US Pat. No. 9,417,060

X-RAY THEODOLITE

American Science and Engi...

1. A method for ascertaining a distance between two specified stationary scattering points, comprising:
a. illuminating a first angular region including the two specified stationary scattering points with a first pencil beam of
penetrating radiation emanating from a first location;

b. detecting scattered radiation from the two specified stationary scattering points;
c. illuminating a second angular region including the two specified stationary scattering points with a second pencil beam
of penetrating radiation emanating from a second location, the second location displaced relative to the first location by
a known distance;

d. detecting scattered penetrating radiation from the two specified stationary scattering points; and
e. calculating the distance between the two specified stationary scattering points based on illumination angles characterizing
the two specified stationary scattering points as illuminated by the first and second pencil beams of penetrating radiation.

US Pat. No. 9,285,488

X-RAY INSPECTION USING WAVELENGTH-SHIFTING FIBER-COUPLED SCINTILLATION DETECTORS

American Science and Engi...

1. A detector of x-ray radiation characterized by a thickness and an area, the detector comprising:
a. a first volume of a first scintillation medium for converting energy of incident x-ray radiation into a first scintillation
light;

b. a first plurality of wavelength-shifting optical waveguides, aligned substantially parallel to each other over a first
scintillation light extraction region contiguous with the first volume of the first scintillation medium, for guiding light
derived from, and at a first wavelength longer than that of, the first scintillation light;

c. a second volume of a second scintillation medium for converting energy of incident x-ray radiation that has traversed the
first volume into a second scintillation light;

d. a second plurality of wavelength-shifting optical waveguides, aligned substantially parallel to each other over a second
scintillation light extraction region contiguous with the second volume of the second scintillation medium, for guiding light
derived from, and at a wavelength longer than that of, the second scintillation light;

e. a first photo-detector for detecting photons at the first wavelength guided by the first plurality of waveguides and for
generating a first detector signal; and

f. a second photo-detector for detecting photons at the second wavelength guided by the second plurality of waveguides and
for generating a second detector signal.

US Pat. No. 9,257,208

VARIABLE ANGLE COLLIMATOR

American Science and Engi...

10. A radiation scanning system comprising:
a source of radiation configured to controllably provide a steerable beam of radiation at a plurality of angles; and
an input plate disposed to receive the beam of radiation provided by the source of radiation, the input plate having a first
aperture;

an output plate having a second aperture configured to pass radiation passed by the first aperture,
the input plate disposed relative to the output plate so that the first aperture and second aperture define a virtual hyperbolic
paraboloid surface extending between the input plate and the output plate.

US Pat. No. 9,099,279

X-RAY TUBE WITH ROTATING ANODE APERTURE

American Science and Engi...

1. An X-ray tube comprising:
a. a vacuum enclosure;
b. a cathode disposed within the vacuum enclosure for emitting a beam of electrons;
c. an anode adapted for rotation about an axis of rotation, inside, and with respect to, the vacuum enclosure; and
d. at least one collimator aperture adapted for co-rotation within the vacuum enclosure with the anode,wherein the at least one collimator aperture is disposed above a plane transverse to the axis of rotation containing a locus
of focal spots of the beam of electrons.

US Pat. No. 9,117,564

VARIABLE ANGLE COLLIMATOR

American Science and Engi...

1. A system for producing a steerable beam of radiation, comprising:
a radiation source configured to produce radiation at an angle, relative to a collimator, wherein the angle is electronically
controllable; and

a collimator comprising material opaque to the radiation produced by the radiation source, the collimator comprising an aperture
configured to receive radiation from the radiation source at a plurality of incident angles, and configured to pass a portion
of the radiation through the collimator at each of the plurality of incident angles, so as to form a collimated beam of radiation
having a beam cross-section, the collimator comprising:

a first member comprising a first surface, the first surface being one of a hyperbolic paraboloid surface or a modified hyperbolic
paraboloid surface; and

a second member com risin a second surface the second surface being one of a hyperbolic paraboloid surface or a modified hyperbolic
paraboloid surface;

the first member disposed relative to the second member such that the first surface faces the second surface, the first surface
and second surface separated by a gap so as to define the aperture through the collimator;

wherein the collimator and radiation source are configured to remain stationary with respect to one another when producing
a steerable beam of radiation.

