US Pat. No. 9,295,178

LOW PROFILE COMPLIANT LATCH ASSEMBLY AND ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT CARD AND CHASSIS INCORPORATING SAME

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A latch assembly operable for securing an electronic circuit card in a chassis such that connectors associated with the
electronic circuit card and a backplane of the chassis are properly coupled, the latch assembly comprising:
an elongate handle structure, wherein a proximal end of the elongate handle structure defines a hole and includes a protruding
portion that is configured to engage a recess or lip associated with the chassis, and wherein a distal end of the elongate
handle structure includes a handle portion; an elongate spring structure disposed within or adjacent to the elongate handle
structure, wherein a distal end of the elongate spring structure is coupled to the distal end of the elongate handle structure,
and wherein a proximal end of the elongate spring structure partially obstructs the hole defined by the proximal end of the
elongate handle structure; and a rotation member disposed through the hole and configured to engage the electronic circuit
card, wherein the proximal end of the elongate spring structure that partially obstructs the hole contacts a portion of the
rotation member; wherein a diameter of the hole is greater than a diameter of a portion of the rotation member that is disposed
within the hole, and wherein, when the elongate handle structure is rotated about the rotation member by actuation of the
handle portion of the elongate handle structure, the protruding portion of the elongate handle structure engages the recess
or lip associated with the chassis and the elongate spring structure resists linear movement of the rotation member within
the hole, thereby biasing the electronic circuit card into the chassis.

US Pat. No. 9,143,227

OPTICAL TRANSPORT NETWORK PORT PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND METHODS USING FLEXIBLE SWITCH CRITERIA

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. An Optical Transport Network (OTN) port protection method, comprising:
provisioning a working port and a protection port between two OTN network elements, the working port and the protection port
providing linear OTN protection therebetween;

selecting one or more switch criteria based on received data between the working port and the protection port, wherein the
switch criteria include Section Monitoring, Path Monitoring, and Tandem Connection Monitoring in OTN overhead on the working
port monitored for associated protection switching, and wherein, when selected as switch criteria, the Path Monitoring and
the Tandem Connection Monitoring are configured as transparent through intermediate nodes; and

automatically setting up a switch mode for the two OTN network elements based on the selected switch criteria;
wherein the linear OTN protection comprises Subnetwork Connection Protection with and without an Automatic Protection Switching
protocol.

US Pat. No. 9,143,142

TRANSPARENT TIMING OF A STRATUM SYNCHRONIZED ETHERNET SIGNAL USING STANDARD OPTICAL TRANSPORT NETWORK RATES

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A transceiver, comprising:
a first clock recovery circuit, the first clock recovery circuit configured to recover a first clock signal from a first signal
received from an Ethernet network;

a first synchronizer, the first synchronizer configured to multiply the first clock signal by a ratio M/N to produce a second
clock signal to time a second signal transmitted to an optical transport network, where M and N are integers, wherein M and
N are selected based on a rate of the first signal received from the Ethernet network and a rate of the second signal transmitted
to the optical transport network; and

an asynchronous mapper, the asynchronous mapper configured to asynchronously map frames of the first signal to produce frames
of the second signal, wherein each of the first signal and the second signal are synchronous to one another based on the ratio
M/N.

US Pat. No. 9,088,387

CHAIN ENCODING AND DECODING OF HIGH SPEED SIGNALS

CIENA CORPORATION, Hanov...

1. A method of recovering a value of a symbol received through an optical communications system, the method comprising:
detecting a most likely value of a first part of a multi-bit symbol estimate;
processing the detected most likely value of the first part by a Forward Error Correction (FEC) decoder to generate a corrected
first part value;

using the corrected first part value to detect a most likely value of a second part of the multi-bit symbol estimate; and
processing the detected most likely value of the second part by the FEC decoder to generate a corrected second part value;
wherein the most likely value of the first part is processed by the FEC decoder simultaneously with the most likely value
of the respective second part of a previous symbol estimate.

US Pat. No. 9,603,289

CHASSIS ARRANGEMENT SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR DUAL DEPTH CARDS AND DUAL DEPTH FARADAY CAGES

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method of upgrading a chassis with different depth cards with associated Faraday cages, the method comprising:
operating a chassis with a first set of cards at a first depth and with a first set of fans, the chassis forming a first Faraday
cage with the first set of cards;

changing the first set of fans for a second set of fans;
upgrading the first set of cards to a second set of cards, at a second depth different from the first depth; and
operating the chassis with second set of cards at the second depth and with the second set of fans, the chassis forming a
second Faraday cage with the second set of cards.

US Pat. No. 9,538,264

ODUFLEX RESIZING SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. An Optical channel Data Unit flex (ODUflex) resizing method, in a node in a network, comprising:
determining, based on monitoring an egress cell rate or an ingress flow rate, that the ODUflex requires resizing to support
the egress cell rate or the ingress flow rate, wherein the ODUflex is configured in the network on a current path between
the node and a second node in the network;

when the resizing is a decrease, reducing a size of the ODUflex by one of i) a resize decrease operation using a control plane
and ii) a Link Aggregation Group (LAG) and Make-Before-Break (MBB) operation; and

when the resizing is an increase, increasing a size of the ODUflex by one of i) a resize increase operation using a control
plane and ii) a LAG and MBB operation,

wherein the resizing is done in a hitless manner and without using state machines and rate ramping of ITU Recommendation G.7044/Y.1347
(10/11) via one of

i) the control plane signaling to partially configure or reserve a resized path, suspending transfer of packets across the
ODUflex just prior to physical resizing when buffering is available, and signaling to the partially configured or reserved
resized path, and

ii) in the LAG, creating a new member while maintaining an initial member, performing the MBB operation between the new member
and the initial member, and deleting the initial member.

US Pat. No. 9,124,383

HIGH CAPACITY FIBER-OPTIC INTEGRATED TRANSMISSION AND SWITCHING SYSTEMS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A reconfigurable electrical add/drop multiplexing node, comprising:
an optoelectronic integrated circuit comprising a transmitter section and a receiver section; and
a switching fabric communicatively coupling the transmitter section and the receiver section of the optoelectronic integrated
circuit, wherein the transmitter section and the receiver section interface the switching fabric at a full signal level and
the switching fabric is configured to perform flow switching on the full signal level between the transmitter section and
the receiver section with subrate grooming of the full signal performed in a separate device external to the optoelectronic
integrated circuit;

wherein the transmitter section comprises N channels formed by N lasers locked to a wavelength grid, and N modulators and
drivers associated with each of the N lasers, and wherein the N modulators comprise one of a Mach-Zehnder modulator, an electro-absorption
modulator, and a ring modulator with associated bandwidth, extinction ratio, and chirp control, and

wherein the receiver section is configured to receive each of the N channels optically and provide corresponding electrical
signals based thereon through a polarization splitter, a horizontal demultiplexer coupled to the polarization splitter, a
vertical demultiplexer coupled to the polarization splitter, photodiodes each coupled to one of the horizontal demultiplexer
and the vertical demultiplexer, and transimpedance amplifiers each coupled to one of the photodiodes.

US Pat. No. 9,124,364

QUADRATURE POWER BALANCE CONTROL IN OPTICAL TRANSMITTERS

CIENA CORPORATION, Hanov...

1. A method of controlling an optical transmitter having a Dual Parallel Mach-Zehnder (DPMZ) modulator having a pair of parallel
branches, each branch of the DPMZ modulator having a bias point controlled by a respective bias signal, the method comprising:
detecting an I-Q power balance between respective branches of the DPMZ modulator by:
applying a respective dither signal to each one of the bias signals, each dither signal having a known modulation depth and
frequency;

detecting a first modulation depth of an output of the DPMZ modulator at a frequency corresponding to a second harmonic of
a first one of the dither signals;

detecting a second modulation depth of the output of the DPMZ modulator at a frequency corresponding to a second harmonic
of the other one of the dither signals; and

calculating the I-Q power imbalance based on the detected first and second modulation depths; and
adjusting at least one parameter of the DPMZ modulator to drive the I-Q power balance to a predetermined target value.

US Pat. No. 9,060,215

NETWORK SPECIFIC ROUTING AND WAVELENGTH ASSIGNMENT FOR OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for facilitating routing and wavelength assignment in an optical communications network having a given topology
of associated nodes and links, the method comprising:
determining a set of system characteristics associated with operating the optical communications network based on the topology
of associated nodes and links;

selecting a first set of values for one or more parameters of a routing and wavelength assignment algorithm defined for operating
a set of services on the optical communications network;

determining a first set of routes and wavelengths assigned to the set of services via the assignment algorithm in accordance
with the first set of values and the set of system characteristics;

selecting a second set of values for the one or more parameters of the routing and wavelength assignment algorithm;
determining a second set of routes and wavelengths assigned to the set of services via the assignment algorithm based on the
second set of values and the set of system characteristics;

comparing the first set of routes and wavelengths assigned to the set of services to the second set of routes and wavelengths
assigned to the set of services based on one or more fitness criteria;

selecting between the first and second sets of values based on the comparison; and
provisioning a path computation engine of the optical communications network with the selected set of values for the one or
more parameters to facilitate performing run-time routing and wavelength assignment operations by the path computation engine.

US Pat. No. 9,143,433

ENERGY EFFICIENT AND ENERGY-MANAGED TRAFFIC ENGINEERING SERVICES IN MULTIPROTOCOL LABEL SWITCHING AND GENERALIZED MULTIPROTOCOL LABEL SWITCHING NETWORKS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for mitigating traffic loss in a multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) network, comprising:
measuring, at a network element, energy utilization of at least one of a line card and a switch fabric card that are configured
to carry a traffic engineering (TE) capable link;

converting the energy utilization measurement to a normalized energy consumption indicator for the at least one of the line
card and the switch fabric card;

optimizing, based on the normalized energy consumption indicator, a route of a label switched path in the MPLS network so
the route avoids the at least one of the line card and the switch fabric card;

advertising the normalized energy consumption indicator to a second network element with a type length value element responsive
to the normalized energy consumption indicator crossing a configured threshold, wherein the configured threshold is utilized
to minimize advertisements; and

utilizing the normalized energy consumption at the second network element to detect degradation for a protection switchover
of the label switched path.

US Pat. No. 9,143,238

OPTICAL MODULATION SCHEMES HAVING REDUCED NONLINEAR OPTICAL TRANSMISSION IMPAIRMENTS

CIENA CORPORATION, Hanov...

1. A method of transmitting a data signal using an optical transmitter of an optical communications system, the optical transmitter
being configured to modulate an optical carrier in successive sets of signaling intervals to generate an optical signal, the
method comprising:
an encoder of the optical transmitter encoding the data signal in accordance with a modulation scheme comprising a multi-dimensional
symbol constellation configured such that a degree of polarization of a modulated optical signal output from the optical transmitter
has a first value when averaged across a first signaling interval, and has a second value when averaged across a set of signaling
intervals containing more than 1 and fewer than 100 signaling intervals and including the first signaling interval, wherein
the second value is less than 10 percent of the first value.

US Pat. No. 9,320,172

SPACING-SAVING THERMAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR ELECTRONIC DEVICES

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A thermal management system comprising:
a plurality of components secured to a board, the plurality of components distributed over an area;
a module secured to the board among the plurality of components and occupying a first portion of the area;
a distributor plate in thermal contact with the module and secured to at least one of the module and the board having the
module positioned between the distributor plate and the board, the distributor plate being parallel to the board and extending
over a second portion of the area that is larger than the first portion of the area and includes the first portion of the
area; and

a plurality of heat pipes in thermal contact with the distributor plate;
wherein the distributor plate has a first edge and a second edge, the first portion being closer to the first edge than the
second edge, the distributor plate further defining a third portion that excludes the first portion; and

wherein the plurality of heat pipes include a first heat pipes that are perpendicular to the second edge along an entire extent
thereof and second heat pipes that each include:

a first part perpendicular to the second edge and located over the third portion of the area;
a second part parallel to the second edge and located over the first portion of the area, the second part being perpendicular
to the first part; and

a third part that is curved and extends between the first and second parts;
wherein the first, second, and third parts of the second heat pipes and the first heat pipes are coplanar.

US Pat. No. 9,106,573

IN-BAND SIGNALING FOR POINT-MULTIPOINT PACKET PROTECTION SWITCHING

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for in-band protection switch signaling in a communication system, the communication system arranged as a point-to-multipoint
tree, the point-to-multipoint tree including a root node communicatively coupled to a plurality of leaf nodes through both
a working link and a protection link, the method comprising:
transferring data through a current link of the point-to-multipoint tree, the current link being one of the working link and
the protection link;

detecting, by a leaf node, a fault in the current link of the point-to-multipoint tree;
in response to detecting the fault, setting a remote defect indicator (RD I) flag in a continuity check message (CCM) at the
leaf node;

transmitting the CCM to the root node;
in response to receiving the CCM, notifying, by the root node, each other leaf node in the point-to-multipoint tree of the
fault using the current link, the notifying via continuity check messages to the leaf nodes, each continuity check message
including a type-length-value (TLV), the TLV having one of a protection group identifier identifying a subset of the leaf
nodes according to a service associated with the subset, a signal fail indicator indicating a failure on the current link,
or a request value that represents a management command corresponding to the protection group identifier; and

switching the root node and each leaf node to the other link of the working link and the protection link.

US Pat. No. 9,148,382

ADAPTIVE ETHERNET FLOW CONTROL SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A network element implemented method, comprising:
receiving an Ethernet connection at a first rate;
transmitting the Ethernet connection at a second rate in a container;
monitoring a buffer fill associated with the Ethernet connection; and
periodically transmitting pause frames to a device associated with the Ethernet connection, wherein the pause frames comprise
a determined optimal pause quanta value based on the first rate, the second rate, Ethernet frame size, and the buffer fill;

wherein the first rate is associated with a rate of the Ethernet connection, and wherein the second rate is associated with
a rate of the container,

wherein the periodically transmitting pause frames comprises, if buffer fill is in a first region, periodically transmitting
pause frames with the determined optimal pause quanta value comprising a first value, Q(g), and, if buffer fill is in a second
region, periodically transmitting ause frames with the determined optimal pause quanta value comprising a second value, r
and wherein the first value, Q(g), is determined based on a small frame size for the Ethernet connection and the second value,
Q(r), is determined based on a large frame size for the Ethernet connection.

US Pat. No. 9,148,710

RAMAN AMPLIFIER SYSTEM AND METHOD WITH INTEGRATED OPTICAL TIME DOMAIN REFLECTOMETER

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. An amplifier system, comprising:
at least one Raman pump laser optically coupled to a line in port; and
an optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) and telemetry subsystem selectively optically coupled to the line in port and
a line out port, wherein the line out port connects to a second line in port, each of the line out port and the second line
in port are connected to a first fiber, and the line in port connects to a second line out port, wherein each of the line
in port and the second line out port are connected to a second fiber, and wherein the OTDR and telemetry subsystem is configured
to operate in an OTDR mode for the second fiber when coupled to the line in port and to operate in a telemetry mode for the
first fiber when coupled to the line out port to measure gain due to the at least one Raman pump laser.

US Pat. No. 9,140,624

SYSTEMS AND METHODS REDUCING COHERENCE EFFECT IN NARROW LINE-WIDTH LIGHT SOURCES

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. An optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) system, comprising:
a narrow line-width laser source comprising a thermoelectric cooler thermally coupled thereto;
a modulator configured to modulate the narrow line-width laser source;
a device configured to couple an output of the narrow line-width laser source and the modulator to a device under test and
an input from the device under test to a photo-detector; and

a controller configured to provide an input signal to the thermoelectric cooler to monitor and adjust a light output of the
narrow line-width laser source in a wavelength locking feedback loop and to concurrently dither the thermoelectric cooler
to adjust the light output of the narrow line-width laser source by about 0.02 nm and reduce coherence to reduce noise in
OTDR traces to levels comparable to a wide spectrum laser source OTDR;

wherein the narrow line-width laser source, the thermoelectric cooler, and the controller are disposed in a channel line card
that is a channel transceiver connected to a multiplexer configured to combine a Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)
output from the modulator in an optical communication system and are collectively configured to perform OTDR functionality
in the optical communication system.

US Pat. No. 9,622,388

MULTI-DIRECTIONAL FANS IN AN ELECTRONIC CHASSIS SUPPORTING EXTENDED RANGE TEMPERATURE OPERATION

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method of providing airflow in an electronic chassis supporting operation in an extended temperature range for components
therein, the method comprising:
providing airflow in a first configuration in high-temperature operation; and
providing airflow in a second configuration, different from the first configuration, in low-temperature operation, wherein
the airflow in the second configuration is directed to provide preheated air to one or more components in the electronic chassis
that operate in a limited temperature range, to enable operation of the one or more components in the extended temperature
range;

wherein the limited temperature range is a smaller range than the extended temperature range, and wherein the second configuration
extends the operation of the one or more components from the limited temperature range to the extended temperature range.

US Pat. No. 9,344,307

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR SUB-CARRIER FREQUENCY CONTROL

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method of controlling frequency separation between adjacent carrier frequencies in a frequency division multiplexed communication
system that uses at least first and second carrier frequencies subsystems, the method comprising:
receiving a first receive signal on a first carrier frequency subsystem for the first carrier frequency;
receiving a second receive signal on a second carrier frequency subsystem for the second carrier frequency;
obtaining a metric from at least the first receive signal indicative of a frequency separation between the first and second
carrier frequencies, wherein the metric is obtained from a digital receive block based on digital processing of the first
receive signal on the first carrier frequency subsystem and the second receive signal on the second carrier frequency subsystem;
and

controlling the frequency of at least one of the first and second carrier frequency subsystems as a function of the metric
by adjusting a frequency of one or more transmitting lasers;

wherein the first receive signal and the second receive signal are received and transmitted at a common data processing apparatus
as digital data, in a same modem.

US Pat. No. 9,510,483

COOLING A CHASSIS BY MOVING AIR THROUGH A MIDPLANE BETWEEN TWO SETS OF CHANNELS ORIENTED LATERALLY RELATIVE TO ONE ANOTHER

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A shelf for use in a rack in a communication network, the shelf comprising:
a wall between a first volume and a second volume in the shelf, wherein the wall defines at least one opening between the
first volume and the second volume;

a pair of first circuit boards located in the first volume and separated from one another to define a first channel there
between;

a pair of second circuit boards located in the second volume and oriented perpendicular relative to the pair of first circuit
boards, the pair of second circuit boards being separated from one another to define a second channel there between, the second
channel being oriented perpendicular relative to the first channel; and

at least one fan separated by a plenum from a first guide in a pair of first guides;
wherein the pair of first guides define a plurality of first slots in the shelf, wherein the pair of first circuit boards
are located in a pair of first slots among the plurality of first slots, and wherein the first guide defines another opening
between the plenum and the first channel.

US Pat. No. 9,124,960

INTELLIGENT AND SCALABLE ROUTING IN MULTI-DOMAIN OPTICAL NETWORKS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for resource and connection management in a hierarchical network having an upper level domain and at least one
lower level domain in communication with the upper level domain, the method comprising:
designating a first set of control-plane enabled nodes of the upper domain as upper nodes, each upper node being operable
to route traffic between a pair of neighbor upper nodes in the upper domain;

designating a second set of control-plane enabled nodes of a lower domain as lower nodes, each lower node being operable to
route traffic between a pair of neighbor lower nodes in the lower domain, wherein each upper node being operable to route
traffic to a lower node and each lower node being operable to route traffic to an upper node;

designating one of the upper nodes that is connected to one of the lower nodes as a host node;
assigning summary information to the lower domain and each lower node in the lower domain;
advertising the summary information to the lower nodes in the network; and
advertising the summary information to the upper nodes in the network.

US Pat. No. 9,071,532

METHOD FOR DISCOVERY AND LOAD BALANCING OF PATH COMPUTATION ELEMENTS BASED ON TRANSPORT PLANE LINK METRICS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method of path computation across multiple domains in a communication network, the method comprising:
identifying a plurality of border nodes at interfaces between a plurality of domains, each domain having at least one border
node;

including a path computation element at each of the plurality of border nodes of the domains, such that locations of the path
computation elements are known to exist in the plurality of border nodes of the domains prior to an issuing of a path computation
request;

selecting a first path computation element of a first border node based on load balancing criteria between the first border
node of a first domain and a third border node of the first domain;

receiving a path computation request at the first border node of the first domain from a source node, the path computation
request specifying the source node and a destination node; and

computing by the path computation element of the first border node a shortest path across the first domain.

