional solution space, wherein each software agent is assigned an initial velocity vector to explore the multi-dimensional
solution space, where each software agent is configured to perform at least one iteration, the iteration being a search in
the multi-dimensional solution space for a potential objective function optima where each software agent keeps track of a
first position vector representing a current best solution that the software agent has identified, and a second position vector
used to store a current global best solution among all software agents, with each of the initial velocity, first position,
and second position vectors changing probabilistically;

where the plurality of software agents is influenced by a set of parameters which influence exploration of the multi-dimensional
solution space and convergence on the objective function optima;

wherein the plurality of software agents automatically modifies the set of parameters in response to at least one measure
of convergence progress,

configuring the plurality of software agents to automatically modify the set of parameters to explore a new region of the
solution space if convergence is not reached on a good solution;

wherein the at least one measure of convergence progress is a standard deviation of the cooperative swarm positions, and wherein
the standard deviation of the cooperative swarm positions at each iteration is used to select at least one of the set of parameters;
and

wherein the standard deviation, of the swami positions at each iteration is equivalent to a measure of the swarm diameter.

US Pat. No. 9,336,239

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR DEEP PACKET INSPECTION AND INTRUSION DETECTION

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for deep packet inspection and intrusion detection, comprising:
one or more processors and a memory, the memory having instructions encoded thereon such that upon execution of the instructions,
the one or more processors cause a pattern matching module to perform operations of:

receiving as an input a data stream in a neural network, the data stream having a sequence of characters in a pattern, the
data stream received in the neural network such that at each time t, only a single input character is received, with each
single input character assigned to a neuron in the neural network;

activating the neuron assigned to the single character such that when active, the neuron fires to all connecting output neurons
to form a neuron spike, each neuron spike from the assigned neuron to a connecting output neuron having a delay,

determining a delay associated with each input character in the pattern, such that a position of each input character relative
to an end of the pattern is stored in an alphabet-pattern-delay matrix (APDFM);

matching, with an activation matrix (AM), each input character with a stored pattern to generate a similarity match, such
that if the similarity match exceeds a predetermined threshold, the sequence of characters in the input data stream is identified
as the stored pattern; and

wherein in matching with an activation matrix, the system performs matching by performing operations of:
assuming that a pattern to be matched is of length (n); and
adjusting a firing threshold to value (p), less or equal than (n), for an output neuron, thereby causing the output neuron
to fire when any (p/n) of the input characters of the pattern are matched.

US Pat. No. 9,077,335

REDUCTION OF THE INDUCTANCE OF POWER LOOP AND GATE LOOP IN A HALF-BRIDGE CONVERTER WITH VERTICAL CURRENT LOOPS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A half bridge circuit comprising:
an isolation substrate;
a metal layer on one surface of the isolation substrate;
a power loop substrate on the metal layer;
an upper switch on the power loop substrate;
a lower switch on the power loop substrate and coupled to the upper switch;
a capacitor on the power loop substrate and coupled to the upper switch;
a first via coupled between the lower switch and the metal layer, the first via extending through the power loop substrate;
and

a second via coupled between the capacitor and the metal layer, the second via extending through the power loop substrate;
wherein the power loop substrate has a height and separates the metal layer from the upper switch, lower switch and capacitor
by the height.

US Pat. No. 9,691,909

CURRENT APERTURE DIODE AND METHOD OF FABRICATING THE SAME

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of making a diode comprising the steps of:
forming two semiconductor layers on a substrate, the two semiconductor layers being formed of different materials, a first
material of said two semiconductor layers having a relatively lower bandgap and a second material of said two semiconductor
layers having a relatively higher bandgap, the semiconductor layer of said first material being formed directly on said substrate
and the semiconductor layer of said second material being formed directly on the semiconductor layer of said first material;

forming a dielectric layer directly on the semiconductor layer of said second material;
forming one or more openings or trenches penetrating the dielectric material;
forming an anode on said dielectric layer and in said one or more openings or trenches so that material of the anode at least
contacts the semiconductor layer of said second material;

forming a cathode in contact with said substrate; and
the second material of said two semiconductor layers having a relatively higher bandgap being disposed (i) closer to a main
portion of said anode and (ii) further from said cathode than the first material of said two semiconductor layers having the
relatively lower bandgap.

US Pat. No. 9,449,833

METHODS OF FABRICATING SELF-ALIGNED FETS USING MULTIPLE SIDEWALL SPACERS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of making a transistor having a stem of a gate which is asymmetrically disposed relative to source and drain contacts
of the transistor, the method including forming sidewall spacers and utilizing the sidewall spacers to position the stem relative
to the source and drain contacts of the transistor, the method characterized in that (i) a greater number of sidewall spacers
are formed on a drain side of the stem of the gate than are formed on a source side of the stem of the gate asymmetrically
disposing the stem of the gate relative to the source and drain contacts; (ii) each said spacer has an essentially constant
width so that the stem of the gate is vertically disposed having stem sidewalls positioned laterally of the source and drain
contacts by constant distances; and (iii) the sidewall spacers disposed closest to the stem of the gate have a common width.

US Pat. No. 9,407,239

WIDE BANDWIDTH AUTOMATIC TUNING CIRCUIT

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. An automatic tuning circuit for matching an antenna to a radio receiver, the automatic tuning circuit comprising:
a tunable non-Foster circuit coupling the receiver and the antenna; and
sensing and feedback circuits sensing the combined reactance of the tunable non-Foster circuit and the antenna and for tuning
the tunable non-Foster circuit to automatically minimize the combined reactance of the tunable non-Foster circuit and the
antenna without making the combined reactance of the tunable non-Foster circuit and the antenna equal to zero so that an absolute
value of the reactance of the tunable non-Foster circuit is maintained at a slightly smaller value than an absolute value
of the reactance of the antenna to maintain stability of the tunable non-Foster circuit.

US Pat. No. 9,211,690

MICROSTRUCTURED RECONFIGURABLE COMPOSITE MATERIAL

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A microstructured composite material with controlled deformation comprising:
a matrix material, the matrix material being a variable elastic modulus material selected from the group consisting of shape
memory polymer, phase changing metal, wax, ice, electrorheological fluid, magnetorheological fluid, electrostrictive material,
magnetostrictive material, ferromagnetic magnetostrictive material, magnetorheological elastomer, electrorheological elastomer,
and liquid crystal elastomer;

at least three reinforcement layers embedded in the matrix material, each of the at least three reinforcement layers comprising
a plurality of flat coplanar platelets arranged along a plane of the matrix material, the at least three reinforcement layers
comprising a first reinforcement layer comprising a plurality of flat coplanar first platelets arranged along a first plane
of the matrix material;

a plurality of flat connecting members having a flat surface extending in a thickness direction crossing the first plane and
interconnecting the plurality of flat coplanar first platelets along the first plane of the matrix material, each of the flat
connecting members connecting a corresponding two of the flat coplanar first platelets and having a greater height in the
thickness direction than that of the corresponding two of the flat coplanar first platelets; and

means for mechanically coupling stress between adjacent layers of the at least three reinforcement layers to mitigate out-of-plane
deformation of the matrix material while allowing deformation of the matrix material along the first plane.

US Pat. No. 10,134,135

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR FINDING OPEN SPACE EFFICIENTLY IN THREE DIMENSIONS FOR MOBILE ROBOT EXPLORATION

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for finding open space for mobile platform exploration, the system comprising:one or more processors and a memory, the memory being a non-transitory computer-readable medium having executable instructions encoded thereon, such that upon execution of the instructions, the one or more processors perform operations of:
designating a straight forward direction in front of a sensor center as a default moving direction;
determining if a filtered three-dimensional (3D) point cloud has a sufficient number of cloud points for further processing;
if the filtered point cloud has an insufficient number of cloud points, then determining if an obstacle is too close in a previous K time, such that if so, a backward direction is set as a target direction and if not, then the straight forward direction is set as the target direction;
if the filtered point cloud does have a sufficient number of cloud points, then continuing;
calculating a distance dc of each point to the sensor center;
determining if a number of times M that distance dc is smaller than a distance threshold Dmin is greater than a fixed number K1;
if M is greater than the fixed number K1, then the backward direction is set as the target direction;
if M is smaller than the fixed number K1, then continuing;
estimating an openness of each candidate direction until a candidate direction is designated as open and set as the target direction or all candidate directions have been checked for openness, with the backward direction being set as the target direction; and
causing the mobile platform to move in the target direction.

US Pat. No. 9,837,177

VAPOR CELLS WITH A BIDIRECTIONAL SOLID-STATE CHARGE-DEPLETION CAPACITOR FOR MOBILE IONS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A vapor-cell system comprising a bidirectional solid-state electrochemical charge-depletion capacitor and a vapor-cell
region configured to allow at least one optical path into a vapor phase within said vapor-cell region,
wherein said charge-depletion capacitor includes:
(i) a first electrode disposed in contact with said vapor-cell region;
(ii) a second electrode electrically isolated from said first electrode; and
(iii) an ion conductor interposed between said first electrode and said second electrode,
wherein said first electrode is permeable to mobile ions and/or neutral atoms formed from said mobile ions;
wherein said ion conductor is ionically conductive for said mobile ions, and
wherein said second electrode does not contain a second-electrode material that is capable of forming said mobile ions.

US Pat. No. 9,812,532

III-NITRIDE P-CHANNEL TRANSISTOR

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A field effect transistor (FET) comprising:
a group III-Nitride channel layer;
a group III-Nitride doped cap layer on the channel layer, wherein the cap layer consists of a single layer comprising doping
to provide mobile holes;

a source electrode in direct contact with the group III-Nitride cap layer;
a drain electrode in direct contact with the group III-Nitride cap layer;
a gate electrode located between the source and the drain electrodes; and
a gate dielectric layer between the gate electrode and the group III-Nitride channel layer;
wherein the FET is a normally off FET.