US Pat. No. 9,146,201

CONVERTIBLE SCAN PANEL FOR X-RAY INSPECTION

American Science and Engi...

1. An inspection system for inspecting an inspected object with backscattered penetrating radiation, the inspection system
comprising:
a. a source for generating a pencil beam of x-rays, the source disposed within an enclosure during operation of the inspection
system, the enclosure borne on a conveyance;

b. a portion of the enclosure traversed by the pencil beam of x-rays, the portion of the enclosure constituting a first scan
panel, characterized by a thickness and including a material distinct from material comprising another portion of the enclosure
not traversed by the pencil beam of x-rays, and contoured in such a manner as to be visibly blended with a shape characterizing
the enclosure; and

c. at least one scatter detector for receiving x-ray radiation scattered from the pencil beam of x-rays by the inspected object.

US Pat. No. 9,466,456

X-RAY TUBE WITH ROTATING ANODE APERTURE

American Science and Engi...

1. An X-ray tube comprising:
a. a vacuum enclosure;
b. a cathode disposed within the vacuum enclosure for emitting a beam of electrons;
c. an anode adapted for rotation within the vacuum enclosure about an axis of rotation; and
d. at least one collimator opening, disposed within the vacuum enclosure, adapted for rotation about the axis of rotation,
and for periodic transmission therethrough of x-rays produced at the anode.

US Pat. No. 9,291,582

ADJUSTABLE-JAW COLLIMATOR

American Science and Engi...

1. An adjustable collimator for shaping a beam of particles, the beam of particles characterized by a dynamically swept propagation
direction radial with respect to a ring of apertures rotating about an axis of rotation and serving to interrupt the beam,
the swept propagation direction being transverse to the axis of rotation of the ring of apertures, the collimator comprising:
a. an obscuring element substantially opaque to passage of the particles in the dynamically swept propagation direction;
b. a gap in the obscuring element adapted for passage through the obscuring element of particles in the dynamically swept
propagation direction, the gap characterized by a length taken along a long dimension and a jaw spacing taken along narrow
dimension, both the long dimension and the jaw spacing being transverse to the dynamically swept propagation direction,

wherein at least one of the length of the gap and the jaw spacing is subject to adjustment.

US Pat. No. 9,541,510

SYSTEM AND METHODS FOR MULTI-BEAM INSPECTION OF CARGO IN RELATIVE MOTION

American Science and Engi...

1. A cargo inspection system employing a plurality of concurrent fan beams of penetrating radiation, for inspecting cargo
in motion relative to the cargo inspection system, the cargo inspection system comprising:
a. a single source of a pulsed beam of accelerated electrons;
b. a plurality of Bremsstrahlung targets for emitting penetrating radiation upon impingement by a spatial entirety of the
pulsed beam during each of a plurality of pulses of the accelerated electrons;

c. a plurality of collimators for forming the emitted penetrating radiation into a plurality of substantially parallel fan
beams;

d. a plurality of linear detector arrays, each linear detector array for receiving penetrating radiation transmitted through
the cargo in a corresponding fan beam of the plurality of fan beams; and

e. a processor for deriving a material characteristic of the cargo for each of a plurality of lines of sight through the cargo.

US Pat. No. 9,658,343

SPECTRAL DISCRIMINATION USING WAVELENGTH-SHIFTING FIBER-COUPLED SCINTILLATION DETECTORS

American Science and Engi...

