US Pat. No. 9,781,817

HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS GLOW DISCHARGE DEVICE

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A glow discharge cell comprising:
an electrically conductive cylindrical vessel having a first end and a second end, and at least one inlet and one outlet;
a hollow electrode aligned with a longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel and extending at least from the first end to
the second end of the cylindrical vessel, wherein the hollow electrode has an inlet, an outlet, and a plurality of slots or
holes;

a cylindrical screen aligned with the longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel and disposed between the hollow electrode
and the cylindrical vessel to form a substantially equidistant gap between the cylindrical screen and the hollow electrode;

a first insulator that seals the first end of the cylindrical vessel around the hollow electrode;
a second insulator that seals the second end of the cylindrical vessel around the hollow electrode;
a non-conductive granular material disposed within the substantially equidistant gap, wherein (a) the non-conductive granular
material allows an electrically conductive fluid to flow between the cylindrical screen and the hollow electrode, and (b)
the combination of the non-conductive granular material and the conductive fluid prevents electrical arcing between the cylindrical
vessel or screen and the hollow electrode during a electric glow discharge; and

wherein: (1) the electric glow discharge is created whenever (a) the glow discharge cell is connected to a DC electrical power
supply such that the cylindrical vessel or the screen is an anode and the hollow electrode is a cathode, and (b) the electrically
conductive fluid is introduced into the gap, and (2) the cathode heats up during the electric glow discharge.

US Pat. No. 9,445,488

PLASMA WHIRL REACTOR APPARATUS AND METHODS OF USE

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A plasma system comprising:
a plasma arc torch comprising:
a cylindrical vessel having a first end and a second end,
a first tangential inlet/outlet connected to or proximate to the first end,
a second tangential inlet/outlet connected to or proximate to the second end,
an electrode housing connected to the first end of the cylindrical vessel such that a first electrode is (a) aligned with
a longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel, and (b) extends into the cylindrical vessel, and

a hollow electrode nozzle connected to the second end of the cylindrical vessel such that a centerline of the hollow electrode
nozzle is aligned with the longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel, the hollow electrode nozzle having a first end disposed
within the cylindrical vessel and a second end disposed outside the cylindrical vessel;

a cylindrical tube attached to the hollow electrode nozzle and aligned with the longitudinal axis, the cylindrical tube having
a side inlet and a radio frequency coil disposed around or embedded within the cylindrical tube; and

an eductor attached to the cylindrical tube and aligned with the longitudinal axis.

US Pat. No. 9,481,584

SYSTEM, METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TREATING LIQUIDS WITH WAVE ENERGY FROM PLASMA

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

8. A system for treating a liquid comprising:
a storage tank;
a pump volute or hydrocyclone head having a side inlet, a lower outlet and an upper opening;
a throat having a first opening and a second opening, wherein the first opening is connected to the lower outlet of the pump
volute or hydrocyclone head and the second opening is connected to a top of the storage tank;

a vortex finder attached to the upper opening of the pump volute or hydrocyclone head such that the vortex finder extends
into the pump volute or hydrocyclone head;

an electrical connection attached to the vortex finder such that the vortex finder is an anode;
a plasma torch attached to the vortex finder such that a central axis of the plasma torch, a central axis of the vortex finder,
a central axis of the lower outlet and a central axis of the throat are all aligned with one another; and

wherein the liquid flows into the side inlet and through the lower outlet of the pump volute or hydrocyclone head into the
throat, such that the liquid cools the anode, is irradiated by a plasma arc from the plasma torch and flows through the second
opening of the throat into the storage tank.

US Pat. No. 9,428,409

KIT FOR TREATING LIQUIDS WITH WAVE ENERGY FROM AN ELECTRICAL ARC

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A kit for installation on a top portion of a tank to treat a liquid comprising:
a pump volute or hydrocyclone head having an inlet and throat having an outlet and a central axis, wherein the outlet of the
throat is configured to be installed on the top portion of the tank and the tank has a maximum inner diameter that is larger
than an inner diameter of the outlet of the throat; and

a wave energy source comprising a first electrode within the pump volute or hydrocyclone head that is aligned with the central
axis, and a second electrode that is configured to be installed within the tank such that the second electrode is spaced apart
and axially aligned with first electrode along the central axis.

US Pat. No. 10,117,318

HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS GLOW DISCHARGE DEVICE

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A glow discharge cell comprising:an electrically conductive cylindrical vessel having a first end and a second end, and a plurality of holes or slots in an exterior wall;
a hollow electrode aligned with a longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel and extending at least from the first end to an interior of the cylindrical vessel, wherein the hollow electrode has an inlet and an outlet;
a first insulator that seals the first end of the cylindrical vessel around an outlet aligned with the longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel;
a cylindrical screen disposed within the cylindrical vessel that connects the hollow electrode to the outlet in the first insulator;
a second insulator that seals the second end of the cylindrical vessel around the hollow electrode and maintains the substantially equidistant gap between the cylindrical vessel and the hollow electrode;
a non-conductive granular material disposed within the substantially equidistant gap, wherein (a) the non-conductive granular material allows an electrically conductive fluid to flow between the cylindrical vessel and the hollow electrode, and (b) the combination of the non-conductive granular material and the conductive fluid prevents electrical arcing between the cylindrical vessel and the hollow electrode during an electric glow discharge; and
wherein: (1) the electric glow discharge is created whenever (a) the glow discharge cell is connected to a DC electrical power supply such that the cylindrical vessel is an anode and the hollow electrode is a cathode, and (b) the electrically conductive fluid is introduced into the gap, and (2) the cathode heats up during the electric glow discharge.

US Pat. No. 9,951,942

SOLID OXIDE HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS GLOW DISCHARGE CELL

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A system for producing a first steam and a second steam, the system comprising:a glow discharge cell comprising:
an electrically conductive cylindrical vessel having a first end and a second end, and at least one inlet and one outlet;
a hollow electrode aligned with a longitudinal axis of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel and extending at least from the first end to the second end of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel, wherein the hollow electrode has an inlet and an outlet,
a first insulator that seals the first end of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel around the hollow electrode and maintains a substantially equidistant gap between the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel and the hollow electrode,
a second insulator that seals the second end of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel around the hollow electrode and maintains the substantially equidistant gap between the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel and the hollow electrode, and
a non-conductive granular material disposed within the substantially equidistant gap;
a fluid source, a pump or a valve connected to the inlet of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel that provides an electrically conductive fluid to the glow discharge cell;
a DC electrical power supply electrically connected to the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel and the hollow electrode; and
wherein the hollow electrode heats up during an electric glow discharge, produces the first steam from the electrically conductive fluid that exits through the outlet of the glow discharge cell, and produces the second steam produced that exits through the outlet of the hollow electrode.