US Pat. No. 9,812,595

ALL-WAVELENGTH (VIS-LWIR) TRANSPARENT ELECTRICAL CONTACTS AND INTERCONNECTS AND METHODS OF MAKING THEM

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method for fabricating an optically transparent conductor, the method comprising:
depositing a plurality of metal nanowires on a substrate;
annealing or illuminating the plurality of metal nanowires to thermally or optically fuse nanowire junctions between metal
nanowires to form a metal nanowire network;

disposing a graphene layer over the metal nanowire network to form a nanohybrid layer comprising the graphene layer and the
metal nanowire network;

depositing a dielectric passivation layer over the nanohybrid layer;
patterning the dielectric passivation layer using lithography, printing, or any other method of patterning to define an area
for the optically transparent conductor; and

etching the patterned dielectric passivation layer to form the optically transparent conductor; wherein the optically transparent
conductor has a transmittance greater than 92% over the entire range extending from the near infrared to the long wavelength
infrared.

US Pat. No. 9,531,571

AGILE RADIO ARCHITECTURE

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. An agile transceiver comprising a receiver channel comprising:
a coarse tracking filter coupled to an input, the coarse tracking filter configurable to operate at a selected one of at least
two coarse frequency bands and to attenuate signals in the other frequency bands for filtering signals from the input;

a mixer coupled to an output of the coarse tracking filter;
a selected local oscillator coupled to the mixer for mixing with the output of the coarse tracking filter and shifting a desired
coarse pass band to near a base band;

a fine tracking filter for filtering the shifted and desired coarse pass band to a fine pass band; and
a band pass ?? demodulator for converting signals in the fine pass band from analog into digital;
wherein the coarse tracking filter comprises N pass bands;
wherein the selected local oscillator comprises N?1 divided fixed frequencies derived from a fixed frequency;
wherein the fine tracking filter comprises M pass band selections to filter the desired coarse pass band to a desired fine
pass band having a pass band of 1/M of the desired coarse pass band;

wherein the band pass ?? demodulator comprises M selections for converting signals in the desired fine pass band from analog
into digital; and

wherein N is an integer greater than 2.

US Pat. No. 9,496,197

NEAR JUNCTION COOLING FOR GAN DEVICES

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of providing heat spreading from a field effect transistor (FET) comprising:
depositing a SiO2 mask on a substrate to define source and drain areas;

forming n+ GaN ohmic regrowth by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) in the source and drain areas;
forming poly GaN on the SiO2 mask;

removing the poly GaN and the SiO2 mask;

depositing a SiN layer for passivation of a remaining surface;
defining sacrificial source, drain, and gate contacts by depositing and patterning a first sacrificial material;
depositing a first poly-diamond dielectric at a temperature by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on the patterned first
sacrificial material having a first sacrificial material thickness;

planarizing the first poly-diamond dielectric and the patterned first sacrificial material using chemical mechanical polishing
(CMP), wherein the planarizing substantially reduces a first poly-diamond dielectric thickness, and wherein the planarizing
substantially reduces the first sacrificial material thickness;

depositing a second sacrificial material and patterning the second sacrificial material to form openings in the second sacrificial
material aligned with the planarized first poly-diamond dielectric,

wherein a width of the patterned second sacrificial material is greater than a width of the patterned first sacrificial material;
depositing a second poly-diamond dielectric on the planarized first poly-diamond dielectric at a temperature by hot-wire chemical
vapor deposition (CVD);

planarizing the second poly-diamond dielectric and the patterned second sacrificial material using chemical mechanical polishing
(CMP) so that the second poly-diamond dielectric remains only in the openings and a thickness of the patterned second sacrificial
material is greater than a thickness of the patterned first sacrificial material;

selectively removing the patterned first sacrificial material and the patterned second sacrificial material by wet etching;
selectively removing the SiN by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE);
metalizing source and drain ohmic contacts and gate Schottky contacts by plasma-atomic layer deposition (ALD) and electro-plating;
depositing a first benzocyclobutene (BCB) coating;
patterning the first BCB coating;
forming a plated metal bridge of Cu, Ag, or Au over the patterned first BCB coating;
plating a thermal via to the metal bridge; and
forming a heat sink on the thermal via.

US Pat. No. 9,445,739

SYSTEMS, METHODS, AND APPARATUS FOR NEURO-ROBOTIC GOAL SELECTION

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method to control a robot, comprising:
presenting an object to a user, the object corresponding to a goal to be effected by a robot;
emphasizing a portion of the object;
identifying a first brain signal corresponding to a first mental response of the user to the emphasized portion;
determining whether the first mental response corresponds to a selection of the emphasized portion by the user; and
controlling the robot via a processor based on determining that the first mental response corresponds to a selection of the
emphasized portion.

US Pat. No. 9,368,720

METHOD TO MAKE PHASE-CHANGE MATERIAL RF SWITCHES WITH THERMAL DIELECTRICS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A switch comprising:
an input port;
an output port;
a phase change material coupled between the input port and the output port;
a heater; and
a thermal dielectric layer in between the heater and the phase change material, and in contact with the heater and the phase
change material;

wherein the thermal dielectric layer provides thermal conduction between the phase change material and the heater; and
wherein the thermal dielectric layer is nonmetallic and electrically non-conductive and comprises polycrystalline AlN, or
diamond.

US Pat. No. 9,341,775

THERMOPLASTIC REINFORCED MICRO-TRUSS MATERIALS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A toughened polymer micro-truss, comprising a regular plurality of truss elements,
each of the plurality of truss elements comprising a thermoset polymer and a thermoplastic polymer, and
each of the plurality of truss elements further comprising a coating of the thermoplastic polymer, the ratio of the diameter
of the truss element to the thickness of the coating being greater than 0.5 and less than 2000,

the micro-truss being a self-supporting structure,
the plurality of truss elements comprising:
a plurality of first truss elements defined by a plurality of first self-propagating polymer waveguides and extending along
a first direction;

a plurality of second truss elements defined by a plurality of second self-propagating polymer waveguides and extending along
a second direction; and

a plurality of third truss elements defined by a plurality of third self-propagating polymer waveguides and extending along
a third direction,

the plurality of first truss elements, the plurality of second truss elements, and the plurality of third truss elements interpenetrating
at a plurality of nodes to form a continuous material,

wherein the third direction is not in a plane defined by the first direction and the second direction.

US Pat. No. 9,335,568

ELECTRO-OPTIC GRATING MODULATOR

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. An optical modulator structure comprising:
an RF waveguide having a first longitudinal axis; and
at least one optical grating waveguide having a second longitudinal axis located within the RF waveguide, the first longitudinal
axis being parallel with and substantially coincident with the second longitudinal axis such that, in use, an RF field propagating
in the RF waveguide and an optical field propagating in the optical grating waveguide propagate in substantially parallel
directions, the at least one optical grating waveguide having a grating adapted to provide a notch in a transmission spectrum
for the optical field propagating in the optical grating waveguide and having an operating wavelength of the optical field
propagating in the optical grating waveguide wherein the operating wavelength is selected to occur at a transition from a
substantially maximum transmission to greater than minimum transmission in said optical grating waveguide, the optical field
propagating, in use, in the optical grating waveguide having an optical group velocity at the operating wavelength;

wherein the RF field propagating, in use, in the RF waveguide has a RF group velocity sufficiently equal to the optical group
velocity to obtain a desired amount of amplitude modulation of the optical field propagating in the optical grating waveguide
by said optical modulator.

US Pat. No. 9,337,124

METHOD OF INTEGRATION OF WAFER LEVEL HEAT SPREADERS AND BACKSIDE INTERCONNECTS ON MICROELECTRONICS WAFERS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method for forming a wafer level heat spreader comprising:
providing a mesh wafer, the mesh wafer having a plurality of openings and mesh regions between the openings;
bonding the mesh wafer to a backside of an integrated circuit (IC) wafer, the IC wafer comprising a plurality of circuits;
and

electroplating a heat sink material through the plurality of openings and onto to the backside of the IC wafer;
wherein each mesh region of the mesh wafer consists of a same material.
US Pat. No. 9,066,996

METHOD TO CONTROL THE BIODEGRADATION RATES OF POLYMER STRUCTURES

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method for selectively degrading a three-dimensional biological scaffold, comprising:
providing a three-dimensional biodegradable biological scaffold in an aqueous medium, wherein the scaffold is comprised of
a polymer;

subjecting the scaffold to a treatment capable of selectively degrading the polymer, the treatment selected from the group
consisting of base, acid, oxidation, heat and combinations thereof, wherein the treatment includes an effective amount of
base, acid, oxidant, heat or combinations thereof that is capable of partially degrading the polymer, wherein the effective
amount of heat includes temperatures between about 80° C. to about 250° C.; and

incubating the scaffold under conditions which create a partially degraded three-dimensional biodegradable biocompatible biological
scaffold;

wherein the three-dimensional biodegradable biocompatible biological scaffold is a three-dimensional ordered open-cellular
polymer structure which (i) is formed by a plurality of polymer waveguides which interpenetrate each other at a plurality
of nodes and (ii) has a micro-truss architecture comprising a repeating pattern of ordered interconnected pores;

wherein the three-dimensional ordered open-cellular polymer structure is made by photopolymerization of a monomer composition,
the monomer composition comprising:

a first molecule comprising at least one C?C double bond or C?C triple bond;
a second molecule having the structure R—X1—H, wherein X1 is one of O, S, or N; and

a photoinitiator.

