US Pat. No. 10,169,875

NAVIGATION OF TUBULAR NETWORKS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system comprising:a set of one or more processors; and
a computer readable-medium that includes computer program instructions that, when executed, cause the set of processors to:
access a first set of sensor data regarding physical manipulation of an elongated medical instrument inserted into a tubular network of a patient, the first set of sensor data being derived from at least a first set of one or more sensors located at a proximal portion of the of the elongated medical instrument;
access a second set of sensor data regarding the positioning of the medical elongated medical instrument, the second set of sensor data being derived from at least a second set of one or more sensors located within the elongated medical instrument, the second set of sensors being different from the first set of sensors;
determine a first estimated state regarding the physical manipulation of the elongated medical instrument based on the first set of sensor data;
determine a second estimate state regarding the physical manipulation of the elongated medical instrument based on the second set of sensor data; and
determine an estimated state of the elongated medical instrument based on the first estimated state and the second estimated state.

US Pat. No. 9,993,313

INSTRUMENT DEVICE MANIPULATOR WITH ROLL MECHANISM

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A surgical instrument device manipulator comprising:a surgical arm operable by a surgical robotics system;
a base fixedly connected to the surgical arm;
a surgical tool holder assembly including a surgical tool holder that is rotatably mounted to the base and configured to removeably attach to a surgical tool such that the surgical tool is fixed to the surgical tool holder when the surgical tool is attached, wherein the surgical tool holder comprises
a first opening on a first side of the surgical tool holder,
a second opening on a second side of the surgical tool holder, and
a passage extending along a passage axis between the first opening and the second opening such that an elongate body of the surgical tool can be inserted through the first opening, the passage, and the second opening; and
at least one drive mechanism coupled between the base and the surgical tool holder assembly to rotate the surgical tool holder around a rotational axis relative to the base such that rotation of the surgical tool holder causes rotation of the surgical tool attached to the surgical tool holder, wherein the rotational axis of the surgical tool holder is co-axially aligned with a longitudinal axis of the surgical tool.

US Pat. No. 10,016,900

SURGICAL ROBOTIC ARM ADMITTANCE CONTROL

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system, comprising:a robotic arm comprising:
at least two linkages,
at least one joint connecting the at least two linkages,
at least one torque sensor configured to detect torque between the at least two linkages, and
at least one motor configured to adjust the position of the at least two linkages,
a processor; and
a memory storing computer-executable instructions to cause the processor to:
determine a force at a reference point on the robotic arm based on an output of the torque sensor,
receive an indication of a direction of movement of the reference point,
determine that a component of the force is in the same direction as the direction of movement of the reference point,
generate, based on the determination that the component of the force is in the same direction as the direction of movement of the reference point, at least one parameter indicative of a target resistance to movement of the robotic arm, and
control the motor, based on the at least one parameter, to move the robotic arm in accordance with the target resistance.

US Pat. No. 10,143,526

ROBOT-ASSISTED DRIVING SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A method for driving a flexible medical instrument in three dimensional space within an anatomy, the method performed by a robotic medical system and comprising:acquiring an anatomical image using an imaging subsystem of the robotic medical system;
acquiring localization information for the instrument from a tracking sensor integrated in the instrument;
registering the instrument to the anatomical image;
overlaying a representation of the instrument on the anatomical image for display to a user;
identifying a target on the anatomical image;
receiving a user command to drive the instrument, the user command received from the user via a user input device;
identifying, based on the localization information of the instrument and the identified target, a pathway suitable for navigating the instrument from its current position towards the target;
overlaying a representation of the pathway suitable for navigating the instrument from its current position towards the target on the anatomical image for display to the user.

US Pat. No. 10,123,843

INPUT DEVICE FOR CONTROLLING A CATHETER

AURIS HEALTH, INC., Redw...

1. A robotics system, comprising:a surgical instrument having a physical distal tip;
an actuator coupled to the surgical instrument;
a user interface comprising a display configured to present a plurality of virtual distal tips of the surgical instrument, each of the virtual distal tips having a different distal tip shape; and
a controller comprising a computing device communicatively coupled to the actuator and the user interface,
wherein the user interface is configured to receive a user input designating a selected virtual tip having a selected distal tip shape from the plurality of virtual distal tips; and
wherein the controller is configured to determine a desired shape of the physical distal tip based on the user input and output a control signal to the actuator to cause the physical distal tip to adopt the selected distal tip shape.

US Pat. No. 10,145,747

DETECTION OF UNDESIRABLE FORCES ON A SURGICAL ROBOTIC ARM

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system, comprising:a first robotic arm, comprising:
at least two linkages,
at least one joint connecting the at least two linkages,
at least one torque sensor configured to detect torque between the at least two linkages, and
an instrument device manipulator (IDM) connected to a distal end of the first robotic arm;
a processor; and
a memory storing computer-executable instructions to cause the processor to:
measure a first torque value at the at least one joint based on an output of the torque sensor,
determine a second torque value at the at least one joint based on a position of the first robotic arm, the second torque value indicative of a gravitational component of the torque between the at least two linkages,
determine a first force at the IDM based on a difference between the first and second torque values, and
determine whether the first robotic arm has collided with an object based on the first force at the IDM.

US Pat. No. 10,022,192

AUTOMATICALLY-INITIALIZED ROBOTIC SYSTEMS FOR NAVIGATION OF LUMINAL NETWORKS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A method of facilitating navigation of an anatomical luminal network of a patient, the method, executed by a set of one or more computing devices, comprising:receiving imaging data captured by an imaging device at a distal end of an instrument positioned within the anatomical luminal network;
accessing a virtual feature derived from a virtual depth map associated with a virtual image, the virtual image simulated from a viewpoint of a virtual imaging device positioned at a virtual location within a virtual luminal network representative of the anatomical luminal network, wherein the virtual feature represents a first spatial relationship between two or more depth criteria in the virtual depth map;
generating a depth map based on the imaging data;
deriving a feature from the depth map, the feature representing a second spatial relationship between two or more depth criteria in the depth map;
calculating a correspondence between the feature derived from the depth map and the virtual feature derived from the virtual depth map; and
determining a pose of the distal end of the instrument within the anatomical luminal network based on the virtual location associated with the virtual feature based on the calculated correspondence.

US Pat. No. 9,980,785

INSTRUMENT DEVICE MANIPULATOR WITH SURGICAL TOOL DE-ARTICULATION

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A surgical tool holder assembly comprising:a housing having an attachment interface for attachment to a reciprocal attachment interface of a surgical tool;
a plurality of torque couplers protruding outwards from the attachment interface, each torque coupler capable of transitioning between a first state of protruding outwards from the housing and a second state of retracting into the housing;
an actuation mechanism configured to control a transition between the first state and the second state; and
a plurality of actuators, each of the plurality of actuators coupled to a respective one of the plurality of torque couplers and configured to drive rotation of the respective one of the plurality torque couplers in response to an electrical control signal.

US Pat. No. 10,123,755

REDUCING INCREMENTAL MEASUREMENT SENSOR ERROR

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system comprising:an elongate member extending between a proximal end and a distal end;
one or more sensing elements positioned on the elongate member, the one or more sensing elements configured to provide at least:
proximal data associated with a proximal region of the elongate member, and
distal data associated with a distal region of the elongate member;
at least one non-transitory computer readable medium having stored thereon executable instructions; and
at least one processor in communication with the at least one non-transitory computer readable medium and configured to execute the instructions to:
receive the proximal data and the distal data from the one or more sensing elements,
filter the proximal data to reduce orientation error associated with the proximal region, and
determine a shape of the elongate member based on the filtered proximal data.

US Pat. No. 10,206,746

USER INTERFACE FOR ACTIVE DRIVE APPARATUS WITH FINITE RANGE OF MOTION

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system comprising:a drive mechanism;
a controller configured to:
determine a user interface status;
determine a drive mechanism location of a gripper device relative to a first limit and a second limit, wherein the gripper device is configured to drive a medical instrument through a patient's anatomy; and
select a clutching location of the gripper device based on the user interface status and the drive mechanism location, and
wherein the user interface status is indicative of user interaction of a user interface and comprises at least one of an active status and an inactive status, and
wherein the inactive status is based on a determination by the controller that user interaction of the user interface has ceased.

US Pat. No. 10,080,576

METHOD, APPARATUS, AND A SYSTEM FOR FACILITATING BENDING OF AN INSTRUMENT IN A SURGICAL OR MEDICAL ROBOTIC ENVIRONMENT

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A medical device comprising:a. an elongated body for use in medical procedures, the elongated body having a neutral axis and comprising:
i. a spine along the length of the elongated body;
ii. a series of ribs along the length of the elongated body, wherein the series of ribs form a corresponding series of ribbed voids along the length of the elongated body, wherein the elongated body, the spine, and the ribs are formed as a single component; and
iii. a lumen longitudinally oriented within the elongated body, wherein the lumen has a non-cylindrical cross-section defined by walls of uneven thickness formed from the elongated body and having a narrowed mid-section;
b. an ancillary component positioned within the lumen along the length of the body; and
c. a control wire that is configured to actuate an end effector that is operatively coupled to the control wire, wherein the control wire is positioned within the lumen offset from the neutral axis of the elongated body and separated from the ancillary component within the lumen by the narrowed mid-section.

US Pat. No. 10,136,959

ENDOLUMENAL OBJECT SIZING

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A method for sizing an object positioned within a patient, comprising:navigating an elongate body to a location within the patient and proximate to the object, the elongate body comprising an imaging sensor for capturing images of the object;
capturing sequential images of the object with the imaging sensor;
navigating the elongate body into at least one of a different orientation and a different position during the capture of the sequential images;
determining orientations and positions of the elongate body during the capture of the sequential images based on a set of robot data;
comparing the orientation and position of the elongate body determined based on the set of robot data for at least one captured sequential image to the orientation and position determined based on the set of robot data for at least another captured sequential image; and
analyzing, with a processor, the sequential images of the object and the comparison of the set of robot data to estimate a size of the object.

US Pat. No. 10,130,427

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR POSITIONING AN ELONGATE MEMBER INSIDE A BODY

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A method for robotically navigating first and second coaxial elongate members into a target anatomy of a patient, the method comprising:advancing the first elongate member toward the target anatomy;
advancing the second elongate member over a distal tip of the first elongate member;
applying tension to one or more pullwires to articulate a distal tip of the second elongate member to direct the distal tip of the first elongate member toward the target anatomy;
advancing the distal tip of the first elongate member into the target anatomy;
after advancing the distal tip of the first elongated member into the target anatomy advancing the second elongate member over the first elongate member and into the target anatomy; and
releasing the tension on the one or more pullwires of the second elongate member while advancing the second elongate member into the target anatomy.

US Pat. No. 10,285,574

SUPERELASTIC MEDICAL INSTRUMENT

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A biopsy needle assembly, comprising:a needle formed from a superelastic alloy, the needle including:
a body portion extending from a distal end of the needle to a proximal end of the needle, and
an inner surface of the needle forming a lumen extending through at least a portion of the body portion to an opening in the distal end, wherein the lumen and the opening are configured to acquire a tissue biopsy;
an elongate member attached at the proximal end of the needle; and
a tubular jacket including an interior channel, wherein:
in a first configuration, the distal end of the needle is positioned within the interior channel, and
in a second configuration, in response to distal movement of the elongate member through the interior channel, the distal end of the needle is extended beyond a distal end of the tubular jacket;
wherein the elongate member comprises a polymer tube reflowed around an overlap region located at the proximal end of the needle; and
wherein the needle further comprises a plurality of surface features formed on the needle at the overlap region, wherein the polymer tube is reflowed around the surface features.

US Pat. No. 10,159,533

SURGICAL SYSTEM WITH CONFIGURABLE RAIL-MOUNTED MECHANICAL ARMS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A medical device comprising:a horizontal platform having a first lateral side, a second lateral side opposite the first lateral side, a top end, and a bottom end opposite the top end;
a first linear rail portion extending along the first lateral side of the horizontal platform;
a second linear rail portion extending along the second lateral side of the horizontal platform and toward and beyond the bottom end of the horizontal platform;
a carriage configured to translate along the second linear rail portion, the carriage being operatively coupled to the second linear rail portion; and
a robotic arm operatively coupled to the carriage,
wherein the robotic arm is configured to be moved about the horizontal platform by the carriage to perform a medical procedure on a patient on the horizontal platform, and
wherein the entirety of the carriage is configured to be moved beyond the bottom end of the horizontal platform along the second linear rail portion parallel to the second lateral side.

US Pat. No. 10,130,345

SYSTEM AND METHODS FOR TRACKING ROBOTICALLY CONTROLLED MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A robotic system configured to manipulate a tool within a patient's anatomy, the system comprising:the tool comprising a shape sensor that senses a shape of at least a portion of the tool while within the patient's anatomy;
a robotic drive system comprising at least one actuator, the robotic drive system coupled to the tool and configured to articulate the tool within the patient's anatomy and
a controller configured to register a sensor reference frame and a 3-dimensional (3D) model, reference frame based on the shape of the tool and features of a 3D model of the patient's anatomy, the controller also being configured to direct the robotic drive system based on the registration.

US Pat. No. 10,149,720

METHOD, APPARATUS, AND A SYSTEM FOR FACILITATING BENDING OF AN INSTRUMENT IN A SURGICAL OR MEDICAL ROBOTIC ENVIRONMENT

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A bending section to carry a tool for use in noninvasive medical procedures, the bending section comprising:an actuation wire;
a rod having an approximately cylindrical outer circumference and a neutral axis;
a top portion along a length of the rod;
a bottom portion along the length of the rod, wherein at least a section of the bottom portion of the cylindrical rod is formed without material;
a non-cylindrical channel through the entire rod, the non-cylindrical channel comprising a top pathway along the top portion and proximate the neutral axis, a bottom pathway along the bottom portion and off-axis from the neutral axis, and a narrowed region therebetween connecting the top and bottom pathways, wherein the rod has a greater wall thickness at the narrowed region than at the top and bottom pathways, wherein the actuation wire is positioned within the bottom pathway to articulate the rod, wherein the actuation wire is in contact with a surface that forms the non-cylindrical channel, and wherein the top pathway is configured to accommodate at least one ancillary component to be in proximity to the neutral axis of the rod;
a plurality of first sections alternatingly adjacent to a plurality of second sections along the length of the rod, wherein the plurality of first sections is formed without material to form a plurality of partial voids next to the plurality of second sections, such that the partial voids permit bending of the rod along the top portion of rod.