US Pat. No. 9,071,362

NOISE-TOLERANT OPTICAL MODULATION

CIENA CORPORATION, Hanov...

1. A method of transmitting data, the method comprising:
an encoder encoding a data signal to be transmitted as symbols of an N-symbol constellation defined in an M-dimensional space,
wherein N<2M, and a composite distance between a given pair of symbols within the constellation increases with increasing Hamming distance
between data words encoded in each of those symbols; and

a modulator modulating at least M dimensions of a carrier light in accordance with the symbols.

US Pat. No. 9,325,427

MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD DECODING

CIENA CORPORATION, Hanov...

1. In a receiver of an optical communication system, a method of processing a detected symbol estimate to determine a most
likely value of a corresponding transmitted data word, the transmitted data word comprising one or more data bits encoded
in a transmitter using a predetermined constellation of at least two symbols, the detected symbol estimate being an estimated
value of a corresponding symbol modulated on a carrier light by the transmitter, the method comprising:
processing the detected symbol estimate to identify a most likely virtual constellation point from four or more predetermined
virtual constellation points, the four or more predetermined virtual constellation points forming at least two sets, at least
two of said sets having two or more of the predetermined virtual constellation points, and each set of the virtual constellation
points lying within a respective decision region associated with each possible value of the transmitted data word; and

processing the identified most likely virtual constellation point to determine the most likely value of the transmitted data
word.

US Pat. No. 9,077,474

MAKE BEFORE BREAK OPTICAL MESH NETWORK ELEMENT

CIENA CORPORATION, Hanov...

1. A network element comprising:
an electronic switch configured to route traffic between a plurality of client access ports and a plurality of electro-optic
(EO) ports;

a respective EO interface coupled to each one of the plurality of EO ports, wherein the plurality of EO interfaces includes
at least one Make Before Brake (MBB) EO interface;

a wavelength selective switch configured to optically switch optical channels between the EO interfaces and a set of optical
transmission fibers; and

a control system operative to:
identify a first EO interface to be reconfigured, the first EO interface terminating a respective optical channel carrying
a first traffic flow;

set up a new optical channel through the wavelength selective switch and terminated on the MBB EO interface, the new optical
channel being configured to carry the first traffic flow; and

subsequently control the electronic switch to re-route the first traffic flow traversing the first EO interface to the MBB
EO interface without interrupting the first traffic flow.

US Pat. No. 9,100,116

SHORT-TERM OPTICAL RECOVERY SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR COHERENT OPTICAL RECEIVERS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A coherent optical receiver, comprising:
electrical compensation circuitry configured to receive an optical signal and to compensate impairments thereon;
a Local Oscillator (LO);
memory configured to store one or more pre-stored maps of information, wherein the one or more pre-stored maps comprise multi-dimensional
data and are dependent on a protection scheme utilized; and

an expedited acquisition engine configured to reacquire the optical signal responsive to a filter error in the electrical
compensation circuitry and to reacquire the optical signal responsive to a loss of the optical signal;

wherein the expedited acquisition engine is in a traffic carrying state while the optical signal is within normal operating
ranges and, when an error or fault occurs, determines a severity of the error or fault and which one of a plurality of recovery
levels is to be implemented in order to minimize reacquisition time, wherein each of the plurality of recovery levels addresses
a different error or fault and requires a different amount of reacquisition time, the expedited acquisition engine utilizing,
in at least one of the plurality of recovery levels, the one or more pre-stored maps to reacquire the optical signal without
having to resort to full reacquisition; and

wherein the one or more pre-stored maps comprise at least one of fiber dispersion information, filter coefficients, and frequency
offsets for setting the Local Oscillator (LO).

US Pat. No. 9,231,875

METHOD OF PROCESSING TRAFFIC IN A TRANSPORT NETWORK

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method of processing traffic in a transport network, the method comprising:
a network element receiving from a trunk interface, a first stream of traffic, said the first stream of traffic comprising
a plurality of lambdas;

said network element using an optical fabric to perform optical switching on the first stream to replace a first lambda in
the plurality of lambdas with a second lambda;

said network element converting, in a single shelf, the first lambda into an electrical signal;
said network element using an electrical fabric housed within the single shelf to perform electrical switching on the electrical
signal;

wherein the electrical signal received by the electrical fabric is amplified at predetermined frequencies and re-shaped;
said network element recovering, in the single shelf, a plurality of first frames in the electrical signal;
said network element using a packet fabric housed within the single shelf to perform packet switching on the plurality of
first frames to generate a flow of second frames; and

said network element transmitting at a client interface, the flow of second frames.

US Pat. No. 9,098,434

LOAD BALANCING SYSTEMS AND METHODS OF MAC LEARNING IN MULTI-SLOT ARCHITECTURES

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. An Ethernet system, comprising:
a first line card comprising at least one port configured to receive Ethernet data packets and a first data path device; and
a second line card comprising at least one port configured to receive Ethernet data packets and a second data path device,
wherein the second line card is communicatively coupled to the first line card;

wherein the first data path device is configured to synchronize learned Media Access Control (MAC) addresses with the second
data path device by exchange of data packets according to a hash-based time slot approach, wherein the hash-based time slot
approach slots MAC address updates for newly learned MAC addresses over time in a distributed manner, wherein the hash-based
timed slot approach breaks up the newly learned MAC addresses into at least two groups of learned MAC addresses, and wherein
each group is provided a different time offset such that each group is slotted for MAC address synchronization based on the
provided time offset.

US Pat. No. 9,236,953

COORDINATION SYSTEMS AND METHODS BETWEEN DATA CONTROL PLANE AND PHOTONIC CONTROL IN OPTICAL NETWORKS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for coordination between a data control plane and photonic control in a network, comprising:
operating the data control plane with photonic control messaging included therein, wherein the data control plane is configured
to at least establish end-to-end paths between a plurality of network elements at Layer 1;

transmitting a photonic control message in or by the data control plane responsive to a requirement for photonic layer information;
processing, via the data control plane, the photonic layer information received from photonic control responsive to the photonic
control message, wherein the photonic control is configured to automatically adjust photonic hardware responsive to a change
at a photonic layer and re-tune the photonic hardware based on the change; and

performing an action by the data control plane considering the photonic layer information, wherein the data control plane
is prevented from adding or removing one or more wavelengths where the photonic control is currently operating.

US Pat. No. 9,100,133

METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR CARRYING SYNCHRONIZATION OVER ETHERNET AND OPTICAL TRANSPORT NETWORK

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for carrying synchronization, comprising:
inserting a first timing marker via a symbol in a line encoding scheme associated with a signal comprising Optical Transport
Network (OTN) carrying an Ethernet stream, wherein both OTN and the Ethernet stream are asynchronous, wherein the first timing
marker points to a second timing marker, wherein the first timing marker is configured to subdivide the Ethernet stream into
fixed flits utilized for frame decomposition of the Ethernet stream for one or more clients, and wherein the fixed flits are
collectively multiplexed to a higher rate in the Ethernet stream;

transmitting the signal with the first timing marker in the Ethernet stream within a payload of an OTN frame to a downstream
node; and

establishing a timing reference based upon the first timing marker by extracting the first timing marker and the second timing
marker from the payload.

US Pat. No. 9,148,223

ETHERNET PRIVATE LOCAL AREA NETWORK SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A network, comprising:
a plurality of interconnected hybrid packet-optical switches each including a packet switch and an Optical Transport Network
(OTN) switch; and

an Ethernet private local area network (EPLAN) over the plurality of hybrid packet-optical switches, the EPLAN utilizing a
multi-point configuration;

wherein each of the hybrid packet-optical switches in the multi-point configuration is configured with Layer 1 switching when
configured as a two degree node and additionally with Layer 2 switching via dedicated virtual switching instances when configured
as a three or more degree node;

wherein the packet switch comprises flow interface options, logical interface options, and physical ports communicatively
coupled to the OTN switch, and wherein the OTN switch provides add/drop at an Optical channel Data Unit (ODU) level via dedicated
low-order ODUs, multiplexed Optical channel Transport Units (OTUs) in high-order ODUs, or private through-switched ODUs; and

wherein a management system is partitioned such that a service provider associated with the plurality of interconnected hybrid
packet-optical switches views and monitors Layer 1 and Layer 2 connectivity and an enterprise associated with the EPLAN monitors
Layer 2 connectivity, and wherein the management system is configured to receive a set of ports and provision the EPLAN via
Software Defined Networking.

US Pat. No. 9,130,678

HIGH SPEED SIGNAL GENERATOR

CIENA CORPORATION, Hanov...

1. A high-speed signal generator comprising:
a digital signal processing (DSP) block configured to generate a set of N (where N is an integer and N?2) parallel digital
sub-band signals, each digital sub-band signal having frequency components within a spectral range between 0 Hz and ±Fs/2,
where Fs is a sample rate of the digital sub-band signals;

a respective Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) configured to process each digital sub-band signal to generate a corresponding
analog sub-band signal, each DAC having a sample rate of Fs/2; and

a combiner configured to combine the analog sub-band signals to generate an output analog signal having frequency components
within a spectral range between 0 Hz and ±N·Fs/2, wherein the combiner is configured to combine the analog sub-band signals
in the optical domain;

wherein the digital signal processing (DSP) block comprises:
an encoding block configured to process an input digital signal to generate an encoded digital signal representative of the
output analog signal;

a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) block configured to compute an array representative of a spectrum of the encoded digital signal;
a Frequency Domain Processor (FDP) configured to process the array to generate a set of N sub-band arrays, each sub-band array
including spectral components for a respective one of the parallel digital sub-band signals; and

a respective Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) block configured to process each sub-band array to generate a corresponding
digital sub-band signal.

US Pat. No. 9,118,421

EXTENDING CONTROL PLANE FUNCTIONS TO THE NETWORK EDGE IN AN OPTICAL TRANSPORT NETWORK

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. In a network having a transport plane for carrying subscriber traffic within end-to-end connections and a control plane
for managing at least a portion of resources of the transport plane allocated to the connections, a method of extending the
control plane to a network edge, the method comprising:
designating a first set of control-plane enabled nodes of the network as core nodes, each core node being operable to route
subscriber traffic between a pair of neighbour core nodes in the network;

designating a second set of control-plane enabled nodes of the network as tail nodes, each tail node being connected to at
least one core node and operating only as a source or sink of subscriber traffic into or from the network;

designating one of the core nodes that is connected to one of the tail nodes as a host node; and
controlling the host node to advertise summary information of its connected tail nodes to other core nodes in the network.

US Pat. No. 9,374,166

HIGH SPEED OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS AND METHODS WITH FLEXIBLE BANDWIDTH ADAPTATION

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A fiber optic system, comprising:
a transmitter configured to utilize any one of a plurality of modulation formats; and
a receiver communicatively coupled to the transmitter and configured to utilize any one of the plurality of modulation formats;
wherein the transmitter and the receiver are cooperatively configured to set a modulation format from the plurality of modulation
formats based upon an average signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver instead of a worst case signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver;
and

wherein the transmitter and the receiver utilize an in-band communication channel for signaling modulation format changes
and utilize a blind system recovery mechanism to re-establish the in-band communication channel subsequent to a disruption
that causes the in-band communication channel to fail based on any of a Loss of Frame (LOF), a Loss of Multi-frame (LOM),
and a degradation in Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), and wherein the blind system recovery mechanism operates to establish the
in-band communication channel and the blind system recovery mechanism uses a predetermined modulation format change cycle
occurring at each of the transmitter and the receiver instead of end-to-end modulation mode signaling changes between the
transmitter and the receiver.

US Pat. No. 9,357,278

IN-SKIN WAVELENGTH DIVISION MULTIPLEX (WDM) PATH COMPUTATION

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method of managing an optical communication network comprising a plurality of nodes, the plurality of nodes including
at least two regeneration sites, the method comprising
maintaining, by each regeneration site, a reach table containing information of a set of viable optical paths defining a respective
local region of the regeneration site, each viable optical path of the set extending from the regeneration site and terminating
at a respective photonically reachable neighbor nodes of the regeneration site and being configured to support a photonic
connection between the regeneration site and the respective neighbor node; and

computing, by each regeneration site, a connection through the respective local region of the regeneration site by:
identifying, using the reach table, each one of the set of viable optical paths extending from the regeneration site; and
for each identified viable optical path, sending a request message to the respective neighbor node terminating the identified
viable optical path.

US Pat. No. 9,350,605

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MULTI-INSTANCE CONTROL PLANE FOR DYNAMIC MPLS-TP TUNNEL MANAGEMENT VIA IN-BAND COMMUNICATION CHANNEL (G-ACH)

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for controlling a multi-protocol label switching transport protocol (MPLS-TP) network of label switching nodes
that interface to a data plane, comprising
encapsulating a dynamic tunnel management and signaling control plane protocol message in a data plane protocol encapsulating
packet;

communicating the data plane protocol encapsulating packet to a destination label switching node, through a data plane channel
in the data plane;

extracting, at the destination label switching node, at least a portion of the dynamic tunnel management and signaling control
plane protocol message from the data plane protocol encapsulating packet; and

performing, at the destination label switching node, a dynamic tunnel management process based at least in part on the extracted
at least a portion of the dynamic tunnel management control plane protocol message;

wherein the data plane protocol encapsulating packet comprises a multi-instance identifier field having a multi-instance identifier
object identifying a specific control plane instance in a given multi-instance control plane environment.

US Pat. No. 9,270,405

DIRECTIONLESS OPTICAL ARCHITECTURE AND HIGHLY AVAILABLE NETWORK AND PHOTONIC RESILIENCE METHODS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A directionless reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM) node for high availability between switch or router
ports, the node communicatively coupled to an optical network via at least two links, the node comprising:
a directionless switch, including one or more switches, connected to each of the at least two links and configured to selectively
route a lightpath from a client device to any of the at least two links for protection thereof;

wherein the directionless switch is located between the at least two links and the client device, and wherein the client device
is not hard-wired to any of the at least two links; and

wherein the directionless switch is configured with a single input/output for the client device and the protection is 1:1
optical protection.

US Pat. No. 9,203,746

HIERARCHICAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FOR SWITCH ASSEMBLY SYSTEMS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method of managing a multi-level switch assembly system, the method comprising:
associating a resource tree with the multi-level switch assembly system, comprising:
associating a first level device to a first level of the resource tree;
associating one or more second level devices to a second level of the resource tree, such that the first level device is a
parent device of the second level devices;

assigning cost tokens to the first level device and the second level devices based on the resource requirements of the first
level device and the second level devices respectively; and

dynamically allocating resources of the multi-level switch assembly system to the first level device and the second level
devices based on the corresponding cost tokens in a hierarchical manner,

wherein assigning the cost tokens is further based on a resource management (RM) key associated with the first level device
and the second level devices, wherein the RM key is a unique identification of position of the first level device and the
second level devices within the resource tree.

US Pat. No. 9,148,345

LINK MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR MULTI-STAGE, HIGH-SPEED SYSTEMS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A system, comprising: a plurality of modules;
a backplane communicatively coupled to the plurality of modules;
a plurality of links over the backplane defined between the plurality of modules wherein each of the plurality of links comprises
a first segment of electrical connection on one of the plurality of modules, a plurality of one or more electrical connections
over traces on the backplane, and a second segment of electrical connection on another of the plurality of modules, and wherein
lengths of the plurality of links are dependent upon locations of the plurality of modules on the backplane; and

a link management system to dynamically managing equalization parameters comprising transmit equalization, transmit power
levels, and receiver settings associated with the plurality of links based on an associated length, the link management system
to selectively disabling any inactive links of the plurality of links to any of a removed module of the plurality of modules
or an unequipped module of the plurality of modules.

US Pat. No. 9,110,175

COMPUTED RADIOGRAPHY IMAGING PLATES AND ASSOCIATED METHODS OF MANUFACTURE

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. An imaging plate for use in radiography applications, comprising:
a phosphor layer;
a metallic or metallic compound intensifying layer coupled to the phosphor layer; and
a visible light barrier disposed between the phosphor layer and the metallic or metallic compound intensifying layer;
wherein the metallic or metallic compound intensifying layer is coupled to a side of the phosphor layer that is configured
to be disposed proximate to an object to be imaged when the imaging plate is in use.

US Pat. No. 9,100,120

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR DETERMINING A PATH IN A COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method of provisioning a route across an optical communications network, comprising:
receiving, at a nodal controller, data from a user specifying a service level requirement including one or more parameters
for a connection across the optical communications network, wherein the one or more parameters include a parameter relating
to longevity of the route and wherein the longevity parameter is used to determine an optical signal margin requirement,

determining the optical signal margin requirement on the basis of the one or more parameters, the optical signal margin requirement
being the margin that is allowed for degradation of an optical signal carrying data over the connection,

determining a route to use for the connection, the route being determined using the determined optical signal margin requirement;
provisioning the route across the optical communications network by the nodal controller controlling a switch; and
wherein the longevity parameter is used to selectively weight different links in the optical communications network.

US Pat. No. 9,054,831

OPTICAL COMMUNICATION NETWORK PATH RESTORATION

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method of path determination in an optical network, the method comprising:
detecting a fault on a link between two nodes of the optical network, the two nodes being on an original path between a source
node and a destination node of the optical network, the original path having a set of operational links and the faulty link;

for each node on the original path, assigning, after the fault is detected, one of a first value and a second value as an
adjoint weight to each operational link connected to the node;

determining a connection cost associated with each node on the original path, a connection cost associated with a node being
based on the adjoint weights of the links connected to the node; and

determining the new path between the source node and the destination node based at least in part on the adjoint weights and
the connection costs.

US Pat. No. 9,264,254

GENERALIZED SERVICE PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A node, comprising:
a first port configured to be selectively blocked and unblocked;
a second port configured to be selectively blocked and unblocked;
a forwarder between the first port and the second port;
a management channel between the first port and the second port, wherein the selective blocking and unblocking of the first
port and the second port is based on the management channel; and

a data channel between the first port and the second port, wherein the data channel utilizes an arbitrary service identifier;
wherein the data channel and the management channel are separated into different service identifier name spaces with a service
identifier for the management channel being a different type from the arbitrary service identifier for the data channel, wherein
G.8032 protection is provided on the data channel using the arbitrary service identifier, wherein the arbitrary service identifier
is a non-Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) Identifier for blocking and unblocking on the data channel using the G.8032 protection.

US Pat. No. 9,246,746

RELIABLE SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR NETWORK NOTIFICATIONS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method of providing reliable network notifications at a first device, comprising:
generating a notification at the first device for a second device;
transmitting the notification to a second device utilizing Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and an asynchronous InformRequest-Protocol
Data Unit (PDU) from the first device to the second device using User Datagram Protocol (UDP);

buffering subsequent notifications for the second device, wherein the subsequent notifications are generated prior to an acknowledgement
of receipt of the notification from the second device thereby operating in an asynchronous mode for SNMP;

subsequent to receiving the acknowledgement of receipt of the notification from the second device within a predetermined time
period, transmitting a next notification of the buffered subsequent notifications to the second device; and

subsequent to a failure to receive the acknowledgment within the predetermined time period, resending the notification as
an asynchronous InformRequest PDU while continuing the buffering of the subsequent notifications,

wherein the notification and the subsequent notifications are received, by the second device, in an order they were generated
at the first device, and

wherein each of the first device and the second device utilize Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF).

US Pat. No. 9,197,493

PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR HANDLING MULTIPLE FAULTS AND ISOLATED NODES IN INTERCONNECTED RING NETWORKS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A network, comprising:
a major ring;
at least one sub-ring;
a plurality of nodes associated with the major ring and the at least one sub-ring, wherein the plurality of nodes comprise
a pair of interconnection nodes that couple the major ring to the at least one sub-ring;

a detection mechanism for detecting when there is a fault in data path connectivity between the pair of interconnection nodes,
wherein the detection mechanism comprises a CCM (continuity check message) session between the pair of interconnection nodes
with INC (interconnection node continuity) data included therein; and

a trigger mechanism for, when the fault is detected, removing a sub-ring channel block in at least one of the interconnection
nodes such that end-to-end client traffic connectivity is restored through the major ring and the at least one sub-ring.