US Pat. No. 9,105,433

PLASMA TORCH

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A plasma torch comprising:
an electrically conductive cylindrical vessel having a first end and a second end, a first outlet, a second outlet and an
inlet;

a hollow electrode having an inlet and an outlet aligned with a longitudinal axis of the electrically conductive cylindrical
vessel and extending at least from the first end into the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel;

a first insulator that seals the first end of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel around the hollow electrode and
maintains a substantially equidistant gap between the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel and the hollow electrode;

the first outlet of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel disposed proximate to the first end of the electrically
conductive cylindrical vessel;

the inlet of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel disposed between the first end and the second end of the electrically
conductive cylindrical vessel proximate to the inlet of the hollow electrode;

the second outlet of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel disposed between the inlet and the second end of the electrically
conductive cylindrical vessel;

a non-conductive granular material disposed within the substantially equidistant gap, wherein the non-conductive granular
material allows an electrically conductive fluid to flow between the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel and the hollow
electrode, and the combination of the non-conductive granular material and the electrically conductive fluid prevents electrical
arcing between the cylindrical vessel and the hollow electrode during an electric glow discharge;

a concentric reducer disposed within the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel and extending from the second end of the
electrically conductive cylindrical vessel to the hollow electrode;

a tangential inlet connected to or proximate to the second end of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel;
an electrode housing connected to the second end of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel; and
a first electrode aligned with the longitudinal axis of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel and extending through
the electrode housing into the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel.

US Pat. No. 9,516,736

SYSTEM, METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR RECOVERING MINING FLUIDS FROM MINING BYPRODUCTS

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A plasma treatment system comprising:
a plasma arc torch comprising:
a cylindrical vessel having a first end and a second end,
a first tangential inlet/outlet connected to or proximate to the first end,
a second tangential inlet/outlet connected to or proximate to the second end,
an electrode housing connected to the first end of the cylindrical vessel such that a first electrode is (a) aligned with
a longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel, and (b) extends into the cylindrical vessel, and

a hollow electrode nozzle connected to the second end of the cylindrical vessel such that a centerline of the hollow electrode
nozzle is aligned with the longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel, the hollow electrode nozzle having a first end disposed
within the cylindrical vessel and a second end disposed outside the cylindrical vessel; and

a screw feed unit having an inlet and an outlet, the outlet aligned with the centerline and proximate to the hollow electrode
nozzle.

US Pat. No. 9,156,715

APPARATUS FOR TREATING LIQUIDS WITH WAVE ENERGY FROM AN ELECTRICAL ARC

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. An apparatus for treating a liquid comprising:
a pump volute or hydrocyclone head having an inlet and a throat having an outlet and a central axis;
a tank connected to the outlet of the throat, the tank has a maximum inner diameter that is larger than an inner diameter
of the outlet of the throat;

a wave energy source comprising a first electrode within the pump volute or hydrocyclone head that is aligned with the central
axis, and a second electrode within the tank that is spaced apart and axially aligned with first electrode along the central
axis; and

the liquid is supplied to the inlet of the pump volute or hydrocyclone head, and is irradiated with one or more wave energies
produced by the wave energy source.

US Pat. No. 9,111,712

SOLID OXIDE HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS GLOW DISCHARGE CELL

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A system for producing a steam from an electrically conductive fluid, the system comprising:
a glow discharge cell comprising:
an electrically conductive cylindrical vessel having a first end and a closed second end, an inlet proximate to the first
end, and an outlet centered in the closed second end;

a hollow electrode aligned with a longitudinal axis of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel and extending at least
from the first end into the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel, wherein the hollow electrode has an inlet and an outlet,

a first insulator that seals the first end of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel around the hollow electrode and
maintains a substantially equidistant gap between the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel and the hollow electrode,
and

a non-conductive granular material disposed within the substantially equidistant gap, wherein the non-conductive granular
material allows the electrically conductive fluid to flow between the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel and the hollow
electrode, and the combination of the non-conductive granular material and the electrically conductive fluid prevents electrical
arcing between the cylindrical vessel and the hollow electrode during an electric glow discharge;

a fluid source, a pump or a valve connected to the inlet of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel that provides the
electrically conductive fluid to the glow discharge cell;

a DC electrical power supply electrically connected to the glow discharge cell such that the electrically conductive cylindrical
vessel is an anode and the hollow electrode is a cathode; and

wherein the hollow electrode heats up during the electric glow discharge and produces the steam from the electrically conductive
fluid, and the steam exits through the outlet centered in the closed second end.

US Pat. No. 9,446,371

METHOD FOR TREATING A SUBSTANCE WITH WAVE ENERGY FROM AN ELECTRICAL ARC AND A SECOND SOURCE

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A method for treating a substance comprising:
providing a device comprising: (a) a volute or cyclone head having an inlet and an outlet, (b) a throat having a first opening,
a second opening and a central axis, wherein the first opening is connected to the outlet of the volute or cyclone head, (c)
a parabolic reflector having a vertex, a focus and an opening at the vertex, wherein the opening is connected to the second
opening of the throat such that the vertex and focus are axially aligned with the central axis and the focus is not located
within the throat, (d) a first wave energy source comprising a first electrode within the volute or cyclone head that extends
through the outlet into the first opening of the throat along the central axis of the throat, and a second electrode extending
into the parabolic reflector proximate to the focus wherein the second electrode is spaced apart and axially aligned with
first electrode, (e) a second wave energy source disposed inside the throat, embedded within the throat or disposed around
the throat; and

directing the substance into the device through the inlet of the volute or cyclone head such that the substance exits the
device through the opening at the vertex of the parabolic reflector; and

irradiating the substance with one or more wave energies produced by the first and second wave energy sources as the substance
passes through the device.

US Pat. No. 9,127,205

PLASMA WHIRL REACTOR APPARATUS AND METHODS OF USE

FORET PLASMA LABS, LLC, ...

