US Pat. No. 9,590,691

BREAKING UP SYMBOLS FOR SPECTRAL WIDENING

Higher Ground LLC, Palo ...

1. A method of data communication using spectral widening, the method including:
dividing respective symbols of a block of symbols into a set of symbol pieces of shorter duration than a respective symbol,
wherein a respective number of symbol pieces for the respective symbol is adaptive;

scrambling the symbol pieces of the symbols of the block of symbols to obtain a sequence of scrambled symbol pieces; and
transmitting the sequence of scrambled symbol pieces and information indicative of the respective number of symbol pieces
for the respective symbol.

US Pat. No. 9,712,984

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR SENDING MESSAGES

Higher Ground LLC, Palo ...

1. A system for exchanging messages between a business user and one or more mobile devices, comprising:
a business server configured to exchange messages with the business user and to obtain a public identifier for the business
user to enable duplex message exchange between the business user and a respective mobile device selected from the mobile devices;
and

a short message service (“SMS”) application programming interface (“API”) communicatively coupled to said business server
for interacting with an SMS system that serves the mobile devices,

wherein said business server serves a number of business users using a number of public identifiers, and
wherein the number of public identifiers is smaller than the number of business users.

US Pat. No. 9,577,856

FREQUENCY COMPENSATION TECHNIQUES AND SYSTEMS

Higher Ground LLC, Palo ...

10. A communication apparatus including:
a transmitter;
a receiver; and
a frequency controller,
wherein the transmitter, the receiver and the frequency controller are co-located, and
wherein the receiver and the frequency controller are configured to receive and analyze a downlink version of an uplink frequency
reference signal transmitted by the transmitter through a frequency-translating signal repeating apparatus, to obtain a frequency
drift value relative to an expected frequency value of the frequency-translated downlink version of the uplink frequency reference
signal, wherein the frequency drift is introduced by the frequency-translating signal repeating apparatus, and to use the
frequency drift value to control a frequency used in the transmitter to transmit one or more further signals, to compensate
for the frequency drift value such that another receiver of a different communication apparatus detects substantially no frequency
drift in a downlink signal received by the other receiver from the transmitter, via the frequency-translating signal repeating
apparatus.

US Pat. No. 10,009,910

REDUCED POWER FOR AVOIDANCE OF INTERFERENCE IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

Higher Ground LLC, Palo ...

15. An apparatus, comprising:one or more network interfaces to communicate as a device of at least a first wireless communication network;
a processor coupled to the network interfaces and adapted to execute one or more processes; and
a memory configured to store a process executable by the processor, the process when executed operable to:
determine that initial communication parameters for a communication from a terminal in the first wireless communication network to an intended receiver in the first wireless communication network would result in an unintended receiver receiving the communication at a received power above an interfering threshold level;
determine, in response, one or more adjusted communication parameters that would result in the unintended receiver receiving the communication at a received power below the interfering threshold level and also would result in the communication satisfying a receiver sensitivity of the intended receiver, wherein the one or more adjusted communication parameters comprise an aim of an antenna of the terminal;
illustrate a user interface (UI) to a user to adjust the aim of the antenna of the terminal according to the adjusted communication parameters;
prevent the terminal from transmitting the communication unless the antenna of the terminal is aimed according to the adjusted communication parameters; and
cause the terminal to use the adjusted communication parameters to transmit the communication.

US Pat. No. 9,692,587

PHASE TRACKING

Higher Ground LLC, Palo ...

1. A method of phase tracking in a communication system, the method including:
performing, at a receiving apparatus of the communication system, an initial frequency correction based on received symbol
samples, to output first corrected samples, wherein the initial frequency correction comprises performing at least one non-data-dependent
frequency estimation and correction on a single packet-length's worth of the received symbol samples, wherein a number of
the received symbol samples is greater than one packet length's worth of symbol samples, wherein the initial frequency correction
further comprises iteratively stepping through packet-length sets of the received symbol samples to obtain the single packet-length's
worth of received symbol samples, and wherein the iteratively stepping through packet-length sets of the received symbol samples
comprises:

extracting a symbol block containing one packet-length's worth of received symbol samples;
performing non-data-dependent frequency estimation and correction on the symbol block to obtain frequency-adjusted symbol
samples;

correlating the frequency-adjusted symbol samples with a packet sync pattern; and
identifying the packet start sample by the correlation value with maximum magnitude;
performing, at the receiving apparatus, a second frequency correction and initial phase correction on the first corrected
samples to output second corrected samples; and

performing, at the receiving apparatus, pilot symbol-aided phase tracking/correction to the second corrected samples.