US Pat. No. 9,276,696

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR CHANNEL ADDITIONS OVER MULTIPLE CASCADED OPTICAL NODES

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method, comprising:
introducing a channel through a first node and a second node, wherein the channel is introduced simultaneously over the first
node and the second node;

measuring power of the channel entering the first node and the channel entering the second node;
determining a first measured error of the channel based on a first target power and the measured power at the first node and
a second measured error of the channel based on a second target power and the measured power at the second node;

performing a control loop using the first measured error at the first node and using the second measured error at the second
node, wherein the first node and the second node perform the control loop simultaneously and independently of one another,
and wherein each of the first node and the second node perform the control loop based only on their own measurements;

modifying parameters of the control loop at each of the first node and the second node with a plurality of states to maintain
a stable response; and

adjusting power of the channel based on the modified control loop at each of the first node and the second node.

US Pat. No. 9,461,839

NETWORK STATUS VISUALIZATION SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for visualizing a network including one or more protection rings, the method comprising, by a computer system:
receiving a selection of a start node;
receiving a selection of an end node;
identifying first intervening nodes between the start and end node, the intervening nodes including at least one implicated
protection ring of the one or more protection rings;

identifying a blocking port of the at least one implicated protection ring;
identifying a path through the at least one implicated protection ring based on the identified blocking port;
generating a first graphical representation of each node of the first intervening nodes including a representation of the
at least one implicated protection ring using the identified path and excluding nodes of the at least one implicated protection
ring not included in the path;

detecting unblocking of the blocking port of the at least one implicated protection ring by subscribing to events generated
by an implicated node of the at least one implicated protection ring implicated by the unblocking; and

in response to detecting the unblocking of the blocking port, performing steps of
identifying an updated path through the at least one implicated protection ring having an unblocked blocking port, the updated
path including second intervening nodes that include at least one node not included in the first intervening nodes;

generating an updated representation including representations of each node of the second intervening nodes including a representation
of the updated path through the at least one implicated protection ring and excluding representations of nodes of the at least
one implicated protection ring included in the first representation but not included in the updated path; and

transmitting the updated representation of the intervening nodes for display.

US Pat. No. 9,258,190

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR MANAGING EXCESS OPTICAL CAPACITY AND MARGIN IN OPTICAL NETWORKS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

17. A network, comprising:
a plurality of interconnected network elements, at least one link in the network formed between two of the plurality of interconnected
network elements is formed by flexible optical modems configured to form a variable capacity channel;

a control plane communicatively coupled to the plurality of interconnected network elements; and
a controller communicatively coupled to the flexible optical modems and configured to:
determine excess margin relative to margin needed to insure performance at a nominal guaranteed rate over the at least one
link, wherein the at least one link comprises a fixed capacity channel adjacent to the variable capacity channel;

cause the flexible optical modems to consume most or all of the excess margin, wherein capacity increased above the nominal
guaranteed rate in the flexible optical modems comprises excess capacity;

map the excess capacity to one or more logical interfaces for use by the control plane;
determine excess margin for the fixed capacity channel that is unusable since the fixed capacity channel cannot modify its
rate;

perform at least one of increase performance of the variable capacity channel and decrease performance of the fixed capacity
channel based on the excess margin for the fixed capacity channel; and

increase a bit-rate of the variable capacity channel based on margin gained by at least one of the increased performance of
the variable capacity channel and the decreased performance of the fixed capacity channel.

US Pat. No. 9,049,135

NETWORK SPARES AUDIT OPTIMIZATION AND MAINTENANCE SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A network spares audit, optimization, and maintenance system, comprising:
a processor configured to execute an application, the processor associated with one of (1) a network management system of
a network and (2) a logistics management tool external to the network and in communication with the network management system
of the network, wherein the network management system performs network discovery and provides the application with live network
data related to equipment present at each site in the network in real time, the application comprising:

a probabilistic risk analysis algorithm executed by the application and operable to utilize statistical analysis to determine
how many and what types of spares are required at each of one or more spares depots based on inputted conditions, the live
network data, and network configuration information; and

a mapping algorithm operable to map the equipment of the network to the one or more spares depots, and wherein the equipment
is mapped to the one or more spares depots by first mapping the equipment to sites and then mapping the sites to the one or
more spares depots;

wherein the application is configured to provide one or more of a notification of new spares requirements and an assessment
of risks based on newly added equipment detected in the live network data.

US Pat. No. 9,088,486

RETENTION OF A SUB-NETWORK CONNECTION HOME PATH

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for restoring a connection from a protection path after a path failure, the method comprising:
establishing a home path for a connection, the home path having a first normal priority bandwidth assigned to the connection
and a first reserved priority bandwidth assigned to the connection;

routing the connection to a protection path in response to a failure of the home path, the protection path being different
than the home path;

detecting correction of the failure of the home path;
sending a restoration request requesting to route the connection on the home path in response to the detected correction of
the failure of the home path; and

when the home path has a second connection using the first normal priority bandwidth after the restoration request is sent:
using the first reserved priority bandwidth to route the connection; and
when the home path has the second connection using the first normal priority bandwidth and a third connection using the first
reserved priority bandwidth after the restoration request is sent:

determining whether the connection is unrestorable on an alternative normal priority bandwidth of a plurality of alternative
home paths; and

using an alternative reserved priority bandwidth of one of the plurality of alternative home paths to temporarily route the
connection.

US Pat. No. 9,197,354

CONCATENATED OPTICAL SPECTRUM TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. An optical network, comprising:
a first network element with an add Wavelength Selective Switch (WSS);
a second network element with a drop WSS communicatively coupled to the add WSS of the first network element by a first optical
fiber, wherein the first optical fiber includes a first plurality of optical channels and a second plurality of optical channels;

wherein each of the first plurality of optical channels are located on an optical spectrum over the first optical fiber with
substantially no spectrum between adjacent channels, and wherein each of the second plurality of optical channels are located
on the optical spectrum with substantially no spectrum between adjacent channels;

wherein a plurality of bins are defined directly adjacent to and touching one another over the optical spectrum by a management
system for operations, administration, maintenance, and provisioning of the optical network, wherein each of the first plurality
of optical channels and the second plurality of optical channels are assigned to a variable number of the plurality of bins,
and wherein a width of each of the plurality of bins is smaller than or equal to a smallest required roll-off on the add WSS,
the drop WSS, or any wavelength selective components in the optical network; and

wherein at least one channel of the first plurality of optical channels or the second plurality of optical channels is assigned
to more than one bin.

US Pat. No. 9,264,328

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR DYNAMIC OPERATIONS, ADMINISTRATION, AND MANAGEMENT

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A dynamic Ethernet Connectivity Fault Management (CFM) method, comprising:
a first Maintenance End Point (MEP) transmitting an Ethernet notification to at least one remote MEP;
the at least one remote MEP receiving the Ethernet notification;
the at least one remote MEP performing an action to dynamically modify at least one CFM attribute while in service without
requiring static reconfiguration based on the Ethernet notification, wherein the at least one dynamically modified CFM attribute
includes any of transmission interval of Continuity Check Messages, threshold count associated with Continuity Check Messages
for defect conditions, and one of suspension and resumption of transmission of Continuity Check Messages; and

wherein said transmitting the Ethernet notification is done through one of a synchronous manner and an uncontrolled manner,
the synchronous manner comprising a handshake between the first MEP and the at least one remote MEP and the uncontrolled manner
comprising transmission of N consecutive Ethernet notifications to the at least one remote MEP, and

the dynamically modifying at least one CFM attribute comprises any one of dynamically reconfiguring attributes associated
with Continuity Check Messages exchanged between the first MEP and the at least one remote MEP, one of suspending and resuming
Continuity Check Messages exchanged between the first MEP and the at least one remote MEP, and notifying of the first MEP
leaving a Maintenance Entity Group comprising the first MEP and the at least one remote MEP.

US Pat. No. 9,258,202

CORRELATION OF PERFORMANCE MONITORING RECORDS FOR LOGICAL END POINTS WITHIN A PROTECTED GROUP

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method comprising:
initializing a work bit vector associated with a work Connection Termination Point (CTP) in a group protected by a protect
CTP;

initializing a protect bit vector;
recording occurrences of severely errored seconds (SES) in corresponding bit positions of the work bit vector only if the
work CTP is selected for data traffic;

recording SES occurrences in corresponding bit positions of the protect bit vector only if the protect CTP is selected for
data traffic; and

forming the union of the work bit vector and the protect bit vector to generate a correlated bit vector.

US Pat. No. 9,262,363

PCI AND PCI EXPRESS VIRTUAL HOT PLUG SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A virtual hot plug system, comprising:
a Root Complex configured to be communicatively coupled to a Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) or PCI express (PCIe)
device comprising virtual hot plug enabling hardware thereon without corresponding hot plug controller hardware on the PCI/PCIe
device; and

a virtual hot plug controller communicatively coupled to the Root Complex, wherein the virtual hot plug controller is configured
to:

intelligently poll the Root Complex to discover the PCI/PCIe device while avoiding hanging or locking up an operating system;
and

perform a virtual hot plug of the PCI/PCIe device configuring a PCI/PCIe subsystem in the operating system and configuring
devices in the PCI/PCIe device while the PCI/PCIe device is coupled to the Root Complex and before the PCI/PCIe device is
electrically usable.

US Pat. No. 9,065,247

DIFFERENTIATION OF POWER AND CHANNEL COUNT CHANGES IN OPTICALLY AMPLIFIED LINKS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method comprising:
measuring a first parameter from a first signal received at a node;
measuring a second parameter from a second signal received at the node;
comparing the first parameter to a third parameter and the second parameter to a fourth parameter; and
identifying a type of system perturbation based on the comparisons,
wherein the first parameter is a power measurement of the first signal, wherein the third parameter is a baseline power measurement
(Pbsig) of the first signal, wherein the second parameter is a power measurement of the second signal, and wherein the fourth parameter
is a baseline power measurement (PbOSC) of the second signal.

US Pat. No. 9,252,913

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR OPTICAL DARK SECTION CONDITIONING

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for optical dark section conditioning, comprising:
responsive to determining that a section is dark, wherein a dark section comprises connected fiber spans that are functional
with no traffic carrying channels present, generating at least one of a broadband noise and a signal at a head end of the
section, by a first module of the section; and

operating all other modules of the section in gain control mode.

US Pat. No. 9,136,621

GUIDES AND TAB ARRANGEMENT TO RETAIN A CARD HAVING AN EDGE CONNECTOR AND METHOD OF USE

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. An assembly comprising:
a base comprising a left edge and a right edge spaced opposite to one another;
a left guide and a right guide supported on the base at the left edge and the right edge respectively;
a module comprising a connector at a front edge thereof, the module comprising a card having a left edge disposed in a left
passageway defined by the left guide, the card having a right edge disposed in a right passageway defined by the right guide,
the module further comprising an electronic component mounted on the card between the connector and a back edge of the card;
and

a tab supported by the base, a portion of the tab protruding into a space between a bottom surface of the card and a plane
passing through a bottom surface of the connector;

wherein a surface of the tab is in contact with an edge of the connector formed by the bottom surface of the connector and
a rear surface of the connector, wherein the rear surface of the connector faces the electronic component on the card.

US Pat. No. 9,094,122

SIGNAL EQUALIZER IN A COHERENT OPTICAL RECEIVER

CIENA CORPORATION, Hanov...

1. A receiver for receiving an inbound optical signal through a link of an optical communications system, the inbound optical
signal having been transmitted by a transmitter as a transmitted optical signal comprising a pair of orthogonal transmitted
polarizations having a common carrier frequency, each transmitted polarization being modulated with symbols, the receiver
comprising:
a polarization beam splitter configured to split the inbound optical signal into a pair of orthogonal received polarizations;
a signal equalizer configured to generate estimates of the symbols modulated on each transmitted polarization by processing
multi-bit digital sample streams of each of the received polarizations.

US Pat. No. 9,197,355

DROP PORT BASED SHARED RISK LINK GROUP SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

19. A network element, comprising:
one or more line ports;
a switching mechanism between the one or more line ports, wherein the switching mechanism comprises circuitry configured to
switch one or more of channels, timeslots, tributary units, packets, and wavelengths; and

a controller communicatively coupled to the one or more line ports and the switching mechanism, wherein a control plane operates
on the controller and the controller is configured to:

obtain shared risk link group information for links at a layer in which the network element operates;
receive drop side port shared risk link group details from another network element operating at a different layer but sharing
a connection through the network element, wherein the network element is a higher layer network element that operates over
a lower layer network element comprising the other network element operating at the different layer; and

calculate a path for the connection based on the shared risk link group information and the drop side port shared risk link
group details thereby guaranteeing absolute route diversity for the connection through the layer and the different layer,
wherein drop ports interface the layer and the different layer such that the drop side port shared risk link group details
associated with the layer are shared between the layer and the different layer.

US Pat. No. 9,419,708

LIVE MONITORING OF RAMAN AND FIBER DEGRADATION IN DWDM NETWORKS USING IN-SERVICE OTDR

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method of analysing performance of an optical fiber link, the method comprising:
deriving a reference trace indicative of a distributed optical performance of the optical fiber link;
during an initial deployment of the optical fiber link, measuring, by an Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR) sub-system,
a first OTDR trace of the optical fiber link with Raman amplification ON; and

during in-service operation of the optical fiber link, measuring, by the OTDR sub-system, a second OTDR trace with Raman amplification
ON; and detecting, by a computer, a change in optical characteristics of the optical fiber link since the first cumulative
Raman Grain profile was generated, base on the reference trace, the first OTDR trace and the second OTDR trace.

US Pat. No. 9,083,484

SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORKING PHOTONIC ROUTING SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A network, comprising:
a plurality of interconnected nodes utilizing an all-broadcast architecture for a plurality of wavelengths there between;
wherein the plurality of interconnected nodes utilize a routing protocol configured to compute a loop-free path through the
plurality of interconnected nodes, wherein the loop-free path utilizes at least one wavelength of the plurality of wavelengths
using routing constructs adapted to a photonic domain; and

at least one blocking element configured to selectively block the at least one wavelength based on the computed loop-free
path.

US Pat. No. 9,419,725

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR THE COMPENSATION OF NONLINEAR CROSS POLARIZATION AND CROSS PHASE MODULATION IN DUAL POLARIZATION COHERENT CHANNELS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

15. A system for compensation of nonlinear cross phase polarization and cross phase modulation in a dual polarization coherent
optical system, the system comprising:
a transmitter configured to transmit a dual polarization optical signal with a Horizontal polarization (H-pol) pilot and a
Vertical (V-pol) polarization pilot, each of the H-pol pilot and the V-pol pilot is i) at a different frequency thereby avoiding
mixing during propagation from the transmitter and ii) in a same State of Polarization (SOP) as respective data signals associated
with the dual polarization optical signal; and

a receiver communicatively coupled to the transmitter and configured to
receive the dual polarization optical signal with the two pilot tones, and
determine scalar products using the received H-pol pilot, the received V-pol pilot, and a signal pilot, wherein the scalar
products are indicative of fast nonlinear cross polarization modulation-induced polarization and nonlinear cross phase modulation-induced
phase variations during the propagation for compensation of both using the scalar products.

US Pat. No. 9,197,322

DIGITAL OPTICAL SPECTRAL SHAPING

CIENA CORPORATION, Hanov...

1. A method of generating an optical channel signal for transmission through an optical fiber link of an optical communications
system, the method comprising steps of:
a digital filter processing an input data signal using a compensation function and a spectral shaping function to generate
a pair of multi-bit sample streams representing a target optical E-field envelope of the optical channel signal; and

a modulator modulating an optical carrier light using the pair of multi-bit sample streams to generate the optical channel
signal;

the compensation function at least partially compensating impairments of the optical fiber link; and
the predetermined spectral shaping function being designed to pre-emphasize predetermined frequency components of a baseband
spectrum of the target optical E-field envelope.

US Pat. No. 9,225,430

DIGITAL NOISE LOADING FOR OPTICAL RECEIVERS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. An apparatus for managing performance of an optical communications network, the apparatus comprising:
logic configured to measure a quality of a communication signal received at a coherent optical receiver in the optical communications
network;

logic configured to apply digital noise to the communication signal at the coherent optical receiver, wherein the digital
noise is directly applied in a digital data path of the communication signal;

logic configured to detect a change in the quality of the communication signal at the coherent optical receiver in response
to the application of the digital noise; and

logic configured to determine an operating characteristic and/or a performance margin of the coherent optical receiver based
on the change in the quality of the communication signal.

US Pat. No. 9,059,805

OPTIMUM MODULATOR BIAS SYSTEMS AND METHODS IN COHERENT OPTICAL TRANSMITTERS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A modulator bias selection method for setting bias values in an optical modulator system of an optical transmitter, comprising:
for a pair of inner phase adjusters of an optical modulator, selecting a minimum bias point by sweeping a left phase adjuster
and a right phase adjuster of each of the inner phase adjusters and measuring a resulting bias point in the optical modulator
system until the minimum bias point is found;

for a pair of outer phase adjusters, selecting a half-power bias point by sweeping a left phase adjuster and a right phase
adjuster of each of the outer phase adjusters and measuring a resulting bias point in the optical modular system until the
half-power bias point is found; and

setting bias values for the pair of inner phase adjusters and the pair of outer phase adjusters based on the selected minimum
bias point and the selected half-power bias point, wherein the modulator bias selection method is performed locally at the
optical modulator system.

US Pat. No. 9,344,323

G.8032 ETHERNET MULTIPLE FAULT RECOVERY MECHANISMS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method, comprising:
detecting a failure on both ports of a major ring at a network element that has an interconnecting sub-ring terminating thereon,
wherein the failure is a single event that simultaneously causes a failure on both ports, and wherein both ports are contained
in a same module and the failure affects the same module;

causing a block at an associated sub-ring termination port of the interconnecting sub-ring responsive to the failure on both
the ports of the major ring; and

monitoring the failure and clearing the block responsive to a recovery of one or both ports from the failure.

US Pat. No. 9,338,087

SOURCE IDENTIFICATION PRESERVATION IN MULTIPROTOCOL LABEL SWITCHING NETWORKS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A source Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) network element, comprising:
circuitry configured to push a source label on a label stack associated with a packet, wherein the source label identifies
the source MPLS network element as a source node;

circuitry configured to push one or more labels on the label stack, wherein the one or more labels are indicative of a route
of the packet towards a destination node in an MPLS network; and

circuitry configured to transmit the packet with the label stack,
wherein the source label is utilized at the destination node to indicate the source node for maintenance of Operations, Administration,
and Maintenance (OAM) data, and

wherein the OAM data comprises a traffic matrix based on the source label.

US Pat. No. 9,167,318

BANDWIDTH ADVERTISEMENT SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR OPTICAL TRANSPORT NETWORK

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A bandwidth advertisement update method used in a control plane of an optical network, comprising:
defining a plurality of bandwidth update threshold values for a plurality of bandwidth units supported on a link in the optical
network, wherein the plurality of bandwidth update threshold values are managed independently of one another, wherein the
plurality of bandwidth units have different sizes, and wherein the link is a virtual object used by the control plane to represent
one or more lines that are physical connections between nodes in the optical network and the plurality of bandwidth units
are either on a same line or spread across more than one line;

initially advertising a bandwidth advertisement comprising; the bandwidth update threshold values for each of the plurality
of bandwidth units when no traffic is provisioned on the link;

responsive to a change in available bandwidth on the link, sending a updated bandwidth advertisement if the available bandwidth
for any of the plurality of bandwidth units is less than the associated bandwidth update threshold value for the link; and

responsive to a change in available bandwidth on the link, withholding the bandwidth advertisement if the available bandwidth
for all of the plurality of bandwidth units is greater than or equal to the associated bandwidth update threshold values.

US Pat. No. 9,413,520

OPTICAL TRANSCEIVER AND METHOD WITH CHANNEL BINDING, CLOCK FORWARDING, AND INTEGRATE-AND-DUMP RECEIVERS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

16. A photonically integrated system, comprising:
N transmitters each transmitting one of N transmitted optically bound channels using intensity modulation;
a multiplexer combining the N transmitted optically bound channels from the N transmitters;
a clock forwarding mechanism to transmit a transmitted optical clock signal to an opposing optical receiver;
N receivers each receiving one of N received optically bound channels, wherein the N receivers comprise integrate-and-dump
optical receivers that utilize an integration time of about 75% of a bit period providing sufficient time for sampling a value
of integrated current and resetting an integrator by discharging an integrating capacitor during the remaining about 25% of
the bit period;

a demultiplexer splitting the N received optically bound channels to the N receivers;
a clock recovery mechanism to receive a received optical clock signal from the opposing optical transmitter; and
an envelope detector tapping a portion of overall optical power prior to the N receivers and detecting the received optical
clock signal with a narrowband clock photodetector, wherein the received optical clock signal is superimposed as an external
or internal modulation of an overall intensity envelope of a whole bound channel from an opposing transceiver.

