US Pat. No. 9,748,894

FLEXIBLE BUILDING-INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC STRUCTURE

Global Solar Energy, Inc....

1. A method of manufacturing a photovoltaic module, comprising:
providing a bottom sheet including a back sheet and a bottom encapsulant layer overlying a radiation incident side of the
back sheet;

disposing a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells overlying a radiation incident side of the bottom
encapsulant layer, each cell including a semiconductor absorber layer and a substrate upon which the absorber layer is supported;

preparing a standalone top sheet structure by performing the following steps:
constructing a vapor barrier structure by disposing a vapor barrier between first and second layers of insulating material;
placing an upper encapsulant layer overlying a radiation incident side of the vapor barrier structure;
placing an upper protective layer overlying a radiation incident side of the upper encapsulant layer; and
performing a first lamination process to laminate together the upper protective layer, the upper encapsulant layer and the
vapor barrier structure;

placing the top sheet structure overlying a radiation incident side of the cells; and
laminating the top sheet structure to the bottom sheet in a second lamination process so that at least one of the upper protective
layer and the upper encapsulant layer joins with at least one of the bottom encapsulant layer and the back sheet to cover
and protect the edge portions of the vapor barrier structure.

US Pat. No. 9,673,348

BUFFER LAYER DEPOSITION FOR THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS

Global Solar Energy, Inc....

1. A method of producing a flexible thin film photovoltaic material comprising:
depositing a p-type absorber layer on a continuous length of flexible substrate;
conveying continuously the flexible substrate through a deposition path; and
forming an n-type layer on the p-type absorber layer by:
dispensing onto the p-type absorber layer, at a first longitudinal position along the path, a first solution containing zinc,
and

dispensing onto the p-type absorber layer, at a second a longitudinal position along the path, a second solution containing
a chalcogen selected from the group including oxygen, sulfur, and selenium;

wherein the second position is located beyond the first position by a sufficient distance to allow time for an ion exchange
reaction between zinc in the first solution and the p-type absorber layer, in a region between the first position and the
second position.

US Pat. No. 9,673,750

MOUNTING STRUCTURES FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS

Global Solar Energy, Inc....

1. A photovoltaic assembly, comprising:
first and second photovoltaic mounting structures, each including a module retention portion and a body portion having a bottom
surface configured to be attached to an underlying structure;

the module retention portion of the first mounting structure including a module overlap portion extending from the body portion
of the first mounting structure to define a uniformly narrowing gap between the overlap portion and the body portion, terminating
in a distal pinch point configured to receive an edge portion of a photovoltaic module; and

a flexible photovoltaic module disposed between the mounting structures with a first edge of the module positioned within
the module retention portion of the first mounting structure and a second edge of the module positioned within the module
retention portion of the second mounting structure, such that the first edge of the module is received in the uniformly narrowing
gap with the first edge pinched between the overlap portion and the body portion, thereby fixing the position of the first
edge of the module as it reaches the distal pinch point;

wherein the first and second mounting structures are disposed a distance apart less than a width of the module, thereby causing
the module to curve in a state of compression between the mounting structures while leaving a center portion of the module
free standing.

US Pat. No. 9,640,705

FEEDBACK FOR BUFFER LAYER DEPOSITION

Global Solar Energy, Inc....

1. A method of depositing a thin film chalcogenide buffer layer onto a flexible substrate, comprising:
transporting a web of thin film substrate material through a deposition region by passing the web over a transport mechanism
disposed within the deposition region;

dispensing onto a top surface of the web a metal-containing solution containing a metal chosen from the group consisting of
copper, silver, gold, zinc, cadmium, mercury, lead, boron, aluminum, gallium, indium and thallium, and a chalcogen-containing
solution containing a chalcogen chosen from the group consisting of oxygen, sulfur, selenium and tellurium;

lifting transverse edge portions of the web relative to a central portion of the web to contain at least a portion of the
metal-containing solution and at least a portion of the chalcogen-containing solution substantially upon the top surface of
the web; and

holding the central portion of the web substantially flat;
wherein holding the central portion of the web substantially flat includes holding the web in contact with the transport mechanism
at discrete positions within the deposition region by passing the web underneath a plurality of wheels, each wheel disposed
directly above a portion of the transport mechanism and between the central portion and one of the lifted transverse edge
portions of the web, and configured to hold the web in contact with that portion of the transport mechanism; and

wherein the wheels are disposed above the transport mechanism in an alternating arrangement, with successive wheels disposed
near alternating edges of the transport mechanism.

