1. A Reed-Solomon (RS) error correction decoding method, characterized in that,when encoding at a sending terminal, code words of information data are represented by K1, code words of redundant codes are represented by Tn, the order of primitive polynomial P(x) is m, a generator polynomial in GF(2m) is G(x), and an error correction code is represented by (c, k, t), wherein c is the total length of the information data and the redundant code, k is the length of the information data, and t is the length of the redundant code, then the code word polynomial Q(x) is represented as

root of the m-order primitive polynomial P(x) is primitive field element in GF(2m), and the primitive field element is represented by ?, thus the generator polynomial G(x) is represented as

a lookup table f(?j) is established for different power exponents of ?, wherein the value of j is selected from all the integers ranging from 0 to 2m?1, with a total number of 2m;

the generator polynomial G(x) is expanded to obtain a polynomial with respect to x, wherein the coefficients of the generator polynomial G(x) are the addition or subtraction of the power exponents of ?;

numerical values of the different power exponents of ? are found out through the lookup table f(?j) and the coefficients of the generator polynomial G(x) are calculated;

it is assumed that the code words Tn of the redundant codes are all 0, then a code word polynomial

is obtained;the code word polynomial Q(x) is divided by the generator polynomial G(x) to obtain a remainder polynomial

the coefficients Ti of R(x) are the addition or subtraction of the power exponents of ?;

numerical values of the power exponents of ? are found out through the lookup table f(?j), and the coefficients of the remainder polynomial R(x) are calculated, namely, the code words Tn of the redundant codes;

wherein the error correction decoding process includes:

assuming that s is the maximum number of error correction bits of the receiving terminal, let t=2s+1;

dividing the code word polynomial Q(x) by the generator polynomial G(x) to obtain the remainder polynomial R(x),

calculating the coefficients of the remainder polynomial R(x), thus obtaining the code words Tn of 2s+1 redundant codes, n=1, 2, . . . , 2s+1;

sending, by the sending terminal, information data and 2s+1 redundant codes to the receiving terminal;

receiving, by the receiving terminal, the information data and 2s+1 redundant codes;

obtaining, by the receiving terminal, the code word polynomial Q(x) according to the received information data and 2s+1 redundant codes, and the code word polynomial Q(x) being represented as:

calculating, by the receiving terminal, 2s+1 correctors Si, wherein Si=Q(?j), i=1, 2, . . . , 2s+1;

calculating a location of an error information code and a correction value using correctors S1 to S2s, if not all of the correctors Si are equal to 0;

adding the correction value to the code word at the location of the error information code received by the receiving terminal to obtain an error-corrected code word;

assigning the value of the error-corrected code word to the code word at the location of the error information code;

recalculating S2s+1=Q(?2s+1), wherein if S2s+1=0, the error correction is successful.