US Pat. No. 9,631,284

ELECTROCHEMICAL DEVICE FOR SYNGAS AND LIQUID FUELS PRODUCTION

Colorado School of Mines,...

1. A method for producing liquid fuels, comprising:
providing a feed stream comprising carbon dioxide and water;
heating the feed stream to produce a heated feed stream;
compressing an air stream to produce a pressurized air stream;
heating the pressurized air stream to produce a heated air stream;
reacting the heated feed stream and the heated air stream in a solid oxide electrolytic cell in the electrolysis mode to form
a syngas and an oxygen-containing stream, wherein the electrolytic cell comprises a cathode and an anode and a power supply;

treating the syngas stream to produce a treated syngas stream; and
converting the syngas to produce the liquid fuels in a gas to liquid subsystem.

US Pat. No. 9,651,845

ELECTROCHROMIC NICKEL OXIDE SIMULTANEOUSLY DOPED WITH LITHIUM AND A METAL DOPANT

SAGE ELECTROCHROMICS, INC...

1. An electrochromic device comprising:
a first electrode comprising one of an electrochromic layer or a counter electrode layer,
a second electrode comprising other of the electrochromic layer or the counter electrode layer,
an ion-conductor layer for conducting ions between the first and second electrodes,
a first conductive layer, and
a second conductive layer, the first and second electrodes and the ion-conductor layer being sandwiched between the first
and second conductive layers,

wherein:
the counter electrode layer comprises at least one mixed oxide having a formula LixNi(II)1-yNi(III)yM(A)zOa, where M is a metal other than Li and Ni; A is the most favorable oxidation state of the metal; x and z independently range
from greater than 0 to about 10; y is greater than 0 and less than 1; and a ranges from about 0 to about 10; and

a thickness of the counter electrode layer is determined by the formula (2*d*y)/(x+z), where d is the thickness of the electrochromic
layer, and x, y, and z correspond to the mixed oxide constituting the counter electrode layer.

US Pat. No. 9,231,135

LOW-BANDGAP, MONOLITHIC, MULTI-BANDGAP, OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICES

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A monolithic, integrated, module (MIM), comprising:
a plurality of monolithic, multi-bandgap, photovoltaic converters, each of which comprises: (i) a first subcell with a first
bandgap and a first lattice constant; (ii) a second subcell with a second bandgap and a second lattice constant, wherein the
second bandgap is less than the first bandgap and the second lattice constant is greater than the first lattice constant;
and (iii) a lattice constant transition material positioned between the first subcell and the second subcell, said lattice
constant transition material having a bandgap at least as large as the first bandgap and a lattice constant that changes from
the first lattice constant to the second lattice constant; and

a common substrate with a substrate bandgap and a substrate lattice constant, said common substrate being positioned between
the first subcell and the lattice constant transition material of each of the monolithic, multi-bandgap, photovoltaic converters,
wherein the substrate bandgap is at least as large as the first bandgap and the substrate lattice constant is equal to the
first lattice constant.

US Pat. No. 9,324,992

HYBRID RADICAL ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE AND METHOD OF MAKING

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method of making an electrochemical energy storage device, the method comprising:
forming a cathode using a stable polymeric organic radical-based material in a slurry cast, wherein the material and the cathode
comprise at least one of


depositing the cathode on a substrate;
depositing an electrolyte on the cathode; and
depositing an anode on the electrolyte.

US Pat. No. 9,324,562

METAL HALIDE SOLID-STATE SURFACE TREATMENT FOR NANOCRYSTAL MATERIALS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method of treating a quantum dot material, comprising:
contacting a first layer of quantum dots with a solution comprising metal ions and halogen ions dissolved in a polar aprotic
solvent, wherein the ions in the solution displace native ligands from the quantum dots.

US Pat. No. 9,287,431

SUPERSTRATE SUB-CELL VOLTAGE-MATCHED MULTIJUNCTION SOLAR CELLS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A voltage-matched multijunction solar cell comprising:
a CdTe pn junction layer comprising a CdTe upper sub-cell;
a lower pn junction layer comprising a lower sub-cell;
a transparent insulating layer positioned between the CdTe pn junction layer and the lower pn junction layer;
a transparent superstrate positioned opposite the CdTe pn junction layer from the transparent insulating layer; and
an interdigitated p-type and n-type back contact comprising Si and associated with the lower sub-cell on the side of the lower
sub-cell opposite the transparent insulating layer,

wherein the CdTe upper sub-cell and the lower sub-cell are voltage-matched and are connected to each other in parallel.