1. A method for producing a clinker for cement from a material comprising:
providing a vessel having an interior defined by a cylindrical portion disposed proximate to a first end and a cone shaped
portion disposed proximate to said cylindrical portion that forms a first outlet at a second end that is aligned with a longitudinal
axis of said cylindrical portion and said cone shaped portion, one or more inlets in said first end, a second outlet at said
first end that is aligned with said longitudinal axis of said cylindrical portion, and two or more jets or slits mounted tangentially
within said cylindrical portion;

introducing a plasma into said interior using a first plasma source comprising a plasma torch connected to said first end
and aligned with said longitudinal axis of said cylindrical portion and said cone shaped portion;

adding energy to said plasma using a second plasma source comprising a set of radio frequency coils disposed around or within
said cylindrical portion;

creating angular momentum in said plasma to form a plasma vortex by directing a fluid or a gas into said interior using said
two or more jets or slits, wherein said plasma vortex circulates around said longitudinal axis; and

producing said clinker for cement by directing said material into said plasma vortex via said one or more inlets such that
said plasma vortex reacts with said material and said clinker for cement exits through said first outlet in said second end.

US Pat. No. 9,699,879

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR SINTERING PROPPANTS

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. An apparatus for sintering green pellets to make proppant particles, the apparatus comprising:
a vessel having an overflow disposed in a first end, an underflow disposed in a second end, a middle portion having a circular
cross-section disposed between the first end and the second end, and a tangential inlet proximate to the first end such that
a gas from the tangential inlet flows along a vortex path from the first end to the second end of the vessel;

a first electrode extending through the overflow and a second electrode extending through the underflow, wherein both electrodes
are at least partially disposed within the vessel, spaced apart from one another, and axially aligned with one another along
a central axis of the vessel from the first end to the second end;

one or more feed tubes extending through the overflow proximate to the first electrode; and
wherein the electrodes are used to create an open electrical arc that sinters or partially sinters the green pellets from
the one or more feed tubes in a selected temperature range to form the proppant particles as the green pellets pass between
the electrical arc and the gas flowing in the vortex path and exit the underflow.

US Pat. No. 9,230,777

WATER/WASTEWATER RECYCLE AND REUSE WITH PLASMA, ACTIVATED CARBON AND ENERGY SYSTEM

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A system comprising:
a glow discharge cell comprising:
an electrically conductive cylindrical vessel having a first end and a closed second end, an inlet proximate to the first
end, and an outlet centered in the closed second end,

a hollow electrode aligned with a longitudinal axis of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel and extending at least
from the first end into the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel, wherein the hollow electrode has an inlet and an outlet,

a first insulator that seals the first end of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel around the hollow electrode and
maintains a substantially equidistant gap between the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel and the hollow electrode,
and

a non-conductive granular material disposed within the substantially equidistant gap, wherein the non-conductive granular
material allows an electrically conductive fluid to flow between the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel and the hollow
electrode, and the combination of the non-conductive granular material and the electrically conductive fluid prevents electrical
arcing between the cylindrical vessel and the hollow electrode during an electric glow discharge;

a plasma arc torch comprising:
a cylindrical vessel having a first end and a second end,
a tangential inlet connected to or proximate to the first end,
a tangential outlet connected to or proximate to the second end,
an electrode housing connected to the first end of the cylindrical vessel such that a first electrode is (a) aligned with
a longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel, and (b) extends into the cylindrical vessel,

a hollow electrode nozzle connected to the second end of the cylindrical vessel such that the center line of the hollow electrode
nozzle is aligned with the longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel, and

wherein the tangential inlet and the tangential outlet create a vortex within the cylindrical vessel, and the first electrode
and the hollow electrode nozzle create a plasma that discharges through the hollow electrode nozzle;

a first valve connected to a wastewater source;
an eductor having a first inlet, a second inlet and an outlet, wherein the first inlet is connected to the outlet of the electrically
conductive cylindrical vessel, the second inlet is connected to the first valve, and the outlet is connected to the tangential
inlet of the plasma arc torch; and

a second valve connected between the tangential outlet of the plasma arc torch and the inlet of the glow discharge cell, such
that the plasma arc torch provides the electrically conductive fluid to the glow discharge cell and the glow discharge cell
provides a treated water via the outlet centered in the closed second end.

US Pat. No. 9,127,206

PLASMA WHIRL REACTOR APPARATUS AND METHODS OF USE

FORET PLASMA LABS, LLC, ...

1. An apparatus for producing a clinker for cement from a material comprising:
a vessel having an interior defined by a cylindrical portion disposed proximate to a first end and a cone shaped portion disposed
proximate to said cylindrical portion that forms a first outlet at a second end that is aligned with a longitudinal axis of
said cylindrical portion and said cone shaped portion, one or more inlets in said first end to receive said material, and
a second outlet at said first end that is aligned with said longitudinal axis of said cylindrical portion;

a first plasma source comprising a plasma torch connected to said first end and aligned with said longitudinal axis of said
cylindrical portion and said cone shaped portion to introduce a plasma into said interior;

a second plasma source comprising a set of radio frequency coils disposed around or within said cylindrical portion to add
energy to said plasma; and

two or more jets or slits within said cylindrical portion to direct a fluid or a gas into said interior to create angular
momentum in said plasma to form a plasma vortex that circulates around said longitudinal axis and reacts with said material
to produce said clinker for cement that exits through said first outlet in said second end.

US Pat. No. 9,241,396

METHOD FOR OPERATING A PLASMA ARC TORCH HAVING MULTIPLE OPERATING MODES

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A method for operating a multi-mode plasma arc torch comprising the steps of:
providing the multi-mode plasma arc torch comprising a cylindrical vessel having a first end and a second end, a first tangential
inlet/outlet connected to or proximate to the first end, a second tangential inlet/outlet connected to or proximate to the
second end, an electrode housing connected to the first end of the cylindrical vessel such that a first electrode is (a) aligned
with a longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel, and (b) extends into the cylindrical vessel, and a hollow electrode nozzle
connected to the second end of the cylindrical vessel such that a center line of the hollow electrode nozzle is aligned with
the longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel, the hollow electrode having a first end disposed within the cylindrical vessel
and a second end disposed outside the cylindrical vessel; and

operating the multi-mode plasma arc torch in a dead short resistive mode, a submerged arc mode, an electrolysis mode, a glow
discharge mode or a plasma arc mode by adjusting a position of the first electrode with respect to the hollow electrode.