US Pat. No. 9,240,905

PROTECTING HYBRID EQUIPMENT IN A NETWORK NODE

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for providing port level protection for a hybrid interface, comprising:
establishing a Virtual Connection Point (VCP) as a termination point for a transport-side network connection;
configuring the VCP as a Layer 1 bridge/select connection to switch among any one of a plurality of backplane Layer 1 termination
points;

creating a link aggregation group to protect the plurality of backplane Layer 1 termination points, wherein the link aggregation
group is configured between modules and over a backplane within a node, and wherein the link aggregation group comprises a
first link aggregation group;

establishing a Layer 2 switch to direct packets between the link aggregation group and the VCP configured as the Layer 1 bridge/select
connection; and

creating a second link aggregation group to protect one or more client-side Ethernet ports, wherein the Layer 2 switch further
directs packets between the first link aggregation group and second link aggregation group, and wherein the second link aggregation
group is configured between the node and another device,

wherein the first link aggregation port is between the Layer 2 switch and a Layer 1 switch fabric and the second link aggregation
port is between the Layer 2 switch and the one or more client-side Ethernet ports.

US Pat. No. 9,191,117

HIGH-SPEED OPTICAL TRANSPONDER SYSTEMS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. An optical system, comprising:
an optical remodulator comprising a client-side, ?Ti, and a line-side, ?j, with electrical signal processing between the client-side and the line-side, wherein ?Ti is different from ?j, with each having a same information-bearing signal thereon,

wherein the line-side is part of a wavelength division multiplexing system and wherein the client-side utilizes a wavelength
of about 1300 to 1600 nm,

wherein the client-side operates a first protocol and the line-side operates a second protocol, wherein the first protocol
is any of SONET, SDH, OTN, ATM, Ethernet, and Fibre Channel, and wherein the second protocol is any of SONET, SDH, OTN, and
Ethernet, and

wherein the client-side comprises a network element operating at any of layer one, layer two, and/or layer three, and wherein
the line-side forms a wave division multiplexing layer separate from the layer one, layer two, and/or layer three.

US Pat. No. 9,270,377

HIGH-SPEED OPTICAL TRANSCEIVER FOR INFINIBAND AND ETHERNET

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. An optical transceiver, supporting one or more of Infiniband and Ethernet, the optical transceiver comprising:
processing circuitry connected to one or more physical client interfaces for receiving client signals therefrom, wherein the
processing circuitry is configured to selectively perform Infiniband or Ethernet control and processing on the client signals;
and

framing circuitry configured to selectively provide framing on an output from the processing circuitry;
wherein the processing circuitry and the framing circuitry utilize mapping to superblocks and aggregation of superblocks;
and

wherein the framing circuitry is configured to encode the output from the processing circuitry with Forward Error Correction
(FEC).

US Pat. No. 9,207,461

FIBER OPTICAL PACKAGE INTERCONNECT

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. An optical assembly comprising:
a laser configured to generate light;
a low-birefringence optical fiber, wherein the low-birefringence optical fiber has high intrinsic birefringence and a high
spin structure resulting in low effective birefringence; and

a polarization transformer directly coupled to the laser between the laser and the low-birefringence optical fiber, wherein
the polarization transformer is configured to transform a substantially linearly-polarized light from the laser to a substantially
circularly polarized light.

US Pat. No. 9,210,075

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MANAGING END-TO-END CONSISTENCY OF BI-DIRECTIONAL MPLS-TP TUNNELS VIA IN-BAND COMMUNICATION CHANNEL (G-ACH) PROTOCOL

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for provisioning a bi-directional associated tunnel in a multi-protocol label switching transport protocol (MPLS-TP)
network of nodes, comprising:
dynamic provisioning a forward tunnel in a data plane from a source node to a destination node, wherein the dynamic provisioning
includes in-band messaging of a forward tunnel dynamic control message, structured with a dynamic control plane protocol and
having an Extended Association Object, through a forward data channel, in the data plane, between the source node and the
destination node;

receiving and processing the forward tunnel dynamic control message at one or more intermediate nodes, wherein the processing
comprises installing a local path state to the destination node at each of the one or more intermediate nodes and re-generating
a substantial replica of the forward tunnel dynamic control message to forward towards the destination node; and

provisioning a reverse tunnel from the source node to the destination node, wherein the provisioning includes in-band messaging
of a reverse tunnel dynamic control message, having a field for a copy of the Extended Association Object, through a given
reverse data channel in a between the destination node and the source node;

wherein the re-generating a substantial replica of the forward tunnel dynamic control message to forward towards the destination
node comprises forwarding at the one or more intermediate nodes the substantial replica through a Generic Associated Label
(GAL) Generic Associated Channel (G-ACH) channel in an MPLS-TP link to a next downstream node identified by an extracted Explicit
Route Object (ERO).

US Pat. No. 9,806,801

IN-SERVICE OPTICAL FAULT ISOLATION SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for in-service optical fault isolation on a link between a first node and a second node, the method comprising:
transmitting count information associated with counters between each of the first node and the second node;
determining associated values for the counters responsive to an event associated with the link; and
determining a location of the event based on the associated values for the counters;
wherein the counters comprise a counter CNT-A transmitted from the first node to the second node and a counter CNT-B transmitted
from the second node to the first node,

wherein the associated values are 1) N-A for the counter CNT-A when the event occurs, 2) N-B for the counter CNT-B when the
even occur, 3) M-A for the counter CNT-A when the first node receives N-B for the counter CNT-B, and 4) M-B for the counter
CNT-B when the second node receives N-A for the counter CNT-A and M-A and M-B are incremented by a maximum counter value+1
if they are less than their corresponding values N-A and N-B, and

wherein a time T-A from the event to the first node is (M-A?N-A)*Frame-Time/2 and a time T-B from the event to the second
node is (NI-B?N-B)*Frame-Time/2.

US Pat. No. 9,407,359

LOCALIZED NETWORK REPAIR SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A localized repair method in a network using a control plane, comprising: responsive to a failure on a local repair segment
defined on a connection traversing the network, generating a release message in the control plane, wherein the local repair
segment is one of (i) between optical-electrical conversion points of the connection and (ii) a High Order (HO) Optical Transport
Network (OTN) multiplexing segment of the connection, and wherein the local repair segment comprises multiple spans that are
determined based on an attribute of either a photonic domain for (i) or an OTN domain for (ii); attempting a local repair
on the local repair segment; if the local repair is unsuccessful, transmitting the release message to redial the connection;
and if the local repair is successful, signaling a new sub-path based on the local repair.

US Pat. No. 10,070,553

CONNECTOR REPLACEMENT METHODS IN A NETWORK ELEMENT CHASSIS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A connector replacement method in a network element chassis utilizing associated tools, the connector replacement method comprising:obtaining a connector insertion tool comprising a housing, a handle, a vise configured to move based on rotation of the handle, a push out block configured to move based on movement of the vise, and a plurality of pins on the push out block arranged based on backplane connectors for replacement and configured to push out the backplane connectors for replacement based on movement of the push out block;
obtaining a connector removal tool comprising a housing, a handle, a vise configured to move based on rotation of the handle, a push in block configured to move based on movement of the vise, and a connector block on the housing opposing the push in block;
at a location where the network element chassis is physically deployed and operating in-service, obtaining physical access to a backplane in the network element chassis;
powering down backplane connectors for replacement while other backplane connectors remained powered;
removing the powered down backplane connectors with the connector removal tool;
inserting a new set of backplane connectors in place of the removed, powered down backplane connectors with the connector insertion tool; and
powering up the new set of backplane connectors.

US Pat. No. 9,455,788

HITLESS MODULATION SCHEME CHANGE SYSTEMS AND METHODS IN OPTICAL NETWORKS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

15. An optical node implementing hitless modulation changes in an optical network, the optical node comprising:
one or more optical modems;
a fabric coupled to the one or more optical modems for switching of connections; and
a processing device implementing a control agent, wherein the control agent is configured to
determine that a modulation change from a first modulation scheme to a second modulation scheme is warranted for an optical
modem in the node, the optical modem is configured to communicate over an optical link,

determine an impact of the modulation change on the optical link and associated underlying connections thereon comprising
determining a length of time the modulation change will take based on a type of the modulation change and conditions on the
optical link,

cause changes in a data plane for the associated underlying connections through the fabric, prior to performing the modulation
change, and

cause the modulation change subsequent to accommodating the associated underlying connections in the data plane, thereby minimizing
interruptions of the associated underlying connections due to the modulation change.

US Pat. No. 10,638,631

COMPLIANT MICRO LATCH FOR HIGH-SPEED SIGNAL SUB-SLOT PLUGGABLE MODULES

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A module comprising: a physical form factor with one or more openings in a faceplate for receiving a corresponding sub-slot module; module high-speed connectors configured to mate with high-speed connectors in the corresponding sub-slot module; and one or more micro latches for each of the one or more openings to engage a compliant faceplate insert on the corresponding sub-slot module, wherein a single one of the one of more micro latches is utilized to engage a single the corresponding sub-slot module to provide physical compliancy with a biasing force sufficient to engage the high-speed connectors with the module high-speed connectors wherein each of the one or more micro latches includes a latching pin which engages an integrated channel in the compliant faceplate insert on the corresponding sub-slot module and which engages an end of the integrated channel to apply a force to a spring on the compliant faceplate insert.

US Pat. No. 9,625,648

METHOD FOR FABRICATING A MONOLITHIC OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICE

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for fabricating a monolithic optoelectronic device having a waveguide containing a core, an overclad adjacent
to the core, and at least one electrode connected to at least a portion of the waveguide; and a spot-size converter optically
connected to the waveguide, the spot-size converter containing a core and an overclad adjacent to the core; said method comprising:
providing a wafer having a core for defining the cores of the waveguide and the spot-size converter, and an overclad adjacent
to the core and made of a highly-doped semiconductor material;

placing a mask on the wafer covering those areas of the overclad on which the at least one electrode of the waveguide are
to be formed;

etching away at least a portion of areas of the overclad that are not covered by the mask;
replacing the etched areas of the overclad with semiconductor material that is less highly doped and having areas of different
thickness, such that the overclad of the waveguide is thinner than the overclad of the spot-size converter; and

forming the at least one electrode of the waveguide on selected unetched areas of the overclad.

US Pat. No. 9,749,173

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR SYNCHRONIZING FORWARDING DATABASES ACROSS MULTIPLE INTERCONNECTED LAYER-2 SWITCHES

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method implemented by a plurality of interconnected switches in a multi-switch architecture, the method comprising:
learning a media access control (MAC) address at a first switch in a multi-switch architecture;
storing the MAC address in a forwarding database of the first switch;
transmitting a synch data frame to one or more switches in the multi-switch architecture via inter-switch connectivity between
the first switch and the one or more switches for synchronization using a distributed approach, wherein the inter-switch connectivity
comprises at least two ports and queues comprising a data path queue and a separate queue between each of the plurality of
interconnected switches, wherein each of the data path queue and the separate queue are configured for transmitting data frames
between each of the plurality of interconnected switches, wherein the synch data frame is created to enable the one or more
switches to learn the MAC address therefrom, wherein the transmitting of the sync data frame is via the separate queue that
is separate from the data path queue, wherein the separate queue is constrained to only provide synch data frames between
the plurality of interconnected switches, and wherein the distributed approach assigns slots to transmit learned MAC addresses
over time based on a time offset determined based on the learned MAC address for the transmitting;

learning the MAC address from the data frame at the one or more switches; and
storing the MAC address in a forwarding database for each of the one or more switches.

US Pat. No. 9,294,200

OPTIMUM MODULATOR BIAS SYSTEMS AND METHODS IN COHERENT OPTICAL TRANSMITTERS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. An optical modulator system, comprising:
a plurality of modulators;
a plurality of detectors each configured to monitor an output of one of the plurality of modulators; and
one or more controllers communicatively coupled to the plurality of detectors, wherein the one or more controllers are configured
to provide phase bias control for the plurality of modulators, wherein the phase bias control comprises selection of optimum
bias points for each the plurality of modulators and maintenance of the optimum bias points in service, wherein the one or
more controllers comprise two controllers with a first controller configured to perform the selection of the optimum bias
points and a second controller configured to perform the maintenance of the optimum bias points in service.

US Pat. No. 9,203,644

ENABLING AN ETHERNET RING NETWORK TO SCALABLY SUPPORT A HUB-AND-SPOKE CONNECTIVITY MODEL

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for enabling an Ethernet ring to scalably support a hub-and-spoke connectivity model, the method comprising:
receiving, from one of a plurality of spoke nodes by a hub node on the Ethernet ring at a first of two ports connected to
the Ethernet ring, a first frame containing a source network address, a destination network address, a client virtual local
area network (VLAN) identifier (C-VID) and a ring VLAN identifier (RVID), the destination network address identifying an external
network address not located on the ring, and the RVID differing from a service instance tag (I-SID) and identifying one of
the plurality of spoke nodes on the Ethernet ring;

learning, by the hub node, the C-VID and the RVID from the first frame on the first of the two ports connected to the Ethernet
ring without learning the first frame source network address at the first of the two ports connected to the Ethernet ring;

assigning, by the hub node, the I-SID based on the received C-VID and RVID;
determining which one of the two ports to be used for transmission based on the received C-VID and RVID;
assigning, for traffic to be transmitted to at least one of the plurality of spoke nodes, a second RVID that differs from
the RVID;

inserting, by the hub node for traffic to be transmitted to at least one of the plurality of spoke nodes, the second RVID
in the first frame;

transmitting, by the hub node and the determined one of the two ports, to the at least one of plurality of spoke nodes the
first frame with the inserted second RVID; and

transmitting, by the hub, the first frame on an external network port off the Ethernet ring toward the destination network
address, using the I-SID.

US Pat. No. 9,191,280

SYSTEM, DEVICE, AND METHOD FOR A VOIDING BANDWIDTH FRAGMENTATION ON A COMMUNICATION LINK BY CLASSIFYING BANDWIDTH POOLS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for routing a connection on a communication network, the method comprising:
receiving a request to route the connection on the communication network;
classifying, by a processor, a first bandwidth pool that is free as a long lived bandwidth pool, the long lived bandwidth
pool being used to route connections having a duration that is expected to at least one of equal and exceed a predetermined
time;

classifying, by the processor, a second bandwidth pool that is free as a short lived bandwidth pool, the short lived bandwidth
pool being used to route connections having a duration that is not expected to exceed the predetermined time;

determining at least one characteristic of the connection, the characteristic being used to determine whether to route the
connection on one of the long lived bandwidth pool and short lived bandwidth pool; and

advertising, via a control plane to nodes in the communication network, available bandwidth in each of the long lived bandwidth
pool and the short lived bandwidth pool.

US Pat. No. 9,509,728

SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORKING SYSTEMS AND METHODS VIA A PATH COMPUTATION AND CONTROL ELEMENT

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A Software Defined Networking (SDN) method implemented in a Path Computation Element (PCE) in a network, the SDN method
comprising:
receiving a request for a connection in the network from an application that does not have a detailed view of the network;
computing a path for the connection responsive to the request, wherein the PCE has up-to-date knowledge of network topology
and available bandwidth in the network; and

requesting a Path Computation Client (PCC) to establish the connection on the path, through a control plane of the network.

US Pat. No. 9,509,593

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR DIVERSE CONNECTION SIGNALING FROM DISPARATE SOURCE NODES IN DISTRIBUTED CONNECTION-ORIENTED NETWORKS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method in a network utilizing a distributed connection-oriented control plane, comprising:
signaling a first path for a first connection from a first source node;
storing call information for the first connection at any intermediate nodes in the first path;
signaling a second path for a second connection from a second source node, wherein the signaling comprises:
checking at any intermediate nodes in the second path if there is absolute route diversity between the first connection and
the second connection responsive to a requirement therein; and

responsive to detecting a diversity violation at an intermediate node of the any intermediate nodes in the second path, signaling
a crankback to the second source node with the call information for the first connection included therein;

failing to recompute the second path exclusive of the first path based on the call information responsive to the crankback
due to no available diverse path;

recomputing the second path to be maximally diverse from the first path sharing as few nodes and/or links as possible with
the first path; and

signaling the second path instructing the any intermediate nodes that it is not required to check for the node and/or link
diversity.

US Pat. No. 9,485,171

OPTIMIZING FAULT SYNCHRONIZATION IN A BIDIRECTIONAL DATA NETWORK

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for optimizing fault synchronization in a bidirectional data network utilizing Multi Protocol Label Switching
(MPLS), comprising:
receiving, in MPLS, at a downstream endpoint from a downstream node, at least one of a first Alarm Indication Signal (AIS)
indicating first Fault Location Information (FLI) of an upstream interface having an interface fault and a link down indicator
indicating the first FLI of the upstream interface having the interface fault; and

transmitting, in MPLS, to an upstream endpoint by the downstream endpoint, a second AIS including a Remote Defect Indication
(RDI) and a second FLI comprising the first FLI as received with associated Type-Length-Values (TLVs) identifying a source
of the first FLI and the second FLI identifying the downstream endpoint and including associated MPLS Transport-Profile (TP)
identifiers, wherein the downstream endpoint utilizes the second AIS instead of running a Bidirectional Forward Detection
(BFD) mechanism in MPLS to notify the upstream endpoint, and wherein the downstream endpoint determines that the second AIS
was sent by the upstream endpoint based on the second FLI to process the second AIS as an RDI.

US Pat. No. 9,807,022

OPTIMUM UTILIZATION OF YELLOW TOKENS IN PACKET METERING

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A packet metering method, implemented in a meter, to optimize utilization of yellow tokens, the packet metering method
comprising:
receiving a packet of size B in an interval; and
marking a color of the packet as green for committed, yellow for excess, or red for discard, based on the size B, a current
committed token bucket for the interval, a current excess token bucket, and an overflow counter used to preserve unused yellow
tokens from previous intervals while preserving Excess Information Rate (EIR) and Excess Burst Size (EBS) for the interval;

wherein the meter operates in a color-aware mode, and wherein the marking comprises:
when the packet is a green packet at time t, then
if the current committed token bucket minus B is greater than 0, marking the packet as green, and decrementing the current
committed token bucket by B; else

if the current excess token bucket minus B is greater than or equal to 0, marking the packet as yellow, and decrementing the
current excess token bucket by B; else

if the current excess token bucket plus the overflow counter is greater than B and if the EBS is greater than or equal to
B, marking the packet as yellow and decrementing the overflow counter by B minus the current excess token bucket and the current
excess token bucket is set to 0; else

marking the packet as red;
when the packet is a yellow packet at time t, then
if the current excess token bucket minus B is greater than 0, marking the packet as yellow, and decrementing the current excess
token bucket by B; else

if the current excess token bucket plus the overflow counter is greater than B and if the EBS is greater than or equal to
B, marking the packet as yellow and decrementing the overflow counter by B minus the current excess token bucket and the current
excess token bucket is set to 0; else

marking the packet as red.

US Pat. No. 9,806,973

BANDWIDTH ANALYTICS IN A SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORK (SDN) CONTROLLED MULTI-LAYER NETWORK FOR DYNAMIC ESTIMATION OF POWER CONSUMPTION

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A computer-implemented method, comprising:
monitoring bandwidth usage for a plurality of users in a Software Defined Network (SDN) network, wherein the plurality of
users correspond to service addresses in a control area of an electric grid system;

detecting abnormal bandwidth usage for a time period for one or more users of the plurality of users on the SDN network, which
is a service provider network separate from the electric grid system;

determining whether the abnormal bandwidth usage for the one or more users indicates a power forecast adjustment is needed
for the one or more users, wherein the determining is based on correlating bandwidth usage behavior for the plurality of users
to power usage behavior for the plurality of users and basing the power forecast adjustment thereon;

notifying an operator of the control area of the power forecast adjustment based on the determining such that the operator
adjusts power generation based on the notifying, wherein the plurality of users comprises a subset of users in the control
area, and wherein the operator utilizes statistical sampling based on the notifying for the power forecast adjustment;

characterizing bandwidth usage type for the one or more users; and
detecting a condition of the one or more users based on the characterizing, wherein the condition comprises any of home on
a work day, home from school on a school day, away from home, and returning to home.