US Pat. No. 10,555,780

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR POSITIONING AN ELONGATE MEMBER INSIDE A BODY

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A medical method comprising:advancing a first elongate member toward a target anatomy;
advancing a second elongate member toward the target anatomy, wherein the first elongate member moves within the second elongate member in a telescoping configuration; and
delivering an energy delivery device through the first elongate member and the second elongate member to treat the target anatomy.

US Pat. No. 10,350,390

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR ENDOLUMINAL AND TRANSLUMENAL THERAPY

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A method for performing a medical procedure using a robotic catheter system, the method comprising:advancing, within a blood vessel of a patient, a sheath instrument comprising a sheath wall that surrounds and forms a guide insertion lumen, the sheath instrument extending along a longitudinal axis from a proximal portion to a distal portion, the sheath instrument comprising a balloon coupled to the distal portion, wherein a drain lumen extends through at least a portion of the balloon or sheath instrument;
inflating the balloon, wherein following inflation, blood flow of the blood vessel continues through the drain lumen;
advancing a guide instrument through the guide insertion lumen, the guide insertion lumen extending from the proximal portion along the longitudinal axis and further extending radially away from the longitudinal axis toward the sheath wall and terminating at a guide insertion port that extends through a balloon wall of the balloon to, in use, face an inner wall of the blood vessel;
advancing the guide instrument through the guide insertion port and a wall of the blood vessel to create a transvascular access port;
advancing the guide instrument and a diagnostic or interventional instrument to a target site to perform a medical procedure; and
retracting the guide instrument and the diagnostic or interventional instrument and closing the transvascular access port prior to deflation of the balloon and removal of the sheath instrument.

US Pat. No. 10,639,108

PROCESS FOR PERCUTANEOUS OPERATIONS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A method for performing a percutaneous operation on a patient, comprising:advancing a first alignment sensor on a distal tip of an endoscope into a cavity through a patient lumen, the first alignment sensor providing the position and orientation of the alignment sensor in free space in real time, wherein advancing the first alignment sensor on the distal tip of the endoscope into the cavity comprises actuating a robotic arm of a surgical robotic system in response to an input at a control module of the surgical robotic system;
manipulating the first alignment sensor until the first alignment sensor is located in proximity to an object to be removed from the cavity;
making a percutaneous opening in the patient with a surgical tool comprising a second alignment sensor that provides the position and orientation of the surgical tool in free space in real time;
receiving, at a computer system for the robotic surgical system, data from the first and second alignment sensors;
providing, via a display device, a graphical interface displaying one or more graphical elements representing the orientation of the surgical tool relative to the distal tip based on the data from the first and second alignment sensors; and
directing the surgical tool including the second alignment sensor through the percutaneous opening and towards the object using the graphical elements.

US Pat. No. 10,299,870

INSTRUMENT INSERTION COMPENSATION

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A robotic system, comprising:a first instrument, comprising:
a shaft comprising a proximal portion and a distal portion, the distal portion comprising an articulable region and a distal end, the shaft comprising a working channel extending therethrough; and
at least one pull wire;
at least one sensor configured to detect a position of the distal end of the shaft;
at least one computer-readable memory having stored thereon executable instructions;
one or more processors in communication with the at least one computer-readable memory and configured to execute the instructions to cause the system to at least:
detect, based on a data signal from the at least one sensor, a position change of the distal end of the shaft in response to insertion of a second instrument into the working channel of the shaft; and
generate at least one control signal based on the detected position change; and
a drive mechanism connected to the at least one pull wire at the proximal portion of the shaft, the drive mechanism configured to adjust a tensioning of the at least one pull wire based on the at least one control signal, wherein the adjusted tensioning facilitates returning the distal end of the shaft towards an initial position before the position change occurred.

US Pat. No. 10,159,532

ROBOTIC SYSTEMS FOR DETERMINING A ROLL OF A MEDICAL DEVICE IN LUMINAL NETWORKS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A method of facilitating navigation of an anatomical luminal network of a patient, the method, executed by a set of one or more computing devices, comprising:receiving imaging data captured by an imaging device at a distal end of an instrument positioned within the anatomical luminal network, wherein the anatomical luminal network includes a right bronchus and a left bronchus;
identifying one or more features from the imaging data, the one or more features identified from the imaging data representing a first positioning of the right bronchus and the left bronchus in the imaging data;
accessing one or more features associated with a virtual image, the virtual image simulated from a viewpoint of a virtual imaging device positioned at a virtual location within a virtual luminal network representative of the anatomical luminal network, the virtual luminal network including a virtual right bronchus corresponding to the right bronchus and a virtual left bronchus corresponding to the left bronchus, wherein the one or more features associated with the virtual image represent a second positioning of the virtual right bronchus and the virtual left bronchus in the virtual image;
calculating a correspondence between the first positioning and the second positioning; and
determining a roll of the distal end of the instrument within the anatomical luminal network based on the calculated correspondence.

US Pat. No. 10,143,360

METHODS AND DEVICES FOR CONTROLLING A SHAPEABLE MEDICAL DEVICE

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A method of controlling advancement of a shapeable medical device within an anatomic path, the method comprising:processing a command from an input device to actuate the shapeable medical device into a desired configuration of one or more portions of the shapeable medical device;
issuing a position control signal to one or more actuators based on a model of shapeable medical device mechanics to advance the shapeable medical device along the anatomic path;
obtaining a plurality of localization data to determine a real shape of at least the one or more portions of the shapeable instrument when advanced along the anatomic path; and
determining a differential between the real shape and the desired configuration of the one or more portions; and
based on the differential between the real shape and the desired configuration of the one or more portions, updating the model of shapeable medical device mechanics and controlling advancement of the shapeable medical device based on the updated model.

US Pat. No. 10,470,830

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR INSTRUMENT BASED INSERTION ARCHITECTURES

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A medical device comprising:a shaft comprising a proximal portion and a distal portion;
an end effector connected to the distal portion of the shaft; and
a handle coupled to the shaft, wherein the handle includes a first mechanical input and a second mechanical input, wherein the first mechanical input is configured to cause actuation of the end effector, and the second mechanical input is configured to cause translation of the shaft relative to the handle.

US Pat. No. 10,231,793

OBJECT REMOVAL THROUGH A PERCUTANEOUS SUCTION TUBE

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A method for removing an object from a patient, comprising:inserting a suction tube into a patient's kidney through a port created by a percutaneous cut;
advancing an endoscope into the patient's kidney by inserting the endoscope through a natural orifice in the patient and then through a patient lumen other than the port and into the kidney, the endoscope comprising a working channel;
irrigating the patient's kidney with a fluid, where the fluid passes within the working channel of the endoscope; and
applying negative pressure to the suction tube, the combination of the fluid irrigation and the negative pressure assisting in causing the object to be removed from the patient's kidney through the suction tube.

US Pat. No. 10,213,264

CATHETER TENSION SENSING

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A robotic surgical system, comprising:an elongate member comprising a pull wire disposed therein;
an input device configured to receive a user input;
an instrument driver operatively coupled to the elongate member, the instrument driver comprising a motor and a rotary torque sensor configured to generate torque data indicative of a torque imparted on the pull wire; and
a control system operatively coupled to the input device and the instrument driver, wherein the elongate member is controllable by the instrument driver based on a command generated by the control system in response to the user input and the torque data.

US Pat. No. 10,314,463

AUTOMATED ENDOSCOPE CALIBRATION

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A method for controlling an endoscope of a surgical robotic system, comprising:receiving a command to move the endoscope using the surgical robotic system;
accessing a set of calibration parameters associated with the endoscope, the set of calibration parameters including at least a first set of calibration parameters based on an image registration process using a plurality of images captured by an image sensor coupled to a tip of the endoscope during a calibration procedure that comprises movement of the endoscope between images captured by the image sensor, the calibration procedure including generating a difference array based on differences between images capture by the image sensor between movement of the endoscope performed before receiving the command to move the endoscope and generating a gradient array based on rates of change between the images captured by the image sensor;
generating an adjusted command based on the command and the set of calibration parameters;
providing the adjusted command to the surgical robotic system to move the endoscope; and
receiving movement information describing motion of the endoscope in response at least to the adjusted command.

US Pat. No. 10,244,926

DETECTING ENDOLUMENAL BUCKLING OF FLEXIBLE INSTRUMENTS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A method for detecting buckling of a medical instrument comprising an elongate body, the method comprising:directing a command to move an elongate body;
receiving sensor data generated from a first sensor placed in a first portion of the elongate body, the sensor data comprising information regarding a first measured status of the first portion of the elongate body;
determining a first expected status of the first sensor from command data useable to control a manipulator coupled to the elongate body to effect movement of the elongate body;
comparing the first measured status with the first expected status; and
responsive to the first measured status deviating from the first expected status relative to a first associated threshold, determining that the elongate body has buckled.

US Pat. No. 10,231,867

METHOD, APPARATUS AND SYSTEM FOR A WATER JET

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system configured for medical operation comprising:a water jet device having an instrument drive mechanism;
an aspiration device separate from the water jet device; and
a robotic control system comprising a controller, a flow rate meter, a throttle valve, and a pump,
wherein the flow rate meter is in communication with the controller and the controller is in communication with the pump and the throttle valve to form a feedback loop,
wherein the flow rate meter is configured to generate and send a feedback signal to the controller,
wherein the controller is configured to: generate and send a control signal to the pump in response to the feedback signal, and generate and send a throttle control signal to the throttle valve to control a flow rate of the water jet device in response to the feedback signal,
wherein the water jet device is configured to be coupled to the robotic control system via the instrument drive mechanism to generate a cutting jet based at least in part on the control signal from the controller so as to have a desired jet cutting area,
wherein the flow rate meter is upstream from the instrument drive mechanism,
wherein the aspiration device is configured to be coupled to the robotic control system to provide aspiration, and
wherein the robotic control system is configured to operate the water jet device aspiration device, the flow rate meter, the throttle valve, and the pump to perform the medical operation according to a predetermined workflow.

US Pat. No. 10,434,660

SURGICAL ROBOTIC ARM ADMITTANCE CONTROL

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

21. A system, comprising:a robotic arm comprising:
at least two linkages,
at least one joint connecting the at least two linkages, and
at least one sensor configured to output data indicative of a force at a reference point on the robotic arm;
a processor; and
a memory storing computer-executable instructions to cause the processor to:
receive an indication of a direction of movement of the reference point,
determine a direction of the force at the reference point based on the data received from the at least one sensor,
determine an intent of a user manually moving the robotic arm based on a comparison of the direction of movement of the reference point and the direction of the force at the reference point, and
drive movement of the robotic arm based on the determined intent.

US Pat. No. 10,482,599

NAVIGATION OF TUBULAR NETWORKS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A robotic medical system for bronchoscopy, the system comprising:a robotic arm comprising a plurality of segments, the robotic arm extending from a base;
a robotically-controllable bronchoscope removably coupled to the robotic arm, the bronchoscope configured for insertion into a bronchial network of a patient, wherein a distal end of the bronchoscope is articulable; and
a command console comprising a command module configured to allow an operator to remotely control the bronchoscope, wherein the command module is configured to allow the operator to remotely articulate the distal end bronchoscope, and wherein the command module comprises a trackball;
a display;
at least one computer-readable medium having stored thereon instructions and at least one processor in communication with the at least one computer-readable medium and configured to execute the instructions to cause a navigation module to:
display a model of the bronchial network;
access a selected target location in the bronchial network;
access a determined path from an entry point to the target location;
receive input data related to a position of the bronchoscope from a plurality of data sources;
determine the position of the bronchoscope within the bronchial network based on the input data from one or more of the plurality of data sources;
display the determined position of the bronchoscope relative to the displayed model of the bronchial network; and
display navigational guidance on the display, the navigational guidance comprising the determined path to the target location, a distance to the target location, a location of the bronchoscope relative to the model of the bronchial network, and depth data.

US Pat. No. 10,500,001

SURGICAL ROBOTICS SYSTEM

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system comprising:a table for supporting a patient positioned on the table;
a column coupled to the table;
a base coupled to the column;
a column ring coupled to the column and configured to linearly translate relative to the table; and
a robotic arm coupled to the base and configured to manipulate a medical instrument relative to the patient positioned on the table, wherein the robotic arm is further configured to be stowable within a volume of the base.

US Pat. No. 10,454,347

COMPACT HEIGHT TORQUE SENSING ARTICULATION AXIS ASSEMBLY

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A robotic surgical system, comprising:a control system configured to be connected to an input device and to receive information for positioning or orienting a catheter from the input device; and
an instrument driver operatively connected to the control system, the instrument driver including:
a motor configured to provide rotary output to actuate movement of an elongate member;
a gearbox configured to modify the rotary output of the motor; and
a reactive torque sensor coaxial with and radially surrounding at least one of the motor and the gearbox,
wherein the control system is configured to actuate the motor in response to the information to drive an output shaft in communication with the elongate member; and
wherein the reactive torque sensor is configured to determine an output shaft torque imparted by the output shaft.

US Pat. No. 10,376,672

CATHETER INSERTION SYSTEM AND METHOD OF FABRICATION

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A robotic instrument driver for elongate members, the robotic instrument driver comprising:a first pod positionable proximate a bed at a first location, the first pod comprising a first articulation mechanism configured to articulate one or more steering wires in a first elongate member to articulate the first elongate member, and further comprising a first active drive mechanism fixed relative to the first articulation mechanism and configured to insert or retract a second elongate member with respect to the first elongate member; and
a second pod positionable proximate the bed at a second location further moved from a patient access site than the first location, the second pod comprising a second articulation mechanism configured to articulate one or more steering wires in the second elongate member to articulate the second elongate member, and further comprising a second active drive mechanism fixed relative to the second articulation mechanism and configured to insert or retract a third elongate member with respect to the second elongate member,
wherein the second pod with the second articulation mechanism and the second active drive mechanism is moveable independently from the first pod with the first articulation mechanism and the first active drive mechanism,
wherein the first active drive mechanism is of a type that is different from the second active drive mechanism.