US Pat. No. 9,185,787

HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS GLOW DISCHARGE DEVICE

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A glow discharge cell comprising:
an electrically conductive cylindrical vessel having a first end and a closed second end, an inlet proximate to the first
end, and an outlet centered in the closed second end;

a hollow electrode aligned with a longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel and extending at least from the first end into
the cylindrical vessel, wherein the hollow electrode has an inlet and an outlet;

a first insulator that seals the first end of the cylindrical vessel around the hollow electrode;
a cylindrical screen aligned with the longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel, attached to the first insulator, disposed
between the hollow electrode and the cylindrical vessel to form a substantially equidistant gap between the cylindrical screen
and the hollow electrode, and having a bottom disposed between the inlet of the hollow electrode and the closed second end
of the cylindrical vessel;

a non-conductive granular material disposed within the substantially equidistant gap, wherein (a) the non-conductive granular
material allows an electrically conductive fluid to flow between the cylindrical screen and the hollow electrode, and (b)
the combination of the non-conductive granular material and the conductive fluid prevents electrical arcing between the cylindrical
vessel or screen and the hollow electrode during a electric glow discharge; and

wherein: (1) the electric glow discharge is created whenever (a) the glow discharge cell is connected to a DC electrical power
supply such that the cylindrical vessel or screen is an anode and the hollow electrode is a cathode, and (b) the electrically
conductive fluid is introduced into the gap, and (2) the cathode heats up during the electric glow discharge.

US Pat. No. 9,163,584

SYSTEM, METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR LEAN COMBUSTION WITH PLASMA FROM AN ELECTRICAL ARC

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A method for supersonic lean fuel combustion comprising the steps of:
providing an apparatus comprising:
a plasma arc torch comprising:
a cylindrical vessel having a first end and a second end,
a tangential inlet connected to or proximate to the first end of the cylindrical vessel,
a tangential outlet connected to or proximate to the second end of the cylindrical vessel,
an electrode housing connected to the first end of the cylindrical vessel such that a first electrode is (a) aligned with
a longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel, and (b) extends into the cylindrical vessel, and

a hollow electrode nozzle connected to the second end of the cylindrical vessel such that a center line of the hollow electrode
nozzle is aligned with the longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel,

a cyclone combustor connected to the hollow electrode nozzle of the plasma arc torch, wherein the cyclone combustor has a
tangential entry, a tangential exit, and an exhaust outlet, and

a turbocharger having a turbine connected to a compressor via a shaft, wherein a turbine entry is connected to the tangential
exit of the cyclone combustor, a compressor exit is connected to the tangential entry of the cyclone combustor;

generating a vortex within the cylindrical vessel of the plasma arc torch by injecting a gas, fluid or steam into the tangential
inlet of the plasma arc torch such that a portion of the gas, fluid or steam discharges out of the tangential outlet of the
plasma arc torch;

creating an electric arc between the electrode and the hollow electrode nozzle to generate a plasma that is confined by the
vortex and is discharged through the hollow electrode nozzle into the cyclone combustor;

generating a combustion air whirl flow within the cyclone combustor by injecting a compressed air into the tangential entry
of the cyclone combustor;

converting a fuel to one or more hot gases using the plasma; and
extracting a rotational energy from at least a portion of the one or more hot gases that pass from the tangential exit of
the cyclone combustor into the turbine entry using the turbine of the turbocharger.

US Pat. No. 9,801,266

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR SINTERING PROPPANTS

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A method for sintering green pellets to make proppant particles comprising the steps of:
providing an apparatus comprising:
a vessel having an overflow disposed in a first end, an underflow disposed in a second end, a middle portion having a circular
cross-section disposed between the first end and the second end, and a tangential inlet proximate to the first end,

a first electrode extending through the overflow and a second electrode extending through the underflow, wherein both electrodes
are at least partially disposed within the vessel, spaced apart from one another, and axially aligned with one another along
a central axis of the vessel from the first end to the second end, and

one or more feed tubes extending through the overflow proximate to the first electrode;
directing a gas into the tangential inlet to flow in a vortex path from the first end to the second end of the vessel;
creating an open electrical arc between the first electrode and the second electrode; and
dropping the green pellets from the one or more feed tubes, such that the green pellets are sintered or partially sintered
in a selected temperature range to form proppant particles as the green pellets pass between the electrical arc and the gas
flowing in the vortex path and exit the underflow.

US Pat. No. 9,051,820

SYSTEM, METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CREATING AN ELECTRICAL GLOW DISCHARGE

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A method for heating and fracturing a subterranean formation containing an electrically conductive fluid, the method comprising
the steps of:
providing a plurality of electric glow discharge devices, wherein each electric glow discharge device comprises:
a first electrically conductive cylindrical screen having a first end, a second end, and a first diameter,
a second electrically conductive cylindrical screen having a first end, a second end, and a second diameter smaller than the
first diameter,

a first insulator attached to the first end of the first electrically conductive cylindrical screen and the first end of the
second electrically conductive cylindrical screen, wherein the first insulator maintains a substantially equidistant gap between
the first electrically conductive cylindrical screen and the second electrically conductive cylindrical screen,

a second insulator attached to the second end of the first electrically conductive cylindrical screen and the second end of
the second electrically conductive cylindrical screen, wherein the second insulator maintains the substantially equidistant
gap between the first electrically conductive cylindrical screen and the second electrically conductive cylindrical screen,
a non-conductive granular material disposed within the substantially equidistant gap, wherein (a) the non-conductive granular
material does not pass through either electrically conductive screen, (b) the non-conductive granular material allows the
electrically conductive fluid to flow between and contact the first electrically conductive screen and the second electrically
conductive screen, and (c) the combination of the non-conductive granular material and the electrically conductive fluid prevents
electrical arcing between the electrically conductive screens during the electric glow discharge,

a first electrical terminal electrically connected to the first electrically conductive screen, and
a second electrical terminal electrically connected to the second electrically conductive screen;
connecting the first and second electrical terminals of each electric glow discharge device to a DC electrical power supply;
positioning a first of the electric glow discharge devices at a first location within the subterranean formation via a first
well, and positioning a second of the electric glow discharge devices at a second location within the subterranean formation
via a second well; and

heating and fracturing the subterranean formation by applying a DC voltage to the first electrically conductive screen and
the second electrically conductive screen of each electric glow discharge device using the DC electrical power supply comprising
the steps of:

heating the subterranean formation by operating the first electrically conductive cylindrical screen and the second electrically
conductive screen of the first of the electric glow discharge devices as the cathode, and the first electrically conductive
cylindrical screen and second electrically conductive cylindrical screen of the second of the electric glow discharge devices
as the anode, and

fracturing the subterranean formation by operating the first electrically conductive cylindrical screen of the first of the
electric glow discharge devices and the second of the electric glow discharge devices as a cathode, and the second electrically
conductive cylindrical screen of the first of the electric plow discharge devices and the second of the electric glow discharge
devices as an anode.