US Pat. No. 9,565,056

PACKET TUNNEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. An Ethernet packet switch configured to manage one or more packet tunnels, the Ethernet packet switch comprising:
one or more ports;
forwarding circuitry in the Ethernet packet switch communicatively coupled to the one or more ports; and
processing circuitry in the Ethernet packet switch communicatively coupled to the forwarding circuitry,
wherein the one or more packet tunnels are configured over the one or more ports, wherein each of the one or more packet tunnels
has an associated maintenance endpoint (MEP), and

wherein the processing circuitry is configured to manage the one or more packet tunnels based on Ethernet-related performance
characteristics associated with the one or more packet tunnels determined through one or more of the associated MEP, feedback
from intermediate switches, and a Network Management System.

US Pat. No. 9,503,228

SYSTEMS AND METHODS TO DETECT, DIAGNOSE, AND MITIGATE ISSUES IN MULTI-LAYER NETWORKS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method to detect, diagnose, and mitigate issues in a network, the method comprising:
receiving Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) data related to the network, the OAM data related to current operation
of the network;

receiving external data related to the network, the external data describing events related to any one or more of construction,
weather, natural disasters, and planned outages;

instantiating a rule engine to evaluate one or more rules based on any one of the OAM data, an event, policy, and an anomaly;
performing one or more actions based on the evaluating the one or more rules; and
analyzing the external data to determine a relationship between the events and network elements in the network, wherein the
relationship comprises any one or more of distance, amount of time the event exists, a number of events in a shared area,
reputation of an event based on historical data, and a magnitude of collateral damage an event may cause to generate an associated
risk level.

US Pat. No. 9,485,175

CONTINUITY CHECK PROTOCOL OPTIMIZATION SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A Continuity Check (CC) protocol optimization method in a switch, the method comprising:
operating a plurality of CC sessions with a peer switch, wherein, for CC intervals, N sessions of the plurality CC sessions
are set to use a short interval and M sessions of the plurality of CC sessions are set to use a long interval, wherein N and
M are integers, wherein the short interval is less than or equal to 10 ms and the long interval is 100 ms or greater;

switching a first session of the N sessions with a second session of the M sessions based on one of a fault and user provisioning;
and

changing the CC intervals of the first session to the long interval and the second session to the short interval subsequent
to the switching.

US Pat. No. 9,485,013

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR OPTICAL DARK SECTION CONDITIONING

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for optical dark section conditioning, the method comprising:
determining a section in an optical network is a dark section that comprises connected fiber spans that are functional with
no traffic carrying channels present thereon; and

causing generation of at least one of broadband noise and a signal at a head end of the dark section.

US Pat. No. 9,612,401

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR PROVIDING OPTICAL CONNECTIONS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. An apparatus for providing optical connections, comprising:
an integrated circuit, comprising an optical grating structure and a first optical waveguide coupled to the optical grating
structure;

an interposer coupled to the integrated circuit, the interposer being a physical interface comprising a substrate separate
from the integrated circuit; and

an optical fiber coupled to the interposer,
wherein the interposer is configured for transmission, through the interposer, of an optical wave from the optical fiber to
the optical grating structure or from the optical grating structure to the optical fiber, and

wherein the optical grating structure is configured to transform the optical wave into a predetermined electromagnetic propagation
mode.

US Pat. No. 9,602,357

NETWORK VISUALIZATION SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. An apparatus comprising:
a memory; and
one or more processors coupled to the memory, the one or more processors configured to
assign to each circuit of a plurality of circuits of network environment a score according to a function, the function increasing
with increasing geographic length of the each circuit and with increasing carrying capacity of the each circuit, the each
circuit connecting a pair of nodes of a plurality of nodes of the network environment, each node of the plurality of nodes
being a network element,

display the network environment as a network graph using a first zoom level by displaying first circuits of the plurality
of circuits having the scores thereof above a first value,

receive a request to provide a second zoom level in a particular portion of the network environment,
identify network components to display at the second zoom level in the particular portion of the network environment by identifying
second circuits having the score thereof above a second value lower than the first value and identifying second nodes connected
to the second circuits,

determine network connections to display at the second zoom level in the particular portion of the network environment, and
generate a revised network graph containing the identified network components and the determined network connections, the
revised network graph including at least a portion of the first circuits, at least a portion of the first nodes, at least
a portion of the second circuits, and at least a portion of the second nodes.

US Pat. No. 9,565,083

IN-BAND SIGNALING FOR NETWORK PROTECTION SWITCHING

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A system for in-band signaling for automated network protection, comprising:
a channel monitor comprising hardware at a first network node operable to augment a traffic signal received at the first network
node with a signal quality indicator for a working channel carrying the traffic signal between the first network node and
a second network node;

a switch matrix comprising hardware at the first network node, the switch matrix operable to perform packet-switched routing
of data cells carrying the traffic signal; and

a status monitor comprising hardware at the first network node and communicatively coupled to the switch matrix, the status
monitor operable to indicate placement of the traffic signal, via the in-band signaling, from the working channel onto a protection
channel also between the first network node and the second network node by the switch matrix, based on the signal quality
indicator, as read by that status monitor from a data cell, satisfying requirements imposed by a state-machine-implemented
algorithm provided by the status monitor, wherein the in-band signaling comprises communication between the status monitor
and the switch matrix via overhead of the data cell which is formatted for packet-switched delivery by the switch matrix.

US Pat. No. 9,485,551

ENHANCED ROUTING AND WAVELENGTH ASSIGNMENT TECHNIQUES FOR REDUCING WAVELENGTH CONTINUITY BLOCKING

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for optimizing routing and wavelength assignment in a network, the method comprising:
determining, by a source node in the network, a routing assignment for the network, wherein the routing assignment is determined
using a decongestion cost-based function;

determining, by the source node, a wavelength assignment for the network based on a vector difference, wherein the vector
difference uses bit operations to describe wavelength usage across links in the network based on how the links are connected,
the determination of the wavelength assignment comprising

spanning the network for a path,
calculating a weighted correlation function for at least one length in the network,
storing the weighted correlation,
determining if a next path exists,
if the next path is found, spanning for the next path in the network, and
if the next path is not found, returning the stored correlation, and wherein the cost-based function comprises assigning a
connectivity weight to each cross connect within the source node, determining a runtime hop count during route computation,
and calculating an incremental and cumulative cost based route on the connectivity weight and the hop count.

US Pat. No. 9,319,240

ETHERNET RING PROTECTION NODE

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A redundant ring node comprising:
a first line card used to implement a ring node, the first line card comprising:
a first front port serving as a first ring port of two ring ports defined for ring nodes supporting a ring protection protocol,
and

a first state machine implementing a state machine consistent with the ring protection protocol;
a second line card used to implement the ring node, the second line card comprising:
a second front port serving as a second ring port of the two ring ports defined for ring nodes supporting the ring protection
protocol, and

a second state machine also implementing a state machine consistent with the ring protection protocol; and
a backplane providing communication infrastructure between multiple line cards residing at the ring node;
an inter-card communication link implemented over the backplane between a first virtual port at the first line card and a
second virtual port at the second line card;

a first update module of the first state machine operable to update the first state machine according to the ring protection
protocol and in response to a state message arriving at the first ring port;

a forwarding module residing on the first line card and operable to forward the state message through the first virtual port
and over the inter-card communication link supported by the backplane to the second state machine residing on the second line
card; and

a second update module of the second state machine operable to respond to the state message received at the second virtual
port according to the ring protection protocol as though the state message were received at the second ring port so that the
second update module updates the second state machine to the updated state such that the first state machine and the second
state machine share a common state for the ring node.

US Pat. No. 9,172,658

CALL SETUP SYSTEMS AND METHODS USING DYNAMIC LINK TAGGING AND OVERBOOKING OF LINKS IN MULTI-DOMAIN TRANSPORT NETWORKS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A call setup method in a multi-domain network, comprising:
receiving, at a routing controller or a central server, an abstract link configuration request between two border nodes in
a domain of the multi-domain network with a plurality of associated parameters;

determining a path for an abstract link in the domain based on the abstract link configuration request;
generating a unique tag identifier, through a routing controller, for the determined path;
flooding the determined path in the domain with the associated unique tag identifier to reserve Optical Channel Data Unit
(ODU) bandwidth between the two border nodes for the call setup;

creating the abstract link on the determined path such that the determined path is reserved based on the plurality of parameters;
and

operating an external network-network interface (ENNI) link connected to one of the two border nodes in an overbooked manner
such that no call is failed until all of the resources on the ENNI link are actually used, wherein the operating comprises

responsive to a path message requesting bandwidth on the ENNI link and responsive to bandwidth being unavailable on the ENNI
link for the path message, sending the path message with a blank upstream label and a new connection type so downstream nodes
do not discard the blank upstream label,

responsive to a reservation (RESV) message for the requested bandwidth, checking again if bandwidth is available on the ENNI
link, and

if bandwidth is available when the RESV message is sent, selecting the available bandwidth for the RESV message.

US Pat. No. 9,088,380

OPTICAL TRANSPORT NETWORK GENERIC NON-CLIENT SPECIFIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

18. An Optical Transport Network (OTN) method, comprising:
receiving signals via redundant client interfaces from a client device;
detecting a fault on one of the redundant client interfaces;
processing the fault at an OTN path layer via a protection mechanism instead of at a client protocol layer via utilizing maintenance
signaling; and

providing switching at an Optical channel Data Unit k (ODUk) layer based on the maintenance signaling;
wherein the protection mechanism comprises a uni-directional protection scheme for the redundant client interfaces in OTN
with the OTN path layer selecting paths based on the maintenance signaling independent of any client protocol associated with
the redundant client interfaces.

US Pat. No. 9,509,551

CORRELATION OF SYNCHRONOUS AND ASYNCHRONOUS HIERARCHICAL DATA IN LOOSELY-COUPLED DATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method, comprising:
intercepting asynchronous messages between components in a loosely-coupled data processing system and appending a lightweight
message header thereto, wherein the lightweight message header comprises correlation identification data with a parent, timestamp
data, and service information for asynchronous interactions;

for each asynchronous message, utilizing the lightweight message header to provide updates for each component through which
the asynchronous message is processed in the loosely-coupled data processing system;

intercepting hierarchical synchronous method calls in the loosely-coupled data processing system and automatically tracking
the correlation identification data and the timestamp data associated therewith;

storing message header data associated with the asynchronous messages subsequent to each of the asynchronous messages reaching
its final destination in the loosely-coupled data processing system;

storing metrics for the hierarchical synchronous method calls based on the correlation identification data and the timestamp
data for the asynchronous messages, wherein the hierarchical synchronous method calls are tracked separately from the asynchronous
messages;

identifying performance bottlenecks based on the correlation identification data for the hierarchical synchronous method calls
and the timestamp data for the asynchronous messages to optimize the loosely-coupled data processing system in a minimally
intrusive manner; and

analyzing the message header data associated with the asynchronous messages and the metrics for the synchronous hierarchical
method calls to ensure policy is maintained between components of the loosely-coupled data processing system.

US Pat. No. 9,490,894

COHERENT PROBE AND OPTICAL SERVICE CHANNEL SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR OPTICAL NETWORKS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. An optical system configured to perform Optical Service Channel (OSC) applications, the optical system comprising:
a coherent optical transmitter;
a coherent optical receiver, wherein the coherent optical transmitter and the coherent optical receiver utilize a low bit
rate data communication commensurate with the OSC applications;

a digital processing block operatively associated with the coherent optical transmitter and the coherent optical receiver,
wherein the digital processing block operates the coherent optical transmitter and the coherent optical receiver in an OSC
mode utilizing an optical signal for data communication between adjacent optical nodes over a transmission fiber and selectively
switches operation of the coherent optical transmitter and the coherent optical receiver from the OSC mode to an optical probe
mode for span characterization of the transmission fiber to measure a plurality of characteristics of the transmission fiber;

a first optical device connected to the coherent optical receiver and a first optical fiber; and
a second optical device connected to the coherent optical transmitter and a second optical fiber, wherein each of the first
optical device and the second optical device comprise a filter configured to pass a signal operating at an OSC wavelength
in the OSC mode and to reflect any other signal other than the OSC wavelength in the probe mode.

US Pat. No. 9,203,782

HIGH DENSITY NETWORKING SHELF AND SYSTEM

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A system, comprising:
one or more cards vertically insertable into a backplane;
one or more cards horizontally insertable into the backplane, wherein the one or more cards horizontally insertable comprise
a false faceplate that is substantially flush with a faceplate of the one or more cards vertically insertable when each is
inserted in the backplane;

wherein a first air path is defined for air flow to cool the one or more cards vertically insertable;
wherein a second air path is defined for air flow to cool the one or more cards horizontally insertable, wherein each of the
first air path and the second air path begin at a front portion of the system and end at a rear portion of the system;

a recess portion between the one or more cards vertically insertable and the one or more cards horizontally insertable, wherein
the recess portion is formed by an extension on each of the one or more cards horizontally insertable, wherein the first air
path extends from the recess portion to exhaust openings on a rear portion of the system, wherein interface fans are located
above the one or more cards vertically insertable, wherein the first air path extends from lower portions of the front portion
of the system to exhaust openings on a rear portion of the system; and

fabric fans located on a side of the one or more cards horizontally insertable, wherein the second air path extends from an
opening on an opposite side from the fabric fans to exhaust openings on a lower rear portion of the system.

US Pat. No. 9,538,573

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR MANAGING CALL CONNECTIONS FROM NON-ORIGINATING NODES IN NETWORKS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for performing an operation at a non-originating node of a connection, comprising:
receiving a request for the operation;
determining information associated with the connection, wherein the determining is performed by searching, based on both a
connection identifier and an originating node of the connection, managed objects stored at the non-originating node; and

signaling, based on the information and the operation, the originating node to cause the originating node to perform call
connection management on the connection.

US Pat. No. 9,491,086

DISTRIBUTED NETWORK PLANNING SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A network, comprising:
a plurality of interconnected network elements;
a distributed control plane configured to operate between the plurality of interconnected network elements; and
at least one planning system comprising a server that includes a processor communicatively coupled to the distributed control
plane indirectly via a global signaling communication network, wherein the at least one planning system is configured to receive
and process messages related to bandwidth reservation and topology from the distributed control plane through the global signaling
communication network, wherein the distributed control plane operates between the plurality of interconnected network elements
via a local signaling communication network, and wherein updates related to bandwidth reservation and topology received by
a path computation element (PCE) or a designated router (DR) on the local signaling communication network are provided by
the PCE or the DR to the global signaling communication network to provide the updates to the at least one planning system,
wherein the at least one planning system and the PCE or the DR are separate from one another in the network.

US Pat. No. 9,602,374

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR COLLECTING AND ANALYZING DATA TO DETERMINE LINK QUALITY AND STABILITY IN LAYER TWO NETWORKS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

13. A network element, comprising:
one or more ports communicatively coupled to a sender node in a network path, wherein the network element comprises a receiver
node; and

a controller configured to:
receive at least one of sender timestamps and sequence numbers from continuity check (CC) frames sent by the sender node;
compute receiver timestamps;
detect instability based on one or more of the at least one of sender timestamps and sequence numbers and the receiver timestamps;
and

cause performance of a remedial action based on the instability;
wherein the CC frames comprise periodically transmitted control frames during an entire session between the sender node and
the receiver node for continuity, and the at least one of sender timestamps and sequence numbers are appended to an end of
the CC frames with a delimiter indicating presence of the at least one of sender timestamps and sequence numbers, and wherein
the at least one of sender timestamps and sequence numbers are sent on an ongoing basis during the session, and

wherein the instability is detected by
a determination of sequential frame delay based on a difference between the sender timestamps in successive CC frames; and
detection of the instability based on deviations in the sequential frame delay from negotiated intervals of the CC frames.

US Pat. No. 9,509,428

PHOTONIC ROUTING SYSTEMS AND METHODS COMPUTING LOOP-FREE TOPOLOGIES

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for routing wavelengths in an optical network, the method comprising:
responsive to a path request for a wavelength or group of wavelengths, determining a path through the optical network;
determining a location on the path where wavelength blocking should occur to form a loop-free path in the optical network;
and

setting the wavelength blocking at the location.

US Pat. No. 9,820,403

BACKPLANE ALIGNMENT AND STIFFENING APPARATUS FOR TWO BACKPLANES SPANNING SINGLE MODULES

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A split backplane for a telecommunication, networking, or computing device, the split backplane comprising:
a power backplane comprising power connectors;
a signal backplane comprising signal connectors, wherein the signal backplane is separate from the power backplane, and wherein
one or more modules are adapted to selectively connect to the power connectors and the signal connectors simultaneously; and

an alignment bar connected between the power backplane and the signal backplane for alignment and stiffening of the power
backplane and the signal backplane together for signal integrity and to prevent connector pins from bending or failing between
the one or more modules, the power connectors, and the signal connectors;

wherein the signal backplane has N layers and area AN and the power backplane has M layers and area AM and wherein AN×N+AM×M
is less than AX×X where a backplane including both the power connectors and the signal connectors has X layers and area AX.

US Pat. No. 9,806,808

SIGNAL DETECTION SYSTEMS AND METHODS ON A FIBER CARRYING MULTIPLE WAVELENGTHS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method to detect a wavelength of interest (?RX) amongst one or more wavelengths (?1, ?2, . . . , ?N), the method comprising:
receiving the one or more wavelengths (?1, ?2, . . . , ?N);

using a portion of a transmitted wavelength (?TX) as a Local Oscillator (LO) signal to perform coherent detection with the one or more wavelengths, wherein the transmitted
wavelength (?TX) and the wavelength of interest (?RX) are a bi-directional communication link; and

determining a presence of the wavelength of interest (?RX) in the one or more wavelengths based on the coherent detection.

US Pat. No. 9,667,570

FABRIC EXTRA TRAFFIC

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. In a network node including an ingress IO card, an egress IO card, and a pair of parallel switch fabric cards, wherein
one of the switch fabric cards is designated as a working switch fabric card, and the other one of the switch fabric cards
is designated as a protection switch fabric card, a method of forwarding a traffic flow from the ingress IO card to the egress
IO card, the method comprising, in the ingress IO card:
dividing the traffic flow into a committed information rate (CIR) component and an extra information rate (EIR) component
based on connection state based entirely on physical-layer parameters of the traffic flow exclusive of Layer-2 and higher
parameters and awareness of associated packet header contents, wherein the CIR component comprises a first portion of the
traffic flow within a predetermined minimum bandwidth limit specification, and the EIR component comprises an excess portion
of the traffic flow above the predetermined minimum bandwidth limit specification, wherein dividing the traffic flow comprises:

routing all the packets of the traffic flow to a committed traffic queue as the CIR component until a predetermined condition
is satisfied; and

when the predetermined condition is satisfied, routing packets of the traffic flow to an extra traffic queue as the EIR component,
wherein packets of the traffic flow are read out of at least the committed traffic queue at a rate corresponding to the predetermined
minimum bandwidth limit specification;

under normal operating condition of the node, forwarding the CIR component through the working switch fabric card, and forwarding
the EIR component through the protection switch fabric card;

upon detection of a failure impacting the working switch fabric card, dropping the EIR component and forwarding the CIR component
through the protection switch fabric card.

US Pat. No. 9,485,550

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR SELECTION OF OPTIMAL ROUTING PARAMETERS FOR DWDM NETWORK SERVICES IN A CONTROL PLANE NETWORK

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

18. A method, in an intermediate node in a control plane network, for selecting optimal routing parameters for Layer 0 Dense
Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) network services, the method comprising:
receiving a setup message from an originating node, wherein the setup message is sent towards a terminating node on a computed
path in the control plane network, and the setup message indicates associated Layer 0 attributes/constraints;

validating the associated Layer 0 attributes/constraints based on locally available resources; and
performing one of:
forwarding the setup message on the path towards the terminating node when validation is successful;
forwarding the setup message on the path towards the terminating node with updated information indicating a rejection cause
and additional information comprising wavelengths supported, when the validation is unsuccessful but a modification of the
Layer 0 attributes/constraints is possible; and

transmitting a release message on the path back to the originating node with updated information indicating a rejection cause
and additional information comprising wavelengths supported when the validation is unsuccessful and no modifications of the
Layer 0 attributes/constraints are possible; and

responsive to the validating comprising determining that a regenerator port is unavailable per the layer 0 attributes/constraints
at the intermediate node based on wavelength contention for a specific wavelength, updating the setup message with the rejection
cause and the additional information indicates which alternate wavelengths are available at the intermediate node.