US Pat. No. 10,133,983

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MODELING PROBABILITY MATCHING AND LOSS SENSITIVITY AMONG HUMAN SUBJECTS IN A RESOURCE ALLOCATION TASK

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for modeling probability matching and loss sensitivity in human subjects, the system comprising:one or more processors and a non-transitory computer-readable medium having executable instructions encoded thereon such that when executed, the one or more processors perform operations of:
extracting a set of features related to probability matching and loss sensitivity from collected human responses;
processing the set of features from the collected human responses with a genetic algorithm to fit the collected human responses with a set of neural network model instances, wherein the set of neural model instances are derived from a neural model which captures interactions between neuromodulators and prefrontal cortex for decision making;
generating a set of model parameters from the genetic algorithm;
generating a model of human behavior based on the set of model parameters, the model being at least one of an explanatory model and a predictive model;
using the model, determining a bias of a subject's data towards probability matching and loss sensitivity; and
automatically generating and outputting a customized instruction to intervene against the bias of the subject's data.

US Pat. No. 10,030,292

HYDRIDE-COATED MICROPARTICLES AND METHODS FOR MAKING THE SAME

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A material comprising a plurality of metal-containing or metal alloy-containing microparticles that are at least partially coated with a plurality of nanoparticles containing a metal hydride or metal alloy hydride, wherein said microparticles are characterized by an average microparticle size between about 1 micron to about 1 millimeter, and wherein said plurality of nanoparticles forms a discontinuous nanoparticle coating that is between about 5 nanometers to about 100 microns thick.

US Pat. No. 9,985,121

P-TYPE DIAMOND GATE-GAN HETEROJUNCTION FET STRUCTURE

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A FET device comprising:a substrate having top and bottom surfaces;
a channel layer on the top surface of the substrate, the channel layer having top and bottom surfaces;
at least two recesses extending into the channel layer from the top surface of the channel layer, extending through the bottom surface of the channel layer, and forming a channel region between the at least two recesses;
a gate electrode disposed in each of the at least two recesses; and
a drain region and a source region formed in the channel layer on opposite sides of said channel region;
wherein each gate electrode comprises a p-type diamond gate.

US Pat. No. 9,809,002

METHOD OF MANUFACTURING A THREE-DIMENSIONAL LATTICE ARCHITECTURE

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of manufacturing a three-dimensional lattice architecture with a thickness hierarchy, the method comprising:
providing a patterned template at at least one of a top and a bottom of a container, the patterned template having at least
one raised step over a flat surface;

providing a volume of photo-monomer in the container contacting the patterned template; and
exposing the photo-monomer to collimated light through a mask, the collimated light passing through a plurality of apertures
of the mask at a non-perpendicular angle with respect to the mask to form a plurality of angled polymer struts in the photo-monomer
at the non-perpendicular angle to form the three-dimensional lattice architecture.

US Pat. No. 9,660,693

SPATIO-TEMPORAL SIGNAL MONITORING

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A spatio-temporal signal monitoring system comprising:
a sampler configured to:
receive a radio frequency signal in a first frequency band, said radio frequency signal covering a first range of at least
one other parameter of the radio frequency signal; and

obtain first compressive sensing measurements of said received signal at a first resolution level, wherein the received signal
has an angle of arrival at a third resolution; and

a signal detector configured to:
identify a first signal of interest based on said first compressive sensing measurements;
determine a second frequency band corresponding to a said first signal of interest within the received radio signal, the second
frequency band being narrower than the first frequency band, and a second range of the at least one other parameter corresponding
to the said first signal of interest, said second range being narrower than said first range;

the sampler being further configured to obtain second compressive sensing measurements of said received signal at a second
resolution level, said second compressive sensing measurements corresponding to solely said second frequency band and said
second range of said at least one other parameter, and said second resolution level being higher than said first resolution
level; and

determine an angle of arrival of said received signal at a fourth resolution, wherein the fourth resolution is more accurate
than the third resolution.

US Pat. No. 9,601,610

VERTICAL SUPER JUNCTION III/NITRIDE HEMT WITH VERTICALLY FORMED TWO DIMENSIONAL ELECTRON GAS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A HEMT device comprising:
a III-Nitride material substrate, having a top plane surface that is not parallel to a C-plane of the III-Nitride material
substrate;

a p-doped epitaxial layer of III-Nitride material grown on said top surface of said substrate;
a recess etched in said p-doped epitaxial layer, the recess having at least one plane wall that is not parallel to the surface
of the substrate; said at least one plane wall being parallel to a polar plane of the III-Nitride material of the p-doped
epitaxial layer;

at least one carrier carrying layer formed on said at least one plane wall of the recess;
at least one carrier supply layer formed on at least a portion of said at least one carrier carrying layer, such that a 2DEG
region is formed in the carrier carrying layer at the interface with the carrier supply layer along said at least one plane
wall of the recess;

a doped source region formed at the surface of said p-doped epitaxial layer such that the doped source region is separated
from said 2DEG region by a channel region;

a gate insulating layer formed on the channel region; and
a gate contact layer formed on the gate insulating layer.

US Pat. No. 9,530,708

FLEXIBLE ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT AND METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING SAME

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. An electronic circuit comprising:
an integrated circuit chip, the integrated circuit chip having a top face;portions of the top face of the chip being covered by a bottom surface of a first metal layer electrically connected to the
integrated circuit; and
a dielectric layer formed on the top face of the chip beside and on top of said first metal layer;
wherein the dielectric layer extends parallel to the top face of the chip beyond the edges of the chip, the first metal layer
extending in the dielectric layer beyond the edges of the chip;

wherein portions of a top surface of the dielectric layer are covered by a second metal layer formed on and in contact with
said dielectric layer, portions of a top surface of the first metal layer being electrically connected through the dielectric
layer to portions of a bottom surface of the second metal layer.

US Pat. No. 9,502,735

FABRICATION METHODS TO PRODUCE LITHIUM BATTERY STRUCTURES WITH COMPOSITE LAYERS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of fabricating a lithium-based battery cell, said method comprising coating a structurally rigid and continuous
inorganic barrier layer on a substrate layer disposed between a lithium-containing anode and a cathode, providing a liquid
electrolyte for transporting lithium ions between said anode and said cathode, and electrically isolating said anode from
said cathode with a separator layer, wherein said inorganic barrier layer is a lithium-ion conductor and is non-permeable
to at least one lithium-containing compound produced by a lithium reaction at said cathode, wherein said inorganic barrier
layer has a lithium-ion conductivity from about 10?5 S/cm to about 10?2 S/cm at a temperature from ?50° C. to 80° C., and wherein said inorganic barrier layer has an electronic conductivity from
about 10?2 S/cm to about 102 S/cm at a temperature from ?50° C. to 80° C.

US Pat. No. 9,489,732

VISUAL ATTENTION DISTRACTOR INSERTION FOR IMPROVED EEG RSVP TARGET STIMULI DETECTION

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for improved target stimuli detection, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a non-transitory computer-readable medium having executable instructions encoded thereon such that
when executed, the one or more processors perform operations of:

creating a first rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) sequence, wherein the first RSVP sequence comprises a set of image
chips, wherein the set of image chips comprises a combination of target images containing at least one target event and non-target
images containing common events;

determining a number of visual attention distractors to optimize target event detection;
wherein the visual attention distractors are visually similar to the non-target images containing common events obtained during
creation of the first RSVP sequence;

inserting the determined number of visual attention distractors into the first RSVP sequence to generate a second RSVP sequence;
reordering the second RSVP sequence to generate a third RSVP sequence;
presenting the third RSVP sequence to a user and receiving an electroencephalograph (EEG) signal from the user; and
decoding the EEG signal to identify a true target event via a P300 detection in the EEG signal.

US Pat. No. 9,484,918

DUAL EDGE PULSE DE-MULTIPLEXER WITH EQUALIZED PATH DELAY

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A pulse domain 1 to 2N demultiplexer comprising:
i. a pair of N stage counters each of which is responsive to an incoming pulse train in the pulse domain, one of said counters
being responsive to leading edges of the pulses in said incoming pulse train and the other one of said counters being responsive
to trailing edges of the pulses in said incoming pulse train;

ii. control logic responsive to the states through which said pair of counters count, the control logic including 2N gate
arrangements, each of the 2N gate arrangements generating a output signal of said pulse domain 1 to 2N demultiplexer.

US Pat. No. 9,378,377

SYSTEM FOR INFORMATION FLOW SECURITY INFERENCE THROUGH PROGRAM SLICING

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A computer implemented method for information flow security inference through program slicing, the method comprising an
act of causing one or more hardware processors to execute instructions encoded on a non-transitory computer-readable medium,
such that upon execution of the instructions, the one or more hardware processors perform operations of:
receiving an information flow security policy for source code security;
refining the information flow security policy by performing operations of:
constructing a system dependence graph (SDG) of a program source code, the SDG being a directed graph representing flow chart
dependencies in the source code and having program blocks and nodes, with paths between the blocks and nodes;

identifying in the SDG all paths containing nodes of interest through program slicing for both confidentiality analysis and
integrity analysis, such that for confidentiality analysis, a forward slice is computed from high confidentiality variables,
and for integrity analysis, a backwards slice is computed from low integrity variables;

analyzing the source code to provide refinements as constraints;
identifying a section of the source code that violates the constraints; and
removing, via the one or more hardware processors, the section of the source code that violates the constraints to generate
an encoded source code that is compliant with the information flow security policy.