US Pat. No. 10,493,239

TORQUE-BASED CATHETER ARTICULATION

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system comprising:an elongated flexible medical instrument comprising an elongate member coupled to a distal portion of the medical instrument;
an instrument driver coupled to a proximal end of the elongate member, the instrument driver comprising:
a rotatable body configured to transmit torque from a motor, and
a force sensor configured to generate an actual force signal based on an actual force; and
a control system in communication with the instrument driver, the control system configured to:
generate a command force signal in response to a user command from a user input device,
provide the command force signal to the instrument driver to control movement of the distal portion of the medical instrument into a first position,
receive the actual force signal from the instrument driver, and
maintain the first position of the distal portion of the medical instrument via adjusting the command force signal provided to the instrument driver based on the actual force signal received from the instrument driver.

US Pat. No. 10,493,241

APPARATUSES AND METHODS FOR MONITORING TENDONS OF STEERABLE CATHETERS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system comprising:a robotic driver;
a sensing circuitry coupled to the robotic driver; and
an articulatable elongate member of a medical instrument, the elongate member comprising:
an elongated body with an articulatable portion; and
a first pull wire enclosed within the elongated body and coupled to the elongated body such that a first application of tension to the first pull wire articulates the articulatable portion, the first pull wire comprising a first proximal portion configured to be operatively coupled to the robotic driver configured to apply tension to the first pull wire to articulate the articulatable portion, the first pull wire configured to be electrically coupled to the sensing circuitry, the first pull wire configured to be separable from the sensing circuitry and the robotic driver,
wherein the sensing circuitry is configured to measure a change to an electrical resistance of the first pull wire, thereby indicating a change in tension or a breakage of the first pull wire.

US Pat. No. 10,463,439

STEERABLE CATHETER WITH SHAFT LOAD DISTRIBUTIONS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A steerable catheter system, comprising:a flexible elongate catheter body, comprising a catheter wall forming a central lumen, a proximal end, a distal end, an articulating section, and a non-articulating section;
a drive mechanism at the proximal end of the catheter body; and
a first group of pullwires and a second group of pullwires within the catheter wall extending along a length of the catheter body,
wherein each of the first and second groups of pullwires includes two pullwires, and wherein each of the two pullwires is anchored at a first end to the catheter body and at a second end to the drive mechanism, and
wherein, in each of the first and second groups of pullwires, the two pullwires are positioned close to one another along the articulating section of the catheter body and diverge away from one another to reach a more separated distribution along the non-articulating section,
wherein, in the non-articulating section, one pullwire of one group of the first and second groups of pullwires is positioned between the two pullwires of the other group of the first and second groups of pullwires.

US Pat. No. 10,426,559

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR MEDICAL INSTRUMENT COMPRESSION COMPENSATION

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A robotic system, comprising:a first medical instrument configured for insertion, in use, into a lumen of a patient, the first instrument comprising: a first elongated shaft, a first pull wire actuable to cause pull wire-based movement of the first elongated shaft, and a first instrument base including a first drive input for actuating the first pull wire;
a first instrument positioning device attached to the first instrument base and configured to move to advance or retract the first instrument through the lumen of the patient;
at least one non-transitory computer readable medium having stored thereon executable instructions; and
at least one processor in communication with the at least one non-transitory computer readable medium and configured to execute the instructions to cause the system to at least:
determine an axial compression of the first elongated shaft;
determine a distance to move the first instrument positioning device to compensate for the determined axial compression of the first elongated shaft; and
move the first instrument positioning device to either advance or retract the first elongated shaft of the first instrument through the lumen of the patient by the determined distance.

US Pat. No. 10,398,518

ARTICULATING FLEXIBLE ENDOSCOPIC TOOL WITH ROLL CAPABILITIES

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A robotic instrument comprising:an elongate shaft having a proximal end and a distal end;
an instrument base coupled to the proximal end of the elongate shaft;
a first rotatable body operatively coupled to a first robotic output drive and the elongate shaft such that rotation of the first rotatable body in response to force from the first robotic output drive rotates the elongate shaft; and
a second rotatable body operatively coupled to a second robotic output drive and the elongate shaft such that rotation of the second rotatable body in response to force from the second robotic output drive articulates at least a portion of the elongate shaft,
wherein the second rotatable body comprises two concentrically-aligned spools, and
wherein the instrument base is configured to enclose at least a portion of the first rotatable body and at least a portion of the second rotatable body.

US Pat. No. 10,368,951

ROBOTIC CATHETER SYSTEM AND METHODS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A robotic medical system, comprising:an instrument driver comprising a motor and an instrument interface, the instrument interface comprising a drive element operatively coupled to the motor;
a steerable catheter comprising:
an elongate body defining a lumen,
a control element extending through the elongate body to a distal end portion of the steerable catheter, and
an instrument base operatively coupled to the instrument interface, the instrument base comprising a pulley operatively coupled to the control element and the drive element such that actuation of the drive element by the motor actuates the pulley causing actuation of the control element and the distal end portion;
a controller having control logic configured to operate the motor of the instrument driver; and
an ultrasound transducer integrated in the steerable catheter and configured to acquire data,
wherein the data acquired from the ultrasound transducer during movement through a patient is used by the controller, based on the control logic, to control the motor of the instrument driver to actuate the distal end portion of the steerable catheter to navigate the steerable catheter through the patient.

US Pat. No. 10,464,209

ROBOTIC SYSTEM WITH INDICATION OF BOUNDARY FOR ROBOTIC ARM

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

22. A method of positioning a first robotic arm, comprising:determining a minimum stroke length of the first robotic arm that allows advancing of a medical instrument by the first robotic arm to reach a target region based on a mapping of an anatomy of a patient, the medical instrument configured to be manipulated through a luminal network of the anatomy, the mapping comprising data regarding (i) the target region within the anatomy and (ii) a path through the luminal network from an access point of the patient to the target region, the medical instrument advanced to reach the target region from the access point via the path through the luminal network;
determine a boundary for an initial pose of the first robotic arm based on the minimum stroke length and the mapping; and
during an arm setup phase prior to performing a procedure, provide an indication of the boundary during movement of the first robotic arm.

US Pat. No. 10,426,661

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR LASER ASSISTED CATARACT SURGERY

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A surgical device comprising:an optical fiber having a proximal end, a distal end, and a neutral axis at the distal end,
wherein the optical fiber is configured to generate a steam bubble from light energy conveyed out the distal end of the fiber, the proximal end is operatively connected to a light source, and the distal end comprises a tip with a tilted edge that is non-orthogonal and non-symmetrical with respect to the neutral axis, the light energy being conveyed out the tilted edge to generate the steam bubble off-angle from the neutral axis of the optical fiber,
wherein the titled edge forms an angle such that at least a portion of the light energy (i) is incident on the tilted edge at an angle of incidence that is less than a critical angle and (ii) exits the optical fiber from the tilted edge.

US Pat. No. 10,405,940

ENDOSCOPIC DEVICE WITH DOUBLE-HELICAL LUMEN DESIGN

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. An endoscopic instrument, comprising:a first elongated body having a distal portion and a proximal portion and comprising
a first working channel having a first diameter;
a first lumen spiraled at a first plurality of non-zero angles around the first working channel and along at least a first portion of the first elongated body between the distal portion and the proximal portion of the first elongated body, the first lumen having a second portion that extends parallel to the working channel along the proximal portion of the elongated endoscopic instrument, wherein a length of the second portion is greater than a pitch of a spiraled section of the first portion;
wherein the first elongated body is configured to be manipulated by a first robotic arm;
a second elongated body comprising:
a second working channel having a second diameter less than the first diameter; and
a second lumen spiraled at a second plurality of non-zero angles around the second working channel and along at least a second length of the second elongated body, wherein the second elongated body is slidingly coupled within the first working channel, and
wherein the second elongated body is configured to be manipulated by a second robotic arm, and wherein extension of the second elongated body from the first working channel is controlled by moving one of the first robotic arm and the second robotic arm relative to the other of the first robotic arm and the second robotic arm.

US Pat. No. 10,363,103

FLEXIBLE AND STEERABLE ELONGATE INSTRUMENTS WITH SHAPE CONTROL AND SUPPORT ELEMENTS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A steerable elongate instrument, comprising:an elongate body, comprising:
a proximal portion;
a distal portion;
a first lumen extending through the proximal portion and the distal portion; and
multiple secondary lumens extending through the proximal portion and the distal portion;
multiple flex tubes disposed within the secondary lumens within the proximal portion of the elongate body, wherein a proximal portion of each flex tube is slideable into and out of the elongate body at a proximal end of the elongate body, wherein a distal end of each flex tube is fixedly coupled to a distal end of the proximal portion of the elongate body, and wherein, when the elongate body is placed in a bend such that a first side of the elongate body contracts and a second side of the elongate body stretches, one of the flex tubes located in the first side slides at least partially out of the secondary lumen in which it is disposed, and another of the flex tubes located in the second side slides at least partially into the secondary lumen in which it is disposed;
multiple pull wires, wherein each of the flex tubes has a different one of the pull wires disposed therein; and
a control unit positioned proximal to the elongate body,
wherein a distal portion of each of the pull wires is coupled to the distal portion of the elongate body, and wherein a proximal portion of each of the pull wires is operatively coupled to the control unit.

US Pat. No. 10,492,741

REDUCING INCREMENTAL MEASUREMENT SENSOR ERROR

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system comprising:an elongate member extending between a proximal end and a distal end;
one or more sensing elements positioned on the elongate member, the one or more sensing elements configured to provide at least:
first data associated with a first region of the elongate member, and
second data associated with a second region of the elongate member;
at least one non-transitory computer readable medium having stored thereon executable instructions; and
at least one processor in communication with the at least one non-transitory computer readable medium and configured to execute the instructions to:
receive the first data and the second data from the one or more sensing elements,
filter the first data to reduce orientation error associated with the first region, and
determine a shape of the elongate member based on the filtered first data.

US Pat. No. 10,390,893

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR ALIGNING AN ELONGATE MEMBER WITH AN ACCESS SITE

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

19. A method of aligning an elongate member, controlled by an instrument driver, with an access site, the method comprising:coupling a stabilizer to the access site on a patient, wherein the stabilizer is engageable with the patient, wherein the stabilizer comprises a base with an opening formed therethrough for receiving the elongate member;
coupling the stabilizer to an alignment joint, the alignment joint comprising at least one position sensor;
determining a position of the alignment joint based on an output of the at least one position sensor;
determining a position of the stabilizer based on the output of the at least one position sensor; and
automatically aligning the instrument driver with the stabilizer on the patient based on the determined positions of the stabilizer and the alignment joint.

US Pat. No. 10,383,765

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR A GLOBAL COORDINATE SYSTEM FOR USE IN ROBOTIC SURGERY

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system for facilitating robotic surgery, comprising:a first mechanical arm configured to facilitate operation of an optical assembly that comprises optical components and an optical detector coupled to the first mechanical arm, the first mechanical arm comprising a first joint sensor configured to generate a first location reading for the first mechanical arm;
a second mechanical arm coupled to a surgical tool, the second mechanical arm comprising a second joint sensor configured to generate a second location reading for the second mechanical arm, the surgical tool comprising an optical fiber configured to emit a scanning signal from a distal end of the surgical tool and receive a signal resulting from scattering of the scanning signal;
a visual light microscope configured to provide a view of a target anatomy, the visual light microscope sharing at least one of the optical components of the optical assembly, the at least one shared optical component configured to provide light in a first frequency range to the visual light microscope and provide light in a second frequency range to the optical detector; and
a processor,
wherein the processor is configured to determine locations of the first and second mechanical arms and the tool based on the first and second location readings,
wherein the processor is configured to generate kinematic registration data for the first and second mechanical arms and the tool based on the determined locations,
wherein the processor is configured to obtain a plurality of image slices of the target anatomy based on a signal output from the optical detector,
wherein the processor is configured to generate imaging data including a three-dimensional data model of the target anatomy based on the image slices and the signal resulting from scattering of the scanning signal received from the optical fiber, the three-dimensional data model comprising anatomical contours defining surface data of the target anatomy,
wherein the processor is configured to generate a global coordinate system using the imaging data and the kinematic registration data,
wherein the first and second mechanical arms are robotically-driven, and
wherein the processor is configured to automatically limit movement of the first and second mechanical arms to robotically enforce a virtual boundary comprising a specified distance between the tool and a surface of the target anatomy utilizing the generated global coordinate system, a position of the target anatomy therewithin, and the surface data for avoiding inadvertent injury to the target anatomy.

US Pat. No. 10,499,999

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR ALIGNING AN ELONGATE MEMBER WITH AN ACCESS SITE

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

19. A method of aligning an elongate member, controlled by an instrument driver, with an access site, the method comprising:coupling a stabilizer to the access site on a patient, wherein the stabilizer is engageable with the patient, wherein the stabilizer comprises a base with an opening formed therethrough for receiving the elongate member;
coupling the stabilizer to an alignment joint, the alignment joint comprising at least one position sensor;
determining a position of the alignment joint based on an output of the at least one position sensor;
determining a position of the stabilizer based on the output of the at least one position sensor; and
automatically aligning the instrument driver with the stabilizer on the patient based on the determined positions of the stabilizer and the alignment joint.

US Pat. No. 10,405,939

ENDOSCOPIC DEVICE WITH HELICAL LUMEN DESIGN

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. An elongated endoscopic instrument, comprising:a working channel;
a lumen including:
a proximal end and a proximal section having a length extending approximately parallel to a central axis of the working channel along the length of the proximal section of the lumen;
a distal end and a distal section having a length and being spiraled at a plurality of non-zero angles around the working channel and along at least the length of the distal section of the instrument; and
a pull wire slidingly coupled within the lumen and configured to manipulate the elongated endoscope instrument;
wherein the length of the proximal section extending approximately parallel to the central axis of the working channel is greater than a pitch of the spiraled distal section of the lumen.