US Pat. No. 9,499,443

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR SINTERING PROPPANTS

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A method for sintering green pellets to make proppant particles comprising the steps of:
providing an apparatus comprising:
a first cylindrical vessel having a first end, a second end and a first longitudinal axis,
a first vortex finder connected to the first end of the first cylindrical vessel and aligned with the first longitudinal axis,
a second cylindrical vessel having a third end, a fourth end and a second longitudinal axis,
a second vortex finder connected to the second end of the first cylindrical vessel and aligned with the second longitudinal
axis,

an inlet passage disposed between the first vortex finder and the second vortex finder, connected tangentially to both the
first cylindrical vessel proximate to the first end and the second cylindrical vessel proximate to the third end, and having
an inlet and a third longitudinal axis, and

a divider disposed within the inlet passage along the third longitudinal axis;
supplying a heated gas to the inlet of the inlet passage;
directing the heated gas into the first cylindrical vessel to form a first vortex gas flow and the second cylindrical vessel
to form a second vortex gas flow using the divider; and

dropping the green pellets into the first vortex finder or the second vortex finder or both the first vortex finder and the
second vortex finder such that the green pellets are sintered or partially sintered in a selected temperature range to form
the proppant particles as the green pellets pass through a first central portion of the first vortex gas flow and exit the
second end of the first cylindrical vessel and/or pass through a second central portion of the second vortex flow and exit
the fourth end of the second cylindrical vessel.

US Pat. No. 9,560,731

SYSTEM, METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR AN INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA ARC WHIRL FILTER PRESS

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A plasma treatment system comprising:
a plasma arc torch comprising:
a cylindrical vessel having a first end and a second end,
a first tangential inlet/outlet connected to or proximate to the first end,
a second tangential inlet/outlet connected to or proximate to the second end,
an electrode housing connected to the first end of the cylindrical vessel such that a first electrode is (a) aligned with
a longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel, and (b) extends into the cylindrical vessel, and

a hollow electrode nozzle connected to the second end of the cylindrical vessel such that a centerline of the hollow electrode
nozzle is aligned with the longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel, the hollow electrode nozzle having a first end disposed
within the cylindrical vessel and a second end disposed outside the cylindrical vessel;

a tee attached to the hollow electrode nozzle; and
a screw feed unit or a ram feed unit having an inlet and an outlet attached to the tee.

US Pat. No. 9,790,108

WATER/WASTEWATER RECYCLE AND REUSE WITH PLASMA, ACTIVATED CARBON AND ENERGY SYSTEM

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A system comprising:
a glow discharge cell comprising:
an electrically conductive cylindrical vessel having a first end and a closed second end, an inlet proximate to the first
end, and an outlet centered in the closed second end,

a hollow electrode aligned with a longitudinal axis of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel and extending at least
from the first end into the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel, wherein the hollow electrode has an inlet and an outlet,

a first insulator that seals the first end of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel around the hollow electrode and
maintains a substantially equidistant gap between the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel and the hollow electrode,
and

a non-conductive granular material disposed within the substantially equidistant gap, wherein the non-conductive granular
material allows an electrically conductive fluid to flow between the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel and the hollow
electrode, and the combination of the non-conductive granular material and the electrically conductive fluid prevents electrical
arcing between the cylindrical vessel and the hollow electrode during an electric glow discharge;

a plasma arc torch comprising:
a cylindrical vessel having a first end and a second end,
a tangential inlet connected to or proximate to the first end,
a tangential outlet connected to or proximate to the second end,
an electrode housing connected to the first end of the cylindrical vessel such that a first electrode is (a) aligned with
a longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel, and (b) extends into the cylindrical vessel,

a hollow electrode nozzle connected to the second end of the cylindrical vessel such that the center line of the hollow electrode
nozzle is aligned with the longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel, and

wherein the tangential inlet and the tangential outlet create a vortex within the cylindrical vessel, and the first electrode
and the hollow electrode nozzle create a plasma that discharges through the hollow electrode nozzle;

a linear actuator connected to the first electrode of the plasma arc torch to adjust a position of the first electrode within
the cylindrical vessel along the longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel;

a pump connected to a wastewater source;
a first valve connected to the pump;
a compressed gas source connected to the first valve;
a third valve connected between the outlet of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel;
an eductor having a first inlet, a second inlet and an outlet, wherein the first inlet is connected to the third valve, the
second inlet is connected to the first valve, and the outlet is connected to the tangential inlet of the plasma arc torch;
and

a second valve connected between the tangential outlet of the plasma arc torch and the inlet of the glow discharge cell, such
that the plasma arc torch provides the electrically conductive fluid to the glow discharge cell and the glow discharge cell
provides a treated water via the outlet centered in the closed second end.

US Pat. No. 9,659,750

HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS GLOW DISCHARGE DEVICE

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A glow discharge assembly comprising:
an electrically conductive cylindrical screen having an open end and a closed end;
a flange assembly attached to and electrically connected to the open end of the electrically conductive cylindrical screen,
the flange assembly having a hole with a first diameter aligned with a longitudinal axis of the electrically conductive cylindrical
screen;

an electrode aligned with the longitudinal axis of the electrically conductive cylindrical screen and extending through the
hole of the flange assembly into the electrically conductive cylindrical screen, the electrode having a second diameter that
is smaller than the first diameter of the hole;

an insulator that seals the hole of the flange assembly around the electrode and maintains a substantially equidistant gap
between the electrically conductive cylindrical screen and the electrode; and

a non-conductive granular material disposed within the substantially equidistant gap, wherein (a) the non-conductive granular
material allows an electrically conductive fluid to flow between the electrically conductive cylindrical screen and the electrode,
and (b) the combination of the non-conductive granular material and the conductive fluid prevents electrical arcing between
the electrically conductive cylindrical screen and the electrode during an electric glow discharge.