US Pat. No. 10,131,998

METALIZATION OF FLEXIBLE POLYMER SHEETS

Global Solar Energy, Inc....

1. A method of forming a conductive metal grid on a transparent polymer sheet, comprising:applying an electrically insulating coating to an electrically conductive cylinder, wherein the coating is patterned to expose portions of a conductive surface of the cylinder corresponding to a grid pattern to be formed;
at least partially immersing the cylinder into a metal-containing solution;
applying electrical current to the conductive cylinder, thereby causing electrodeposition of metal onto the exposed portions of the conductive surface and forming a conductive metal grid on the cylinder;
rotating the cylinder until the conductive grid comes into contact with a transparent polymer sheet wrapped around a portion of the cylinder; and
separating the sheet from the cylinder with the conductive grid attached to the sheet.

US Pat. No. 10,040,271

METALIZATION OF FLEXIBLE POLYMER SHEETS

Global Solar Energy, Inc....

1. A method of manufacturing a patterned cylinder, comprising:impinging a laser on a surface of an electrically conductive cylinder to create a pattern of microscopic fissures on the surface; and
applying an electrically insulating coating to the cylinder, wherein the coating is patterned to expose portions of the surface of the cylinder corresponding to a grid pattern to be formed.

US Pat. No. 10,134,923

PHOTOVOLTAIC DEVICES INCLUDING BI-LAYER PIXELS HAVING REFLECTIVE AND/OR ANTIREFLECTIVE PROPERTIES

Global Solar Energy, Inc....

1. A photovoltaic cell, comprising:an optically transmissive upper sheet defining a radiation-incident surface and a cell-facing surface, and including a conductive grid pattern disposed on the cell-facing surface of the upper sheet;
an electricity-producing semiconductor sheet including a photoactive composition applied to a conductive substrate, disposed with the photoactive composition facing the cell-facing surface of the upper sheet, and with the photoactive composition in electrical contact with the conductive grid pattern of the upper sheet; and
a plurality of bi-layer pixels disposed on the upper sheet, wherein the pixels each include a first layer disposed on the radiation-incident surface of the upper sheet and a second layer disposed on the first layer and separated from the upper sheet by the first layer;
wherein the first layer has reflective properties and the second layer has antireflective properties; and
wherein the first layer of each pixel has a first dimension and a first color, the second layer of each pixel has a second dimension smaller than the first dimension and a second color different than the first color, and the second layer is substantially centered with respect to the first layer, with an outline of the first layer visible around a perimeter portion of the second layer.

US Pat. No. 10,511,253

SHINGLE SOLAR MODULE WITH INTEGRATED BACKSHEET

Global Solar Energy, Inc....

1. A photovoltaic module comprising:a weatherable backsheet including:
a plurality of electrically conductive shingle connectors embedded within the backsheet; and
a plurality of backsheet openings, each opening exposing portions of two of the electrically conductive shingle connectors on a front side of the backsheet; and
a plurality of flexible photovoltaic shingles configured to be disposed on the front side of the backsheet, each shingle including:
a flexible substrate having an opening in a back side;
a plurality of photovoltaic cells disposed on a front side of the substrate; and
a plurality of conductive traces disposed between the front side of the substrate and the photovoltaic cells, the traces defining a conductive path electrically interconnecting the photovoltaic cells, and further defining a positive terminal and a negative terminal accessible through the opening in the back side of the flexible substrate;
wherein each opening in the back side of the flexible substrate of one of the shingles is configured to be aligned with a respective one of the backsheet openings, thereby electrically connecting the shingle connectors to the positive and negative terminals of each shingle and electrically connecting the shingles to each other, when the shingles are disposed on the front side of the backsheet.