US Pat. No. 10,556,092

ACTIVE DRIVES FOR ROBOTIC CATHETER MANIPULATORS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A medical system, comprising:a telescoping catheter assembly, which comprises:
an outer catheter comprising an outer elongate body and an outer catheter steering adapter coupled to a proximal end of the outer elongate body; and
an inner catheter comprising an inner elongate body and an inner catheter steering adapter coupled to a proximal end of the inner elongate body, wherein the inner elongate body is coaxially positioned within the outer elongate body;
an outer catheter interface to which the outer catheter steering adapter is removably mated;
an inner catheter interface to which the inner catheter steering adapter is removably mated, wherein the inner catheter interface is actuatable by a first motor to axially translate the inner catheter; and
a first active feeder affixed between the outer catheter interface and the inner catheter interface and configured to receive the inner elongate body, the first active feeder comprising a first pair of opposing grippers configured to actively translate the inner elongate body into the outer elongate body in coordination with axial translation of the inner catheter interface, to thereby prevent axial buckling of the inner elongate body as the inner catheter interface moves toward the outer catheter interface.

US Pat. No. 10,543,047

REMOTE CATHETER MANIPULATOR

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A robotic system comprising:a first instrument comprising a first elongate member and a first splayer coupled to a proximal end of the first elongate member, the first splayer being positioned along a first axis;
a manipulator defining a feed axis along which the first elongate member is insertable into and retractable from a patient, wherein the manipulator comprises a drive mechanism configured to hold and propel the first elongate member;
wherein the first splayer and the manipulator are positioned relative to each other at a distance less than an insertable length of the first elongate member such that the first elongate member follows a first non-linear path between the first splayer and the manipulator, such that the first elongate member bends along a longitudinal axis between the first splayer and the manipulator, and
wherein the first axis and the feed axis are non-coaxial.

US Pat. No. 10,543,048

FLEXIBLE INSTRUMENT INSERTION USING AN ADAPTIVE INSERTION FORCE THRESHOLD

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

17. A robotic system, comprising:a medical instrument comprising an elongate body;
a robotic arm coupled to the instrument; and
a controller configured to:
receive instrument data based at least in part on sensor data from a first sensor on the instrument after insertion of the instrument into a patient, the sensor data indicative of a current location of the elongate body,
access patient data associated with the patient, the patient data based at least in part on medical data associated with the patient before the insertion of the instrument into the patient,
determine an insertion force threshold based on the instrument data and the patient data,
receive an insertion force detected by a second sensor coupled to the robotic arm, the insertion force applied by the arm to the instrument,
determine that the insertion force exceeds the insertion force threshold,
determine that the elongate body has buckled based on the determination that the insertion force exceeds the insertion force threshold, and
responsive to the determination that elongate body has buckled, adjust a command provided to the robotic arm for controlling movement of the elongate body.

US Pat. No. 10,555,778

IMAGE-BASED BRANCH DETECTION AND MAPPING FOR NAVIGATION

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

9. A robotic system for navigating a luminal network of a patient, the robotic system comprising:an instrument having
an elongate body configured to be inserted into the luminal network, and
an imaging device positioned on a distal portion of the elongate body;
an instrument positioning device attached to the instrument, the instrument positioning device configured to move the instrument through the luminal network;
at least one non-transitory computer-readable memory having stored thereon executable instructions; and
one or more processors in communication with the at least one non-transitory computer-readable memory and configured to execute the instructions to cause the system to at least:
determine a position state estimate of the instrument positioned within a current branch of the luminal network;
determine a set of expected subsequent branches based at least in part on the initial state estimate and a preoperative model of the luminal network;
capture an image of the current branch of the luminal network with the imaging device positioned on the instrument;
detect within the image a plurality of openings connecting subsequent branches of the luminal network to the current branch;
determine an estimate of a roll of the instrument based on comparing an orientation of the detected openings within the image to an orientation of the set of expected subsequent branches;
determine a first feature of the detected plurality of openings;
determine a second feature of the set of expected subsequent branches;
calculate a roll correction value based on the estimate of the roll of the instrument;
correct the second feature based on the roll correction value;
compare the first feature to the corrected second feature to determine a mapping of each of the plurality of openings to one of the expected subsequent branches; and
based at least in part on the mapping, provide an updated position state estimate.

US Pat. No. 10,478,595

INFINITELY ROTATABLE TOOL WITH FINITE ROTATING DRIVE SHAFTS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A catheter rotation drive apparatus, comprising:a first pair of input drives coupled to one another via a first belt, the first pair of input drives comprising a first drive and a first engagement shaft, the first drive coupled to a first drive pulley;
a second pair of input drives coupled to one another via a second belt, the second pair of input drives comprising a second drive and a second engagement shaft, the second drive coupled to a second drive pulley;
wherein each of the first and second drives are engageable to an output shaft;
wherein when the first drive is engaged to the output shaft and rotated, the output shaft rotates in an output rotation direction,
wherein when the second drive is engaged to the output shaft and rotated, the output shaft rotates in the output rotation direction,
wherein when the first engagement shaft of the first pair of input drives is engaged, the second engagement shaft of the second pair of input drives is disengaged, such that when the first drive pulley is rotated in its drive direction, the output shaft is caused to rotate via the first belt in the output rotational direction.

US Pat. No. 10,219,874

INSTRUMENT DEVICE MANIPULATOR WITH TENSION SENSING APPARATUS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A medical device comprising:a drive unit; and
a strain gauge longitudinally-parallel with the drive unit,
wherein the strain gauge is coupled to the drive unit,
wherein the drive unit is configured to apply a force to a pull wire, and the strain gauge is oriented in a first direction transverse to a path of the pull wire, and
wherein the strain gauge is configured to measure displacement of at least a portion of the drive unit along a second direction corresponding to the path of the pull wire, the measured displacement of the drive unit being in response to the force applied to the pull wire.

US Pat. No. 10,524,867

ACTIVE DRIVE MECHANISM FOR SIMULTANEOUS ROTATION AND TRANSLATION

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A drive apparatus for translating and rotating an elongate member, the drive apparatus comprising:a housing defining a housing space therein;
a disposable barrel positioned outside the housing space;
a roller assembly disposed within the disposable barrel, the roller assembly comprising a pair of rollers rotatable in opposing directions, wherein the roller assembly is configured to receive the elongate member between the pair of rollers;
a driving roller traversing the housing, the driving roller having a first portion disposed within the housing space and a second portion extending outside the housing space, wherein the second portion of the driving roller is in contact with the disposable barrel;
a first driving shaft positioned within the housing space, operatively coupled to the roller assembly, and configured to rotate the pair of rollers, wherein rotation of the pair of rollers imparts axial motion to the elongate member along an elongate axis of the elongate member; and
a second driving shaft positioned within the housing space, operatively coupled to the driving roller, and configured to rotate the driving roller, wherein rotation of the driving roller imparts rotation on the disposable barrel and the elongate member about the elongate axis of the elongate member.

US Pat. No. 10,583,271

METHOD OF ANCHORING PULLWIRE DIRECTLY ARTICULATABLE REGION IN CATHETER

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A robotically controlled steerable catheter system, comprising:a catheter comprising a shaft portion, a proximal articulating section positioned distal to the shaft portion, and a distal articulating section positioned distal to the proximal articulating section, wherein the distal articulating section has a flexural stiffness that is less than the proximal articulating section, and wherein articulation of the proximal articulating section and the distal articulating section are independently controlled;
four pullwires extending through at least a proximal portion of the catheter, within the proximal portion the four pullwires extending along a first side of the catheter, wherein at least three of the four pullwires are coupled to the distal articulating section and a fourth pullwire is coupled to the proximal articulating section at a location within the proximal articulating section, the three pullwires extending along the first side of the proximal articulating section that circumferentially opposes the location within the proximal articulation section where the fourth pullwire is attached;
a robotic instrument driver;
a mechanical interface coupling the four pullwires and the proximal end of the catheter to the robotic instrument driver; and
a control station communicatively coupled to the instrument driver, wherein the control station comprises a master input device for interfacing with a user and a computing device programmed to provide control of a distal articulation angle and a distal roll of the catheter, and wherein the computing device provides control of the catheter by computing a displacement of each of the pullwires independently.

US Pat. No. 10,524,866

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR REGISTRATION OF LOCATION SENSORS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system, comprising:an instrument comprising a set of one or more location sensors, the set of one or more location sensors configured to generate location data indicative of a position of the set of one or more location sensors in a location sensor coordinate system;
a set of instrument manipulators configured to control movement of a distal end of the instrument;
a set of processors of a computer system; and
at least one computer-readable memory of the computer system in communication with the set of processors and having stored thereon: (i) a model of a luminal network of a patient, the model comprising a target within a model coordinate system and a path to the target and (ii) a registration route comprising a first branch of the luminal network outside the path to the target and a second branch of the luminal network that is a part of the path to the target, the memory further having stored thereon computer-executable instructions to cause the set of processors to:
provide a first set of commands to the set of instrument manipulators to drive the instrument along the first branch of the luminal network in accordance with the registration route,
track a set of one or more registration parameters during the driving of the instrument along the first branch,
determine that the set of one or more registration parameters satisfies a registration criterion,
provide a second set of commands to the set of instrument manipulators to return the instrument back to the path and to drive the instrument along the second branch in accordance with the registration route, and
determine a registration between the location sensor coordinate system and the model coordinate system based on the location data received from the set of one or more location sensors during the driving of the instrument along the first branch and the second branch.

US Pat. No. 10,569,052

ANTI-BUCKLING MECHANISMS FOR CATHETERS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A device for preventing buckling of a flexible elongate member during insertion of the flexible elongate member, the device comprising:a support frame comprising a first end, a second end, and multiple pairs of support members, wherein the support frame is configured to reversibly move from a collapsed configuration to an expanded configuration when the first and second ends are moved away from each other; and
multiple open channels coupled to the multiple pairs of support members of the support frame, wherein the multiple open channels each comprise a top opening at a top of each of the multiple open channels that is configured to allow the flexible elongate member to be top loaded into the top opening of each of the multiple open channels such that the flexible member is delivered into the multiple open channels in a direction that is transverse to a longitudinal axis that extends through the multiple open channels, and wherein the multiple open channels are maintained in an axial alignment as the support frame is moved between the expanded and collapsed configurations.

US Pat. No. 10,539,478

DETECTION OF MISALIGNMENT OF ROBOTIC ARMS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system for detecting misalignment of robotic arms, comprising:a first robotic arm comprising a first instrument device manipulator (IDM) connected to a distal end of the first robotic arm;
a second robotic arm comprising a second IDM connected to a distal end of the second robotic arm;
a first medical instrument comprising a working channel; and
a second medical instrument, the first robotic arm configured to drive the first medical instrument along a first axis, and the second robotic arm configured to drive the second medical instrument through the working channel of the first medical instrument;
a processor; and
a memory storing computer-executable instructions to cause the processor to:
determine a first force at the first IDM,
determine a second force at the second IDM,
determine that both of the first and second forces are greater than a threshold force, and
determine that the first and second robotic arms are misaligned in response to the processor determining that both of the first and second forces are greater than the threshold force.

US Pat. No. 10,531,864

SYSTEM AND METHODS FOR TRACKING ROBOTICALLY CONTROLLED MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A method of registering a tool of a robotic medical system to a desired frame, the method comprising:tracking a position of the tool of the robotic medical system using one or more sensors coupled to the tool;
tracking a position of a physical component of the robotic medical system using one or more sensors coupled to the physical component;
comparing a tool reference frame to a physical component reference frame to generate a registration of the tool to the physical component;
comparing the physical component reference frame to a visualization reference frame to generate a registration of the physical component to a visualization of the anatomy; and
determining a location of the tool in the visualization of the anatomy based on the registration of the physical component to the visualization of the anatomy and the registration of the tool to the physical component.

US Pat. No. 10,517,692

SURGICAL PLATFORM WITH ADJUSTABLE ARM SUPPORTS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system, comprising:a table configured to support a patient;
a column extending along a first axis between a first end and a second end, the first end coupled to the table;
a base coupled to the second end of the column;
a first arm support coupled to at least one of the table, the column or the base by at least a first joint configured to allow adjustment along the first axis relative to the table, the first arm support comprising a first bar having a proximal portion and a distal portion extending along a second axis different from the first axis; and
a first robotic arm movably mounted to the first bar, wherein the first robotic arm is configured to translate along the first bar.

US Pat. No. 10,716,461

EXCHANGEABLE WORKING CHANNEL

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A removable working channel of a surgical instrument, the surgical instrument extending from a proximal end to a distal end and having a working channel sheath configured to receive the removable working channel, the removable working channel comprising:a shaft, comprising:
a proximal region and a distal region, the distal region of the shaft being located proximal relative to the distal end of the surgical instrument when the removable working channel is received within the working channel sheath;
an inner surface defining a lumen extending through the shaft, wherein the inner surface is configured to allow passage of a medical tool through the shaft to extend outward beyond the distal end of the surgical instrument; and
an outer surface having a substantially circular cross-section and configured to interface with the working channel sheath of the surgical instrument, wherein a diameter of the outer surface of the shaft is substantially the same as a diameter of an inner surface of the working channel sheath; and
a first locking member comprising a luer fit or a threaded fit component, the first locking member at the proximal region of the shaft, the first locking member configured to releasably couple to the proximal end of the surgical instrument.

US Pat. No. 10,639,114

BIPOLAR MEDICAL INSTRUMENT

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A medical instrument, comprising:a first end effector;
a first set of one or more distal pulleys coupled to the first end effector and configured to form an opening between the first end effector and the first set of one or more distal pulleys;
a wrist configured to house the first set of distal pulleys;
a plurality of cables extending through the wrist; and
a first insulating member formed in the opening between the first end effector and the first set of one or more distal pulleys, the first insulating member mechanically coupling the first end effector to the first set of one or more distal pulleys.