US Pat. No. 9,252,455

LITHIUM BATTERY STRUCTURES EMPLOYING COMPOSITE LAYERS, AND FABRICATION METHODS TO PRODUCE COMPOSITE LAYERS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A lithium-based battery comprising:
(a) an anode for supplying or receiving lithium ions;
(b) a cathode for receiving or supplying said lithium ions;
(c) a liquid electrolyte for transporting said lithium ions between said anode and said cathode;
(d) a separator for electrically isolating said anode and said cathode, wherein said separator is permeable to said lithium
ions;

(e) a substrate layer disposed between said anode and said cathode; and
(f) a structurally rigid and continuous inorganic barrier layer coated onto said substrate layer, wherein said inorganic barrier
layer is a lithium-ion conductor and is non-permeable to lithium dendrites produced by a lithium reaction at said cathode,
wherein said inorganic barrier layer has a lithium-ion conductivity from about 10?5 S/cm to about 10?2 S/cm at a temperature from ?50° C. to 80° C., and wherein said inorganic barrier layer has an electronic conductivity from
about 10?2 S/cm to about 102 S/cm at a temperature from ?50° C. to 80° C.

US Pat. No. 9,160,013

METHODS FOR FABRICATING INORGANIC PROTON-CONDUCTING COATINGS FOR FUEL-CELL MEMBRANES

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of fabricating a composite membrane structure containing a proton-conducting inorganic layer and an organic proton-exchange
membrane, said method comprising:
(a) combining a metal and hydrogen peroxide into a starting solution, optionally with removal of heat;
(b) substantially neutralizing said hydrogen peroxide, thereby generating a neutralized solution;
(c) adding a wetting agent to said neutralized solution;
(d) disposing at least some of said solution from step (c) onto one face of said proton-exchange membrane, thereby generating
a coating; and

(e) curing said coating from step (d), thereby forming said inorganic layer.

US Pat. No. 9,099,397

FABRICATION OF SELF ALIGNED BASE CONTACTS FOR BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of forming a self aligned base contact for a transistor, the method comprising:
forming a collector layer on a substrate;
forming a base layer on the collector layer;
forming an emitter layer on the base layer;
forming a first metal on a first emitter area of the emitter layer of the transistor;
forming a second metal on a second emitter area of the emitter layer of the transistor, wherein the first metal and the second
metal are not in direct physical contact;

etching the emitter layer to remove the emitter layer surrounding the first emitter area, wherein the first emitter area is
masked by the first metal, and to remove the emitter layer surrounding the second emitter area, wherein the second emitter
area is masked by the second metal, so that the base layer is exposed surrounding the first emitter area and the second emitter
area; and

depositing base metal on the base layer, on the second metal, over sides of the second metal, and over sides of the second
emitter area, so that the base metal on the base layer, the base metal on the second metal, the base metal over sides of the
second metal, and the base metal over sides of the second emitter area are in contact with each other;

wherein the first emitter area is an emitter of the transistor and the first metal provides an emitter contact; and
wherein the base metal provides a base contact; and
wherein the base metal is not in direct physical contact with the first metal or the first emitter area.

US Pat. No. 9,061,886

DOUBLY-CLAMPED BEAN QUARTZ MICRO-RESONATOR

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A resonator comprising:
a base substrate having a first, second, third and fourth anchor pads;
a quartz resonator device comprising:
a resonant microbridge;
an electrode on the microbridge;
a first flexure beam connected to a first end of the microbridge;
a second flexure beam connected to a second end of the microbridge;
a first spring connected between the first flexure beam and a first anchor mount, the first anchor mount coupled to the first
anchor pad;

a second spring connected between the first flexure beam and a second anchor mount, the second anchor mount coupled to the
second anchor pad;

a third spring connected between the second flexure beam and a third anchor mount, the third anchor mount coupled to the third
anchor pad;

a fourth spring connected between the second flexure beam and a fourth anchor mount, the fourth anchor mount coupled to the
fourth anchor pad;

wherein a single quartz crystal comprises the microbridge, the first and second flexure beams, the first, second, third and
fourth springs, and the first, second, third and fourth anchor mounts; and

wherein the flexure beams and the springs prevent buildup of stress in the microbridge.

US Pat. No. 9,054,798

NON-FOSTER CIRCUIT STABILIZATION METHOD

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A stabilization circuit for improving stabilization of a non-Foster circuit, the stabilization circuit comprising:
means for measuring a noise hump power at an antenna port or an output port of the non-Foster circuit,
means for comparing the measured noise hump power with a desired level of noise power that corresponds to a desired operating
state of the non-Foster circuit, and

means for tuning the non-Foster circuit to generate the desired level of noise power to achieve the desired operating state
of the non-Foster circuit.

US Pat. No. 9,613,180

ROBOTIC CONTROL DEVICE AND METHOD FOR MANIPULATING A HAND-HELD TOOL

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A robotic control device for manipulating a hand held tool, comprising:
a gripper, the gripper being mobile in at least one degree of freedom;
a plurality of tactile sensors attached with the gripper, each sensor operable for generating tactile sensory data upon grasping
a tool based on the interface between the tool and the corresponding tactile sensor,

a computer communicatively connected with both the gripper and the tactile sensors, the computer having a memory and a data
processor, the memory encoded with instructions, that when executed, cause the data processor to perform operations of:

causing the gripper to grasp the tool and move the tool into contact with a surface;
via a control command, causing the gripper to perform a movement with the tool against the surface to generate tactile sensory
data;

performing a dimensionality reduction of the tactile sensory data to generate a low-dimensional representation of the tactile
sensory data;

learning a relationship between the low-dimensional representation of the tactile sensory data and the control command to
generate a sensory-motor mapping, by performing operations of:

collecting data points that include corresponding pairs of sensory input signal data and control commands to form a joint
sensory-motor space;

identifying a lower dimensional manifold embedded in the joint sensory-motor space that represents the data points;
identifying points on the lower dimensional manifold that have a sensory component that matches a given sensory input signal;
projecting the identified points onto a motor sub-space to identify control commands as reflected in the sensory motor mapping;
and

generating a series of control commands in a closed-loop based on the sensory-motor mapping to manipulate the tool against
the surface.

US Pat. No. 9,515,789

MIMO-OFDM SYSTEM FOR ROBUST AND EFFICIENT NEUROMORPHIC INTER-DEVICE COMMUNICATION

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system comprising:
a plurality of neuromorphic devices, each respective neuromorphic device having a transmitter and a receiver, and a plurality
of neurons, wherein each respective neuromorphic device is configured to:

separate a plurality of data from the plurality of neurons to be transmitted to a plurality of destinations, each data comprising
a first sub-word and a second sub-word, wherein the first sub-word encodes a P value for making synaptic conductance changes
at a synapse of a receiving post-synaptic neuron based on spike timing dependent plasticity and wherein the second sub-word
comprises a destination address, into a plurality of channels, wherein each respective channel of the plurality of channels
comprises respective data for a destination neuromorphic device having the respective destination address;

use FDM or OFDM to separate the plurality of data into a plurality of frequency bands;
combine the separated plurality of data into respective combined data; and
transmit the respective combined data; and
a central router having a plurality of router receivers and a plurality of router transmitters, where at least one respective
router receiver and at least one respective router transmitter is coupled to a respective neuromorphic device, and wherein
the central router is configured to;

receive each respective combined data at least at one respective a router receiver, wherein at least one respective router
receiver comprises a MIMO receiver;

separate in parallel the respective combined data received from each respective neuromorphic device into a plurality of separated
first data, wherein each respective separated first data of the plurality of first data has the same destination address;
and

transmit each separated respective first data using at least one respective router transmitter to a receiver of another one
of the plurality of neuromorphic devices associated with the destination address, wherein at least one respective router transmitter
comprises a MIMO transmitter.

US Pat. No. 9,430,736

FIRING RATE INDEPENDENT SPIKE MESSAGE PASSING IN LARGE SCALE NEURAL NETWORK MODELING

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A neural network portion comprising a number N of hardware implemented pre-synaptic neurons capable each of firing an action
potential, wherein N can be encoded in a word of n bits;
the neural network portion being provided for, upon firing of a number F of hardware implemented pre-synaptic neurons in a
predetermined period of time:

if F.n neuron having fired in said predetermined period of time, each address being encoded as a word of n bits; and

if F.n>N, generating a message of a second type, the message comprising N bits and being encoded in words of n bits, wherein
each one of said N hardware implemented pre-synaptic neurons is represented by a unique bit, each bit having a first value
if the hardware implemented pre-synaptic neuron represented by the bit has fired in said predetermined period of time, and
a second value otherwise.

US Pat. No. 9,405,067

MICRO-TRUSS MATERIALS HAVING IN-PLANE MATERIAL PROPERTY VARIATIONS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A micro-truss sheet, including:
a plurality of first truss members defined by a plurality of first self-propagating polymer waveguides and extending along
a first direction;

a plurality of second truss members defined by a plurality of second self-propagating polymer waveguides and extending along
a second direction; and

a plurality of third truss members defined by a plurality of third self-propagating polymer waveguides and extending along
a third direction;

wherein each truss member has a diameter;
the sheet having a length substantially greater than its thickness, and
the sheet having a first region comprising a plurality of first unit cells and a second region comprising a plurality of second
unit cells, the first region and the second region being separated along the length of the sheet,

wherein all the truss members within the first unit cells have the same diameter,
wherein all the truss members within the second unit cells have the same diameter,
wherein the diameter of each of the plurality of first truss members, the plurality of second truss members, and the plurality
of third truss members within the first unit cells

in the first region
is at least 10% greater than
the diameter of each of the plurality of first truss members, the plurality of second truss members, and the plurality of
third truss members within the second unit cells

in the second region, and
wherein the micro-truss sheet forms one continuous body, having a gradient in the diameter of the truss members of the plurality
of first truss members, the plurality of second truss members, and the plurality of third truss members, along the length
of the sheet.