1. A method for discriminating among x-ray beams of distinct energy content, the method comprising:
a. converting energy of an x-ray beam incident upon a first volume of scintillation medium into a first scintillation light;
b. guiding light derived from, and at a first wavelength longer than the first scintillation light via a first plurality of
wavelength-shifting optical waveguides;

c. converting energy of x-ray radiation that has traversed the first volume into a second scintillation light in a second
volume of scintillation medium, wherein the second volume of scintillation medium is a different volume from the first volume
of scintillation medium;

d. detecting, with a first photodetector, photons at the first wavelength guided by the first plurality of waveguides thereby
generating a first detector signal; and

e. detecting, with a second photodetector, photons due to scintillation in the second volume of scintillator material thereby
generating a second signal;

f. processing the first signal and the second signal to provide a measure of a low energy component and a high-energy component
of the x-ray beam incident upon the first volume of scintillation material.

US Pat. No. 9,535,019

LATERALLY-OFFSET DETECTORS FOR LONG-RANGE X-RAY BACKSCATTER IMAGING

American Science and Engi...

1. A method for imaging a target, with an x-ray scatter apparatus, in the face of overwhelming air scatter, the x-ray scatter
apparatus characterized by a detector plane, the method comprising:
a. illuminating the target with a beam of x-rays scanned across the target, the beam characterized by a beam axis;
b. detecting x-rays scattered by the target, the x-rays characterized by a scatter per unit area, using a detector characterized
by a centroid displaced with respect to the beam axis by at least five feet, thereby generating a detector signal, wherein
where the scatter per unit area reaching at least one point in the detector plane of the x-ray scatter apparatus from a position
on the target is no more than 10% of x-ray scatter reaching the x-ray scatter apparatus due to intervening air scatter; and

c. processing the detector signal to generate an image of the target.

US Pat. No. 9,867,271

SOURCE FOR INTRA-PULSE MULTI-ENERGY X-RAY CARGO INSPECTION

American Science and Engi...

1. A method for generating a multiple-energy X-ray pulse, the method comprising:
generating a beam of electrons with an electron gun, wherein a temporal profile of the electron gun is characterized by at
least two distinct levels of the amplitude of electron beam In;

modulating the beam of electrons prior to injection into an accelerating structure to achieve at least a first specified beam
current amplitude and a first specified beam current temporal profile, and a second specified beam current amplitude and a
second specified beam current temporal profile, wherein the beam of electrons is characterized by an electron beam pulse duration
and the accelerating structure includes a standing wave resonator;

applying to the accelerating structure a radio frequency field with a specified RF field amplitude and a specified RF temporal
profile characterized by an RF pulse duration;

injecting the beam of electrons at a first specified beam current amplitude and then at the second specified beam current
amplitude after a specified delay, in such a manner as to achieve at least two distinct endpoint energies of electrons accelerated
within the accelerating structure during a course of a single RF-pulse;

optimizing a coupling coefficient between an RF source and the accelerating structure so as to achieve zero RF power reflection
at the first specified beam current amplitude or the second specified beam current amplitude, wherein the RF source provides
a constant level of RF-power and wherein the coupling coefficient of accelerating resonator ?o is chosen to be optimal at a first level of beam current I1;

accelerating the beam of electrons with the radio frequency field within the accelerating structure to produce accelerated
electrons; and

impinging the accelerated electrons upon a target for generating X-rays by Bremsstrahlung.

US Pat. No. 9,841,386

RADIATION THREAT DETECTION

AMERICAN SCIENCE AND ENGI...

1. A method for creating an x-ray image of an object under inspection and detecting clandestine nuclear material associated
with the object under inspection, the method comprising:
a. illuminating the object under inspection with penetrating radiation;
b. detecting emission, including penetrating radiation, emanating from the object that is due solely to emission by the object
under inspection and that has nothing to do with emission by any source other than the object under inspection;

c. producing an x-ray image of the object based on the detected emission; and
d. distinguishing between detected emission due to penetrating radiation scattered by the object and detected emission due
to the clandestine nuclear material that is independent of whether the clandestine nuclear material is illuminated with penetrating
radiation.