US Pat. No. 10,631,949

INSTRUMENT DEVICE MANIPULATOR WITH BACK-MOUNTED TOOL ATTACHMENT MECHANISM

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A surgical tool holder assembly comprising:a surgical tool holder having a first side and a second side, the first side forming an attachment interface for attachment to a corresponding attachment interface of a surgical tool;
a first opening on the first side of the surgical tool holder;
a second opening on the second side of the surgical tool holder;
a passage extending along a passage axis between the first opening and the second opening such that an elongate body of a surgical tool can be inserted through the first opening, the passage, and the second opening; and
a plurality of torque couplers protruding outwards from the attachment interface along axes substantially parallel to the passage axis and positioned about the first opening.

US Pat. No. 10,639,109

MICROSURGICAL TOOL FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A microsurgical tool, comprising:an elongated body having a distal end;
a platform moveably coupled to the distal end of the elongated body; and
a linkage coupling the distal end of the elongated body to the platform to allow the platform to move relative thereto, wherein the linkage comprises:
a first arm directly operatively coupled to the distal end of the elongated body at a first proximal hinge and to the platform at a first distal hinge, the first arm having a first redirect surface,
a first force transfer element disposed around the first redirect surface before terminating at the first arm such that pulling the first force transfer element pivots the first arm about the first proximal hinge with a first amplified range of motion,
a second arm directly operatively coupled to the distal end of the elongated body at a second proximal hinge and to the platform at a second distal hinge, the second arm having a second redirect surface, and
a second force transfer element disposed around the second redirect surface before terminating at the second arm such that pulling the second force transfer element pivots the second arm about the second proximal hinge with a second amplified range of motion.

US Pat. No. 10,695,536

CATHETER DRIVER SYSTEM

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A medical instrument system comprising:an instrument comprising an elongate body having a proximal end and a distal end, a first control wire and a second control wire, the first and second control wires coupled to a distal end of the elongate body and extending through the elongate body, the first and second control wires configured to control movement of the distal end of the elongate body in at least two degrees of freedom;
a handle part comprising a first control device coupled to the first control wire and a second control device coupled to the second control wire, the first and second control devices comprising first and second non-coaxial, rotatable bodies;
a manipulator configured to generate an input signal corresponding to a desired movement of the distal end of the instrument in response to a user actuation of the manipulator;
a controller coupled to the manipulator, the controller configured to generate a control signal in response to the input signal received from the manipulator; and
a driver comprising a housing configured to receive the handle part releasably coupled to the driver, the driver including a first driver mechanism that engages the first rotatable body, a second driver mechanism that engages the second rotatable body, the housing configured to align the first driver mechanism with the first rotatable body and to align the second driver mechanism with the second rotatable body, and a motor array that is coupled to the first and second driver mechanisms, the motor array coupled to the controller such that the control signal from the controller can direct operation of the motor array and corresponding operations of the first and second driver mechanisms to actuate the first and second control wires and control movement of the distal end of the instrument in the at least two degrees of freedom, wherein the driver includes a first actuator to provide linear motion of the instrument and a second actuator to provide rotational motion of the instrument.

US Pat. No. 10,688,283

INTEGRATED CATHETER AND GUIDE WIRE CONTROLLER

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

30. A robotic system for manipulating an elongate body, the system comprising:an instrument driver operatively coupled to the elongate body; and
an operator workstation communicatively coupled to the instrument driver, wherein the operator workstation comprises a control device comprising:
a rotary member configured to receive a user input from an operator for controlling the elongate body,
wherein the rotary member is movable in two dimensions,
wherein motion in a first dimension of the two dimensions causes the instrument driver to direct movement of the elongate body in a first degree of freedom and motion in a second dimension of the two dimensions causes the instrument driver to direct movement of the elongate body in a second degree of freedom,
wherein motion along the second dimension causes the instrument driver to at least one of advance or retract the elongate body along a longitudinal axis,
wherein the control device comprises a relative position control mode and a velocity control mode for controlling movement of the elongate body in the second degree of freedom,
wherein movement in the second degree of freedom comprises at least one of axial insertion and retraction of the elongate body, and
wherein motion of the rotary member in the second dimension beyond a preset degree of rotation causes the control device to transition from the relative position control mode to the velocity control mode.

US Pat. No. 10,667,720

APPARATUS AND METHODS FOR FIBER INTEGRATION AND REGISTRATION

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system comprising:an elongate instrument comprising: an elongate body having a proximal end, a distal end, and a lumen extending from the proximal end to the distal end, a splayer coupled to the proximal end of the elongate body, and one or more control wires extending through the elongate body and coupled to the distal end of the elongate body with a control ring, wherein the one or more control wires are configured to control movement of the distal end of the elongate body;
a shape-sensing fiber, wherein at least a first portion of the fiber, including a first end, is positioned within the lumen of the elongate body, wherein at least a second end of the fiber is fixed to an anchor slide, wherein the anchor slide fixes the second end of the fiber to a reference structure in one or more degrees of freedom at a fixed point separate from and proximal to the elongate instrument, wherein the reference structure facilitates the calibration of the fiber to a known structure of the reference structure, and wherein every location on the fiber is measurable relative to the fixed point to determine a relative position and shape of the fiber, a distal end of the shape-sensing fiber coupled to a termination having light absorptive properties, wherein the fiber and the termination are coupled to each other within the control ring;
at least one computer-readable memory having stored thereon executable instructions; and
one or more processors in communication with the at least one computer-readable memory and configured to execute the instructions to cause the system to at least:
register the fiber during use of the elongate instrument by comparing the shape of the fiber to a model,
wherein the fiber is fixed in six degrees of freedom at the fixed point, with the position of the fiber relative to the elongate body known in all six degrees of freedom at the fixed point, such that an absolute measurement of position, orientation, and shape of the elongate body is quantifiable from the relative position and shape of the fiber.

US Pat. No. 10,667,875

SYSTEMS AND TECHNIQUES FOR PROVIDING MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES DURING MEDICAL PROCEDURES

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A surgical method, comprising:positioning a plurality of cannulas in a plurality of anatomical quadrants of a patient, wherein a first of the plurality of cannulas is positioned in a first anatomical quadrant and a second of the plurality of cannulas is positioned in a second anatomical quadrant, wherein each of the plurality of cannulas is capable of receiving therein at least one of a surgical tool or an articulatable camera;
inserting a first surgical tool coupled to a first of a plurality of robotic arms into the first of the plurality of cannulas in the first anatomical quadrant;
inserting a second surgical tool coupled to a second of the plurality of robotic arms into the second of the plurality of cannulas in the second anatomical quadrant;
inserting an articulatable camera coupled to a third of the plurality of robotic arms into a third of the plurality of cannulas, wherein the articulatable camera is capable of showing a first view including the first surgical tool in the first anatomical quadrant and articulating to show a second view including the second surgical tool in the second anatomical quadrant;
performing a first surgical procedure in the first anatomical quadrant using at least one of the first and second surgical tools; and
performing a second surgical procedure in the second anatomical quadrant using at least one of the first and second surgical tools without undocking the first and second robotic arms from the first and second cannulas.

US Pat. No. 10,806,535

ROBOT-ASSISTED DRIVING SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A robotic medical system comprising:A robotically controlled medical instrument;
an instrument driver coupled to the medical instrument;
a console including a user input device, wherein the console is configured to drive the medical instrument through an anatomical space based on user commanded data received;
a display for displaying a virtual representation of the medical instrument and a path depicting a recommended non-linear shape and orientation for navigation of the medical instrument from a current position towards a target location for the medical instrument on an image of the anatomical space; and
a controller configured to:
detect a localization sensor of the medical instrument and a location, an orientation, and a shape of the medical instrument based on the commanded data,
register the medical instrument to the anatomical space,
signal the display screen to display the virtual representation of the medical instrument on the image of the anatomical space based on the location, the orientation, and the shape of the medical instrument and the commanded data received as the medical instrument is driven through the anatomical space,
receive an identification of a target location for the medical instrument, and
signal the display screen to display, with the virtual representation of the medical instrument on the image of the anatomical space, the path in the form of a line depicting the recommended non-linear shape and orientation directed from the current position towards the target location for the medical instrument.

US Pat. No. 10,765,303

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR DRIVING MEDICAL INSTRUMENT

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A robotic surgical system, comprising:a medical instrument comprising an outer body and an inner body configured to be driven through a lumen in the outer body;
a set of one or more instrument manipulators configured to control movement of the outer and inner bodies;
a set of one or more user input devices;
a set of one or more processors; and
at least one computer-readable memory in communication with the set of processors and having stored thereon computer-executable instructions to cause the set of processors to:
receive, via the set of user input devices, a command to drive the medical instrument while a drive mode of the medical instrument is in a paired drive mode,
control movement of the outer and inner bodies using the set of one or more instrument manipulators to drive the medical instrument and maintain a distal end of the inner body to extend from a distal end of the outer body at a predetermined distance while the medical instrument is in the paired drive mode,
control co-articulation of the outer and inner bodies, wherein an amount of the co-articulation is based on the predetermined distance,
receive, via the set of user input devices, a change drive mode command, and
in response to receiving the change drive mode command, change the drive mode of the medical instrument from the paired drive mode to an unpaired drive mode.

US Pat. No. 10,675,101

USER INTERFACE FOR ACTIVE DRIVE APPARATUS WITH FINITE RANGE OF MOTION

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system, comprising:a drive mechanism comprising a gripper device configured to drive a medical instrument;
a controller configured to:
determine a user interface status;
determine a drive mechanism location of the gripper device relative to a first limit and a second limit;
select a clutching location of the gripper device based on the user interface status and the drive mechanism location; and
transmit an alert to a user interface device based on the user interface status and the selected clutch location,
wherein the user interface device is configured to provide an indication of the alert to a user, and wherein the alert comprises instructions that cause the user interface device to provide haptic feedback that is resistive.

US Pat. No. 10,687,903

ACTIVE DRIVE FOR ROBOTIC CATHETER MANIPULATORS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A medical system, comprising:a telescoping catheter assembly, comprising an outer sheath and an inner catheter, the outer sheath including an elongate sheath body and a sheath adapter affixed to a proximal end of the sheath body, and the inner catheter including an elongate catheter body and a catheter adapter affixed to a proximal end of the catheter body; and
an instrument driver comprising:
a sheath interface configured for mating with the sheath adapter;
a slidable carriage configured for mating with the catheter adapter;
a feeder mechanism affixed between the sheath interface and the slidable carriage and engageable with the catheter body, the feeder mechanism comprising:
a pair of rotatable gripping pads, and
a pair of arms configured to pivot the pair of rotatable gripping pads towards each other to engage with the catheter body and away from each other to disengage from the catheter body; and
at least one motor configured for translating the slidable carriage toward the sheath interface to translate the catheter adapter toward the sheath adapter via a first actuator while operating the feeder mechanism to actively advance the catheter body within the sheath body via a second actuator, the second actuator being different from the first actuator,
wherein each of the pair of arms comprises a section gear and the pair of arms are coupled to each other via the section gears such that pivoting one of the pair of arms pivots the other of the pair of arms in an opposite direction.

US Pat. No. 10,743,751

SUPERELASTIC MEDICAL INSTRUMENT

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

20. The method of claim 18, further comprising determining, after the first drive and before the second drive, that the overlap region is still positioned at least partly within the working channel of the endoscope.

US Pat. No. 11,109,920

MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS WITH VARIABLE BENDING STIFFNESS PROFILES

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...


1. A medical system comprising:an elongated member having a length extending between a distal end and a proximal end, the elongated member further comprising n bending stiffness zones arranged along the length of the elongated member, wherein n is greater than or equal to two, wherein each of the n bending stiffness zones comprises a different bending stiffness, and wherein the bending stiffness of each of the n bending stiffness zones is substantially uniform along a length of the bending stiffness zone;
a sheath having a sheath length extending between a sheath distal end and a sheath proximal end, the sheath comprising an inner channel, the sheath further comprising m bending stiffness zones arranged along the length of the sheath, wherein m is greater than or equal to two, wherein each of the m bending stiffness zones comprises a different bending stiffness, and wherein the bending stiffness of each of the m bending stiffness zones is substantially uniform along a length of the bending stiffness zone;
a first drive mechanism configured to control movement of the elongated member independent of a movement of the elongated member; and
a second drive mechanism configured to control the movement of the sheath independent of the movement of the elongated member;
wherein the elongated member is configured to move within the inner channel of the sheath such that the elongated member and the sheath form a compound structure, wherein the compound structure comprises:a first bending stiffness profile when the distal end of the elongated member is aligned with the sheath distal end, and
a second bending stiffness profile different than the first bending stiffness profile when the distal end of the elongated member extends beyond the sheath distal end,
wherein each of the first and second bending stiffness profiles comprise a plurality of bending stiffness zones; and

wherein the medical system further comprises a processor configured to operate the first drive mechanism and the second drive mechanism to:adjust a position of the elongated member within the inner channel of the sheath relative to the sheath to select between the first bending stiffness profile and the second bending stiffness profile based on an intended movement of the compound structure; and
move the compound structure.


US Pat. No. 10,765,487

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR DOCKING MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

29. A robotic medical system, comprising:an instrument drive mechanism comprising
a drive output configured to rotate and engage a corresponding drive input on a handle of a robotic medical instrument, wherein the robotic medical instrument comprises a pre-tensioned pull wire actuated by the drive input, and
a motor associated with the drive output and configured to rotate the drive output, and
a sensor configured to detect when the handle of the robotic medical instrument is within a threshold loading distance from the instrument drive mechanism; and
at least one computer-readable memory in communication with at least one processor, the memory having stored thereon computer-executable instructions that cause the at least one processor to:
determine that the robotic medical instrument is within the threshold loading distance of the instrument drive mechanism based on an output of the sensor, and
activate the motor associated with the drive output to cause the drive output to oscillate to facilitate alignment of the drive output and the corresponding drive input.

US Pat. No. 10,682,189

LENGTH CONSERVATIVE SURGICAL INSTRUMENT

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A surgical instrument comprising:a surgical effector with at least N degrees of freedom, the surgical effector for manipulation of objects at a surgical site;
at least N+1 independently operable input controllers configured to control the surgical effector;
a reciprocal structure comprising at least one armature rotatable about a rotation shaft and a pair of differentials coupled to the at least one armature, the differentials configured to rotate with the at least one armature about the rotation shaft; and
a plurality of cables configured such that actuation of the input controllers manipulates the cables, the cables further configured such that:
at least one cable couples at least one input controller to the surgical effector such that manipulation of the at least one cable with the at least one input controller moves the surgical effector, and
at least one cable couples the reciprocal structure to at least one of the input controllers such that manipulation of the at least one cable with the at least one input controller moves the reciprocal structure.