US Pat. No. 9,317,682

LIBRARY-BASED METHOD FOR INFORMATION FLOW INTEGRITY ENFORCEMENT AND ROBUST INFORMATION FLOW POLICY DEVELOPMENT

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for preventing security flaws in computer source code, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a non-transitory memory having instructions such that when the instructions are executed, the one
or more processors perform operations of:

implementing a security information flow library embedded in a host programming language;
typechecking, with a host programming language typechecker algorithm, at least one security policy written in the host programming
language;

typechecking, with the host programming language typechecker algorithm, at least one untrusted module written in a restricted
subset of the host programming language;

wherein the at least one untrusted module cannot access confidential data in the host programming language;
wherein typechecking of the at least one untrusted module enforces the at least one security policy with the security information
flow library; and

wherein confidentiality and integrity are encoded separately into the security information flow library; and
incrementally adding information flow security to an existing computer program by implementing at least one security policy
to direct information flow between untrusted modules.

US Pat. No. 9,147,255

RAPID OBJECT DETECTION BY COMBINING STRUCTURAL INFORMATION FROM IMAGE SEGMENTATION WITH BIO-INSPIRED ATTENTIONAL MECHANISMS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for rapid object detection, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a non-transitory memory having instructions encoded thereon such that when the instructions are
executed, the one or more processors perform operations of:

oversegmenting an input image into a set of superpixels, each superpixel comprising a plurality of pixels;
determining, for each superpixel, a bounding box defining a region of the input image representing a detection hypothesis;
calculating, for each superpixel, an average residual saliency (ARS) for the plurality of pixels belonging to the superpixel;
eliminating each detection hypothesis that is out of a range of a predetermined threshold value for object size, resulting
in a first set of remaining detection hypotheses;

eliminating each remaining detection hypothesis in the first set of remaining detection hypotheses having an ARS below a predetermined
threshold value, resulting in a second set of remaining detection hypotheses;

calculating, for each remaining detection hypothesis in the second set of remaining detection hypotheses, color contrast for
the region defined by the bounding box, and eliminating each detection hypothesis in the second set of remaining detection
hypotheses having a color contrast below a predetermined threshold value, resulting in a third set of remaining detection
hypotheses; and

outputting the third set of remaining detection hypotheses to a classifier for object recognition.

US Pat. No. 9,053,349

DIGITAL CORRELATOR / FIR FILTER WITH TUNABLE BIT TIME USING ANALOG SUMMATION

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A digital correlator comprising:
an input;
a plurality of serially connected delay elements, wherein a first delay element of the plurality of serially connected delay
elements is coupled to the input;

a plurality of current elements, wherein each respective current element of the plurality of current elements is coupled to
a respective delay element, and each current element has a current; and

a summer for summing the currents of the plurality of current elements, the summer having an output for the digital correlator.

US Pat. No. 10,089,549

VALLEY SEARCH METHOD FOR ESTIMATING EGO-MOTION OF A CAMERA FROM VIDEOS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for estimating ego-motion from video scenes, the system comprising:one or more processors and a non-transitory computer-readable medium having executable instructions encoded thereon such that when executed, the one or more processors perform operations of:
for consecutive frames in a video captured by a moving camera, determining a first ego-translation estimate between the consecutive frames from a first local minimum (h0,v0);
determining a second ego-translation estimate from a second local minimum (h?0,v?0);
if the second ego-translation estimate does not equal the first ego-translation estimate, determining an optimal solution by minimizing a cost function until the first ego-translation estimate and the second ego-translation estimate are a matching estimate;
estimating ego-motion of the camera using the optimal solution; and
detecting independent moving objects in the video after compensating for ego-motion of the camera.

US Pat. No. 9,903,757

ACTIVE MULTI-SPECTRAL SENSOR

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A sensor comprising:
a plurality of laser transmitter units, wherein each of the plurality of laser transmitter units is configured to transmit
a light beam having a plurality of wavelengths;

a photodetector; and
an optical system coupled to the plurality of laser transmitter units and the photodetector;
wherein the optical system directs the light beam from each of the laser transmitter units onto a same illuminated spot on
a probed surface; and

wherein the optical system collects light from the same illuminated spot and directs the light to the photodetector.

US Pat. No. 9,599,470

DIELECTRIC HIGH Q MEMS SHELL GYROSCOPE STRUCTURE

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A resonant structure comprising:
a cylindrical shell having a first end and a second end;
a base on the second end of the shell, wherein the base is planar;
a substrate;
an anchor coupling the base to the substrate;
electrodes for driving and sensing mechanically separated from the cylindrical shell; and
a top on the first end of the shell;
wherein the top fully encloses or partially encloses the first end of the shell.

US Pat. No. 9,536,844

TRANSIENT ANTENNAS AND TRANSIENT ELECTRONICS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. An on-chip transient antenna comprising:
(a) a semiconductor substrate having a front side and back side, wherein said semiconductor substrate contains ion-implanted
interstitial hydrogen atoms, and wherein said semiconductor substrate is thermally disintegrable; and

(b) a conductor network, disposed on said front side of said semiconductor substrate, comprising a plurality of arrays of
first metal conductors and second metal conductors, wherein said first metal conductors are bridged or strapped by said second
metal conductors, and wherein said second metal conductors include one or more low-melting-temperature metals with melting
point less than 750° C., or a metallic mesh.

US Pat. No. 9,528,776

MICRO-ARCHITECTED MATERIALS FOR HEAT EXCHANGER APPLICATIONS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of exchanging heat between two fluids, the method comprising:
receiving a first fluid in a first input port of a heat exchanger device and receiving a second fluid in a second input port
of the heat exchanger device;

wherein the heat exchanger device comprises a three-dimensional ordered microstructure material and a shell;
wherein said three dimensional ordered microstructure material further comprises a plurality of truss elements intersecting
at a plurality of nodes to form a continuous material,

wherein said truss elements comprise; a plurality of first truss elements defined by a plurality of first self-propagating
polymer waveguides and extending along a first direction; a plurality of second truss elements defined by a plurality of second
self-propagating polymer waveguides and extending along a second direction; and a plurality of third truss elements defined
by a plurality of third self-propagating polymer waveguides and extending along a third direction;

wherein the three-dimensional ordered microstructure material has a node to node spacing between 10 micrometers and 5 millimeters;
and

said plurality of truss elements having a diameter between 1 micrometer and 5 millimeters.

US Pat. No. 9,466,746

COMPOUND-BARRIER INFRARED PHOTODETECTOR

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A compound barrier infrared photodetector comprising:
a photo absorber layer responsive to infrared light;
a first barrier layer disposed on the absorber layer;
a second barrier layer disposed on the first barrier layer;
a contact layer disposed on the second barrier layer;
wherein the first barrier layer substantially comprises AlAszSb1-z, z is between 0 and 0.15; and

the second barrier layer substantially comprises AlyIn1-yAsxSb1-x, y is between 0 and 1, x is between 0.05 and 0.30.

US Pat. No. 9,453,604

HOLLOW POROUS MATERIALS WITH ARCHITECTED FLUID INTERFACES FOR REDUCED OVERALL PRESSURE LOSS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

14. A structure comprising:
a structure body, comprising a plurality of hollow channels, and
a first manifold on a first surface of the structure body, the first manifold comprising a first plurality of tapered openings
into the hollow channels, each tapered opening having a wide end and a narrow end, only the narrow ends of the tapered openings
being connected to the hollow channels,

wherein the hollow channels interpenetrate each other at a plurality of hollow nodes,
wherein the hollow channels, the hollow nodes, and the manifold form a continuous structure without a joint, and
wherein the hollow channels are hollow truss elements within a hollow three-dimensional micro-truss.

US Pat. No. 9,450,022

MEMRISTOR DEVICES AND FABRICATION

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method for fabricating an analog memristor crossbar array, comprising:
providing an insulating layer on part of a substrate;
providing a trench within the insulating layer to expose a portion of a substrate surface;
providing a first electrode layer on said insulating layer and in said trench, said first electrode layer connecting with
said portion of said substrate surface to provide a self-aligning first electrode layer;

planarizing the first electrode layer and the insulating layer to isolate said first electrode layer from all adjacent electrode
layers with the insulating layer;

providing a memristive layer on said planarized first electrode layer; and
forming a second electrode on said memristive layer;
wherein said first electrode layer forms a continuous first electrode bar extending along the length of the memristor crossbar
array;

wherein said providing a memristive layer on said planarized first electrode layer comprises: providing a memristive layer
bar along the length of said first electrode bar; and wherein said forming a second electrode on said memristive layer comprises
forming a second electrode on said memristive layer bar wherein the memristive layer bar is arranged to self-align the second
electrode on the memristive layer bar anywhere along the length of the first electrode bar.