US Pat. No. 9,419,170

CONTROLLING THE STOICHIOMETRY AND DOPING OF SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method of treating a semiconductor material, the method comprising:
annealing the semiconductor material in the presence of a compound that includes a first element and a second element; wherein:
the first element provides a vapor overpressure to achieve a desired stoichiometry of the semiconductor material, wherein
the stoichiometry is a ratio of components of the semiconductor material, and

the second element provides a dopant to the semiconductor material.

US Pat. No. 9,409,111

POROUS BLOCK NANOFIBER COMPOSITE FILTERS

Global Water Group, Incor...

1. A filtration system comprising:
a flow-through chamber having an inlet and an outlet; and
a porous block nano-fiber composite filtration medium disposed within the flow-through chamber, the filtration medium comprising:
a porous carbon block formed from porous carbon and having one or more pores; and
a plurality of inorganic nano-fibers formed within at least one of the pores of the porous carbon block.

US Pat. No. 9,410,259

ELECTRODEPOSITION OF GALLIUM FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. An electroplating solution comprising:
a gallium salt;
an ionic compound; and
a solvent, wherein:
the ionic compound is choline chloride (C5H14ClNO), and

the solvent is ethylene glycol mixed with the ionic compound.

US Pat. No. 9,647,158

PHOTOVOLTAIC SUB-CELL INTERCONNECTS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method comprising:
opening, in a device comprising thin film stack layers deposited on a substrate, a first scribe through a top contact layer,
an absorber layer, and a bottom contact layer of the thin film stack layers, wherein the first scribe divides the thin film
stack layers into a first sub-cell and a second sub-cell, and wherein the first scribe exposes a side of the bottom contact
layer of the first sub-cell and a side of the bottom contact layer of the second sub-cell;

printing, subsequent to opening the first scribe, one or more layers of an insulator material across a bottom of the first
scribe, from the first sub-cell to the second sub-cell, such that the insulator material covers the side of the bottom contact
layer of the first sub-cell and the side of the bottom contact layer of the second sub-cell;

opening, subsequent to printing the insulator material, a second scribe in the second sub-cell, adjacent to the first scribe,
from the top contact layer and sufficiently through the thin film stack layers to expose at least a portion of the bottom
contact layer of the second sub-cell; and

depositing, subsequent to opening the second scribe, an electrically conducting material into the first and second scribes
such that the electrically conducting material electrically couples the top contact layer of the first sub-cell to the bottom
contact layer of the second sub-cell, wherein the insulator material electrically insulates the electrically conducting material
from the bottom contact layer of the first sub-cell.

US Pat. No. 9,324,898

VARYING CADMIUM TELLURIDE GROWTH TEMPERATURE DURING DEPOSITION TO INCREASE SOLAR CELL RELIABILITY

Alliance For Sustainable ...

1. A method for forming a film for use as an absorber in a solar cell or other photovoltaic module, comprising:
within one or more reactor chambers, heating an absorber material source;
preheating a substrate to a preheat temperature; and
after the preheating, depositing an initial film growth of absorber material from the absorber material source onto the substrate,
wherein the substrate temperature during the depositing of the initial film growth is controlled to be at a lower temperature
than later depositing of the film and wherein, after the preheating of the substrate, the substrate is primarily heated by
radiant heat from the absorber material source.

US Pat. No. 9,309,541

BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. An isolated nucleic acid molecule encoding a polypeptide that functions as an ethylene-forming enzyme, wherein the nucleic
acid molecule has a sequence at least 90% identical to SEQ ID NO:3.

US Pat. No. 9,147,793

CDTE DEVICES AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURING SAME

Alliance For Sustainable ...

1. A method of depositing a layer of a material comprising polycrystalline CdTe onto a substrate, the method comprising:
providing to a deposition process a source material comprising an amount of Cd and an amount of Te to form the polycrystalline
CdTe having a non-stoichiometric ratio, wherein:

the non-stoichiometric ratio consists of either:
a Cd-rich ratio having a larger atomic percentage of Cd relative to the atomic percentage of Te; or
a Te-rich ratio having a larger atomic percentage of Te relative to the atomic percentage of Cd.