US Pat. No. 9,781,581

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR SENDING MESSAGES

Higher Ground LLC, Palo ...

1. A system for exchanging messages between or among a business user and messaging devices during an event, comprising:
a business server configured to exchange messages with the business user and to obtain a temporary public identifier for the
business user to enable duplex message exchange between or among the business user and one or more of the messaging devices
during the event, wherein at least one of the messaging devices is enabled to obtain the temporary public identifier from
another one of the messaging devices and to use the temporary public identifier to engage in message exchange with one or
more of the business user or the one or more messaging devices during the event; and

an application programming interface (API) communicatively coupled to the business server and configured to enable the invocation
of a set of routines, protocols and/or tools designed to enable the business server to interact with one or more messaging
systems that serve the one or more messaging devices;

wherein the business server is enabled to serve a number of business users using a number of public identifiers that is smaller
than the number of business users.

US Pat. No. 10,117,112

AVOIDANCE OF INTERFERENCE IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

Higher Ground LLC, Palo ...

1. A method, comprising:determining, by a terminal of a first wireless communication network, a protection zone for each of a plurality of unintended receivers of a second wireless communication network, wherein a protection zone defines a geographical area where transmission by the terminal might interfere with operation of a corresponding unintended receiver;
determining, by the terminal at a time of an attempted transmission to an intended receiver in the first wireless communication network, a current location of the terminal;
determining, by the terminal, whether the current location is within any protection zone of the plurality of unintended receivers;
performing the transmission by the terminal in response to the current location not being within any protection zone of the plurality of unintended receivers;
performing, by the terminal in response the current location being within a protection zone of one or more of the plurality of unintended receivers, a local assessment of interference to the one or more unintended receivers;
performing the transmission by the terminal in response to the local assessment of interference concluding that there would be no interference with any of the one or more unintended receivers; and
preventing the transmission by the terminal in response to the local assessment of interference concluding that there would be interference with any of the one or more unintended receivers.

US Pat. No. 10,110,463

PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS DEVICE FOR MULTIPLE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS

Higher Ground LLC, Palo ...

1. A portable communications device (PCD) for communications with two or more communications systems comprising,a power unit configured to power the portable communications device,
a transceiver unit including,
a local unit configured to communicate with a local communications system,
a satellite unit configured to communicate with a satellite communications system,
a control unit configured to control communications by the local unit and the satellite unit, the control unit including,
a sensing algorithm designed to sense requests for communications,
a selection algorithm designed to automatically select the local unit or the satellite unit for communications,
wherein the control unit is configured to monitor a received signal strength indicator, during communications using the local unit, to determine if the local unit network communication strength is below a threshold, and is further configured to initiate a low signal code algorithm if the local unit network communication strength is intermittently below the threshold, and
wherein the monitoring of the received signal strength indicator comprises monitoring a frequency with which and a duration that the local unit network communication strength is below the threshold, and if the frequency or the duration exceeds a respective low signal control parameter, the control unit is configured to initiate the low signal code algorithm, wherein, as part of the low signal code algorithm, the control unit is further configured to perform a hysteresis test on the local unit network communication strength to determine whether, in a case in which the local unit network communication strength falls below the threshold only intermittently, the frequency with which the local unit network communication strength falls below the threshold is sufficient to exceed the low signal control parameter for frequency,
wherein: (a) if the low signal code algorithm is not initiated or determines, during the hysteresis test, that the frequency with which the local unit network communication strength falls below the threshold is not sufficient to exceed the low signal control parameter for frequency, the PCD continues communications using the local unit; (b) if the low signal code algorithm determines, during the hysteresis test, that the frequency with which the local unit network communication strength falls below the threshold is sufficient to exceed the low signal control parameter for frequency, the PCD switches to communications using the satellite unit.

US Pat. No. 9,893,799

PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS DEVICE FOR RELIABLE SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS

Higher Ground LLC, Palo ...