US Pat. No. 9,644,465

SYSTEM, METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CREATING AN ELECTRICAL GLOW DISCHARGE

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A method for heating a subterranean formation containing an electrically conductive fluid, the method comprising the steps
of:
providing a plurality of electric glow discharge devices, wherein each electric glow discharge device comprises:
a first electrically conductive cylindrical screen having a first end, a second end, and a first diameter,
a second electrically conductive cylindrical screen having a first end, a second end, and a second diameter smaller than the
first diameter,

wherein the second electrically conductive cylindrical screen is concentrically disposed with respect to the first electrically
conductive screen and separated from the first electrically conductive screen by a substantially equidistant gap,

a first insulator attached to the first end of the first electrically conductive cylindrical screen and the first end of the
second electrically conductive cylindrical screen, wherein the first insulator maintains the substantially equidistant gap
between the first electrically conductive cylindrical screen and the second electrically conductive cylindrical screen,

a second insulator attached to the second end of the first electrically conductive cylindrical screen and the second end of
the second electrically conductive cylindrical screen, wherein the second insulator maintains the substantially equidistant
gap between the first electrically conductive cylindrical screen and the second electrically conductive cylindrical screen,

a non-conductive granular material disposed within the substantially equidistant gap, wherein (a) the non-conductive granular
material does not pass through either electrically conductive screen, (b) the non-conductive granular material allows the
electrically conductive fluid to flow between and contact the first electrically conductive screen and the second electrically
conductive screen, and (c) the combination of the non-conductive granular material and the electrically conductive fluid prevents
electrical arcing between the electrically conductive screens during the electric glow discharge,

a first electrical terminal electrically connected to the first electrically conductive screen, and
a second electrical terminal electrically connected to the second electrically conductive screen;
connecting the first and second electrical terminals of each electric glow discharge device to a DC electrical power supply;
positioning the plurality of electric glow discharge devices at multiple locations within the subterranean formation via one
or more wells; and

heating the subterranean formation by applying a DC voltage to the first electrically conductive screen as a cathode and the
second electrically conductive screen as an anode of each electric glow discharge device using the DC electrical power supply
such that a glow discharge is created in the electrically conductive fluid between the first electrically conductive screen
and the second electrically conductive screen.

US Pat. No. 10,018,351

SOLID OXIDE HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS GLOW DISCHARGE CELL

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A system for producing a steam from an electrically conductive fluid, the system comprising:a glow discharge cell comprising:
an electrically conductive cylindrical vessel having a first end and a second end, and at least one inlet and one outlet,
a hollow electrode aligned with a longitudinal axis of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel and extending at least from the first end to the second end of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel, wherein the hollow electrode has an inlet and an outlet,
a first insulator that seals the first end of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel around the hollow electrode and maintains a substantially equidistant gap between the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel and the hollow electrode,
a second insulator that seals the second end of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel around the hollow electrode and maintains the substantially equidistant gap between the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel and the hollow electrode, and
a non-conductive granular material disposed within the substantially equidistant gap;
a fluid source, a pump or a valve connected to the inlet of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel that provides the electrically conductive fluid to the glow discharge cell; and
a DC electrical power supply electrically connected to the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel and the hollow electrode,
wherein the hollow electrode heats up during an electric glow discharge and produces the steam from the electrically conductive fluid, and the steam exits through the outlet of the electrically conductive cylindrical vessel.

US Pat. No. 10,030,195

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR SINTERING PROPPANTS

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. An apparatus for sintering green pellets to make proppant particles, the apparatus comprising:a first cylindrical vessel having a first end, a second end and a first longitudinal axis;
a first vortex finder connected to the first end of the first cylindrical vessel and aligned with the first longitudinal axis;
a second cylindrical vessel having a third end, a fourth end and a second longitudinal axis;
a second vortex finder connected to the second end of the first cylindrical vessel and aligned with the second longitudinal axis;
an inlet passage disposed between the first vortex finder and the second vortex finder, connected tangentially to both the first cylindrical vessel proximate to the first end and the second cylindrical vessel proximate to the third end, and having an inlet and a third longitudinal axis;
a divider disposed within the inlet passage along the third longitudinal axis that directs a heated gas from the inlet into the first cylindrical vessel to form a first vortex gas flow and the second cylindrical vessel to form a second vortex gas flow;
a heated gas source connected to the inlet of the inlet passage; and
a green pellet source connected to the first vortex finder or the second vortex finder or both the first vortex finder and the second vortex finder such that the green pellets are sintered or partially sintered in a selected temperature range to form the proppant particles as the green pellets pass through a first central portion of the first vortex gas flow and exit the second end of the first cylindrical vessel and/or pass through a second central portion of the second vortex flow and exit the fourth end of the second cylindrical vessel.

US Pat. No. 9,761,413

HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS GLOW DISCHARGE DEVICE

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A glow discharge assembly comprising:
an electrically conductive cylindrical screen having an open end and a closed end;
a flange assembly attached to and electrically connected to the open end of the electrically conductive cylindrical screen,
the flange assembly having a hole with a first diameter aligned with a longitudinal axis of the electrically conductive cylindrical
screen;

an electrode aligned with the longitudinal axis of the electrically conductive cylindrical screen and extending through the
hole of the flange assembly into the electrically conductive cylindrical screen, the electrode having a second diameter that
is smaller than the first diameter of the hole;

an insulator that seals the hole of the flange assembly around the electrode and maintains a substantially equidistant gap
between the electrically conductive cylindrical screen and the electrode; and

a non-conductive granular material disposed within the substantially equidistant gap, wherein (a) the non-conductive granular
material allows an electrically conductive fluid to flow between the electrically conductive cylindrical screen and the electrode,
and (b) the combination of the non-conductive granular material and the conductive fluid prevents electrical arcing between
the electrically conductive cylindrical screen and the electrode during an electric glow discharge.