US Pat. No. 9,136,184

IN SITU OPTICAL DIAGNOSTIC FOR MONITORING OR CONTROL OF SODIUM DIFFUSION IN PHOTOVOLTAICS MANUFACTURING

Alliance For Sustainable ...

18. A system comprising:
a light source configured to illuminate a near-substrate region of a molybdenum layer deposited on a glass substrate;
a detector configured to receive light from the light source after the light interacts with the near-substrate region of the
molybdenum layer, and to detect an optical property of the near-substrate region of the molybdenum layer based on the received
light; and

a processor configured to communicate with the detector, the processor being further configured to determine a density of
the near-substrate region of the molybdenum layer based on the detected optical property,

wherein the determined density is a number of atoms per unit volume.

US Pat. No. 9,310,396

APPARATUS AND METHODS OF MEASURING MINORITY CARRIER LIFETIME USING A LIQUID PROBE

Alliance For Sustainable ...

1. A method of measuring the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor material comprising:
providing a semiconductor material having a surface;
forming a rectifying junction at a first location on the surface by temporarily contacting the surface with a conductive liquid
probe;

electrically coupling a second junction to the semiconductor material at a second location, wherein the first location and
the second location are physically separated;

applying a forward bias to the rectifying junction causing minority carrier injection in the semiconductor material;
measuring a total capacitance as a function of frequency between the rectifying junction and the second junction;
determining an inflection frequency of the total capacitance; and
determining a minority lifetime of the semiconductor material from the inflection frequency.

US Pat. No. 9,310,403

BUILDING ENERGY ANALYSIS TOOL

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A building energy analysis system, comprising:
at least one processor;
at least one computer readable storage medium, the at least one computer readable storage medium having stored thereon a building
component library comprising a plurality of building components;

an audit tool operable by the at least one processor to:
receive first user input selecting, for a building under analysis and from the plurality of building components, one or more
building components to be included in a building energy model of the building under analysis, and

receive second user input indicating a respective location of each of the one or more building components relative to building
spatial data that corresponds to the building under analysis;

a modeling tool operable by the at least one processor to generate, based on the first user input, the second user input,
and the building spatial data, the building energy model of the building under analysis;

a building analysis engine operable by the at least one processor to:
generate, using the building energy model of the building under analysis, baseline energy usage information for the building
under analysis,

automatically apply one or more energy conservation measures to the building energy model to generate one or more optimized
building energy models, and

generate, based on the one or more optimized building energy models, one or more corresponding sets of optimized energy usage
information; and

a recommendation tool operable by the at least one processor to:
compare the one or more sets of optimized energy usage information to the baseline energy usage information, and
output one or more recommendations for substitute building components or modifications, the one or more recommendations being
based on the comparing.

US Pat. No. 9,249,432

ENZYMES FOR IMPROVED BIOMASS CONVERSION

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method for degrading cellulose, comprising contacting a cellulose containing material with an enzyme cocktail comprising
a recombinant thermostable enzyme from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii comprising a glycoside hydrolase (GH9) domain and a glycoside hydrolase (GH48) domain and a recombinant thermostable ?-glucosidase,
wherein at least 50% of the cellulose in the material is converted to at least one sugar.

US Pat. No. 9,093,707

MULTILAYER SOLID ELECTROLYTE FOR LITHIUM THIN FILM BATTERIES

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A rechargeable lithium battery device comprising:
an anode current collector comprising a metal material selected from copper, nickel, chrome ferrous alloy, a refractory metal,
or stainless steel, the metal material being substantially inert toward a lithium metal material;

an anode overlaying the anode current collector, and the anode being electrically coupled to the current collector and comprising
lithium metal material;

a first electrolyte layer overlaying the anode consisting of Li2S, Li2O, or combinations thereof, the first electrolyte layer being substantially stable toward lithium metal material, the first
electrolyte layer being characterized by a first deposition rate and a thickness of 10-100 nm;

a second electrolyte layer in direct contact with the first electrolyte layer and comprising at least one of lithium nitride,
lithium fluoride, or lithium aluminum fluoride, the second electrolyte layer being characterized by a second deposition rate;

a cathode overlaying the second electrolyte layer; and
a cathode current collector overlaying the cathode;
wherein the first electrolyte layer and the second electrolyte layer are characterized by a total thickness of less than 20
um.