US Pat. No. 10,792,112

ACTIVE DRIVE MECHANISM WITH FINITE RANGE OF MOTION

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A drive apparatus, comprising:a static gripping device fixed rotationally and axially with respect to a support surface, the static gripping device comprising a first clamp configured to selectively grip and regrip an elongate member; and
a dynamic gripping device mounted to the support surface and comprising a second clamp configured to selectively grip and regrip the elongate member and move axially and rotationally with respect to the support surface to effect axial movement and rotational movement, respectively, of the elongate member with respect to the support surface, wherein the dynamic gripping device is confined to a range of motion comprising a limited axial distance and a limited rotational angle;
wherein the static gripping device is configured to cooperate with the dynamic gripping device such that the selective gripping of the static gripping device, the selective gripping of the dynamic gripping device, and the axial and rotational movement of the dynamic gripping device are coordinated to move the elongate member an axial distance greater than the limited axial distance and rotate the elongate member an angle greater than the limited rotational angle,
wherein the dynamic gripping device is configured to effect movement of the elongate member with respect to the static gripping device while the first clamp is open and the second clamp is closed.

US Pat. No. 10,744,035

METHODS FOR ROBOTIC ASSISTED CATARACT SURGERY

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A method comprising:inserting a first tool into a chamber of a patient, the first tool comprising a plurality of lumens, wherein at least one of the plurality of lumens houses a laser fiber, wherein the first tool is attached to a first robotic arm;
inserting a second tool into the chamber of the patient, the second tool comprising a flush and aspiration device, wherein the second tool is attached to a second robotic arm;
articulating, via bending, a tip of the laser fiber separately from a tip of the first tool and applying laser energy from the laser fiber to break up an undesired clump of material into smaller pieces within the chamber of the patient;
articulating, via bending, the second tool and aspirating and removing the smaller pieces from the chamber; and
gradually varying a pulse repetition rate of the laser energy between a first value and a second value based on a distance that the tip of the first tool has traveled along a tool path, wherein the gradual varying of the pulse repetition rate is based on a hardness of the undesired clump of material at the distance along the tool path.

US Pat. No. 10,820,954

ALIGNMENT AND ATTACHMENT SYSTEMS FOR MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A medical system, comprising:a medical instrument comprising an instrument handle and an elongated body, wherein the instrument handle is configured to attach to an adapter on an instrument drive mechanism such that a plurality of drive inputs on the instrument handle engage with a corresponding plurality of instrument drive outputs of the adapter; and
an alignment mechanism comprising an alignment surface on the elongated body configured to rotate the instrument handle during attachment of the instrument handle to the adapter to provide rotational alignment between the medical instrument and the adapter such that the plurality of drive inputs are aligned with the plurality of drive outputs.

US Pat. No. 10,667,871

CONFIGURABLE ROBOTIC SURGICAL SYSTEM WITH VIRTUAL RAIL AND FLEXIBLE ENDOSCOPE

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A method operable by a robotic system comprising one or more processors, a first robotic arm coupled to a first tool base, and a second robotic arm coupled to a second tool base, the first tool base and the second tool base being at a predetermined distance relative to each other, the method comprising:receiving a user input indicative of a desired mode of movement of the first robotic arm;
when the user input indicates admittance mode as the desired mode of movement, receiving a force feedback signal based on a force exerted by a user on the first robotic arm, the force feedback signal indicative of an intended movement of the first robotic arm by the user;
determining, by the one or more processors, a first movement vector for the first tool base based on the force feedback signal;
providing, from the one or more processors to the first robotic arm, a first command to move the first tool base along the first movement vector; and
providing, from the one or more processors to the second robotic arm, a second command to move the second tool base simultaneously with the first tool base along a second movement vector to maintain the predetermined distance between the first tool base and the second tool base;
wherein providing the first command comprises providing a command to pivot the first tool base about a point on a line that extends between the first and second tool bases and providing the second command comprises providing a command to pivot the second tool base about the point on the line formed between the first and second tool bases;
wherein the point on the line is beyond the first and second tool bases.

US Pat. No. 11,058,493

ROBOTIC SYSTEM CONFIGURED FOR NAVIGATION PATH TRACING

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...


25. A method of determining a navigation path of an instrument within a luminal network, the method comprising:displaying, on a user interface, a preoperative model corresponding to a mapped portion of a luminal network;
determining a position of a distal end of an instrument within the luminal network relative to the mapped portion of the luminal network;
moving the instrument within the luminal network;
determining that the position of the distal end of the instrument is within a predetermined distance of a boundary corresponding to a transition from an end of the mapped portion of the preoperative model to a portion of the luminal network that is unmapped in the preoperative model prior to the distal end of the instrument reaching the boundary;
entering a path tracing mode in response to determining that the position of the distal end of the instrument is within the predetermined distance of the boundary prior to the distal end of the instrument reaching the boundary; and
when in the path tracing mode, displaying visual indicia of a path traversed by the distal end of the instrument in the portion of the luminal network that is unmapped in the preoperative model relative to the preoperative model of the mapped portion of the luminal network as the instrument is navigated through the luminal network.

US Pat. No. 10,792,464

TOOL AND METHOD FOR USING SURGICAL ENDOSCOPE WITH SPIRAL LUMENS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. An elongated medical device comprising:a hypotube backbone running through the device;
a spiral lumen spiraled around the backbone along the length of the backbone, the spiraled lumen having a variable pitch section in which a pitch of the spiral lumen spiral spiraled around the backbone varies; and
a pull wire extending through the spiral lumen, the pull wire configured to induce articulation of the elongated medical device.

US Pat. No. 10,786,329

INSTRUMENT DEVICE MANIPULATOR WITH ROLL MECHANISM

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A surgical instrument device manipulator comprising:a surgical arm operable by a surgical robotics system;
a base fixedly connected to the surgical arm;
a surgical tool holder assembly comprising:
a housing attached to the base;
a surgical tool holder that is rotatably mounted to the housing, the surgical tool holder configured to removably attach to a surgical tool such that the surgical tool is fixed to the surgical tool holder when the surgical tool is attached; and
at least one drive mechanism configured to rotate the surgical tool holder and the surgical tool relative to the housing about a rotational axis that is coaxially aligned with an elongated body of the surgical tool when the surgical tool holder is removably attached to the surgical tool.

US Pat. No. 10,702,348

SURGICAL SYSTEM WITH CONFIGURABLE RAIL-MOUNTED MECHANICAL ARMS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A medical system comprising:a base;
a stand coupled to the base;
a bed supported by the stand, the bed having a first edge and a second edge, the first edge being longer than the second edge;
a first rail portion extending along of the first edge of the bed;
at least one arm attached to the first rail portion; and
control electronics configured to (i) stow the at least one arm by moving the at least one arm towards the second edge and beneath the bed supported by the stand, wherein the at least one arm is stowed within a perimeter defined by the bed when viewed from above, and (ii) raise the at least one arm over the first edge to perform a medical procedure.

US Pat. No. 11,026,748

ROBOTIC SYSTEM CONFIGURED FOR NAVIGATION PATH TRACING

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

25. A method of determining a navigation path of an instrument within a luminal network, the method comprising:displaying, on a user interface, a preoperative model corresponding to a mapped portion of a luminal network;
determining a position of a distal end of an instrument within the luminal network relative to the mapped portion of the luminal network;
moving the instrument within the luminal network;
determining that the position of the distal end of the instrument is within a predetermined distance of a boundary corresponding to a transition from an end of the mapped portion of the preoperative model to a portion of the luminal network that is unmapped in the preoperative model prior to the distal end of the instrument reaching the boundary;
entering a path tracing mode in response to determining that the position of the distal end of the instrument is within the predetermined distance of the boundary prior to the distal end of the instrument reaching the boundary; and
when in the path tracing mode, displaying visual indicia of a path traversed by the distal end of the instrument in the portion of the luminal network that is unmapped in the preoperative model relative to the preoperative model of the mapped portion of the luminal network as the instrument is navigated through the luminal network.

US Pat. No. 10,987,179

SYSTEMS AND METHODS TO CORRECT FOR UNCOMMANDED INSTRUMENT ROLL

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A method for adjusting a controller-feedback system in a robotically controlled medical instrument inserted into a patient, the method comprising:moving a robotically controlled medical instrument inserted into a patient based on a user command;
detecting an uncommanded roll of the medical instrument about a longitudinal axis of the medical instrument caused by the movement by:
receiving data from at least one imaging device or location sensor at a distal end of the medical instrument;
determining a tip frame of reference based on the data from the at least one imaging device or location sensor, the tip frame of reference representing a current orientation of the distal end of the medical instrument;
obtaining a desired frame of reference representing a frame of reference relative to an anatomy frame of reference or a global frame of reference; and
detecting a difference between the tip frame of reference and the desired frame of reference based on comparing one or more features derived from at least one image of an anatomical feature and one or more features derived from at least one model of the anatomical feature, wherein the at least one image of an anatomical feature is obtained from the imaging device at the distal end of the medical instrument, and wherein the difference is based on the uncommanded roll of the medical instrument;
determining an adjustment to at least one of (1) a visual frame of reference representative of an orientation of a displayed output of the imaging device of the medical instrument and (2) a control frame of reference representative of an orientation of the user command and an orientation of the movement of the medical instrument, wherein the adjustment is based on the difference between the tip frame of reference and the desired frame of reference; and
transforming the visual frame of reference or the control frame of reference based on the determined adjustment such that the visual frame of reference or the control frame of reference is aligned with the desired frame of reference.

US Pat. No. 10,959,792

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR COLLISION DETECTION AND AVOIDANCE

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A robotic medical system, comprising:a first set of links;
a second set of links;
a console configured to receive input commanding motion of the first set of links and the second set of links;
a processor; and
at least one computer-readable memory in communication with the processor and having stored thereon a model of the first set of links and the second set of links and computer-executable instructions to cause the processor to:
access the model of the first set of links and the second set of links,
control movement of the first set of links and the second set of links based on the input received by the console,
determine a distance between the first set of links and the second set of links based on the model, and
prevent a collision between the first set of links and the second set of links based on the determined distance.

US Pat. No. 10,912,924

SYSTEMS AND DEVICES FOR CATHETER DRIVING INSTINCTIVENESS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A robotic catheter system, comprising:a flexible catheter having a proximal end, a distal end, and an articulating portion at the distal end;
a roll sensor coupled with the flexible catheter at or near the distal end to detect rotation of the distal end of the flexible catheter around a longitudinal axis of the flexible catheter, the roll sensor configured for insertion into a patient when at least the distal end of the flexible catheter is inserted into the patient;
a visual display for displaying an image of at least part of the flexible catheter;
a processor for generating a virtual indicator displayed on the image of the at least part of the flexible catheter, wherein the virtual indicator indicates at least one of a direction of articulation or an amount of articulation of the articulating portion of the flexible catheter; and
a controller coupled with the proximal end of the flexible catheter to receive a first user input and a second user input, the controller configured to:
determine an articulating moment for roll compensation based on an adjusted articulating moment direction, the adjusted articulating moment direction determined based on the detected rotation;
cause, via the processor, the virtual indicator to show, based on the articulating moment and the first user input, the adjusted articulating moment direction before the flexible catheter articulates; and
articulate the articulating portion of the flexible catheterbased on the second user input and the articulating moment,
wherein the controller comprises a first control configured to receive the first user input and rotate the virtual indicator about a longitudinal axis of the flexible catheter in response to the first user input, without rotating the flexible catheter.

US Pat. No. 10,905,499

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR LOCATION SENSOR-BASED BRANCH PREDICTION

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system, comprising:a processor; and
at least one computer-readable memory in communication with the processor and having stored thereon a model of a luminal network of a patient, the model associated with a model coordinate system, the memory further having stored thereon computer-executable instructions to cause the processor to:
determine a first orientation of an instrument based on first electromagnetic (EM) location data generated by a set of one or more EM sensors for the instrument, the first EM location data being indicative of the location of the instrument in an EM location sensor coordinate system at a first time;
determine a second orientation of the instrument at a second time based on second EM location data generated by the set of EM location sensors, a distal end of the instrument being located within a portion of the luminal network corresponding to a first segment of the model at the first time and the second time, the first segment branching into two or more child segments, the first EM location data and the second EM location data being unregistered to the model coordinate system;
determine data indicative of a difference between the first orientation and the second orientation; and
determine, based on the data indicative of the difference, a prediction that the instrument will advance, starting from the location of the instrument within the first segment at the second time, into a first one of the child segments, wherein the first EM location data and the second EM location data remain unregistered to the model coordinate system until after the prediction has been determined.

US Pat. No. 10,881,280

MANUALLY AND ROBOTICALLY CONTROLLABLE MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A medical instrument, comprising:an elongated shaft extending between a distal end and a proximal end;
a first pull wire extending on or within the elongated shaft, the first pull wire actuable to control articulation of the elongated shaft; and
an instrument handle connected to the proximal end of the elongated shaft, the instrument handle configured to attach to an instrument drive mechanism, the instrument handle comprising:
a first pulley assembly positioned within the instrument handle, wherein the first pull wire is positioned on the first pulley assembly such that rotation of the first pulley assembly rotates the first pulley assembly about an axis of a first pulley shaft and actuates the first pull wire to cause articulation of the elongated shaft;
a first manual drive input that rotates about the axis of the first pulley shaft and is directly connected to the first pulley assembly such that manual rotation of the manual drive input about the axis of the first pulley shaft causes rotation of the first pulley assembly to cause articulation of the elongated shaft; and
a first robotic drive input, the first robotic drive input configured to engage with a first robotic drive output of the instrument drive mechanism such that rotation of the first robotic drive output causes rotation of the first pulley assembly to cause articulation of the elongated shaft without acting through the first manual drive input.