US Pat. No. 9,443,089

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR MOBILE PROACTIVE SECRET SHARING

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for mobile proactive secret sharing amongst a set of servers, the system comprising:
a set of servers, each server having one or more processors and a memory, the memory having executable instructions encoded
thereon, such that upon execution of the instructions, the servers in the set of servers perform operations of:

initializing, by the set of servers, a Secret-Share protocol to share, by server Pj, a secret s among the set of servers , such that a degree of polynomials used to share the secret s is d and a shared secret is denoted as [s];

initializing, by the set of servers, a GenPoly protocol to cause the servers in the set of servers to generate l random polynomials of degree D;
initializing, by the set of servers, a Secret-Redistribute protocol to redistribute the shared secret [s] to a set of new
servers ?;

initializing, by the set of servers, a Secret-Open protocol to open the shared secret [s];
wherein initializing the Secret-Redistribute protocol further comprises operations of:
performing the GenPoly protocol in parallel to generate random polynomials;
if a threshold is decreasing, then performing the following operations:
i. for each server Pi that is not in the list of known corrupted servers Corr, broadcasting its share of a secret-sharing polynomial, masked with
a random polynomial;

ii. for each server, verifying that the broadcast shares are correct given Pedersen commitments;
iii. constructing a polynomial of lower degree sharing the same secret by using correct shares;
transferring Pedersen commitments as follows:
i. for each server Pi that is not in Corr, broadcasting Pedersen commitments for an old secret sharing polynomial for servers Sj in a new group;

ii. for each server Sj, determining correct values for the Pedersen commitments broadcast in the previous step by a set of Pedersen commitments
that are broadcast by a majority of the servers;

transferring shares and interpolating as follows:
i. for each server Pi that is not in Corr computing shares of masked secret-sharing polynomials and broadcasting the encrypted shares;

ii. for each Sj, verifying that the encrypted shares broadcast above are correct given known Pedersen commitments;

iii. for each Sj, using all encrypted shares that are determined to be correct to interpolate new shares; and

for each server Pi in the set of servers, erasing all of its data.

US Pat. No. 9,419,122

ETCH-BASED FABRICATION PROCESS FOR STEPPED FIELD-PLATE WIDE-BANDGAP

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of making a stepped field-plate gate field effect transistor comprising:
growing a buffer layer on a substrate, a channel layer on the buffer layer, and a barrier layer on the channel layer;
forming first and second ohmic contacts to the channel layer for a source and a drain;
forming a first passivation layer on the barrier layer and the ohmic contacts;
etching portions of the first passivation layer, the first and second ohmic contacts, the channel layer and the buffer layer
to form a mesa for device isolation;

implanting ions in etched regions surrounding the mesa for further device isolation;
forming a first etch stop layer over the first passivation layer and the first and second ohmic contacts;
forming a second passivation layer over the first etch stop layer;
forming a second etch stop layer over the second passivation layer;
forming a third passivation layer over the second etch stop layer;
using lithography to apply resist having an opening and evaporating metal through the opening in the resist to form a metal
field plate to define a source-side for a stepped field plate gate;

removing portions of the metal field plate, the third passivation layer and the second etch stop layer by using lithography
and reactive ion etching;

removing a portion of the second passivation layer and the first etch stop layer by using lithography and reactive ion etching;
removing a portion of the first passivation layer by using lithography and reactive ion etching to form an opening for a gate
foot;

depositing a seed layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD);
applying a mask having an opening to define an extent of a stepped field-plate gate;
forming the stepped field plate gate and the gate foot by plating through the opening in the mask;
removing the mask;
removing a portion of the seed layer that is not under the stepped field plate gate by ion milling;
depositing a SiN layer;
etching portions of the SiN layer, the first passivation layer, the second passivation layer, and the third passivation layer
to expose the first and second ohmic contacts;

depositing a third ohmic contact on the first ohmic contact, and a fourth ohmic contact on the second ohmic contact; and
depositing overlay metal on the third and fourth contacts to form a source and a drain contact, respectively.

US Pat. No. 9,394,950

SHORT-BEAM NEGATIVE STIFFNESS ELEMENTS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A negative stiffness element, comprising:
a plurality of deformable components arranged in a stack, each of the plurality of deformable components comprising:
a polygonal central portion having a central through hole; and
a plurality of arms extending radially outward from the central portion,
the arms having substantially identical length with each other,
each of the arms having a ratio of length to thickness greater than 10 and less than 30,
the polygonal central portion and the plurality of arms having a substantially identical uniform thickness, and
the polygonal central portion and the plurality of arms being composed of an identical high elasticity material; and
an outer clamp, each of the arms of each of the plurality of deformable components being compressively preloaded radially
inward by the outer clamp.

US Pat. No. 9,379,448

POLARIZATION INDEPENDENT ACTIVE ARTIFICIAL MAGNETIC CONDUCTOR

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. An active artificial magnetic conductor comprising:
a ground plane;
an array of unit cells coupled to the ground plane, each unit cell comprising:
a low-impedance shunt coupled to the ground plane; and
an impedance element coupled to the low impedance shunt; and
a plurality of non-Foster circuits coupled in two different directions between impedance elements of adjacent neighboring
unit cells in the array of unit cells;

wherein the low impedance shunts coupled to the ground plane in each unit cell have a low inductance; and
wherein an inductance of the low inductance of the low-impedance shunts is such that the mutual coupling between impedance
elements is minimized thereby making the active artificial magnetic conductor stable.

US Pat. No. 9,364,951

SYSTEM FOR CONTROLLING MOTION AND CONSTRAINT FORCES IN A ROBOTIC SYSTEM

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for controlling motion and constraint forces in a robotic system, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a memory, the memory having executable instructions encoded thereon, such that upon execution of
the instructions, the one or more processors perform operations of:

inferring constraints from a sensed state of robot/environment interactions;
appending the inferred constraints to known internal robot constraints to generate constrained dynamics;
determining properties associated with the constrained dynamics and providing the properties to a controller;
determining inequality conditions associated with maintaining desired robot/environment interactions;
specifying a set of equality conditions based on the inequality conditions;
aggregating the set of equality conditions with any internal robot constraints to generate aggregated conditions that are
provided to the controller;

generating joint torque commands for the robot based on the aggregated conditions and a specified task and null space motion
command; and

actuating the robot based on the joint torque commands.

US Pat. No. 9,317,567

SYSTEM AND METHOD OF COMPUTATIONAL SOCIAL NETWORK DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT FOR HUMAN INTELLIGENCE

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for supporting human intelligence (HUMINT) analysis, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a memory having instructions such that when the instructions are executed, the one or more processors
perform operations of:

detecting changes in a plurality of social relations among users within a dynamic information network comprising a plurality
of data; and

enabling understanding of a current social situation in the dynamic information network through a plurality of integrated
modules, wherein the plurality of integrated modules comprises:

an active network mining module, wherein the active network mining module identifies incomplete data that is related to at
least one change in the plurality of social relations, and wherein the active network mining module further resolves conflicting
and missing data in the dynamic information network to derive a set of trustworthiness relations using link analysis;

a relevant network discovery module, wherein the relevant network discovery module constructs a relevant network, comprising
nodes and clusters of nodes, from hidden relations within the dynamic information network;

an information-aware social network module for constructing an information aware social network using the relevant network,
wherein the information-aware social network comprises a plurality of items of interest, and wherein the information-aware
social network module further classifies and prioritizes the plurality of items of interest to provide an assessment of a
current social situation to a user;

wherein a node is associated with a set of perceived importance scores and a set of rank scores;
wherein the active network mining module utilizes an information imbalance measure to prioritize data for efficient data collection;
and

computing the information imbalance measure of the node from the set of received importance scores of the node and the set
of rank scores of the node, wherein the information imbalance measure reflects an inconsistency within and between the set
of perceived importance scores of the node and the set of rank scores of the node.

US Pat. No. 9,144,905

DEVICE AND METHOD TO IDENTIFY FUNCTIONAL PARTS OF TOOLS FOR ROBOTIC MANIPULATION

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for identifying functional elements of an object for robotic manipulation, the system comprising one or more processors
and a non-transitory computer-readable medium having executable instructions encoded thereon such that when the instructions
are executed, the one or more processors perform operations of:
causing a robot to repeatedly manipulate an object, wherein the robot comprises an audio sensor and a plurality of touch sensors;
recording a three-dimensional (3D) location of each audio event that produces a response as measured by the audio sensor during
manipulation of the object;

recording a 3D location of each tactile event that produces a response as detected by the plurality of touch sensors during
manipulation of the object;

determining a 3D location of each audio and tactile event in 3D space;
generating a 3D audio point cloud denoting the 3D locations of the audio events;
generating a 3D tactile point cloud denoting the 3D locations of the tactile events;
registering the 3D audio point cloud and the 3D tactile point cloud with a 3D model point cloud of the object; and
annotating the 3D model point cloud of the object with the audio events to generate an annotated 3D model point cloud of the
object, which encodes the location of a functional element of the object.

US Pat. No. 9,142,626

STEPPED FIELD PLATE WIDE BANDGAP FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTOR AND METHOD

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of making a stepped field-plate gate field effect transistor comprising:
forming a first passivation layer on a barrier layer;
defining a first field plate by using electron beam lithography and by depositing a first negative electron beam resist;
forming a second passivation layer over the first negative electron beam resist and the first passivation layer;
planarizing the first negative electron beam resist and the second passivation layer;
defining a second field plate by using electron beam lithography and by depositing a second negative electron beam resist,
the second negative electron beam resist connected to the first negative electron beam resist;

forming a third passivation layer over the second negative electron beam resist and the second passivation layer;
planarizing the second negative electron beam resist and the third passivation layer;
removing the first negative electron beam resist and the second negative electron beam resist; and
forming a stepped field gate by using lithography and plating, the stepped field gate having the first and second field plates
filling a void left by the removed first and second negative electron beam resists and having a third field plate connected
to the second field plate and extending over the third passivation layer;

wherein the first, second, and third field plates are one structure.