US Pat. No. 10,368,428

SOURCE FOR INTRA-PULSE MULTI-ENERGY X-RAY CARGO INSPECTION

American Science and Engi...

1. A method for generating a multiple-energy X-ray pulse, the method comprising:generating a beam of electrons with an electron gun;
modulating the beam of electrons prior to injection into an accelerating structure to achieve at least a first pulse of electrons having a first specified beam current amplitude and a first specified beam current temporal profile, and a second pulse of electrons having a second specified beam current amplitude and a second specified beam current temporal profile, wherein the first pulse of electrons and the second pulse of electrons are each characterized by an electron beam pulse duration;
applying to the accelerating structure a radio frequency field with a specified RF field amplitude and a specified RF temporal profile characterized by an RF pulse duration;
injecting the beam of electrons at the first specified beam current amplitude and then at the second specified beam current amplitude after a specified delay in such a manner as to achieve at least two distinct endpoint energies of electrons accelerated within the accelerating structure during a course of a single RF-pulse, wherein the first specified beam current amplitude is different from the second specified beam current amplitude and wherein the specified delay is a function of a decay time of the accelerating structure;
optimizing a coupling coefficient between an RF source and the accelerating structure so as to achieve zero RF power reflection at a specified beam current;
accelerating the beam of electrons with the radio frequency field within the accelerating structure to produce accelerated electrons; and
impinging the accelerated electrons upon a target for generating X-rays by Bremsstrahlung.

US Pat. No. 10,209,372

HAND-HELD X-RAY DETECTION SYSTEM USING WAVELENGTH-SHIFTING FIBER-COUPLED SCINTILLATION DETECTORS

American Science and Engi...

1. A hand-held X-ray and detection system comprising:a mobile X-ray source positioned within a hand-held device;
a mobile detector configured to be used with the mobile X-ray source, wherein the mobile detector comprises:
a first volume of a first scintillation medium for converting energy of incident X-ray radiation into a first light having a first wavelength;
a first plurality of wavelength-shifting optical waveguides positioned proximate the first scintillation medium, configured to receive the first light, and configured to guide a second light, wherein the first plurality of wavelength-shifting optical waveguides comprises a material that, when exposed to the first light, generates the second light having a second wavelength and wherein the second wavelength is different than the first wavelength;
a second volume of a second scintillation medium for converting energy of incident X-ray radiation that has traversed the first volume into a third light having a third wavelength, wherein the second volume of the second scintillation medium is a different volume than the first volume of the first scintillation medium;
a second plurality of wavelength-shifting optical waveguides positioned proximate the second scintillation medium, configured to receive the third light, and configured to guide a fourth light, wherein the second plurality of wavelength-shifting optical waveguides comprises a material that, when exposed to the third light, generates the fourth light having a fourth wavelength and wherein the fourth wavelength is different than the third wavelength;
a first photo-detector configured to receive the second light from the first plurality of wavelength-shifting optical waveguides, detect the second light, and generate a first detector signal; and
a second photo-detector configured to receive the fourth light from the second plurality of wavelength-shifting optical waveguides, detect the fourth light, and generate a second detector signal.

US Pat. No. 10,228,487

RAPIDLY RELOCATABLE MODULAR CARGO CONTAINER SCANNER

American Science and Engi...

9. A cargo inspection system, the system comprising:a first lead-in conveyor disposed on a first conveyance for receiving a cargo container for inspection;
an inspection module disposed on a second conveyance distinct from the first conveyance for scanning the cargo container with penetrating radiation, detecting penetrating radiation that has interacted with the cargo container, and producing an inspection signal;
an exit conveyor, distinct from the first lead-in conveyor, disposed on a third conveyance distinct from the second conveyance and the first conveyance for impelling the cargo container following scanning; and
a processor adapted for receiving the inspection signal over a course of passage of the cargo container through the inspection module and for producing therefrom an image characterizing contents of the cargo container.