1. A personal communications device including a capability to communicate using a satellite in a satellite communication system,
the personal communications device comprising:
a power unit configured to provide power to the personal communications device;
a transceiver unit configured to enable communication with the satellite;
a control unit configured to control the personal communications device, wherein the control unit is configured to:
determine a location of the satellite and a location of the personal communications device, predict an improved communication
path between the satellite and the personal communications device, and

determine a recommended change in position of the personal communications device so as to position the personal communications
device in the improved communication path; and

a user output configured to communicate to the user the change in position to position the personal communications device
in the improved communication path, wherein the user output includes an augmented reality display, wherein the augmented reality
display is configured to show a sky image and to provide an indicator to suggest movement to bring an icon representing the
satellite into the sky image of the augmented reality display.

US Pat. No. 10,116,893

SELECTIVELY CONTROLLING A DIRECTION OF SIGNAL TRANSMISSION USING ADAPTIVE AUGMENTED REALITY

HIGHER GROUND LLC, Palo ...

1. A method comprising:(a) determining, by a communication device having an antenna, a direction to an intended transceiver, the direction being substantially in an actual direction to the intended transceiver;
(b) determining, by the communication device, a desired direction that is different from the direction to the intended transceiver;
(c) determining by the communication device, an anticipated direction to the desired direction;
(d) determining, by the communication device and based on the desired direction, parameters of expected energy values corresponding to a plurality of pre-defined antenna directions of the antenna around the desired direction;
(e) receiving, by the communication device using the antenna, a plurality of measured energy values corresponding to a plurality of antenna directions of the antenna around the anticipated direction;
(f) calculating, by the communication device, a directional offset using the parameters of expected energy values and the plurality of measured energy values;
(g) generating, by the communication device, an updated anticipated direction by updating the anticipated direction based on the calculated directional offset; and
(h) repeating steps (e) through (g) using the updated anticipated direction as the anticipated direction.

US Pat. No. 9,887,730

TIMING ESTIMATION IN COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Higher Ground LLC, Palo ...

1. A method of symbol timing estimation, the method including:
obtaining peak integration values from despread symbol samples of a received direct-sequence spread-spectrum signal;
selecting a set of peaks from the peak integration values by finding a maximum of the peak integration values and searching
for further peaks within predetermined time windows in backward and forward directions in time;

using the set of peaks to select from the despread symbol samples a group of the despread symbol samples;
further processing the group of despread symbol samples;
applying curve fitting to the set of peaks; and
projecting results of the curve fitting backwards and forwards in time to obtain a group of sampling instants,
wherein using the set of peaks comprises using the group of sampling instants to select the group of despread symbol samples.

US Pat. No. 10,349,422

SERVER PARTICIPATION IN AVOIDANCE OF INTERFERENCE IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

Higher Ground LLC, Palo ...

1. A method, comprising:receiving, at a server of a first wireless communication network, a wireless communication originated by a terminal of the first wireless communication network, the wireless communication containing a current geographic location of the terminal as determined by the terminal, wherein the terminal originates the wireless communication according to a terminal-made decision based on pre-loaded information from the server;
determining, by the server, acceptable communication parameters for the terminal to communicate on the first wireless communication network, wherein determining the acceptable communication parameters is based on additional information at the server not pre-loaded onto the terminal;
generating, by the server, an instruction message for the terminal based on the acceptable communication parameters; and
transmitting, by the server, the instruction message toward the terminal to cause the terminal to only continue transmitting according to acceptable communication parameters.

US Pat. No. 10,164,723

ADAPTIVE AUGMENTED REALITY SATELLITE ACQUISITION

Higher Ground LLC, Palo ...

1. A method of acquiring a communications satellite to support communications by a user device, the method including:proceeding, beginning with an initial set of satellite positions in the sky, to iteratively perform one or more iterations of the following operations at the user device:
providing an augmented-reality (AR) display, configured to superimpose positions of one or more satellites in the sky, relative to the user device, in the form of one or more satellite icons, on the display;
in response to the user device or an antenna associated with the user device being pointed toward a given satellite, attempting to acquire the given satellite;
if acquisition is successful, ending a present iteration and engaging in communications using the given satellite;
if acquisition is unsuccessful and a predetermined time period has not yet lapsed, continuing said attempting to acquire the given satellite; and
if acquisition is unsuccessful and the predetermined time period has lapsed without successful acquisition of the given satellite, generating an offset position of a satellite icon corresponding to the given satellite and using the offset position of the satellite icon to perform said providing an AR display.