US Pat. No. 9,771,280

SYSTEM, METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TREATING LIQUIDS WITH WAVE ENERGY FROM PLASMA

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A retrofit kit for converting a centrifugal pump into a liquid treatment apparatus, wherein the centrifugal pump comprises
(a) a pump volute or hydrocyclone head having a side discharge, a lower inlet and an upper opening, (b) an impeller assembly
attached to the upper opening and (c) a throat having a first opening and a second opening wherein the first opening is attached
to the lower inlet, the retrofit kit comprising:
an anode that replaces the impeller assembly, wherein the anode comprises (a) a vortex finder attached to a backplate such
that the vortex finder extends into the pump volute or hydrocyclone head and the backplate seals the upper opening of the
pump volute or hydrocyclone head, (b) an electrical connection attached to the vortex finder or backplate, and (c) the anode
is made of an electrically and thermally conductive material;

a plasma torch that attaches to the vortex finder such that a central axis of the plasma torch, a central axis of the vortex
finder, a central axis of the lower inlet and a central axis of the throat are all aligned with one another; and

wherein the side discharge becomes a side inlet and the lower inlet becomes a lower outlet such that a liquid flows into the
side inlet, cools the anode and is irradiated by a plasma arc from the plasma torch.

US Pat. No. 9,869,277

SYSTEM, METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR LEAN COMBUSTION WITH PLASMA FROM AN ELECTRICAL ARC

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A supersonic lean fuel combustion plasma arc turbine comprising:
a plasma arc torch comprising:
a cylindrical vessel having a first end and a second end,
a tangential inlet connected to or proximate to the first end,
a tangential outlet connected to or proximate to the second end,
an electrode housing connected to the first end of the cylindrical vessel such that a first electrode is (a) aligned with
a longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel, and (b) extends into the cylindrical vessel,

a hollow electrode nozzle connected to the second end of the cylindrical vessel such that the center line of the hollow electrode
nozzle is aligned with the longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel, and

wherein the tangential inlet and the tangential outlet create a vortex within the cylindrical vessel, and the first electrode
and the hollow electrode nozzle create a plasma that discharges through the hollow electrode nozzle;

an eductor connected to the hollow electrode nozzle of the plasma arc torch; and
a cyclone combustor connected to the eductor, wherein the cyclone combustor has a tangential entry, a tangential exit, and
an exhaust outlet.

US Pat. No. 10,184,322

SYSTEM, METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CREATING AN ELECTRICAL GLOW DISCHARGE

FORET PLASMA LABS, LLC, ...

1. A system for creating an electric glow discharge comprising:a first electrically conductive cylindrical screen having a first end, a second end, and a first diameter;
a second electrically conductive cylindrical screen having a first end, a second end, and a second diameter smaller than the first diameter, wherein the second electrically conductive cylindrical screen is disposed within and separated from the first electrically conductive cylindrical screen by a substantially equidistant gap;
a first insulator attached to the first end of the first electrically conductive cylindrical screen and the first end of the second electrically conductive cylindrical screen, wherein the first insulator maintains the substantially equidistant gap between the first electrically conductive cylindrical screen and the second electrically conductive cylindrical screen;
a second insulator attached to the second end of the first electrically conductive cylindrical screen and the second end of the second electrically conductive cylindrical screen, wherein the second insulator maintains the substantially equidistant gap between the first electrically conductive cylindrical screen and the second electrically conductive cylindrical screen;
a non-conductive granular material disposed within the substantially equidistant gap;a first electrical terminal electrically connected to the first electrically conductive cylindrical screen;a second electrical terminal electrically connected to the second electrically conductive cylindrical screen;
an electrical power source electrically connected to the first and second electrical terminals; and
wherein the system is configured to create the electric glow discharge whenever: (a) the first electrical terminal is connected to the electrical power source such that the first electrically conductive cylindrical screen is a cathode, the second electrical terminal is connected to the electrical power supply such that the second electrically conductive cylindrical screen is an anode, and an electrically conductive fluid is introduced into the substantially equidistant gap, or (b) the first electrical terminal and the second electrical terminal are both connected to the electrical power supply such that both electrically conductive screens are the cathode, and the electrically conductive fluid is introduced between both electrically conductive screens and an external anode connected to the electrical power supply.

US Pat. No. 10,188,119

METHOD FOR TREATING A SUBSTANCE WITH WAVE ENERGY FROM PLASMA AND AN ELECTRICAL ARC

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A method for processing a material comprising the steps of:providing a vessel having (a) an interior defined by a cylindrical portion disposed between a first end and a second end, (b) an outlet in the first end that is aligned with a longitudinal axis of the cylindrical portion, (c) at least one inlet in the first end to receive the material, (d) a first wave energy source comprising a first electrode disposed at least partially within the outlet and aligned with the longitudinal axis, and a second electrode disposed at least partially within the second end, aligned with the longitudinal axis and spaced apart from the first electrode, (e) a second wave energy source comprising a set of radio frequency coils or windings disposed around or within the cylindrical portion, and (f) two or more jets mounted tangentially in the cylindrical portion;
generating a plasma within the interior using the first and second plasma sources;
directing a fluid or a gas into the interior via the two or more jets to create angular momentum in the plasma to form a plasma vortex that circulates around a central void substantially aligned with the longitudinal axis; and
processing the material by directing the material into the plasma vortex via the inlet such that the plasma vortex reacts with the material and the material is irradiated with one or more wave energies produced by the first and second wave energy sources.

US Pat. No. 10,244,614

SYSTEM, METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PLASMA ARC WELDING CERAMICS AND SAPPHIRE

FORET PLASMA LABS, LLC, ...

1. A method for plasma arc welding two ceramic or sapphire pieces together comprising:providing a plasma torch comprising:
a cylindrical vessel having a first end and a second end,
a tangential inlet connected to or proximate to the first end,
a tangential outlet connected to or proximate to the second end,
an electrode housing connected to the first end of the cylindrical vessel such that a first electrode is (a) aligned with a longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel, and (b) extends into the cylindrical vessel, and
a hollow electrode nozzle connected to the second end of the cylindrical vessel such that the center line of the hollow electrode nozzle is aligned with the longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel;
providing a second electrode positioned proximate to the hollow electrode nozzle;
placing the two ceramic or sapphire pieces between the second electrode and the hollow electrode; and
welding the two ceramic or sapphire pieces together with the plasma exiting from the hollow electrode by means of transferring the arc from the electrode through the hollow electrode and to the second electrode.