US Pat. No. 9,319,137

METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR REDUCED COMPLEXITY NONLINEAR COMPENSATION

CIENA CORPORATION, Hanov...

14. A method of compensating a nonlinear impairment of a signal traversing an optical communications system, the method comprising:
processing, by a parallel array of linear convolutional filters, a selected set of samples of the signal to calculate an estimate
of a nonlinear interference field, the selected set of samples comprising a first sample and a plurality of second samples;
and

applying, by a processor, the estimated nonlinear interference field to the first sample so as to at least partially compensate
the nonlinear impairment;

wherein either:
the selected set of samples of the signal are time-domain samples and each linear convolutional filter comprises a set of
taps, each tap being configured to compute a product CmnAH(tj+m+n)A(tj+n), where Cmn is a complex number representing an efficiency of nonlinear interaction; m and n are index values that range between ?M?m?M
and ?N?n?N; A(t) is a vector representing the modulated time domain transmit signal; tj denotes the time of the first sample; and AH(t) denotes the Hermitian conjugate of A(t); or

the selected set of samples of the signal are frequency-domain samples and each linear convolutional filter comprises a set
of taps, each tap being configured to compute a product CmnAH(?k+m+n)A(?k+n), where Cmn is a complex number representing an efficiency of nonlinear interaction; m and n are index values that range between ?M?m?M
and ?N?n?N; A(?) is a vector representing the Fourier transform of the modulated transmit signal; ?k denotes the frequency of the first sample; and AH(?) denotes the Hermitian conjugate of A(?).

US Pat. No. 9,509,626

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PROVISIONING A VIRTUAL MACHINE (VM) FROM A NETWORK SERVICE PROVIDER

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for deployment by a wide area service provider of one or more virtual machines via a wide area network, comprising:
deploying a converged networking and computing device at a service location with a provisioned network path in the wide area
network;

downloading a virtual machine to the converged networking and computing device over a temporary network path reconfigured
from the provisioned network path over the wide area network, wherein the temporary network path has a different end point
than the provisioned network path;

activating the virtual machine by a service in the wide area network; and
connecting the virtual machine to the provisioned network path over the wide area network and removing the temporary network
path.

US Pat. No. 9,344,191

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR CAPACITY CHANGES IN DWDM NETWORKS INCLUDING FLEXIBLE SPECTRUM SYSTEMS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method, comprising:
performing an analysis to determine an amount of power offset on any in-service channels in an optical section between two
channel access points due to a capacity change with a channel in the optical section;

defining a step size for the channel involved in the capacity change so that the in-service channels do not experience more
than an offset limit due to the capacity change; and

performing the capacity change in one or more iterations using the step size and performing an optimization after each of
the one or more iterations to compensate for power offsets on the in-service channels caused by the each of the one or more
iterations, wherein the optimization comprises determining and changing amplifier gain in each span.

US Pat. No. 9,318,290

HIGH VOLTAGE CONTROL WITH DIGITAL MEMS LOGIC

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. An apparatus comprising:
a Vdd voltage rail;
a Vdd0 voltage rail;
a reference rail; and
a plurality of MEM (Micro-Electro-Mechanical) switch pairs, each pair comprising a first MEM switch and a second MEM switch,
each first and second MEM switches in each pair comprising a first source/drain, a second source/drain, a gate, and a body;

wherein all first MEM switches in the plurality of pairs are logically connected;
wherein for each pair, the first source/drain of the first MEM switch is connected to the first source/drain of the second
MEM switch;

wherein the second source/drain of each second MEM switch is connected to the reference rail;
wherein for a first subset of the pairs, the body of each first MEM switch in the first subset is connected to the reference
rail and the body of each second MEM switch in the first subset is connected to the Vdd0 voltage rail;

wherein a first pair in the plurality of pairs has the second source/drain of its first MEM switch connected to the Vdd voltage
rail; and

a MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) buffer having an input port connected to a source/drain of the second MEM switch
in a last pair of the plurality of pairs.

US Pat. No. 9,203,549

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR OPERATIONAL SIMPLIFICATION OF CARRIER ETHERNET NETWORKS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. An Ethernet method, comprising:
receiving a request to initiate an Ethernet Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) session for Ethernet Frame Loss
Measurement at a local device;

setting up the OAM session at the local device responsive to the request;
transmitting a Protocol Data Unit (PDU) from the local device to a remote device with information related to the OAM session
and the request; and

receiving the PDU at the remote device and in response setting up a corresponding OAM session at the remote device based on
the information in the PDU, wherein the remote device is triggered to perform local counter measurements for the Ethernet
Frame Loss Measurement based on the information in the PDU, and wherein the PDU comprises a first measurement from the local
device to the remote device that is discarded by the remote device for measurement purposes since it is used to set up the
corresponding OAM session;

initiating the OAM session and the corresponding OAM session through one of an operator issued command and an application
only at the local device without requiring operator involvement at the remote device, wherein local counter measurement data
from both the local device and the remote device is obtained without requiring operator involvement at the remote device to
set up the corresponding OAM session;

collecting frame counters at each of the local device and the remote device only while the OAM session is active;
exchanging information comprising the frame counters between the local device and the remote device in counter fields in one
of a Continuity Check Message (CCM), a Loss Measurement Message (LMM), and Loss Measurement Reply (LMR) and exchanging provisioning
information related to duration, frequency, and configuration data in at least one Type-Length-Value (TLV) field of the PDU,
wherein the Ethernet Frame Loss Measurement is single-ended, wherein the PDU comprises a LMM with local frame counter data
contained therein;

receiving the LMM at the remote device and programming an Ethernet Frame Loss Measurement engine to commence collection of
per frame counters from the local device and composing a LMR to the local device and providing data from the collection in
the LMR; and

receiving the LMR at the local device and computing frame loss based on the data from the collection in the LMR.

US Pat. No. 9,813,299

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR BANDWIDTH MANAGEMENT IN SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORKING CONTROLLED MULTI-LAYER NETWORKS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A bandwidth management method performed in a Software Defined Networking (SDN) controlled network, the bandwidth management
method comprising:
responsive to detecting congestion on a network service with identifiable data therein, obtaining policy associated with the
congested network service and causing bandwidth on demand in the network to mitigate the congestion when the bandwidth on
demand is possible in the network and permitted based on the policy of the congested network service;

responsive to the congestion remaining subsequent to the bandwidth on demand or when the bandwidth on demand is not possible
or permitted, orchestrating bandwidth for the congested network service based on the associated priority in the policy; and

responsive to the congestion remaining subsequent to the orchestrating bandwidth based on priority, orchestrating bandwidth
for the congested network service based on an amount remaining to download for the network service and one or more additional
network services.

US Pat. No. 9,747,183

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR INTELLIGENT DISTRIBUTED HEALTH MONITORING IN SWITCHING SYSTEM EQUIPMENT

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for distributed health monitoring and fault repairing in switching system equipment, the switching system equipment
having a supervisory card, a line card, and a switch fabric card, wherein the supervisory card is interconnected with the
line card and the switch fabric card through a backplane, each of the supervisory card, the line card, and the switch fabric
card having corresponding control processors capable of running embedded operating systems, the method comprising:
transmitting a health status poll request message to the line card and the switch fabric card from the supervisory card, wherein
the supervisory card is separate from the line card and the switch fabric card and communicates with each over the backplane
for the transmitting;

receiving a health status poll response message by the supervisory card from each of the line card and the switch fabric card
in response to the health status poll request message, wherein the health status poll response message comprises a health
status summary report of hardware and software modules of one of the corresponding line card and switch fabric card;

discovering a relationship between all cards in the switching system based on the health status poll response message to maintain
an up-to-date topology of the cards for the health monitoring;

detecting a fault in the switching system equipment by the supervisory card based on an analysis of the health poll response
message; and

automatically triggering an action to repair the fault detected in the switching system equipment, wherein the action is triggered
based on a set of predefined policies, wherein the action comprises any one or more of re-running a set of diagnostic tests,
resetting the control processors of the cards, restarting the switching system equipment, triggering a self-repair through
restart of the cards, and triggering a switchover of a first supervisory card to a second supervisory card already operating
in the switching system equipment.

US Pat. No. 9,551,836

OPTICAL SWITCH FABRIC FOR DATA CENTER INTERCONNECTIONS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. An optical switch fabric, comprising:
horizontal optical waveguides comprising a first set and a second set, the first set is configured to receive a first plurality
of wavelengths from one or more external switches and the second set is configured to send a second plurality of wavelengths
to the one or more external switches;

vertical optical waveguides;
wavelength-selective drop optical switches associated with the first set, wherein the wavelength-selective drop optical switches
are each configured to drop a selected wavelength from a horizontal optical waveguide of the first set to an associated vertical
optical waveguide of the vertical optical waveguides; and

controllable optical switches associated with the vertical optical waveguides, wherein the controllable optical switches are
each configured to direct a selected wavelength from a vertical optical waveguide to a horizontal optical waveguide of the
second set,

wherein the first set and the second set each have a quantity of C waveguides, C is an integer, and each of the first set
receive L wavelengths, L is an integer, and wherein the first set and the second set have C×L*(integer of (C/L)+1) crossings.

US Pat. No. 9,482,925

MACH-ZEHNDER OPTICAL MODULATOR WITH EMBEDDED ACTIVE ELEMENTS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A Mach-Zehnder optical modulator for modulating an input optical beam according to an electrical modulation signal, the
Mach-Zehnder modulator comprising:
an optical structure dividing the input optical beam into two optical beam components propagating in two parallel optical
waveguide branches, respectively, and recombining said optical beam components downstream the optical waveguide branches;
and

a travelling wave electrode extending over the optical waveguide branches and modulating a relative phase of the optical beam
components, said travelling wave electrode comprising

a plurality of transmission line conductors conveying the electrical modulation signal;
a plurality of waveguide electrodes coupled to one of the two parallel optical waveguide branches; and
a plurality of active devices disposed between the plurality of transmission line conductors and the plurality of waveguide
electrodes,

wherein the plurality of active devices comprises an active device having an input electrically connected to a transmission
line conductor from the plurality of transmission line conductors and an output electrically connected to a waveguide electrode
from the plurality of waveguide electrodes,

wherein the input of the active device has a higher impedance than the output of the active device,
wherein the active device transfers the electrical modulation signal from the transmission line conductor onto the waveguide
electrode according to a voltage transfer function, and

wherein the active device is configured to decouple a capacitance of the waveguide electrode from contributing to a capacitance
of the traveling wave electrode.

US Pat. No. 9,071,503

HIGHLY SCALABLE OSPF ROUTING IN SUPPORT OF FULL MESH OPTICAL NETWORKS

CIENA CORPORATION, Hanov...

1. A method for enabling Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing in a transport network, the method comprising:
defining a network segment template comprising:
a node area encompassing a single network node, the node area defining OSPF routing between addresses within the network node;
a link area encompassing a single link extending from the network node to a neighbour node in the transport network, the neighbour
node being topologically adjacent to the network node in the transport network, the link area defining OSPF routing between
the network node and the neighbour node; and

a host Area Border Router (ABR) defining OSPF routing between the node area and the area, the host ABR being configured to
generate summary Link State Advertisement (LSA) messages containing a summary of addresses in the node area, and forward the
summary LSA messages through the link area to the neighbor node;

instantiating a respective instance of the network segment template for each node+link segment of the transport network; and
for each network segment template instance, instantiating a respective remote ABR defining OSPF forwarding between the link
area and the respective node area of an adjacent network segment template instance, the remote ABR being configured to generate
summary LSA messages containing a summary of addresses reachable in the node area of the adjacent template instance, and forward
the summary LSAs through the link area of the network segment template instance.

US Pat. No. 9,497,522

FLEXIBLE SMART SLEEVE SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR PLUGGABLE TRANSCEIVERS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A flexible smart sleeve system for a pluggable transceiver, the system comprising:
a pluggable sleeve configured to selectively engage a pluggable transceiver;
a smart enclosure configured to selectively engage a host device, wherein the host device is configured for the pluggable
transceiver;

a flexible cable connecting the pluggable sleeve to the smart enclosure for providing power and data connections between the
pluggable sleeve and the smart enclosure; and

circuitry configured to communicate to the pluggable transceiver and to perform Operations, Administration, and Maintenance
(OAM) with a network switch communicatively coupled to the pluggable transceiver.

US Pat. No. 9,401,817

E-SPRING SUPPORT OF ETHERNET PROTECTION

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. In a packet network having a mesh physical topology, a method of controlling traffic forwarding between a source node and
a destination node of the packet network, the method comprising:
controlling at least one physical node of the packet network to forward an end-to-end traffic flow between the source node
and the destination node using a chain of interconnected network primitives extending between the source node and the destination
node, the chain of interconnected network primitives including:

at least one ring network primitive comprising a model of bi-directional traffic forwarding through at least two neighbour
nodes interconnected in a ring topology; and

a plurality of sub-ring network primitives comprising a model of bi-directional traffic forwarding through at least two neighbour
nodes interconnected in a linear topology between first and second end-nodes, and between the first and second end-nodes via
a virtual link mapped through at least one other network primitive,

wherein the mesh physical topology is modeled by the at least one ring network primitive and the plurality of sub-ring network
primitives for protection switching of the end-to-end traffic through the mesh physical topology,

wherein the controlling comprises detecting, by a physical node associated with a first network primitive in the chain of
interconnected network primitives, a network failure affecting the end-to-end traffic flow between the source node and the
destination node, and a Ring Protection Link (RPL) owner of the first network primitive restoring the end-to-end traffic flow
by clearing a channel block of the first network primitive.

US Pat. No. 9,503,338

SYSTEMS AND METHODS TO DETECT AND PROPAGATE UNI OPERATIONAL SPEED MISMATCH IN ETHERNET SERVICES

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method at a first switch operating an Ethernet service with a second switch, comprising:
transmitting, by the first switch, information related to an operational speed of a first connection to the second switch,
wherein the first switch is connected to a first Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) device through the first connection and
the second switch is connected to a second CPE device through a second connection, and wherein the Ethernet service is between
one or more ports on each of the first switch and the second switch;

receiving, by the first switch, information related to an operational speed of the second connection; and
triggering, by the first switch, a modification to the Ethernet service, responsive to a mismatch between the operational
speed of the first connection and the operational speed of the second connection;

configuring a Maintenance Association with the second switch with an UP Maintenance End Point (MEP) at the first connection
and the second connection; and

exchanging the information through the Maintenance Association as part of Connectivity Fault Management (CFM) IEEE 802.1ag
Continuity Check Message (CCM) packets.

US Pat. No. 9,792,988

PARALLEL TURBINE TERNARY CONTENT ADDRESSABLE MEMORY FOR HIGH-SPEED APPLICATIONS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A parallel turbine ternary content addressable memory, comprising:
one or more atoms in each of one or more rows, wherein each of the one or more atoms comprises
a memory with N addresses and a width of M logical lookup entries, wherein N and M are integers,
two or more result registers, wherein a number of the two or more result registers equals a number of two or more keys and
each result register has a length of M, and

a read pointer configured to cycle through a row of the N addresses per clock cycle for comparison between the M logical entries
and the two or more keys each having a length of N with a result of the comparison stored in an associated result register
for each of the two or more keys,

wherein a number of the two or more keys is selected relative to the N addresses to provide a number of lookups in the memory
per clock cycle, and wherein the number of lookups equals the number of the two or more keys divided by N.

US Pat. No. 9,660,755

AUTOMATED NODE LEVEL FIBRE AUDIT

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method of automated testing and evaluation of a node of a communications network, the method comprising:
a management computer querying the node to discover pre-existing fibre trails within the node that can be safely tested, wherein
the querying comprises obtaining a listing of one or more equipment associated with the node, wherein the listing is stored
in a database associated with the node, and the listing identifies port layer and addresses, photodiode locations and addresses
and Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) sources of the one or more equipment; and

the management computer interacting with the node to test, by adding a light source at the node that does not impact other
in service wavelengths, at least continuity of each identified pre-existing fibre trail that can be safely tested.

US Pat. No. 9,602,207

SOFT DECODING OF DATA IN A COHERENT OPTICAL RECEIVER

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method of compensating polarization dependent loss (PDL) in an optical communications network comprising a transmitter
and a coherent optical receiver, the method comprising:
transmitting, by the transmitter, an optical signal having a controllable polarization state, the optical signal carrying
symbols modulated onto two orthogonal transmitted polarizations;

receiving, by the coherent optical receiver, the optical signal and processing orthogonal polarizations of the received optical
signal to recover symbol estimates of the symbols modulated onto the two orthogonal transmitted polarizations;

computing from the symbol estimates, by the coherent optical receiver, an estimate representative of a noise polarization
dependent loss of the received optical signal;

transmitting, by the coherent optical receiver, the computed estimate to the transmitter;
controlling, by the transmitter, the polarization state using the computed estimate; and
applying, by a decorrelation block of the coherent optical receiver, a decorrelation matrix to the symbol estimates to generate
a set of decorrelated signals corresponding to the symbol estimates, thereby reducing a noise correlation that is a correlation
between noise in the symbol estimates of the symbols modulated onto a first of the orthogonal transmitted polarizations and
noise in the symbol estimates of the symbols modulated onto a second of the orthogonal transmitted polarizations.

US Pat. No. 9,503,360

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TRAFFIC ENGINEERING IN SHORTEST PATH BRIDGED NETWORKS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method of diverting packets of information in a communications network between a first node and a second node from a
first shortest path to a second path, the second path different from the first shortest path, the method comprising:
associating a first virtual local area network (VLAN) identifier (VID) with the second path in a first direction from the
first node toward the second node;

associating a second VID with the second path in a second direction from the second node toward the first node, the second
VID being different from the first VID;

diverting packets from the first shortest path to a link being a first hop on the second path when the packets have a Media
Access Control (MAC) destination address of a location reachable via the first shortest path between the first node and the
second node by reducing a cost of the second path to be less than or equal to a cost of the first shortest path by setting
the cost of the second path based on the cost of the first shortest path for a shortest path calculation at the first node;

assigning the first VID to all packets transiting a link being a first hop in the first direction on the second path, and
assigning the second VID to all packets transiting a link being a first hop in the second direction on the second path, wherein
a routing protocol of the first shortest path and a routing protocol of the second path are a same routing protocol; and

establishing a first forwarding table at the first node that directs packets having a first MAC address to transit the second
path, wherein the first MAC address addresses a location reachable by the first shortest path in the absence of packet diversion.

US Pat. No. 9,485,660

SYSTEMS AND METHODS TO DETECT AND CHARACTERIZE FAKE CELL TOWERS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method, implemented on a server, to detect fake cell towers in a network operator's network, the method comprising:
receiving live data comprising any of crowd-sourced data and tower data, wherein the crowd-sourced data is received from a
plurality of cell phones operating on the network and the tower data is received from cell towers in the network;

performing live data analysis on the live data and reference data, wherein the live data analysis compares the live data and
the reference data to determine statistically significant patterns only shown in the live data, wherein the reference data
comprises samples of the live data without fake cell towers included therein;

detecting the fake cell towers based on the live data analysis and indications of the statistically significant patterns,
wherein the fake cell towers are Man in the Middle (MITM) devices in the network which collect data and forward the data to
a real cell tower such that a user is unaware; and

characterizing the fake cell towers based on any of the tower data, the crowd sourced data, and backhaul data,
wherein any of the tower data, the crowd sourced data, and the backhaul data is extracted separately for captured devices
which associate with the fake cell towers and devices that escaped capture which are in range of the fake towers, wherein
the characterizing uses statistical methods to compare data from the captured devices and the devices that escaped capture.