US Pat. No. 10,330,796

MAGNETIC COMPASS CONFIRMATION FOR AVOIDANCE OF INTERFERENCE IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

Higher Ground LLC, Palo ...

1. A method, comprising:obtaining, by a process, a first compensated directional reading from a first directional sensor of a directionally sensitive system;
obtaining, by the process, a second compensated directional reading from a second directional sensor of the directionally sensitive system;
determining, by the process, a difference between the first compensated directional reading and the second compensated directional reading;
declaring, by the process in response to the difference being greater than an acceptable threshold, an inaccurate directional reading; and
preventing, by the process, performance of a directionally sensitive action by the directionally sensitive system in response to an inaccurate directional reading.

US Pat. No. 10,218,408

SYNCHRONIZED CPDMA (CODE PHASE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS)

HIGHER GROUND LLC, Palo ...

1. A communications system comprising:a location determining module adapted to determine a location of one or more of a terminal and a geostationary communications satellite; and
an alignment module, the alignment module at least in communication with and at least using information corresponding to the determined location from the location determining module to align arrival code-phases of signals for a ground station receiver by altering a clock for a modulated signal transmitted from the terminal,
wherein the alignment module:
determines an alignment time and aligns a code-phase of a spreading code on a clock tick boundary, wherein the determining of the alignment time includes:
determining a geographic position of the terminal;
determining a position of the communications satellite;
determining a distance between the terminal and the communications satellite; and
adjusting a starting time of the spreading code by a function of a communications signal travel distance modulo predetermined time period.

US Pat. No. 10,267,888

POINTING AN ANTENNA AT A SIGNAL SOURCE USING AUGMENTED REALITY

Higher Ground LLC, Palo ...

1. A method comprising:(a) determining, by a communication device having an antenna, an anticipated direction to a signal source;
(b) receiving, by the communication device using a camera of the communication device, video images in a field of view of the camera;
(c) determining, by the communication device using sensors of the communication device, an antenna direction, wherein the antenna direction is the direction that the antenna is pointing;
(d) displaying, by the communication device using a display screen of the communication device, (1) the video images, (2) an antenna direction indicator, and (3) a guiding icon, wherein the antenna direction indicator indicates the antenna direction relative to the field of view of the camera, and the guiding icon represents a direction offset from the anticipated direction;
(e) determining, by the communication device using the antenna, an energy value of a signal received from the signal source; and
(f) updating, by the communication device, a position of the guiding icon on the display screen based on the anticipated direction by:
calculating, by the communication device, a path around the anticipated direction;
selecting, by the communication device, a guiding direction, wherein the guiding direction intersects the path around the anticipated direction, and the guiding direction is different than a previously selected guiding direction; and
updating, by the communication device, the position of the guiding icon on the display screen to represent the guiding direction.

US Pat. No. 10,404,358

RETURN PATH CONGESTION MITIGATION FOR SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS

Higher Ground LLC, Palo ...

1. A method, comprising:determining, by a communicating device, a level of congestion on a particular return communication path via an intermediate satellite from a plurality of distributed modules to a ground station server of a multiple-access shared communication media satellite communication system, wherein the communicating device is one of either the ground station server or a particular distributed module of the plurality of distributed modules, wherein determining the level of congestion is based on an estimated amount of aggregate traffic the plurality of distributed modules are transmitting to the ground station server within a given time period, and the estimated amount of aggregate traffic is based on:
a number of the plurality of distributed modules communicating at a given time, the level of congestion based on a proportion of the number of the plurality of distributed modules communicating compared to a maximum number of distributed modules allowed to communicate at the given time, or
a number of packets being sent at a given time, the level of congestion based on a proportion of the number of packets being sent compared to a maximum number of packets allowed to be sent at the given time;
determining, by the communicating device, whether the level of congestion is above a threshold; and
mitigating the congestion, by the communicating device in response to the level of congestion being above the threshold, wherein mitigating comprises at least one of either:
determining an uncongested return communication path from a particular distributed module to the ground station server, ensuring that the uncongested return communication path would not interfere with any unintended receiver, and then causing the particular distributed module to use the uncongested return communication path; and
enforcing one or more communication restrictions on a utilized return communication path to reduce the effect of a communication on the overall congestion of the utilized return communication path.