US Pat. No. 9,130,508

SHUNT RESISTOR AND CAPACITOR TERMINATION FOR BROADBAND RESISTIVE MIXER

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A mixer comprising:
a field effect transistor having a source, a drain and a gate;
an input port coupled to a first end of a first micro-strip line, wherein a second end of the first micro-strip line is connected
to either the source or to the drain of the field effect transistor;

an output port coupled to a first end of a second micro-strip line, wherein a second end of the second micro-strip line is
connected to the drain of the field effect transistor if the input port is coupled to the source by the first micro-strip
line, or connected to the source of the field effect transistor if the input port is coupled to the drain by the first micro-strip
line;

a shunt resistor capacitor termination connected to the gate;
a third micro-strip line, the third micro-strip line having a first end and a second end;
a local oscillator (LO) directly connected to the first end of the third micro-strip line; and
the second end of the third micro-strip line connected to the gate and connected to the shunt resistor capacitor termination;
wherein the LO has an LO frequency for mixing with a first frequency on the input port to produce a second frequency on the
output port;

wherein the shunt resistor capacitor termination comprises a resistor in series with a capacitor; and
wherein the shunt resistor capacitor termination is configured to reduce conversion loss of the mixer due to a self-resonance
of a capacitance of the gate and an inductance of the third micro-strip line.

US Pat. No. 9,059,140

SIMULTANEOUS CONTROLLED DEPTH HOT EMBOSSING AND ACTIVE SIDE PROTECTION DURING PACKAGING AND ASSEMBLY OF WIDE BANDGAP DEVICES

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of mounting a plurality of semiconductor or microelectronic chips or dies, comprising:
providing a carrier;
temporarily adhering said plurality of semiconductor or microelectronic chips or dies to said carrier with active faces of
said chips or dies facing towards said carrier;

covering backsides of said chips or dies and filling empty spaces between said chips or dies with a metallic material to thereby
define an assembly of said chips or dies and said metallic material; and

releasing the assembly from said carrier;
wherein each chip or die comprises at least one bonding ring having a height from the active face of the respective chip or
die that is greater than a maximum height of surface topography on the active face of the respective chip or die;

wherein each bonding ring comprises a first bonding ring around the active face of the respective chip or die, and a second
bonding ring around the active face of the respective chip or die;

wherein the first bonding ring is higher than the second bonding ring; and
wherein the second bonding ring has a larger area than the first bonding ring.

US Pat. No. 9,046,541

METHOD FOR PRODUCING A DISK RESONATOR GYROSCOPE

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method for producing a disk resonator gyroscope comprising:
providing a base substrate;
providing a handle wafer with a release hole;
bonding a release wafer to the handle wafer;
bonding a resonator wafer to the release wafer;
etching the resonator wafer to form a disk resonator, the disk resonator having an outer edge and a central pillar, and to
form a sense electrode and a drive electrode, the sense and drive electrodes outside the outer edge of the disk resonator
and each of the sense and the drive electrodes having a surface facing the outer edge of the disk resonator;

selectively applying a conductive film onto the disk resonator such that the conductive film is on a side of the disk resonator
opposite the release wafer, on the outer edge of the disk resonator, and on the surfaces of the sense and drive electrodes
that are facing the outer edge of the disk resonator;

selectively applying a conductive metal onto the sense and drive electrodes and onto the central pillar of the disk resonator;
bonding the sense and drive electrodes and the central pillar of the disk resonator to the base substrate; and
releasing the handle wafer by introducing a dry release agent into the release hole such that it undercuts the release wafer.

US Pat. No. 10,061,078

POLYMER MICROLATTICE STRUCTURES WITH MULTIFUNCTIONAL COATINGS FOR SUBSTRATE BONDING

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A polymer-based microlattice structure comprising:(a) a first substrate layer;
(b) a plurality of intersecting micro-truss structural elements each comprising a thermoset first polymer; and
(c) a continuous coating layer that substantially encapsulates each of said micro-truss structural elements, wherein said coating layer comprises a second polymer,
wherein said second polymer in said continuous coating layer bonds said first substrate layer to said thermoset first polymer, and
wherein said microlattice structure does not contain a secondary adhesive material between said micro-truss structural elements and said first substrate layer.

US Pat. No. 9,558,564

METHOD FOR FINDING IMPORTANT CHANGES IN 3D POINT CLOUDS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A motion detector comprising:
a sensor apparatus having a field of vision; and
a calculator arranged for:
generating first and second successive frames each comprising a 3-D cloud of points, wherein each point represents a position
in space of a surface of at least an object in the field of vision of said sensor apparatus;

transforming each of the first and second frames by:
mapping each cloud of 3-D points into a 2-D grid of cells, each cell of the 2-D grid having a predetermined surface and each
2-D grid cell being associated to a sequence of predetermined volumes; and

associating to each cell of the 2-D grid of cells a sequence of lists of points, each list comprising the 3-D points contained
in a corresponding volume of said sequence of predetermined volumes;

comparing the sequences of lists associated to the same cells of the 2-D grids obtained for the first and second frames; and
indicating that motion occurred based on the sequence of lists being different in the first and second frames.

US Pat. No. 9,557,585

STACKED ROWS PSEUDO-RANDOMLY SPACED TWO-DIMENSIONAL PHASED ARRAY ASSEMBLY

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A phased array that comprises:
a predetermined number of emitter/receiver elements; said emitter/receiver elements being arranged on an array formed of stacked
slices, wherein:

the emitter/receiver elements in each slice of the array have pseudo-random spacing; the spacing between the emitter/receiver
elements in each slice of the array resulting from a first pseudo-random pattern generation and different slices of the stack
of slices having different patterns for the pseudo-random spacing of their emitter/receiver elements; and

the slices of the stack have individually a pseudo-random thickness resulting from a second pseudo random pattern generation.

US Pat. No. 9,536,114

SECURE MOBILE PROACTIVE MULTIPARTY COMPUTATION PROTOCOL

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for secure mobile proactive multi-party computation, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a non-transitory computer-readable medium having executable instructions encoded thereon such that
when executed, the one or more processors perform operations of:

securely evaluating a circuit in the presence of an adversary, wherein the circuit receives secret inputs comprising secret
values from a set of servers of a synchronous network, wherein inputs of secret values are transmitted electronically via
a secure, authenticated broadcast channel;

wherein the circuit is divided into a plurality of layers, and wherein the circuit comprises input gates, random gates, addition
gates, multiplication gates, and output gates;

wherein each layer of the circuit is securely evaluated as follows:
initializing a GenPoly protocol to generate sharings of random values for the random gates and the input gates;
for each input gate, opening a sharing of a random value associated with the input gate toward a server Pi which is to provide input for that input gate;

broadcasting a sum of the server Pi's secret value and the random value to the set of servers;

wherein each server in the set of servers uses the sum to adjust its sharing of the random value, such that its sharing of
the random value is now a sharing of server Pi's secret value;

initializing a Multiplication-Triple protocol to generate triples of sharings of secret values;
initializing a Secret-Redistribute protocol to re-randomize the secret values, such that privacy of the secret values is preserved;
determining a sharing of the secret values for each output gate;
initializing a Secret-Open protocol to reveal each sharing of secret values to an intended recipient; and
periodically erasing, by each server, the secret values to preserve security against an adversary.

US Pat. No. 9,508,652

DIRECT IC-TO-PACKAGE WAFER LEVEL PACKAGING WITH INTEGRATED THERMAL HEAT SPREADERS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method for wafer level packaging comprising:
forming one or more die;
forming a plated metal ring on each die;
forming a cover wafer, the cover wafer having one or more plated seal rings;
forming a body wafer, the body wafer having cavities and a metal layer on a first side of the body wafer;
aligning a respective die to the cover wafer so that a plated metal ring on the respective die is aligned to a respective
plated seal ring on the cover wafer;

bonding the plated metal ring on the respective die to the respective plated seal ring;
aligning the body wafer to the cover wafer so that a respective cavity of the body wafer surrounds each respective die bonded
to the cover wafer and so that the metal layer on the body wafer is aligned with at least one plated seal ring on the cover
wafer; and

bonding the metal layer on the first side of the body wafer to the plated seal ring on the cover wafer;
wherein each plated metal ring has a first height and each plated seal ring has a second height.

US Pat. No. 9,465,504

AUTOMATED COLLABORATIVE BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS USING TEMPORAL MOTIFS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for automated collaborative behavior analysis, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a non-transitory memory having instructions encoded thereon such that when the instructions are
executed, the one or more processors perform operations of:

receiving a plurality of documents and a plurality of change log files of a collaborative media as input, wherein the plurality
of documents are continuously edited by a plurality of authors, and wherein edits are recorded in the plurality of change
log files;

identifying a type of editing behavior by authors of a given document in the plurality of documents;
analyzing edits made to the given document;
reporting how the authors interacted in a collaboration process, resulting in a set of reported author interactions;
identifying, from the set of reported author interactions, a set of identified author interactions that are most and least
significant in the collaboration process;

estimating, based on the set of identified author interactions, future effects on documents of the collaborative media; and
representing the plurality of documents and the plurality of change log files as a temporal bipartite network, wherein the
temporal bipartite network comprises a plurality of author type nodes, a plurality of page nodes, and a plurality of temporal
edges annotating the time of the edits.

US Pat. No. 9,379,418

BATTERY WITH REFERENCE ELECTRODE FOR VOLTAGE MONITORING

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A metal-ion battery structure comprising:
(a) a first electrode disposed adjacent to a first current collector, wherein said first electrode supplies or accepts selected
battery metal ions;

(b) a second electrode, with polarity opposite of said first electrode, disposed adjacent to a second current collector, wherein
said second electrode supplies or accepts said metal ions, and wherein said second current collector is porous, permeable
to said metal ions, and characterized by an average pore size from about 1 nm to about 10 ?m;

(c) a reference electrode disposed adjacent to a third current collector, wherein said reference electrode contains said metal
ions; and wherein said reference electrode has a reference-electrode projected area that is at least 20% of the projected
area of said first electrode and of said second electrode;

(d) a first separator interposed between said first electrode and said second electrode, to electronically isolate said first
electrode from said second electrode; and

(e) a second separator interposed between said second current collector and said reference electrode, to electronically isolate
said second electrode from said reference electrode.