US Pat. No. 10,396,705

ROOFTOP MOUNTING SYSTEM FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES

Global Solar Energy, Inc....

1. A system for mounting flexible photovoltaic (PV) modules on a roof, the system comprising:a first elongate mounting bracket including a base configured to be coupled to a first rib of a ribbed rooftop and a first flange extending parallel to the base to define a first channel, such that a distal end of the first flange is spaced from the base;
a flexible PV module having a second elongate mounting bracket oriented along a central longitudinal axis of the flexible PV module, the second elongate mounting bracket including an upper plate secured to the flexible PV module and a second flange extending parallel to the upper plate to define a second channel, such that a distal end of the second flange is spaced from the upper plate;
a plurality of standoffs configured to be coupled to a lower face of the flexible PV module, the plurality of standoffs collectively configured to prevent contact between lateral edges of the PV module and the rooftop; and
a first ridge cap configured to be affixed to a second rib of the rooftop and a second ridge cap configured to be affixed to a third rib of the rooftop;
wherein each of the first and second ridge caps includes at least one side wing configured to abut a top face of the flexible PV module;
wherein the system is transitionable between (a) a roof-mounted configuration, in which the second elongate mounting bracket is coupled to the first elongate mounting bracket, the first flange being received by the second channel and the second flange being received by the first channel, and (b) an unmounted configuration, in which the second elongate mounting bracket is decoupled from the first elongate mounting bracket and the flexible PV module is separated from the rooftop; and
wherein when the system is in the roof-mounted configuration, the lateral edges of the module are disposed closer to the roof than the central longitudinal axis of the module, with a first lateral edge of the module overlapped by the first ridge cap in a laterally sliding fit and a second lateral edge of the module overlapped by the second ridge cap in a laterally sliding fit.

US Pat. No. 10,312,403

APPARATUS AND METHODS FOR MANUFACTURING THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS

Global Solar Energy, Inc....

1. An assembly for physical vapor deposition onto a moving substrate, comprising:an apparatus for translating a flexible substrate through a processing path between roll-out and roll-up devices;
four effusion sources disposed below the processing path and across a width of the substrate, each source including:
a body portion configured to contain material to be evaporated onto the substrate, and
a lid disposed on top of the body portion, the lid containing at least one effusion port and defining an upper plane of the source, and
a heating element connected to an electrical source, the heating element having a base with a thickness defined in a direction perpendicular to the upper plane of the source and toward the processing path, and a nozzle extending beyond the base toward the processing path, the nozzle forming an internal wall of one of the effusion ports;
wherein each nozzle is formed by two looped portions of the heating element electrically insulated from each other by a gap filled with a dielectric material, each source further includes a pair of electrical contacts which supply power from the electrical source to the heating element, the electrical contacts are disposed symmetrically with respect to the at least one effusion port of the source, and the heating element defines a continuous conductive path between the electrical contacts.

US Pat. No. 10,461,685

FOLDABLE PHOTOVOLTAIC ASSEMBLY WITH NON-PERPENDICULAR INTERCONNECTION

Global Solar Energy, Inc....

1. An assembly of electrically interconnected photovoltaic submodules, comprising:a first photovoltaic submodule including a first plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells;
a second photovoltaic submodule including a second plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells, wherein the second submodule is separated from the first submodule by a fold zone characterized by a fold line; and
a plurality of spaced apart conductive interconnection structures electrically interconnecting the first and second submodules, each including a discrete bundle of parallel conductors and each extending through the fold zone at a non-perpendicular angle relative to the fold line;
wherein each and every one of the conductive interconnection structures is independently sufficient to electrically interconnect the photovoltaic submodules.