US Pat. No. 10,523,684

FORWARD PATH CONGESTION MITIGATION FOR SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS

Higher Ground LLC, Palo ...

1. A method, comprising:determining, by a ground station server of a multiple-access shared communication media satellite communication system, a level of congestion on a particular forward communication path in a satellite communication network via an intermediate satellite from the ground station server to a plurality of terminals;
determining, by the ground station server, whether the level of congestion is above a threshold; and
mitigating the congestion, by the ground station server in response to the level of congestion being above the threshold, wherein mitigating comprises:
determining, by the ground station server, one or more uncongested forward communication paths in the satellite communication network from the ground station server to the plurality of terminals;
scheduling, by the ground station server, a sufficient amount of communication over the one or more uncongested forward communication paths to alleviate congestion on the particular forward communication path without congesting the one or more uncongested forward communication paths;
transmitting, by the ground station server, instructions on the particular forward communication path to one or more corresponding modules of the plurality of terminals, the instructions causing the one or more corresponding modules to use a respective uncongested forward communication path of the one or more uncongested forward communication paths; and
communicating, by the ground station server, to the one or more corresponding modules on their respective uncongested forward communication path.

US Pat. No. 10,574,666

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR CONTROLLING COMMUNICATION BASED ON ONE OR MORE OF COMMUNICATION CHANNELS, POLARIZATION, ANTENNA PARAMETERS, AND POWER LEVELS

HIGHER GROUND LLC, Palo ...

1. A system for periodically distributing information to each connected device comprising:a processor and connected memory that determine from information acceptable communication channels, polarization, antenna segments, and power levels;
a processor and connected memory allowing transmission by a communications device when an acceptable combination of communication channels, polarization, antenna parameters, and power levels exist, and preventing transmission when it is determined that an acceptable combination of communication channels, polarization, antenna parameters, and power levels do not exist;
wherein the combination of communication channels, polarization, antenna parameters, and power levels is acceptable when transmission by a base station does not cause interference by the base station or by an associated terminal with the operations of a PtPR.

US Pat. No. 10,602,371

COMPUTING PROTECTION ZONES FOR AVOIDANCE OF INTERFERENCE IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

Higher Ground LLC, Palo ...

1. A method, comprising:determining, by a device of a first wireless communication network, location information and antenna properties corresponding to each of a plurality of unintended receivers of a second wireless communication network operating on a channel;
computing, by the device, a protection zone for each of the plurality of unintended receivers based on the location information and antenna properties and on transmission properties of a terminal in the first wireless communication network, wherein a protection zone defines a geographical area where transmission by the terminal might interfere with operation of a corresponding unintended receiver;
determining, based on the protection zones and prior to performing any attempted transmissions on the channel, whether a current location of the terminal is within any protection zone of the plurality of unintended receivers operating on the channel;
causing, in response to determining that the current location of the terminal is not within any protection zone of the plurality of unintended receivers, the terminal to perform an attempted transmission on the channel to an intended receiver of the first wireless communication network; and
preventing, in response to determining that the current location of the terminal is within one or more protection zones of the plurality of unintended receivers, the terminal from performing the attempted transmission on the channel and any other transmissions on the channel.

US Pat. No. 10,602,372

AVOIDANCE OF INTERFERENCE IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

Higher Ground LLC, Palo ...

1. A method, comprising:determining, by a device of a first wireless communication network, that an initial transmission power for a communication from a terminal in the first wireless communication network to an intended receiver in the first wireless communication network would result in an unintended receiver receiving the communication at a received power above a threshold that would interfere with the unintended receiver;
in response, determining, by the device, a reduced transmission power that would result in the unintended receiver receiving the communication at a received power below the threshold that would interfere with the unintended receiver and also would result in the communication satisfying a receiver sensitivity of the intended receiver; and
causing, by the device, the terminal to use the reduced transmission power to transmit the communication.

US Pat. No. 10,715,206

SYNCHRONIZED CPDMA (CODE PHASE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS)

HIGHER GROUND LLC, Palo ...