US Pat. No. 9,334,153

MEMS DEVICE CONNECTED TO A SUBSTRATE BY FLEXIBLE SUPPORT STRUCTURES

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A MEMS assembly comprising:
a substrate; and
a MEMS device;
wherein the MEMS device is connected to the substrate by at least two flexible support structures made in a conductive layer
formed on a first portion of one of said substrate and said MEMS.

US Pat. No. 9,214,724

ANTENNA ARRAY WITH WIDE-BAND REACTANCE CANCELLATION

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. An antenna array comprising two or more radiating elements, with nearest neighbor radiating elements connected together
with a non-Foster circuit between terminals of the radiating elements such that a mutual reactance between the nearest neighbor
radiating elements is reduced over a wider bandwidth than which would be obtained if the non-Foster circuits were omitted.

US Pat. No. 9,064,964

GRAPHENE HETEROSTRUCTURE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A field effect transistor comprising:
a substrate;
a first graphene (Gr) layer on the substrate;
a second graphene (Gr) layer on the substrate;
a fluorographene (GrF) layer on the substrate and between the first and second graphene layers;
a first ohmic contact on the first graphene layer;
a second ohmic contact on the second graphene layer;
a gate aligned over the fluorographene layer; and
a gate dielectric between the gate and the fluorographene layer and between the gate and the first and second ohmic contacts.

US Pat. No. 10,031,191

PIEZOELECTRIC MAGNETOMETER CAPABLE OF SENSING A MAGNETIC FIELD IN MULTIPLE VECTORS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A magnetometer comprising a resonating bar structure which is naturally resonant in at least two different resonant modes, the resonating structure having at least one pair of sense electrodes disposed on opposing major surfaces of the resonating bar structure and having a conductive path formed as a conductive loop disposed on at least one of the major surfaces of the resonating bar structure, and the at least one pair of sense electrodes being formed inwardly of edges of the resonating bar structure and also inwardly of said loop.

US Pat. No. 9,575,162

COMPRESSIVE SCANNING LIDAR

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method for increasing resolution of an image formed of received light from an illuminated spot comprising:
measuring a y vector for measurement kernels A1 to AM, where M is a number of the measurement kernels, measuring the y vector comprising:

programming a programmable N-pixel micromirror or mask located in a return path of a received reflected scene spot with a
jth measurement kernel Aj of the measurement kernels A1 to AM;

measuring y, wherein y is an inner product of a scene reflectivity f(?,?) with the measurement kernel Aj for each range bin ri, wherein ? and ? are azimuth and elevation angles, respectively;

repeating programming the programmable N-pixel micromirror or mask and measuring y for each measurement kernel A1 to AM; and

forming a reconstructed image using the measured y vector, wherein forming the reconstructed image comprises using compressive
sensing or Moore-Penrose reconstruction.

US Pat. No. 9,566,174

SYSTEM FOR CONTROLLING BRAIN MACHINE INTERFACES AND NEURAL PROSTHETIC SYSTEMS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for controlling a torque controlled prosthetic device given motor intent inferred from neuroimaging data, the
system comprising:
one or more processors and a memory, the memory having executable instructions encoded thereon, such that upon execution of
the instructions, the one or more processors perform operations of:

receiving neuroimaging data of a user from a neuroimaging device;
decoding the neuroimaging data to infer spatial motion intent of the user, where the spatial motion intent includes desired
motion commands of the torque controlled prosthetic device represented in a coordinate system;

executing, with a prosthesis controller, the motion commands as torque commands to cause the torque controlled prosthetic
device to move according to the spatial motion intent of the user;

wherein the prosthesis controller is a neuromorphic prosthesis controller and further comprises:
a neuromorphic spike encoder to represent the motion command as a set of neural spikes;
a neuromorphic motor mapper to map the neural spikes representing Cartesian displacements to neural spikes representing configuration
(joint) space displacements;

a spike decoder to decode the neural spikes representing configuration (joint) space displacements and generate a joint space
command; and

a joint servo to execute the joint space command.

US Pat. No. 9,559,012

GALLIUM NITRIDE COMPLEMENTARY TRANSISTORS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A semiconductor device comprising:
a substrate;
a III-nitride (III-N) buffer layer on the substrate;
an N-channel transistor comprising:
a III-nitride N-channel layer on one portion of the buffer layer; and
a III-nitride N-barrier layer for providing electrons on top of the N-channel layer, wherein the N-barrier layer has a wider
bandgap than the N-channel layer;

a P-channel transistor comprising:
a III-nitride P-barrier layer on another portion of the buffer layer for assisting accumulation of holes;
a III-nitride P-channel layer on top of the P-barrier layer, wherein the P-barrier layer has a wider bandgap than the P-channel
layer; and

a III-nitride P-cap layer doped with P-type dopants on top of the P-channel layer.

US Pat. No. 9,552,544

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR AN ACTION SELECTION SYSTEM BASED ON A COMBINATION OF NEUROMODULATORY AND PREFRONTAL CORTEX AREA MODELS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for action selection using a combination of neuromodulatory and prefrontal cortex area models, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a non-transitory memory having instructions encoded thereon such that when the instructions are
executed, the one or more processors perform operations of:

generating a model instance of a neural model having an action area module and a neuromodulatory area module;
inputting, in a prefrontal cortex (PFC) input area module of the model instance, a set of group attack probability estimates
for a plurality of groups;

encoding, in an anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) conflict input area module of the model instance, a spread or dispersion of
the group attack probability estimates, resulting in an activation of the ACC conflict input area module;

propagating the activation of the ACC conflict input area module to the action area module of the model instance and the neuromodulatory
area module of the model instance;

selecting an action strategy in the action area module of the model instance;
implementing the action strategy;
generating a reward and a cost for the implemented action strategy; and
updating an assessment of possible action strategies based on the generated reward and cost for the implemented action strategy;
wherein each model instance of the neural model modulates its subsequent action strategy selection based on the updated assessment
of the possible action strategies.

US Pat. No. 9,520,525

METHOD OF MAKING AN OPTICAL DETECTOR

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of making an optical detector, the method including:
forming a first optical absorber material on or adjacent a substrate;
etching recesses into the first optical absorber material to define a set of multiple discrete absorber regions formed of
said first optical absorber material, each discrete absorber region having a geometric shape which it shares in common with
the other discrete absorber regions, the common geometric shape having four sloping sidewalls which angle towards a tip of
said common geometric shape, a combined volume of the discrete absorber regions being smaller than a volume of etched recesses;
and

forming a metal reflector in contact with the tips of the discrete absorber regions
forming a second optical absorber material directly on said substrate with said first optical absorber material being formed
on or adjacent said second optical absorber material; and

wherein the substrate is formed of GaAs, the first optical absorber material is formed of InAsSb, InSb, or InGaAsSb and the
second optical absorber material is formed of InAlAsSb or InGaAsSb.

US Pat. No. 9,508,552

METHOD FOR FORMING METALLIC SUB-COLLECTOR FOR HBT AND BJT TRANSISTORS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A method of providing a transistor having an emitter, a base, and a collector comprising:
forming a metallic sub-collector on the collector, the metallic sub-collector electrically and thermally coupled to the collector,
wherein the metallic sub-collector comprises a metallic thin film;

forming a collector contact electrically connected to the metallic sub-collector;
bonding the metallic sub-collector to a substrate with an adhesion layer consisting of a single material, wherein the adhesion
layer is between the substrate and the metallic sub-collector and bonded directly to the substrate and directly to the metallic
sub-collector; and

forming a thermal via coupled to the metallic sub-collector and coupled to the substrate for thermally coupling the metallic
sub-collector to the substrate, wherein the thermal via contacts a top surface of the substrate through an opening in the
adhesion layer.

US Pat. No. 9,367,804

SYSTEM FOR INSTABILITY DETECTION AND STRUCTURE ESTIMATION OF COMPLEX NETWORK DYNAMICS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for instability detection and structure estimation of a complex network, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a memory, the memory being a non-transitory computer-readable medium having executable instructions
encoded thereon, such that upon execution of the instructions, the one or more processors perform operations of:

identifying nodes and features to be measured from the complex network;
receiving data from each node over a time series, the data representing, dynamics of the complex network;
determining a first time window, the time window having a fixed window size;
calculating a covariance matrix for a time series inside the first time window;
calculating eigenvalues ?i, for the covariance matrix;

moving the time window by one time to form a second time window;
calculating a second covariance matrix for a time series inside the second time window;
calculating eigenvalues for the second covariance matrix; and
determining stability of the complex network.

US Pat. No. 9,270,354

BLIND BEAMFORMING USING KNOWLEDGE EMBEDDED IN TRANSMITTED SIGNALS

HRL Laboratories, LLC, M...

1. A system for blind beamforming, the system comprising:
one or more processors and a non-transitory computer-readable medium having executable instructions encoded thereon such that
when executed, the one or more processors perform operations of:

assigning initial antenna weights for a plurality of antenna elements of emitters of a beamforming system to generate a set
of weighted radio-frequency (RF) signals at an output of each antenna element;

combining the set of weighted RF signals to form a plurality of RF signal mixtures;
processing each RF signal mixture to extract embedded information within signals of the emitters;
sending the extracted embedded information to an optimization module; and
performing simultaneous signal extractions for emitters of the beamforming system using the extracted embedded information.