US Pat. No. 10,792,466

SHAFT ACTUATING HANDLE

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A handle configured to drive movement of a bronchoscopy instrument, the handle extending along a longitudinal axis between a proximal end and a distal end of the handle and comprising:a casing having an inner surface defining an internal volume including a biasing element housing portion;
a proximal handle member positioned at least partly within a proximal portion of the internal volume of the casing and including a first helical cam interface, the proximal handle member configured to couple to a proximal end of an elongate jacket extending beyond the distal end of the handle, the elongate jacket configured to be inserted into a luminous passage of a patient and housing a biopsy needle;
an actuation sleeve positioned at least partly within a distal portion of the internal volume of the casing and including:
a proximal portion having a second helical cam interface engaging the first helical cam interface,
a rotation grip extending distally from the proximal portion of the actuation sleeve, wherein rotation of the rotation grip in a first direction is configured to cause extension of the biopsy needle from a distal end of the elongate jacket and rotation of the rotation grip in a second direction is configured to cause retraction of the biopsy needle back into the distal end of the elongate jacket, and
a plunger grip formed by a distal surface of the actuation sleeve; and
a biasing element having a first end secured within the biasing element housing portion of the casing and a second end engaging the proximal portion of the actuation sleeve.

US Pat. No. 10,796,432

NAVIGATION OF TUBULAR NETWORKS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A surgical robotic system comprising:an endoscopic tool having a flexible tip;
an optical sensor coupled to the flexible tip;
a processor coupled to the optical sensor, the processor configured with instructions to:
receive a plurality of images from the optical sensor;
identify, within an image of the plurality of images, a division of a tubular network, the division comprising a plurality of openings to a plurality of respective segments of the tubular network;
track the detected plurality of openings over a set of sequential image frames of the plurality of images to determine probabilities for entering each of the plurality of openings;
determine a first estimated state of the flexible tip within the tubular network based on the identified division of the tubular network and the probabilities, wherein the first estimated state comprises at least one of a first estimated position and a first estimated orientation of the flexible tip within the tubular network; and
show, on a display, an estimated position of the flexible tip within a segment of the plurality of segments of the tubular network, wherein the estimated position is determined based on the first estimated state.

US Pat. No. 10,751,140

ROBOTIC MEDICAL SYSTEMS WITH HIGH FORCE INSTRUMENTS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A robotic system comprising:an instrument having an end effector, the instrument comprising:
a first pulley configured to rotate about a pulley axis;
a first jaw member connected to the first pulley by a first drive pin;
a second pulley configured to rotate about the pulley axis;
a second jaw member connected to the second pulley by a second drive pin; and
a link providing a first pivot point about which the first jaw member can pivot and a second pivot point about which the second jaw member can pivot,
wherein, during rotation of the first pulley and the second pulley, the first drive pin can rotate past the second drive pin.

US Pat. No. 11,109,928

MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS INCLUDING WRISTS WITH HYBRID REDIRECT SURFACES

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...


1. A medical instrument, comprising:a shaft extending between a proximal end and a distal end;
a wrist positioned at the distal end of the shaft, the wrist comprising:a proximal clevis connected to the distal end of the shaft,
a distal clevis pivotally connected to the proximal clevis, the distal clevis configured to rotate about a pitch axis,
a plurality of proximal pulleys configured to rotate about the pitch axis, and
a plurality of distal pulleys configured to rotate about a yaw axis; and

an end effector connected to the plurality of distal pulleys;
a plurality of pull wires engaged with the plurality of proximal pulleys and the plurality of distal pulleys and configured to articulate the wrist and actuate the end effector, wherein the plurality of pull wires comprise at least:a first pull wire segment having a first cable path length extending from a first proximal pulley of the plurality of proximal pulleys to a first distal pulley of the plurality of distal pulleys, and
a second pull wire segment having a second cable path length extending from a second proximal pulley of the plurality of proximal pulleys to the first distal pulley,
wherein the first cable path length is less than the second cable path length.


US Pat. No. 11,051,681

METHODS AND DEVICES FOR CONTROLLING A SHAPEABLE MEDICAL DEVICE

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...


1. A method of altering a data model of an anatomical region, the method comprising:advancing a shapeable instrument relative to the anatomical region, the shapeable instrument comprising a tip portion and one or more intermediate portions, the shapeable instrument comprising one or more positioning elements that alter a shape of the one or more intermediate portions of the shapeable instrument;
obtaining a plurality of localization data to determine a real shape along a length of the one or more intermediate portions of the shapeable instrument;
correlating the real shape along the length of the one or more intermediate portions of the shapeable instrument against a desired shape along the length of the one or more intermediate portions to determine a data model of an anatomic feature affecting the real shape along the length of at least the one or more intermediate portions of the shapeable instrument; and
updating the data model with the data model of the anatomic feature.

US Pat. No. 11,051,887

METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR INSTRUMENT TRACKING AND NAVIGATION WITHIN LUMINAL NETWORKS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...


1. A robotic system, comprising:an instrument having an elongate body and at least one electromagnetic (EM) position sensor disposed on the elongate body;
a robotic arm attached to the instrument and configured to move the instrument;
at least one computer-readable memory having stored thereon executable instructions and a preoperative model of a first portion of a luminal network of a patient's anatomy; and
one or more processors in communication with the at least one computer-readable memory and configured to execute the instructions to cause the system to at least:register EM sensor data from the at least one EM position sensor to a coordinate system of the patient's anatomy;
command the robotic arm to move the instrument into the first portion of the luminal network represented by the preoperative model;
determine, while the instrument is positioned within the first portion, a first estimated position of the instrument based on first registered EM sensor data from the at least one EM position sensor and not based on the preoperative model;
determine, while the instrument is positioned within the first portion, a second estimated position of the instrument based on the first registered EM sensor data and the preoperative model of the first portion of the luminal network;
output, while the instrument is positioned in the first portion, the second estimated position of the instrument;
with the instrument positioned at a transition point, determine a location transform based on a difference between the first estimated position and the second estimated position; command the robotic arm to move the instrument into a second portion of the luminal network, the second portion of the luminal network being outside the first portion of the luminal network and being unrepresented by the preoperative model; and
output, while the instrument is positioned in the second portion, a third estimated position of the instrument based on second registered EM sensor data from the at least one EM position sensor adjusted by the location transform;
command the robotic arm to move the instrument to a second position within the second portion of the luminal network; and
output, while the instrument is positioned at the second position of the second portion, a fourth estimated position of the instrument based on third registered EM sensor data from the at least one EM position sensor adjusted by the location transform.


US Pat. No. 11,037,464

SYSTEM WITH EMULATOR MOVEMENT TRACKING FOR CONTROLLING MEDICAL DEVICES

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system, comprising:an emulator configured to be held and operated in a free working space (FWS), the emulator representing a medical device at a target site;
at least one detector configured to track the emulator within the FWS;
at least one computer-readable memory having stored thereon executable instructions; and
at least one processor in communication with the at least one computer-readable memory and configured to execute the instructions to cause the system to:
determine an alignment offset between a location of the emulator and a location of the medical device;
during a medical procedure, determine a first movement amount based on a signal from the at least one detector indicative of a first movement of the emulator within the FWS;
adjust the first movement amount by a first adjustment value to iteratively lessen the alignment offset between the location of the emulator and the location of the medical device; and
generate instructions to move the medical device based on the adjusted first movement amount, wherein the movement of the medical device by the adjusted first movement amount reduces the alignment offset between the location of the emulator and the location of the medical device.

US Pat. No. 11,026,758

MEDICAL ROBOTICS SYSTEMS IMPLEMENTING AXIS CONSTRAINTS DURING ACTUATION OF ONE OR MORE MOTORIZED JOINTS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A robotic system comprising:a first robotic arm and a second robotic arm configured to control movement of a medical instrument with respect to at least first, second, and third axes, the first robotic arm comprising a first instrument driver and the second robotic arm comprising a second instrument driver, the first robotic arm comprising a plurality of linkages serially coupling a plurality of motorized joints, the plurality of motorized joints including:
a first motorized joint configured to actuate the movement of the medical instrument about the first axis,
a second motorized joint configured to linearly translate the medical instrument along the second axis, and
a plurality of additional motorized joints positioned serially between the first and second motorized joints, the plurality of additional motorized joints configured to actuate the movement of the medical instrument about the third axis;
at least one computer-readable memory having stored thereon executable instructions for operating the robotic system; and
at least one processor in communication with the at least one computer-readable memory and configured to execute the instructions to cause the system to operate in:
a first mode when the medical instrument comprises a rigid instrument, wherein operating in the first mode comprises (i) commanding the first robotic arm to control the movement of the rigid instrument in a manner that fixes a location of a remote center such that the second axis of the rigid instrument is aligned with an opening of a patient, and (ii) applying a first constraint to the motion of the plurality of motorized joints such that the second axis of the rigid instrument passes through the remote center, and
a second mode when the medical instrument comprises a flexible instrument, wherein operating in the second mode comprises (i) commanding the first robotic arm and the second robotic arm to control movement of the flexible instrument along a virtual rail such that the second axis of the flexible instrument is co-axial with the virtual rail, (ii) removing the first constraint from the motion of the plurality of motorized joints such that the second axis of the flexible instrument is not constrained to pass through the remote center, and (iii) applying a second constraint to the motion of the first robotic arm and the second robotic arm such that the first instrument driver and the second instrument driver are co-axial with the virtual rail.

US Pat. No. 11,020,016

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR DISPLAYING ANATOMY AND DEVICES ON A MOVABLE DISPLAY

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system for displaying an image of a tool and an image of a patient's anatomy, said system comprising:a repositionable display screen configured to show the images of the tool and the patient's anatomy;
a robotic device configured to control movement of the tool; and
a processor configured to receive:
(a) the image of the patient's anatomy;
(b) position data and orientation data for the tool;
(c) position data for the patient's anatomy;
(d) position data for the display screen; and
(e) position data for a user's position relative to the patient,
wherein the processor is configured to:
superimpose the image of the tool on the image of the patient's anatomy and reposition the image of the patient's anatomy on the display screen in real time based on the position data for the user's position relative to the patient so the images of both the patient's anatomy and the tool are substantially aligned with the patient as the display screen is moved over the patient,
allow the user to selectively angle the aligned images away from the user so that when the display screen is angled toward the user, the aligned images will appear flat relative to the patient,
receive a user input comprising a selection of an anatomical target on the image of the patient's anatomy,
output a predicted position of the tool based on the position data for the tool and the orientation data for the tool relative to the position data for the patient's anatomy,
project a path from the predicted position of the tool to the anatomical target,
determine that the path is free of collisions (i) between the tool and an internal anatomy of the patient and (ii) between the tool and another medical device external to the patient,
cause the path and an indication that the path is collision-free to be displayed on the display screen, and
cause a collision space of the robotic device to be overlaid on the image of the patient's anatomy.

US Pat. No. 11,007,021

USER INTERFACE FOR ACTIVE DRIVE APPARATUS WITH FINITE RANGE OF MOTION

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system comprising:a controller configured to:
determine a user interface status, the user interface status including user interaction of a user interface;
determine a location of a drive mechanism relative to a limit; and
select a clutching timing based on the user interface status and the drive mechanism location.

US Pat. No. 10,987,174

PATIENT INTRODUCER ALIGNMENT

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A patient introducer, comprising:an introducer tube extending between (i) a distal end configured to be connected to a port and (ii) a proximal end configured to receive a surgical tool, the introducer tube having a curvature that defines a curved path and configured to introduce the surgical tool into a patient via guiding the surgical tool into the port along the curved path;
a body directly connected to each of the distal end and the proximal end of the introducer tube; and
an alignment member directly connected to the body and comprising a first shape and a first alignment marking, the alignment member configured to interface with a manipulator assembly of a robotic system, the manipulator assembly comprising a second shape and a second alignment marking, the first shape being complementary to the second shape,
wherein the first alignment marking of the alignment member, when aligned with the second alignment marking, facilitates rotational alignment of the alignment member and the manipulator assembly.

US Pat. No. 10,980,565

METHOD FOR ABLATING BODY TISSUE

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A tissue ablation system for creating a transmural lesion, the system comprising:an ablation catheter comprising a proximal portion, a distal portion, and an ultrasound transducer disposed within the distal portion and is adapted to direct a collimated beam of ultrasound energy to a target tissue;
wherein the ultrasound transducer is adapted to operate in an ablation mode and a diagnostic mode;
wherein, in the ablation mode, the collimated beam of ultrasound energy is adapted to create a lesion in the target tissue to thereby ablate the target tissue; and
wherein, in the diagnostic mode, the ultrasound transducer is configured to act as a sensor to sense information about the target tissue based on a reflected ultrasound signal that is reflected back towards the ultrasound transducer by the target tissue;
a control mechanism operably coupled to the ablation catheter and adapted to rotate, translate, or bend the distal potion of the ablation catheters in order to sweep the collimated beam of ultrasound energy along an ablation path; and
a processor configured to adjust the sweep of the collimated beam of ultrasound energy based on the based on the sensed information to assure that the lesion is a transmural lesion.

US Pat. No. 10,980,669

METHOD, APPARATUS AND SYSTEM FOR A WATER JET

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A medical method comprising:providing a water jet system, wherein the water jet system comprises a water jet fluid flush tube and an aspiration tube, wherein the water jet fluid flush tube and the aspiration tube are adjacently disposed relative to one another;
endoscopically inserting the water jet system into a patient;
utilizing an ultrasound system to provide an image of the water jet system relative to the patient, the ultrasound system being separate from the water jet system;
applying fluid from the water jet flush tube to create a cutting jet area to break apart tissue;
robotically controlling at least one of a shape and a pattern of cuts by the water jet fluid flush tube to break apart the tissue;
controlling, via a feedback loop, a flow rate of the fluid from the water jet flush tube to treat a target tissue to be broken apart and spare injury to surrounding tissue;
and using the aspiration tube to remove the broken apart tissue via aspiration;
wherein the cutting jet area is controlled based at least in part on a flow rate meter.