1. A communications system comprising:a location determining module and connected GPS receiver that identify a location of one or more of a terminal and a geostationary communications satellite; and
an alignment module, the alignment module at least in communication with and at least using information corresponding to the determined location from the location determining module to align arrival code-phases of signals, relayed through a communication satellite, for a ground station receiver by altering a clock for a modulated signal transmitted from the terminal.

US Pat. No. 10,742,309

SPATIAL ROUTER WITH DYNAMIC QUEUES

HIGHER GROUND LLC, Palo ...

1. A wireless spatial router mountable on a movable device, comprising:a controller;
a memory in communication with the controller including storage for one or more queues;
a queue management module in communication with the controller that dynamically determine and create a number of queues in the memory associated with available or to be available satellites, an amount of information stored in the number of queues limited to margins and information that can be sent while a satellite is available, and wherein the satellite is determined to be available when the router can direct an antenna in a direction such that a link budget toward the available satellite is above a first threshold ensuring a proper communications channel, and a link budget toward any other unintended receiver is below a second threshold ensuring no interference, the availability further based on: a line of sight of the spatial router to the available satellite and the to be available satellite, and an amount of time to transmit at least a portion of the associated queue to the available satellite before the available satellite becomes unavailable due to a loss of the line of sight;
a priority module in communication with the controller that determine in which queue among the one or more queues to assign a packet, the determination at least based on one or more attributes of the packet; and
a satellite communications module that receives the packet from a queue currently being serviced and communicates the received packet via a transmitter to the available satellite.

US Pat. No. 10,924,181

RETURN PATH CONGESTION MITIGATION FOR SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS

HIGHER GROUND LLC, Palo ...

1. A method, comprising:determining, by an endpoint communicating device, a level of congestion on a particular return uplink communication path via an intermediate satellite from a plurality of distributed modules to a ground station server of a multiple-access shared communication media satellite communication system, wherein the endpoint communicating device comprises a particular distributed module of the plurality of distributed modules;
determining, by the endpoint communicating device, whether the level of congestion is above a threshold based on an estimated amount of aggregate traffic the plurality of distributed modules are transmitting to the ground station server within a given time period; and
mitigating the congestion, by the endpoint communicating device in response to the level of congestion being above the threshold, wherein mitigating comprises:
determining an uncongested return uplink communication path via a satellite of the satellite communication system from the particular distributed module to the ground station server, ensuring that communicating on the uncongested return uplink communication path would prevent any interference with one or more unintended receivers, and then causing the particular distributed module to use the uncongested return uplink communication path.

US Pat. No. 10,833,756

SATELLITE COMMUNICATION FOR THE INTERNET OF THINGS

Higher Ground LLC, Palo ...

1. A method, comprising:determining, by a device, a location of an antenna which has a line of sight towards an intended satellite receiver;
determining, by the device, based on the location, an orientation of the antenna in which the antenna is pointed in a direction within a range of directions, wherein the orientation ensures, when the antenna is used for transmissions at the location, adequate received signal strength at the intended satellite receiver and prevention of any interference by the transmissions with one or more unintended receivers, the one or more unintended receivers comprising an incumbent point-to-point receiver (PtPR);
orienting the antenna in the determined orientation;
confirming, by the device and prior to a transmission from the antenna to the intended satellite receiver, that the antenna is placed at the location and is configured in the determined orientation; and
permitting, by the device and only in response to the confirming, the transmission from the antenna to the intended satellite receiver, wherein the transmission does not interfere with the one or more unintended receivers.

US Pat. No. 10,823,822

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR DEPLOYING SELF-COORDINATED DEVICES IN AN ENVIRONMENT WITH INCUMBENT RECEIVERS

HIGHER GROUND LLC, Palo ...

1. A communications system comprising:a first wireless communication network that determines a protection zone for each of a plurality of unintended receivers of a second wireless communication network, wherein a protection zone defines a geographical area where transmission by at least one of a base station and terminal may cause interference with operation of a corresponding at least one unintended receiver;
the first wireless communication network using a location and direction determination module to determine a current location of the base station;
the first wireless communication network determining a current direction in which the antenna of the base station points;
the first communication network determining whether the current location and antenna direction of the base station is within any protection zone of the plurality of unintended receivers and may cause interference with the operation of a corresponding unintended receiver; and
a protection zone system that determines whether transmission is allowed.