US Pat. No. 9,485,154

MULTIPLE-PIPE TECHNIQUES AND MULTIPLE OPTICAL STREAMS FOR MANAGING OVER-THE-TOP TRAFFIC

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

11. An apparatus configured to communicate Internet data, comprising:
a processor and a storage medium comprising instructions which, when executed, cause the processor to configured to:
receive the Internet data comprising an over-the-top (OTT) data traffic flood at a carrier portal;
classify the Internet data based on criteria, wherein the criteria is based on at least one of i) a quantity of payment from
at least one of a) a user of the Internet data and b) a provider of the Internet data and ii) another criteria specified by
a carrier; and

transmit the classified data via one of a plurality of ports based on the classification, wherein each of the ports in the
plurality of ports is coupled to a respective one of a plurality of independent data transport networks; and a memory coupled
to the processor,

wherein the plurality of independent data transport networks are one of physically and logically separate from one another
via pipes which are at least one of physical layer (layer 1), data link layer (layer 2), and network layer (layer 3) pipes,

wherein a first network of the plurality independent data transport networks comprises equal levels of service and a second
network of the plurality of independent data transport networks comprises different levels of service for premium services,
and wherein, when the criteria is zero for the quantity of payment, the classified data is transmitted to the first network.

US Pat. No. 9,438,369

MARGIN-BASED OPTIMIZATION SYSTEMS AND METHODS IN OPTICAL NETWORKS FOR CAPACITY BOOSTING

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method of optimizing capacity of an optical network, the method comprising:
identifying a first wavelength with an associated target capacity;
determining that the first wavelength has insufficient capability to operate at the associated target capacity by comparing
one or more parameters associated with the first wavelength to one or more predetermined thresholds;

performing a nonlinear optimization of excess margin in the optical network, the performing comprising modeling bit rate,
Optical Signal to Noise Ratio (OSNR), and whether or not a wavelength can support additional capacity as real functions; and

adjusting one or more wavelengths in the optical network separate from the first wavelength to increase capability of the
first wavelength to operate at the associated target capacity, wherein the adjusting is in response to a result of the nonlinear
optimization.

US Pat. No. 9,515,683

FORWARD ERROR CORRECTION ARCHITECTURE AND IMPLEMENTATION FOR POWER/SPACE EFFICIENT TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A concatenated Forward Error Correction (FEC) code method, implemented in electronic circuitry or a network element at
an intermediate point associated with transmission of a signal, the method comprising:
receiving, from an ingress point, the signal that is fully encoded with a concatenated FEC code, wherein the concatenated
FEC code has at least an inner code and an outer code;

partially decoding the signal by decoding the inner code at the intermediate point; and
transmitting the partially decoded signal towards an egress point where the partially decoded signal is fully decoded.

US Pat. No. 9,509,434

MARGIN-BASED OPTIMIZATION SYSTEMS AND METHODS IN OPTICAL NETWORKS BY INTENTIONALLY REDUCING MARGIN

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method of optimizing capacity of an optical network, through intentionally reducing margin on one or more wavelengths,
the method comprising:
identifying a first wavelength capable of using excess capacity;
determining the one or more wavelengths in the optical network separate from the first wavelength have extra margin by comparing
one or more parameters associated with the one or more wavelengths to one or more predetermined thresholds;

adjusting at least one of the one or more wavelengths to reduce its associated margin from the extra margin to a nominal margin
to increase supportable capacity of the first wavelength, wherein the adjusting comprises any changes to a signal associated
with the at least one of the one or more wavelengths, and wherein the adjusting is based on a nonlinear optimization of the
one or more wavelengths which comprises modeling modem bit rate, Optical Signal to Noise Ratio (OSNR), and whether or not
a signal can support additional capacity as real functions in the nonlinear optimization; and

increasing capacity of the first wavelength based on the supportable capacity, wherein the adjusting and the increasing is
based on excess margin in the optical network.

US Pat. No. 9,407,535

PACKET NETWORK LINEAR PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND METHODS IN A DUAL HOME OR MULTI-HOME CONFIGURATION

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A packet network linear protection method in a dual or multi-home configuration, comprising:
designating each of a plurality of home nodes in the dual or multi-home configuration as a working home or a protect home;
designating each link between each of the plurality of home nodes and an end node in the dual or multi-home configuration
as active or standby;

operating a protection switch state machine based on an associated linear protection protocol at each of the plurality of
home nodes and the end node;

communicating protection messages to each of the plurality of home nodes from the end node;
communicating protection states in an associated protection switch state machine by each of the plurality of home nodes to
other home nodes and to the end node;

communicating the protection states by each of the plurality of home nodes to other home nodes via the end node; and
implementing protection switching responsive to a fault on any link between each of the plurality of home nodes and the end
node, wherein the associated protection switch state machine at a home node of the plurality of home nodes isolated by the
fault is out of synchronization until recovery of the fault.

US Pat. No. 9,237,090

NETWORK ROUTING SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR VALIDATION OF PATHS SUBSEQUENT TO VALIDATION FAILURE

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method, comprising:
computing a path by a source node;
sending a message to nodes in the path with associated validation criteria;
locally checking the validation criteria at each of the nodes in the path;
if the validation criteria is satisfied at the node, forwarding the message to the next node in the path; else there is a
validation criteria failure at the node, appending feedback data to the message, converting the message to a validation message,
and forwarding the validation message to the next node in the path; and

at a destination node, if there are no validation criteria failures, then establishing the connection; else issuing a release
message to the source node with all the feedback such that the source node can compute a new path exclusive of nodes where
the validation criteria fails.

US Pat. No. 10,091,023

SYSTEMS AND METHODS TO DETECT AND RECOVER FROM A LOOP IN AN ETHERNET RING PROTECTED NETWORK

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A loop detection method in an Ethernet Ring Protected network implemented by a node in the network, the loop detection method comprising:subsequent to creating a loop detection service on all nodes in the network, periodically transmitting a loop detection frame on both ports of the node, wherein the loop detection frame is transmitted over an Ethernet Virtual Local Area Network (E-VLAN) service in the network with the E-VLAN utilized to identify a message type of the loop detection frame, a ring instance, and a port instance, and wherein the loop detection frame comprises a first Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) identifier identifying a message type of the loop detection frame and a second VLAN identifier identifying an associated ring and port;
responsive to failing to receive the loop detection frame at the node, determining no loop exists in the network; and
responsive to receiving the loop detection frame on a received port at the node, determining a loop exists in the network, identifying the associated ring and port from the second VLAN identifier of the loop detection frame, and automatically implementing one or more recovery actions.

US Pat. No. 10,050,737

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR PRE-PROGRAMMING LAYER-0 SERVICE TURN UP SPEEDS FOR PHOTONIC SERVICE PROVISIONING OR RESTORATION

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method of changing photonic service capacity along an optical transport path in an optical network, the method comprising:determining first available margins of all existing first services actively provisioned along the optical transport path according to a then present optical loading condition along the optical transport path;
readjusting each first available margin by a first additional margin penalty each first active service would incur when the photonic service capacity would be changed along the optical transport path;
obtaining a path margin from the readjusted first available margins;
determining a maximum path allowable power offset from the path margin; and
obtaining photonic controller settings which would generate less than the maximum path allowable power offset for all first active services along the transport path during the photonic service capacity change.

US Pat. No. 9,596,035

MINIMUM VARIANCE CARRIER RECOVERY WITH INCREASED PHASE NOISE TOLERANCE

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. In a coherent receiver of an optical communications system, a method of data symbol recovery comprising:
periodically computing, by a frequency error estimator, a local slope representative of at least a frequency offset between
a local oscillator of the receiver and a transmitter laser;

computing, by a phase noise estimator, probabilistic phase error estimates based on the computed local slope and data symbol
estimates detected from a received optical signal, the probabilistic phase error estimates being representative of a phase
error of each data symbol estimate and a probability that each data symbol estimate is in a correct decision region of a symbol
constellation; and

computing by a phase rotator a phase rotation by applying a predetermined filter function to a plurality of the probabilistic
phase error estimates, and applying the computed phase rotation to at least one data symbol estimate to generate a corresponding
rotated symbol estimate.

US Pat. No. 9,531,625

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR PROVIDING REDUNDANT NETWORK CONNECTIONS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A system comprising:
a primary network device including (i) a primary processor coupled to a primary memory storing primary operational and executable
code, (ii) a primary hardware device including primary circuits, (iii) a primary protect port and a primary working port;

a secondary network device including (i) a secondary processor coupled to a secondary memory storing secondary operational
and executable code, (ii) a secondary hardware device including secondary circuits, (iii) a secondary protect port and a secondary
working port being coupled by an inter-device path, the secondary protect port being coupled to the primary working port and
the primary protect port coupled to a remote client device by a protect network path and the secondary protect port coupled
to the remote device by a working network path;

a peer device coupled to the primary and secondary network devices;
wherein the secondary operational and executable code is effective to cause the secondary processor—
detect an error in the working network path;
in response to detecting the error in the working network path detected on the secondary working port, (a) update a state
of a secondary state machine to indicate that the working path is down and that the inter-device path is active and (b) transmit
a first instruction to update to the secondary hardware device, the instruction to update instructing the secondary hardware
device to update a state of a secondary hardware state machine implemented by the secondary hardware device to indicate that
the working path is down and that the inter-device path is active;

wherein the secondary circuits of the secondary hardware device are configured to—
detect the error on the working network path;
in response to detecting the error on the working network path, (a) make the inter-device path active, (b) refrain from updating
the secondary hardware state machine until the first instruction to update is received by the secondary hardware device, (c)
in response to the first instruction to update, update the secondary hardware state machine to indicate that the working path
is down and that the inter-device path is active, (d) generate a first simulated error condition on the inter-device path
indicating failure of the inter-device path, the first simulated error condition not corresponding to any actual error on
the inter-device path.

US Pat. No. 9,438,370

MARGIN-BASED OPTIMIZATION SYSTEMS AND METHODS IN OPTICAL NETWORKS TO UNBLOCK SUPERCHANNELS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method of increasing the supportable capacity from a first point to a second point in an optical network, the method
comprising:
identifying a first optical signal that occupies a first portion of optical spectrum from the first point to the second point
in the optical network;

identifying a second optical signal that occupies a second portion of the optical spectrum from the first point to the second
point, wherein the second portion is adjacent to the first portion;

performing a nonlinear optimization with excess margin in the optical network that models bit rate, Optical Signal to Noise
Ratio (OSNR), and whether or not a wavelength can support additional capacity as real functions;

adjusting the second optical signal to minimize or remove part of the second portion that is adjacent to the first optical
signal to provide a freed up portion of the second portion; and

adjusting the first optical signal to occupy some or all of the freed up portion, wherein the adjusting steps are in response
to a result of the nonlinear optimization.

US Pat. No. 9,414,138

CONTROL PLANE EXTENSIONS FOR OPTICAL BROADCAST NETWORKS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for bandwidth management in an optical broadcast network, the method comprising:
signaling, for a new optical broadcast service, from an originating node to all nodes in the optical broadcast network, wherein
the signaling identifies a wavelength or portion of spectrum associated with the new optical broadcast service;

at each of the nodes, checking for contention by the new optical broadcast service;
responsive to identifying contention at one of the nodes, signaling the identified contention back to the originating node;
and

responsive to no contention at any of the nodes, processing the signaling, storing an update of the new optical broadcast
service, and either forwarding the signaling to peer nodes or terminating the signaling.

US Pat. No. 10,440,852

CABLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN AN AIR-COOLED HOUSING

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A system for managing cables comprising:a housing configured to support equipment and having a front-to-rear air-cooling apparatus for cooling the equipment;
a front cover removably connected to the housing and including a plurality of perforations for air flow in the front-to-rear air-cooling apparatus;
at least one cable gate formed at a side portion of the housing, each of the at least one cable gate including a frame having at least one slot joining an interior space of the housing with an exterior space located outside the housing, each of the at least one cable gate including at least one brush having a plurality of bristles, each of the at least one cable gate is located between the housing and the front cover, and the interior space is defined by the housing, the front cover, and the at least one cable gate;
wherein, in a blocking condition, the bristles of each cable gate are configured to cover the at least one slot of the respective cable gate to reduce air flow between the interior space and exterior space through the at least one slot; and
wherein, in a displaced condition, the bristles of each cable gate are configured to allow one or more cables to protrude through one or more slots of the at least one slot of the respective cable gate to enable the equipment to be connected with external devices, wherein the bristles further reduce the air flow between the interior space and exterior space with the one or more cables inserted therein, such that the interior space in the housing has the front-to-rear air-cooling apparatus with air flow via the plurality of perforations in both the blocking condition and the displaced condition.

US Pat. No. 10,164,873

ALL-OR-NONE SWITCHOVER TO ADDRESS SPLIT-BRAIN PROBLEMS IN MULTI-CHASSIS LINK AGGREGATION GROUPS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method utilizing all-or-none switchover to prevent split-brain problems in a Multi-Chassis Link Aggregation Group (MC-LAG) network implemented by a standby node, the method comprising:remaining in a standby state responsive to a loss of adjacency with an active node, wherein, in the standby state, all standby links between the standby node and a common endpoint are non-distributing;
monitoring frames transmitted by the common endpoint to the standby node over the standby links; and
determining based on the monitoring frames whether all active links between the active node and the common endpoint have failed and entering an active state with all the standby links distributing based thereon.

US Pat. No. 9,804,425

OPTICAL SYSTEM WITH BAND GAP TUNING

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method of operating an optical system, comprising:
selecting a first band gap energy level for a first optical waveguide in an electro-optic modulator, wherein the first band
gap energy level corresponds to a predetermined phase shift efficiency of a waveguide electrode coupled to the first optical
waveguide;

generating, across a conductive plane in the electro-optic modulator, a differential voltage that produces a first predetermined
temperature in a waveguide core of the first optical waveguide, wherein the first predetermined temperature corresponds to
the first band gap energy level selected for the first optical waveguide; and

transmitting, through the first optical waveguide and with a modulating voltage applied by the waveguide electrode, a first
optical wave to an optical wave combiner,

wherein the modulating voltage produces an amount of phase shift in the first optical wave at the predetermined phase shift
efficiency.

US Pat. No. 9,793,986

RAMAN AMPLIFIER SYSTEM AND METHOD WITH INTEGRATED OPTICAL TIME DOMAIN REFLECTOMETER

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A Raman amplifier module, with an integrated Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR), the Raman amplifier module comprising:
one or more Raman pumps, wherein the one or more Raman pumps are configured as a Raman amplifier;
a subsystem comprising a transmitter, a receiver, and circuitry, wherein the subsystem is configured to selectively operate
as an OTDR and a telemetry channel based on configuration of a switch optically coupled to the transmitter and configuration
of the circuitry, and wherein the transmitter has a wavelength that does not interfere with the one or more Raman pumps, but
which experiences gain due to the one or more Raman pumps,

wherein the circuitry is configured to use the telemetry channel to measure gain due to Raman amplification in a fiber based
on measurements with the one or more Raman pumps on and off to provide an estimate of Raman gain and communicate data with
an adjacent Raman amplifier module.

US Pat. No. 9,537,846

INTEGRITY CHECK OPTIMIZATION SYSTEMS AND METHODS IN LIVE CONNECTIVITY FRAMES

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method, comprising:
determining an authentication mechanism between two nodes in a network path;
operating the network path;
performing connectivity check between the two nodes in the network path, wherein the connectivity check comprises any of Bidirectional
Forwarding Detection (BFD), IEEE 802.1ag-2007, and G.8013/Y.1731; and

authenticating only specific frames affecting a state of the network path in the connectivity check between the two nodes
with the authentication mechanism, and wherein the specific frames comprise any of i) BFD control packets with a P or an F
flag enabled therein, ii) any of BFD control packets, BFD echo packets, or Continuity Check Message (CCM) frames indicating
any of a Remote Defect Indication (RDI), an Alarm Indication Signal (AIS), and a change in operating parameters, and iii)
any frames related to Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) [RFC2328], Intermediate System-Intermediate System (IS-IS) [RFC1195],
and Routing Information Protocol (RIP) [RFC2453] predetermined to affect the state of the network path.

US Pat. No. 9,485,161

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR SETTING UP END-TO-END TRAFFIC ENGINEERED ETHERNET LINE SERVICES

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method, comprising:
receiving a request for an Ethernet service at a Maintenance End Point (MEP) in a network, wherein the Ethernet service has
a destination of a Remote MEP (RMEP), and wherein the request comprises a requested bandwidth amount;

utilizing Link Trace messaging to detect an active path to the RMEP;
utilizing Loop Back messaging to reserve the requested bandwidth amount on the active path;
maintaining a list of a plurality of Ethernet services provisioned using the receiving and utilizing steps;
releasing reserved resources for the plurality of Ethernet services, responsive to a topology change in the network; and
repeating, based on an order, the receiving and utilizing steps for the plurality of Ethernet services.

US Pat. No. 9,444,720

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MULTICAST IMPLEMENTATION IN A ROUTED ETHERNET MESH NETWORK

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method of implementing multicast on a routed Ethernet mesh network, the method comprising:
receiving, by a node on the routed Ethernet mesh network, a plurality of link state advertisements each specifying an end-point
of a multicast tree to be implemented on the routed Ethernet mesh network, at least one of the link state advertisements further
specifying an algorithm being used to calculate the multicast tree;

determining whether there is agreement between the specified algorithm and an algorithm to be used by the node on the routed
Ethernet mesh network, and when there is agreement, using the specified algorithm, by the node on the routed Ethernet mesh
network, to calculate the multicast tree; and

selectively installing forwarding state for the multicast tree if the node on the routed Ethernet mesh network is on the path
of the multicast tree between two nodes each advertising an end-point of the multicast tree.

US Pat. No. 9,436,019

DRIVER AND CAPACITIVE LOAD INTEGRATION

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A circuit, comprising:
a circuit network comprising an electro-optic modulator and a plurality of inductors, wherein the electro-optic modulator
is a capacitive load having a predetermined capacitance;

a first transmission line coupled to the circuit network;
a resistor coupled to the circuit network, the resistor having a resistance value configured to produce a first impedance
with the circuit network, and wherein the first impedance is configured to match substantially with a second impedance of
the first transmission line; and

an electric driver coupled to the first transmission line,
wherein the electric driver is configured for transmitting a driving voltage to the electro-optic modulator, and
wherein the driving voltage is configured to generate a predetermined voltage swing across the electro-optic modulator.

US Pat. No. 10,050,991

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR MONITORING NETWORK VULNERABILITIES

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for managing network vulnerabilities, comprising:determining, using a computer processor, a filesystem key associated with a first hardware network element in a network,
wherein the filesystem key corresponds to a software container among a plurality of software containers, and
wherein the plurality of software containers are virtualized user-space instances operating on a single kernel in the first hardware network element;
determining a first software vulnerability of a first software image using the computer processor, the filesystem key, and a vulnerability map of the network,
wherein the vulnerability map describes a plurality of software vulnerabilities arranged according to a plurality of filesystem keys that are used on the network, and
wherein the first software image is used to generate the software container; and
presenting, using a graphical user interface and the computer processor, the first software vulnerability to a user.

US Pat. No. 9,612,872

DATA PLANE RESOURCE ALLOCATION

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for data plane resource allocation comprising:
receiving, for a domain, a new domain data plane request;
selecting, to satisfy the new domain data plane request, a segment in each of a plurality of hardware data plane resources;
reserving the segment in each of the plurality of hardware data plane resources by assigning a domain identifier of the domain
to the segment;

receiving a signal of a packet on a physical interconnect of a port;
determining the domain identifier of the packet based on the domain identifier assigned to the segment having the port;
adding, subsequent to the receiving the signal on the physical interconnect, the domain identifier to the packet;
selecting the segment in at least a portion of the plurality of hardware data plane resources that is assigned the domain
identifier;

processing the packet using the segment in at least the portion of the plurality of hardware data plane resources; and
removing, subsequent to the processing the packet using the segment, the domain identifier from the packet.

US Pat. No. 9,590,731

SIGNAL EQUALIZER IN A COHERENT OPTICAL RECEIVER

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A signal equalizer for compensating impairments of an inbound optical signal received through a link of an optical communications
network, the inbound optical signal having been transmitted by a transmitter as a transmitted optical signal comprising a
pair of orthogonal transmitted polarizations having a common carrier frequency, each transmitted polarization being modulated
with symbols by the transmitter, the signal equalizer being configured to generate multi-bit estimates of the symbols modulated
on each transmitted polarization and comprising:
a processor configured to process multi-bit digital sample streams of each one of a pair of orthogonal received polarizations
of the inbound optical signal using compensation vectors computed to compensate impairments characterised by a first rate
of change and compensation coefficients computed to compensate impairments characterised by a second rate of change, the first
rate of change being slower than the second rate of change.