US Pat. No. 10,945,904

TILT MECHANISMS FOR MEDICAL SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A tilt mechanism for a medical platform, the tilt mechanism comprising:a tilt plate;
a gimbal attached to the tilt plate, the gimbal configured to allow the tilt plate to at least tilt about a lateral tilt axis;
a linear actuator mounted on the tilt plate; and
a first linear guide attached to the gimbal, wherein the first linear guide extends along a first axis; and
a pivot housing configured to translate along the first linear guide wherein the linear actuator is configured to apply a linear force to the pivot housing, wherein application of the linear force to the pivot housing tilts the tilt plate about the lateral tilt axis by causing the pivot housing to translate along the first linear guide, and wherein the pivot housing is configured to pivot relative to the gimbal about a pivot axis, and the pivot axis is configured to translate relative to the gimbal along the first axis.

US Pat. No. 10,898,275

IMAGE-BASED AIRWAY ANALYSIS AND MAPPING

AURIS HEALTH, INC., Redw...

1. A method of navigating an instrument through a luminal network, the method comprising:capturing a plurality of images within the luminal network with an imaging device positioned on the instrument, the plurality of images comprising at least a first image captured at a first time and a second image captured at a second time subsequent to the first time;
identifying a first airway in the first image;
identifying two or more airways in the second image, wherein the two or more airways in the second image are different from the first airway in the first image;
determining, based on the first airway in the first image and the two or more airways in the second image, a degree of spatial overlap between the first airway in the first image and the two or more airways in the second image;
determining that the degree of spatial overlap between the first airway in the first image and the two or more airways in the second image satisfies an overlap condition;
accessing preoperative model data indicative of an expected count of airways corresponding to a location of the instrument during the second time;
determining, based on the preoperative model data and the determination that the degree of spatial overlap between the first airway in the first image and the two or more airways in the second image satisfies the overlap condition, a mapping between the two or more airways in the second image and the airways in the preoperative model data; and
causing, based at least in part on the mapping between the two or more airways in the second image and the airways in the preoperative model data, the instrument to move through the luminal network.

US Pat. No. 10,898,276

COMBINING STRAIN-BASED SHAPE SENSING WITH CATHETER CONTROL

AURIS HEALTH, INC., Redw...

1. A method of controlling an instrument within an interior region of a body, the method comprising:accessing robotic data regarding the instrument;
accessing strain data from an optical fiber positioned within the instrument that is indicative of a strain on a portion of the instrument positioned within the interior region of the body;
determining shape data based on the strain data;
comparing the robotic data and the shape data;
identifying, based on the comparison, a discrepancy between the robotic data and the shape data;
adjusting the shape data based on the identified discrepancy such that the identified discrepancy no longer exists between the robotic data and the adjusted shape data;
determining an estimated state of the instrument based on the adjusted shape data; and
outputting the estimated state of the instrument.

US Pat. No. 10,898,277

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR REGISTRATION OF LOCATION SENSORS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system, comprising:a set of one or more processors; and
at least one computer-readable memory in communication with the set of processors and having stored thereon a model of a luminal network of a patient, the model comprising a target within a model coordinate system and a path to the target, the memory further having stored thereon computer-executable instructions to cause the set of processors to:
provide instructions to display the luminal network via a display device,
receive an indication of a location of a target within the model coordinate system,
identify a first branch and a second branch in the luminal network, the first branch being outside the path to the target, the second branch being a part of the path to the target,
generate a set of instructions for driving the distal end of the instrument along the first branch, back to the path from the first branch, and along the second branch, wherein location data received from a set of one or more locations sensors during the driving of the instrument according to the instructions facilitates a registration between a location coordinate system of the location data and the model coordinate system, and
determine a registration criterion for one or more registration parameters tracked during the driving of the instrument along the first branch wherein, when the registration criterion is satisfied, the distal end of the instrument is moved back to the path from the first branch wherein, when the registration criterion is satisfied, the distal end of the instrument is moved back to the path from the first branch.

US Pat. No. 10,898,286

PATH-BASED NAVIGATION OF TUBULAR NETWORKS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A medical robotic system, comprising:an instrument configured to be driven through a luminal network;
a robotic arm attached to the instrument and configured to move the instrument;
a set of one or more processors; and
at least one computer-readable memory in communication with the set of processors and having stored thereon a model of the luminal network of a patient, a position of a target with respect to the model, and a path along at least a portion of the model from an access point to the target, the memory further having stored thereon computer-executable instructions to cause the set of processors to:
command the robotic arm to move the instrument to a location within the luminal network,
receive location data from at least one of a set of location sensors and the robotic arm command, the location data being indicative of the location of the instrument,
determine a first estimate of the location of the instrument at a first time based on the location data,
obtain a distance that the instrument has travelled into the luminal network from the access point based on the robotic arm command,
determine a second estimate of the location of the instrument at the first time based on the path and the distance,
determine a weight for the second estimate based on the distance, and
determine the location of the instrument at the first time based on the first estimate, the second estimate, and the weight.

US Pat. No. 10,903,725

COMPACT HEIGHT TORQUE SENSING ARTICULATION AXIS ASSEMBLY

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A robotic surgical system, comprising:a control system configured to be connected to an input device and to receive information for positioning or orienting a medical instrument from the input device; and
an instrument driver operatively connected to the control system, the instrument driver including:
a grounded structure;
a motor configured to provide rotary output to actuate movement of an elongate member of the medical instrument;
a gearbox configured to modify the rotary output of the motor; and
a reactive torque sensor having a first part coupled to the grounded structure and a second part coupled to at least one of the motor or the gearbox,
wherein the control system is configured to actuate the motor in response to the information to drive an output shaft operatively coupled to the elongate member; and
wherein the reactive torque sensor is configured to measure an output shaft torque imparted by the output shaft.

US Pat. No. 10,888,386

SURGICAL ROBOTICS SYSTEMS WITH IMPROVED ROBOTIC ARMS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system, comprising:a table;
a table support below the table;
an arm support coupled to at least one of the table or the table support;
a first robotic arm coupled to the arm support, wherein the first robotic arm comprises a proximal portion and a distal portion and at least four powered joints between the proximal portion and the distal portion, wherein each of the joints is capable of being actuated independently of the other joints, wherein the first robotic arm comprises an instrument drive mechanism fixedly attached to the first robotic arm;
a surgical instrument comprising:
an elongated shaft;
a base configured to removably attach to the instrument drive mechanism of the first robotic arm to attach the surgical instrument to the first robotic arm,
wherein the base comprises an attachment interface configured to attach to a proximal face of the instrument drive mechanism,
wherein the elongated shaft is coupled to the base and configured to translate through a central passage extending through the instrument drive mechanism and the base, and
wherein the base of the surgical instrument comprises an insertion mechanism configured to provide translation of the elongated shaft relative to the base along an insertion axis such that the elongated shaft can be inserted through the base while a position of the base remains stationary, wherein the insertion mechanism comprises at least one pulley positioned within the base that is engaged with a cable connected to the elongated shaft; and
a second robotic arm coupled to the arm support.

US Pat. No. 10,874,468

ROBOTIC CATHETER SYSTEM

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system comprising:an elongated medical instrument comprising a distal portion and a longitudinal axis;
an instrument driver removably coupled to the elongated medical instrument, the instrument driver configured to cause a desired bending in the distal portion of the elongated medical instrument in response to receiving a drive signal;
a control system comprising a localization system, the control system configured to generate the drive signal based on a user input received via an input device, the localization system configured to determine an orientation and a position of the elongated medical instrument within a global coordinate system, the control system further configured to generate a digital model of the elongated medical instrument within an anatomical space; and
a display configured to provide a first view and a second view of the digital model, the first view comprising a first image of the digital model as viewed along the longitudinal axis of the elongated medical instrument, and the second view comprising a second image depicting an orthogonal view of the digital model,
wherein one of the first view and the second view is selectable as a primary view to facilitate navigation of the elongated medical instrument, and wherein the input device is synchronized with the selected primary view.

US Pat. No. 10,835,153

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR MEDICAL INSTRUMENT NAVIGATION AND TARGETING

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system, comprising:a medical instrument having an elongate body and at least one sensor;
a display;
a processor; and
a memory storing computer-executable instructions to cause the processor to:
access a three-dimensional model of a luminal network, the model based on a preoperative mapping of a portion of the luminal network,
determine a position of a target with respect to the model,
determine, based on data from the at least one sensor, a position and orientation of a distal end of the medical instrument with respect to the model,
cause, on at least a portion of the display, a rendering of the model, the position of the target with respect to the model, and the position and orientation of the distal end of the medical instrument with respect to the model, wherein the rendering comprises a virtual viewpoint directed at the target, the rendering being simulated from a virtual viewpoint perspective at a virtual location with respect to the model, and
cause within the portion of the display a rendering of a modified view of the model, the modified view being rendered from a modified virtual viewpoint in which the virtual viewpoint perspective is rotated around the target with the target as a center of the rotation.

US Pat. No. 10,828,118

MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS FOR TISSUE CAUTERIZATION

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A medical instrument, comprising:a wrist comprising a proximal clevis and a distal clevis;
an end effector coupled to the distal clevis via a distal axle;
at least one proximal pulley in the proximal clevis;
at least one distal pulley in the distal clevis and coupled to the distal axle;
a first cable configured to engage with the at least one proximal pulley and the at least one distal pulley; and
a second cable comprising two second cable segments, each of the second cable segments configured to directly engage with the at least one proximal pulley without engaging the at least one distal pulley, and each of the second cable segments further configured to directly engage with the distal clevis at a single side of the distal clevis offset from a central axis of the wrist.

US Pat. No. 10,827,913

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR DISPLAYING ESTIMATED LOCATION OF INSTRUMENT

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system, comprising:a processor; and
at least one computer-readable memory in communication with the processor and having stored thereon computer-executable instructions to cause the processor to:
determine a first location of an instrument based on first location data generated by a set of one or more location sensors for the instrument, the first location data corresponding to a first time period;
after the first time period, receive a user command to move the instrument during a second time period;
estimate a second location of the instrument based on the first location and the received user command, the estimated second location corresponding to the second time period;
confirm the estimated second location based on second location data generated by the set of location sensors, the second location data corresponding to the second time period; and
cause the estimated second location to be displayed prior to the confirmation of the estimated second location.

US Pat. No. 10,820,947

DEVICES, SYSTEMS, AND METHODS FOR MANUALLY AND ROBOTICALLY DRIVING MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system for driving a robotic medical instrument, the system comprising:a robotic arm configured to position a robotic medical instrument;
an instrument drive mechanism configured to removably couple to the robotic arm, and to engage with the robotic medical instrument to control the robotic medical instrument;
a handle configured to receive an elongated shaft of the medical instrument, the handle comprising:
a gripping mechanism positioned in the handle for selectively engaging the elongated shaft, the gripping mechanism configured to fixedly attach to the elongated shaft when engaged and to allow the handle to slide along the elongated shaft when disengaged;
an articulation input configured to receive user inputs of commanded articulation of the elongated shaft; and
a communications circuit positioned in the handle and configured to transmit user inputs received at the articulation input to the instrument drive mechanism attached to the medical instrument, the instrument drive mechanism configured to cause articulation of the elongated shaft based on the transmitted user inputs;
wherein:
in a first configuration, the instrument drive mechanism is uncoupled from the robotic arm and engaged with the medical instrument, and the handle is engaged with the elongated shaft of the medical instrument, and
in a second configuration, the instrument drive mechanism is coupled to the robotic arm and engaged with the medical instrument, and the handle is disengaged from the elongated shaft of the medical instrument.

US Pat. No. 10,813,711

ROBOT-ASSISTED DRIVING SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A method for driving a medical instrument in three-dimensional space within an anatomy, the method performed by a robotic medical system and comprising:acquiring a first anatomical image using an imaging system of the robotic medical system;
acquiring localization information for the instrument from a first sensor integrated in the instrument;
registering the instrument to the first anatomical image;
overlaying a representation of the instrument on the first anatomical image for display to a user;
receiving a user command to drive the instrument from its current position to a target within the anatomy;
updating, based on the acquired localization information, the representation of the instrument in real-time on a display as the instrument is driven;
acquiring a second anatomical image using the imaging system of the robotic medical system;
registering the instrument to the second anatomical image;
overlaying a representation of the instrument on the second anatomical image for display to the user; and
simultaneously displaying the representation of the instrument on the first anatomical image and the representation of the image on the second anatomical image.

US Pat. No. 10,813,539

AUTOMATED CALIBRATION OF SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS WITH PULL WIRES

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A method comprising:retrieving, from computer readable media storing calibration data, a plurality of gain values each associated with a pull wire of a plurality of pull wires of a surgical instrument;
providing a command, derived at least partly from one or more of the plurality of gain values, to move the surgical instrument by translating at least one of the plurality of pull wires using a surgical robotic system;
receiving spatial data indicating an actual position of the surgical instrument having been moved in response to the command;
determining, for at least one of the pull wires, a new gain value based on the spatial data; and
storing the new gain value in the computer readable media.

US Pat. No. 10,814,101

APPARATUSES AND METHODS FOR MONITORING TENDONS OF STEERABLE CATHETERS

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A system comprising:a robotic driver;
a sensing circuitry coupled to the robotic driver; and
an articulatable elongate member of a medical instrument, the elongate member comprising:
an elongated body with an articulatable portion; and
a first pull wire enclosed within the elongated body and coupled to the elongated body such that tension applied to the first pull wire articulates the articulatable portion, the first pull wire configured to be operatively coupled to the robotic driver and electrically coupled to the sensing circuitry,
wherein the robotic driver is configured to apply the tension to the first pull wire to articulate the articulatable portion, and
wherein the sensing circuitry is configured to:
determine a baseline electrical resistance of the first pull wire,
measure an electrical resistance of the first pull wire, and
determine that a mechanical fault has occurred in the first pull wire in response to the electrical resistance deviating from the baseline by greater than a threshold value.

US Pat. No. 10,779,898

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR INSTRUMENT BASED INSERTION ARCHITECTURES

Auris Health, Inc., Redw...

1. A medical device, comprising:a shaft comprising a proximal portion and a distal portion;
an end effector connected to the distal portion of the shaft; and
a handle coupled to the shaft and configured to be releasably coupled to a robotic arm,
wherein the shaft is configured to, in use, translate relative to the handle.