US Pat. No. 10,267,106

SYSTEM, METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TREATING MINING BYPRODUCTS

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A system for treating a mining byproduct comprising:a glow discharge cell having a side inlet to receive the mining byproduct, a top outlet and a bottom outlet;
a first valve connected to the bottom outlet of the glow discharge cell;
a plasma arc torch comprising:
a cylindrical vessel having a first end and a second end,
a first tangential inlet connected to or proximate to the first end,
a second tangential outlet connected to or proximate to the second end,
an electrode housing connected to the first end of the cylindrical vessel such that a first electrode is (a) aligned with a longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel, and (b) extends into the cylindrical vessel, and
a hollow electrode nozzle connected to the second end of the cylindrical vessel such that a centerline of the hollow electrode nozzle is aligned with the longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel, the hollow electrode nozzle having a first end disposed within the cylindrical vessel and a second end disposed outside the cylindrical vessel;
a second valve connected between to the top outlet of the glow discharge cell and the first tangential inlet of the plasma arc torch; and
a third valve connected to the second tangential outlet of the plasma arc torch.

US Pat. No. 10,412,820

SYSTEM, METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR RECOVERING MINING FLUIDS FROM MINING BYPRODUCTS

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A plasma treatment system comprising:a plasma arc torch comprising:
a cylindrical vessel having a first end and a second end,
a first tangential inlet/outlet connected to or proximate to the first end,
a second tangential inlet/outlet connected to or proximate to the second end,
an electrode housing connected to the first end of the cylindrical vessel such that a first electrode is (a) aligned with a longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel, and (b) extends into the cylindrical vessel, and
a hollow electrode nozzle connected to the second end of the cylindrical vessel such that a centerline of the hollow electrode nozzle is aligned with the longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel, the hollow electrode nozzle having a first end disposed within the cylindrical vessel and a second end disposed outside the cylindrical vessel;
a screw feeder having an inlet and an outlet, the outlet aligned with the centerline of the hollow electrode nozzle;
a filter screen attached to the outlet of the screw feeder, aligned with the centerline of the hollow electrode nozzle and extending proximate to the hollow electrode nozzle;
a tee attached to the outlet of the screw feeder, enclosing a portion of the filter screen proximate to the screw feeder, and a side outlet aligned with the screw feeder and a bottom outlet;
a high temperature vessel connected to the plasma arc torch and the tee such that the hollow electrode nozzle is attached to or extends into the high temperature vessel and the filter screen extends into the high temperature vessel;
a quencher or a glow discharge system attached to a bottom of the high temperature vessel and the first tangential inlet/outlet of the plasma arc torch;
a first pump or conveyor connected to the inlet of the screw feeder; and
a processor or separator connected to the bottom outlet of the tee.

US Pat. No. 10,368,557

APPARATUS FOR TREATING A SUBSTANCE WITH WAVE ENERGY FROM AN ELECTRICAL ARC AND A SECOND SOURCE

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. An apparatus for treating a substance comprising:a volute or cyclone head having an inlet and an outlet;
a throat having a first opening, a second opening and a central axis, wherein the first opening is connected to the outlet of the volute or cyclone head;
a parabolic reflector having a vertex, a focus and an opening at the vertex, wherein the opening is connected to the second opening of the throat such that the vertex and focus are axially aligned with the central axis and the focus is not located within the throat;
a first wave energy source comprising a first electrode within the volute or cyclone head that extends through the outlet into the first opening of the throat along the central axis of the throat, and a second electrode extending into the parabolic reflector proximate to the focus wherein the second electrode is spaced apart and axially aligned with first electrode;
a second wave energy source disposed inside the throat, embedded within the throat or disposed around the throat; and
wherein the substance is directed into the device through the inlet of the volute or cyclone head such that the substance exits the device through the opening at the vertex of the parabolic reflector, and the substance is irradiated with one or more wave energies produced by the first and second wave energy sources as the substance passes through the device.

US Pat. No. 10,395,892

HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS GLOW DISCHARGE METHOD

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A method for producing a steam comprising the steps of:providing a glow discharge assembly comprising:
an electrically conductive cylindrical screen having an open end and a closed end,
a flange assembly attached to and electrically connected to the open end of the electrically conductive cylindrical screen, the flange assembly having a hole with a first diameter aligned with a longitudinal axis of the electrically conductive cylindrical screen,
an electrode aligned with the longitudinal axis of the electrically conductive cylindrical screen and extending through the hole of the flange assembly into the electrically conductive cylindrical screen, the electrode having a second diameter that is smaller than the first diameter of the hole,
an insulator that seals the first hole of the flange assembly around the electrode and maintains a substantially equidistant gap between the electrically conductive cylindrical screen and the electrode,
a non-conductive granular material disposed within the substantially equidistant gap, wherein (a) the non-conductive granular material allows an electrically conductive fluid to flow between the electrically conductive cylindrical screen and the electrode, and (b) the combination of the non-conductive granular material and the conductive fluid prevents electrical arcing between the electrically conductive cylindrical screen and the electrode during an electric glow discharge;
creating the electric glow discharge by: (1) connecting the first electrical connection to a DC electrical power supply such that the flange assembly and the electrically conductive cylindrical screen are an anode, (2) connecting the second electrical connection to the DC electrical power supply such that the electrode is a cathode, and (3) introducing the electrically conductive fluid into the gap; and
producing the steam using heat generated from the cathode during the electric glow discharge.

US Pat. No. 10,472,572

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TREATING ORGANIC MATTER

Foret Plasma Labs, LLC, ...

1. A method for treating an organic matter comprising:providing a material feeder having an input and an output, a reducing nozzle attached to the output of the material feeder, an electrically conductive tube having a first end surrounding at least a portion of the reducing nozzle, and an induction coil surrounding all or part of the electrically conductive tube;
inductively heating the electrically conductive tube using the induction coil;
supplying the organic matter to the input of the material feeder;
pushing the organic matter through the reducing nozzle using the material feeder, such that the organic matter forms a continuous tube, semi-continuous tube or pellets of organic matter that is pushed through the electrically conductive tube; and
treating the continuous tube, semi-continuous tube or elongated pellets of organic matter using the heat within the electrically conductive tube;
wherein an inner diameter of the reducing nozzle is approximately 50% or less than an inner diameter of the electrically conductive tube.