US Pat. No. 9,313,093

ETHERNET FAULT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. An Ethernet fault management method, comprising: receiving, from a remote Maintenance End Point, a first control packet
with objects present therein; passing a copy of the first control packet to software; analyzing the first control packet in
the software to determine the objects present therein and associated offsets; programming a hardware device using the software
based on the determined objects present and the associated offsets such that the hardware device is configured to process
subsequent control packets from the remote MEP rather than the subsequent control packets being processed in the software,
wherein the hardware device is programmed to look for specific contents in the subsequent control packets at the associated
offsets and to act upon any change in contents at the associated offsets; and receiving the subsequent control packets from
the remote MEP and processing the subsequent control packets in the hardware device based on the programming.

US Pat. No. 9,769,058

RESILIENT DUAL-HOMED DATA NETWORK HAND-OFF

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method of performing resilient dual-homed hand-off, the method comprising:
configuring an access network between a first end point and a second end point each in a different device located in a different
network domain separate from the access network and that utilizes a disparate technology from the access network;

activating a first communication path for data flow between the first end point and the second end point through the access
network and deactivating a second communication path between the first end point and the second end point through the access
network; and

if a fault is detected in the first communication path, activating the second communication path and performing a resilient
hand-off of the data flow from the first communication path to the second communication path based on messaging over disparate
technologies associated with the first end point, the second end point, and the access network, wherein the messaging is based
on a pre-established signaling protocol for communicating one or more of statuses and activity states between the disparate
technologies.

US Pat. No. 9,608,755

NETWORK ELEMENT CLOCK SYNCHRONIZATION SYSTEMS AND METHODS USING OPTICAL TRANSPORT NETWORK DELAY MEASUREMENT

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method, comprising:
utilizing Optical Transport Network (OTN) to perform an OTN delay measurement associated with a path between a first network
element and a second network element via one or more of a delay measurement of an Optical Channel Data Unit-k (ODUk) path,
a delay measurement at a tandem connection, and a delay measurement at a combination of tandem connections;

transmitting a time-stamped packet from the first network element to the second network element;
receiving the time-stamped packet at the second network element;
recovering a time stamp from the time-stamped packet to determine a packet delay measurement separate from the OTN delay measurement;
and

utilizing the packet delay measurement and the OTN delay measurement to adjust the second network element, wherein the first
network element and the second network element each support converged packet switching and OTN transport, wherein each of
the first network element and the second network element perform the packet delay measurement and the OTN delay measurement
such that each of the measurements is performed by a same set of network elements, and wherein the Optical Transport Network
delay measurement is added to the time stamp from the packet delay measurement to adjust the second network element to within
microsecond accuracy of the first network element.

US Pat. No. 9,503,443

SECURE ACCESS SYSTEMS AND METHODS TO NETWORK ELEMENTS OPERATING IN A NETWORK

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A network element, configured to operate in a network to provide various network functions therein, the network element
comprising:
a main processor communicatively coupled to a main memory, wherein the main processor is configured to perform Operations,
Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning (OAM&P) associated with the network element, wherein the main processor is accessible
through a plurality of access techniques comprising an access port communicatively coupled to a Data Communication Network
(DCN) and signaling through overhead of data signals received by the network element; and

a supervisory plane comprising a secure processor and a secure memory communicatively coupled thereto, wherein the supervisory
plane is separate from and communicatively coupled to the main processor and the main memory, the supervisory plane is configured
to allow secure, direct access to the main processor and the main memory, and wherein the secure processor is accessible via
a secure DCN.

US Pat. No. 9,648,402

IN-BAND COMMUNICATION CHANNEL IN OPTICAL NETWORKS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method, in a first node in an optical network, for providing an in-band communication channel to a second node in the
optical network, the method comprising:
adapting one or more client signals into a line signal by circuitry in an optical modem for transmission to the second node
via mapping of the one or more client signals into the line signal;

providing the in-band communication channel based on line adaptation bandwidth of the line signal, wherein the line adaptation
bandwidth is bandwidth due to the mapping, and wherein the in-band communication channel in the line adaptation bandwidth
is operationally independent from the one or more client signals while concurrently being transported together over the line
signal; and

transmitting the line signal via circuitry in the optical modem.

US Pat. No. 9,559,778

OPTICAL DISPERSION COMPENSATION IN THE ELECTRICAL DOMAIN IN AN OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM

CIENA CORPORATION, Hanov...

1. A method of compensating dispersion of a communications signal conveyed through an optical communications system, the method
comprising steps of:
deriving a compensation function that substantially mitigates the dispersion imparted to the communications signal by the
optical communications system;

digitally processing an electrical input signal using the compensation function to generate a predistorted electrical signal
comprising a pair of orthogonal signal components; and

independently modulating a phase of an optical signal using a first one of the pair of orthogonal signal components of the
predistorted electrical signal and an amplitude of the optical signal using a second one of the pair of orthogonal signal
components of the predistorted electrical signal to generate a corresponding predistorted optical signal for tansmission through
the optical communications system.

US Pat. No. 9,520,950

OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM HAVING CHROMATIC DISPERSION AND POLARIZATION MODE DISPERSION COMPENSATION

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for compensating for dispersion imparted to a communications signal propagating through an optical link in an
optical communication system, the method comprising:
digitally processing an electrical input signal to be propagated through the optical link, according to a first compensation
function, to generate a predistorted electrical signal, the first compensation function determined to mitigate chromatic dispersion
imparted to the communications signal by the optical link;

filtering the predistorted digital signal through a transmitter peaking filter;
converting the predistorted electrical signal into a predistorted optical signal for transmission through the optical link
after the filtering;

generating a receiver electrical signal in response to a detection of the predistorted optical signal after propagation through
the optical link; and

digitally processing the receiver electrical signal according to a second compensation function to generate an output signal,
the second compensation function determined to mitigate polarization mode dispersion, an extent of the mitigation of the polarization
mode dispersion being dependent upon an extent to which the chromatic dispersion is mitigated,

wherein the digitally processing the electrical input signal and the digitally processing the receiver electrical signal compensate
for chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion, respectively, at baud rates exceeding 15 Gbaud.

US Pat. No. 9,520,952

POLARIZATION MODE DISPERSION (PMD) TOLERANT OPTICAL SIGNALING

CIENA CORPORATION, Hanov...

1. In a receiver of an optical communication system, a method comprising:
detecting modulation of a received optical signal in two orthogonal polarization directions, the optical signal having been
transmitted by a transmitter of the optical communication system with a predetermined State of Polarization (SoP) in a succession
of signalling intervals, the SoP in each signalling interval exciting two orthogonal eigenvectors of Polarization Mode Dispersion
(PMD) of the optical communication system; and

recovering data from modulation components of a selected one of the two orthogonal eigenvectors, based on the detected modulation
of the received optical signal.

US Pat. No. 9,479,248

FAULT LOCALIZATION USING TANDEM CONNECTION MONITORS IN OPTICAL TRANSPORT NETWORK

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. An Optical Transport Network (OTN) fault localization method, comprising:
localizing a fault in a multi-domain OTN network to either an inter-domain link (IrDL) or an administrative domain in the
multi-domain OTN network based on monitoring endpoint tandem connection monitors;

responsive to the fault being in the administrative domain, localizing the fault within the administrative domain through
a first iterative process with a first fault localization tandem connection monitor within the administrative domain; and

responsive to the fault being in the inter-domain link (IrDL), localizing the fault to a network element or a link within
the inter-domain link (IrDL) utilizing a second iterative process with a second fault localization tandem connection monitor
within the inter-domain link,

wherein tandem connection monitors are moved in the first iterative process and the second iterative process to isolate the
fault to a specific location comprising one of a switching fabric, a transport function, and a link, and wherein the tandem
connection monitors are moved between specific locations subsequent to passing a test which shows that the fault is not present
at a given specific location.

US Pat. No. 9,432,144

PRECISION TIME TRANSFER SYSTEMS AND METHODS IN OPTICAL NETWORKS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A precision time transfer method, in a first node that communicates with a second node, to determine a difference in time
between the first node and the second node, the precision time transfer method comprising:
receiving a departure time, TD-A, from the second node, wherein the departure time, TD-A, is determined by the second node based on detecting a timing marker included in a Forward Error Correction (FEC) frame or
layer;

determining an arrival time, TA-B, based on detecting the timing marker in the FEC frame or layer; and

determining a time difference based on the departure time and the arrival time;
wherein the timing marker is detected subsequent to FEC encoding in a transmitter of the second node and prior to FEC decoding
in a receiver of the first node.

US Pat. No. 9,344,193

DIGITAL OPTICAL SPECTRAL SHAPING

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method of generating an optical channel signal for transmission through an optical fiber link, the method comprising:
processing, by a digital filter, an input data signal using a spectral shaping function to generate at least one sample stream,
the spectral shaping function designed to impose a predetermined shape to at least a portion of a baseband spectrum of the
optical channel signal; and

modulating, by a modulator, an optical carrier light based on the at least one sample stream, to generate the optical channel
signal.

US Pat. No. 10,200,770

MANAGEMENT OF FLEXIBLE GRID AND SUPERCARRIERS IN OPTICAL NETWORKS USING A DATA MODEL

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method of managing optical services in a node utilizing a flexible grid for optical spectrum, the method comprising:utilizing a Media Channel (MC) Trail Termination Point (TTP) to model frequency allocation of a MC on the node;
utilizing a Network Media Channel (NMC) Connection Termination Point (CTP) to model a specific port for an optical channel corresponding to the NMC;
utilizing a NMC cross connection (CRS) to model a path of the NMC in the MC; and
programming hardware in the node based on the MC TTP, the NMC CTP, and the NMC CRS.

US Pat. No. 10,142,092

OPTICAL TRANSCEIVER AND METHOD WITH CHANNEL BINDING, CLOCK FORWARDING, AND INTEGRATE-AND-DUMP RECEIVERS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

17. A method comprising:providing an optical transceiver configured to interface a composite signal in a parallelized manner, the optical transceiver comprising:
a plurality of transmitters each configured to transmit a part of the composite signal over a first optical fiber;
a plurality of receivers each configured to receive a part of the composite signal over a second optical fiber;
a clock forwarding mechanism configured to provide a transmitted optical clock for all of the plurality of transmitters; and
a clock recovery mechanism configured to receive a received optical clock for all of the plurality of receivers, wherein the clock recovery mechanism comprises envelope detection on a Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) input signal forming the composite signal to detect the received optical clock superimposed thereon using small-index modulation.

US Pat. No. 9,451,343

CONTROL PLANE EXTENSIONS FOR OPTICAL BROADCAST NETWORKS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for bandwidth management in an optical broadcast network, the method comprising:
signaling, for a new optical broadcast service, from an originating node to all nodes in the optical broadcast network, wherein
the signaling identifies a wavelength or portion of spectrum associated with the new optical broadcast service;

at each of the nodes, checking for contention by the new optical broadcast service;
responsive to identifying contention at one of the nodes, signaling the identified contention back to the originating node;
and

responsive to no contention at any of the nodes, processing the signaling, storing an update of the new optical broadcast
service, and either forwarding the signaling to peer nodes or terminating the signaling.

US Pat. No. 9,413,610

NETWORK-BASED DHCP SERVER RECOVERY

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for providing network-based Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server recovery, comprising:
storing unique identifiers that correspond to one or more hosts in a network that a DHCP server has provisioned with Internet
Protocol (IP) configuration information in non-volatile memory, wherein the unique identifiers uniquely identify the one or
more hosts in a routing domain associated with an Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) area, a routing IP address, a subnet mask,
and a gateway, wherein the DHCP server provisions the IP configuration information to the one or more hosts in a standalone
deployment;

obtaining, from the network, DHCP configuration information currently present on the one or more hosts that correspond to
the unique identifiers stored in the non-volatile memory in response to the DHCP server failing;

repopulating a DHCP database associated with the DHCP server based on the DHCP configuration information currently present
on the one or more hosts;

sending a configuration query message to each host that corresponds to a unique identifier stored in the non-volatile memory;
and

receiving a response to the configuration query message from at least one host that corresponds to a unique identifier stored
in the non-volatile memory, wherein the response to the configuration query message includes the DHCP configuration information
currently present on the at least one host.

US Pat. No. 10,142,203

ETHERNET FAULT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method for Ethernet fault management implemented by an Ethernet node, the method comprising:responsive to receiving a first control packet in a sequence of control packets from a remote node which is a Maintenance End Point (MEP) and the Ethernet node is a corresponding MEP, providing a copy of the first control packet to software executed on a processor in the Ethernet node;
analyzing the first control packet in the software to determine present objects comprising Type-Length-Value (TLV) objects and associated offsets for each TLV object, and programming hardware at the Ethernet node using the software, the programming is based on the remote node and the determined present objects and the associated offsets in the first control packet and the programming configures the hardware to expect each TLV object at its associated offset in subsequent control packets, and wherein the hardware is separate from the processor; and
utilizing the hardware at the Ethernet node to process the subsequent control packets in the sequence of control packets from the remote node based on the programming.

US Pat. No. 9,868,631

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR MEMS-BASED CROSS-POINT ELECTRICAL SWITCHING

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based N×M cross-point switch, comprising:
N inputs arranged in rows, each at least 10 Gbps;
M outputs arranged in columns, each at least 10 Gbps;
a plurality of Radio Frequency (RF) MEMS switches selectively electrically interconnecting, at the at least 10 Gbps, the N
inputs to the M outputs at an intersection of each row and column, wherein each of the plurality of RF MEMS switches are one
of closed for RF signals to flow there through and open to block the RF signals, and wherein each intersection is formed by
one of two RF MEMS switches and three RF MEMS switches; and

control and addressing circuitry to selectively control the plurality of RF MEMS switches to electrically switch each of the
N inputs to a corresponding output of the M outputs.

US Pat. No. 9,628,189

SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION OF PULSE SHAPING FILTERS IN FIBER OPTIC NETWORKS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. An optimization method configured to optimize filter coefficients in pulse shaping filters in transmitters and matched
filters in receivers to maximize a Q-factor of a channel of one or more channels in a fiber optic system, the optimization
method comprises:
iteratively adjusting, via an optimization engine, filter coefficients of the pulse shaping filters at the transmitters and
the matched filters at the receivers to maximize a measured Q-factor of the channel, wherein the optimization engine is in
communication with the transmitters and the receivers to concurrently adjust the filter coefficients; and

setting the filter coefficients of the pulse shaping filters and the matched filters to optimized values based on the iteratively
adjusting.

US Pat. No. 9,577,762

SUBCARRIER POWER BALANCE CONTROL

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method of controlling a multiple sub-carrier optical channel of an optical communications system, the method comprising:
applying a respective dither signal to each sub-carrier by a transmitter modem of the optical communication system, wherein
the multiple sub-carrier optical channel comprises at least two sub-carriers having respective different center frequencies
and being modulated with respective sub-channel data streams within a spectral range allocated to a single optical channel
of the optical communications system;

detecting a respective quality metric of each sub-carrier by a receiver modem of the optical communication system;
estimating a respective optimum power level of each sub-carrier by the receiver modem based on the applied dither signals
and the detected quality metrics; and

adjusting by the transmitter modem a respective power level of each sub-carrier in accordance with the estimated respective
optimum power level of each sub-carrier,

wherein the at least two sub-carriers are transmitted by the transmitter modem and received by the receiver modem and the
at least two sub-carriers are routed through the optical communications system together.

US Pat. No. 9,313,121

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR TRAFFIC ENGINEERED MPLS ETHERNET SWITCH

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method implemented by a Media Access Control (MAC) Ethernet switch in a network, the method comprising:
receiving, from a first Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) router, a packet with a first IP address and a first MAC address
identifying the first MPLS router as a source of the packet, and a second IP address and a second MAC address identifying
a destination;

upon resolving a destination MAC address, forwarding the packet directly to a second MPLS router by a data path determined
by the MAC address of the second router;

upon failing to resolve the destination MAC address, forwarding the packet to a plurality of Ethernet switches in the network
using an out-of-band control associated with the Ethernet network, wherein each of the plurality of Ethernet switches transmits
the packet to connectively coupled MPLS routers;

receiving, from a second MPLS router connectively coupled to a second Ethernet switch, a second packet containing a second
IP address and a previously unresolved MAC address identifying the second MPLS router as a source of the second packet; and

forwarding, by the second Ethernet switch, the second packet to the plurality of Ethernet switches using the out-of-band control,
wherein each of the plurality of Ethernet switches transmits the packet to connectively coupled MPLS routers.

US Pat. No. 9,264,139

OPTICAL TRANSPORT NETWORK CLOCK TRANSIENT SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. An Optical Transport Network (OTN) method, comprising:
transmitting an Optical channel Data Unit (ODU) signal between a pair of OTN switching nodes mapped within an overclocked
OTN signal, wherein the ODU signal is an ODUn with n=2, 3, or 4 and the overclocked OTN signal is a High Order (HO) overclocked
variant of the ODUn;

performing one or more of control plane signaling and exchange of Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
(OAM&P) data between the pair of OTN switching nodes using overhead associated with the overclocked OTN signal, wherein the
one or more of the control plane signaling and the OAM&P data is for the ODU signal; and

responsive to a clock transient, framing events, or other disruptions on the ODU signal affecting the control plane signaling,
maintaining the one or more of control plane signaling and OAM&P data for the ODU signal through the overhead associated with
the overclocked OTN signal in a double mapping configuration, wherein the double mapping configuration includes the ODU signal
mapped in the overclocked OTN signal such that the overclocked OTN signal carries the one or more of the control plane signaling
and the OAM&P data for the ODU signal.

US Pat. No. 9,628,340

PROACTIVE OPERATIONS, ADMINISTRATION, AND MAINTENANCE SYSTEMS AND METHODS IN NETWORKS USING DATA ANALYTICS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A computer-implemented method, comprising:
receiving network data from a network and non-network sourced data from one or more external sources relative to the network,
wherein the non-network sourced data is obtained separately from the network, and wherein the network data is obtained from
a Software Defined Network (SDN) controller that consolidates the network data from network elements operating at various
Layers and from different equipment vendors;

performing data mining on the network data and the non-network sourced data to identify normal operation and abnormal operation
in the network;

developing a predictive analytics model based on the data mining; and
performing predictive analytics on the network data and the non-network sourced data using the predictive analytics model
to detect likely future failures in the network based on the normal operation and the abnormal operation in the network and
associated trends, patterns, or relationships determined in the predictive analytics model using the network data and the
non-network sourced data.

US Pat. No. 9,614,743

SYSTEMS AND METHODS TO COMPUTE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF NETWORK SERVICES WITH NETWORK FUNCTION VIRTUALIZATION (NFV) AND SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORKING (SDN)

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method, through a server, to determine carbon footprint of a network service, in a network, the method comprising:
determining power consumption and cooling requirements of network devices associated with the network service;
determining associated carbon footprint coefficients for power sources associated with each of the network devices;
determining carbon footprint of the network service based on the power consumption, the cooling requirements, and the associated
carbon footprint coefficients; and

utilizing the carbon footprint as a routing parameter for the network service in the network,
wherein the power consumption and the cooling requirements of the network devices are determined for all equipment at each
of the network devices and apportioned to the network service based on how much the network service uses each of the network
devices, wherein, for apportionment, the power consumption and the cooling requirements of the network devices for the network
service is divided by a total number of services thereon.

US Pat. No. 9,607,412

METHOD FOR RAPID DETERMINATION OF LOWEST COST WAVELENGTH ROUTES THROUGH A PHOTONIC NETWORK BASED ON PRE-VALIDATED PATHS

Ciena Corporation, Hanov...

1. A method of configuring an optical network, the method comprising:
designing a set of two or more different candidate configurations of network resources in at least a portion of the network;
for each candidate configuration, a first network node computing a plurality of validated paths extending between respective
pairs of wavelength termination points and having requisite physical resources to carry optical signal traffic between its
pair of wavelength termination points, and generating a respective graph of the candidate configuration, wherein an edge of
the graph corresponds with a respective validated path and has a direction attribute indicating a direction of traffic flow
and a vertex of the graph corresponds with at least one wavelength termination point, wherein the requisite physical resources
include at least bandwidth, wavelength channel availability and signal reach;

a second network node analyzing each graph to identify a best one of the candidate configurations based on one or more criteria
comprising at least reciprocal symmetry where respective traffic flows in opposite directions must follow the same path through
the optical network; and

the second network node provisioning resources of the optical network in accordance with the identified best candidate configuration.