US Pat. No. 9,093,661

THIN FILM ELECTRONIC DEVICES WITH CONDUCTIVE AND TRANSPARENT GAS AND MOISTURE PERMEATION BARRIERS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A thin film stack comprising:
a first electrical conductor layer formed on a material that is at least partially transmissive of light; and
a thin film comprising a first metal deposited on the first electrical conductor layer, the thin film further comprising a
plug, wherein the first electrical conductor layer comprises a permeation pathway that extends from the material to the thin
film and the plug is arranged at an interface between the permeation pathway and the thin film.

US Pat. No. 9,425,249

COINCIDENT SITE LATTICE-MATCHED GROWTH OF SEMICONDUCTORS ON SUBSTRATES USING COMPLIANT BUFFER LAYERS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A semiconductor device comprising:
a Si substrate;
a compliant buffer layer comprising crystalline Al, wherein the compliant buffer layer is coincident site lattice-matched
to the Si substrate, and the compliant buffer layer has a face-centered cubic structure; and

a device layer comprising a first crystalline semiconductor material chosen from III-V semiconductor materials, III-V semiconductor
alloys, II-VI semiconductor materials, II-VI semiconductor alloys, Ge, SiGe, and group IV semiconductor alloys, wherein the
device layer is coincident site lattice-matched to the compliant buffer layer.

US Pat. No. 9,362,429

PHOTOVOLTAIC SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS BASED ON ALLOYS OF TIN SULFIDE, AND METHODS OF PRODUCTION

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A photovoltaic thin film, comprising a tin alloy of formula (I):
Sn1-x(R)xS  (I),

wherein,
R is selected from magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca) and strontium (Sr);
x is not zero; and
the tin alloy is crystalline.
US Pat. No. 9,206,445

BIOCATALYSTS WITH ENHANCED INHIBITOR TOLERANCE

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A microorganism of the genus Zymomonas comprising a genetic modification that increases the growth rate or biofuel production rate of the modified microorganism
in the presence of a feedstock inhibitor compound relative to the growth rate or biofuel production rate of the unmodified
microorganism wherein the genetic modification increases the expression or activity of a histidine kinase relative to the
expression or activity level in the unmodified microorganism.

US Pat. No. 9,076,915

BORON, BISMUTH CO-DOPING OF GALLIUM ARSENIDE AND OTHER COMPOUNDS FOR PHOTONIC AND HETEROJUNCTION BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR DEVICES

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A monolithic, quadruple junction solar cell, comprising:
a first cell comprising Ge with a bandgap of about 0.67 eV;
a second cell comprising GaAs that is isoelectronically co-doped with a Group III acceptor element and a Group V donor element,
to have a bandgap of about 1.05 eV on the first cell, wherein the Group III acceptor element is B and the Group V donor element
is Bi to form a GaAs:Bi:B crystal lattice;

a third cell comprising GaAs with a bandgap of about 1.42 eV on the second cell; and
a fourth cell comprising InGaP with a bandgap of about 1.90 eV on the third cell.

US Pat. No. 10,148,092

REAL TIME VOLTAGE REGULATION THROUGH GATHER AND BROADCAST TECHNIQUES

ALLIANCE FOR SUSTAINABLE ...

1. A device comprising:at least one processor configured to:
receive a plurality of voltage measurements, wherein voltage measurements in the plurality of voltage measurements correspond to respective nodes in a plurality of nodes of a distribution network;
determine, for each respective node in the plurality of nodes:
a respective value of a first voltage-constraint coefficient, based on a respective previous value of the first voltage-constraint coefficient, a respective minimum voltage value for the respective node, and a respective voltage measurement in the plurality of voltage measurements that corresponds to the respective node; and
a respective value of a second voltage-constraint coefficient based on a respective previous value of the second voltage-constraint coefficient, a respective maximum voltage value for the respective node, and the respective voltage measurement, wherein the respective minimum voltage value for the respective node and the respective maximum voltage value for the respective node represent a defined allowable voltage range at the respective node; and
cause at least one inverter-interfaced energy resource in a plurality of inverter-interfaced energy resources that are connected to the distribution network to modify an output power of the at least one inverter-interfaced energy resource based on the respective value of the first voltage-constraint coefficient for each respective node and the respective value of the second voltage-constraint coefficient for each respective node.

US Pat. No. 9,456,183

IMAGE PROCESSING OCCUPANCY SENSOR

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method of controlling building equipment comprising:
receiving an image from an image sensor placed in a space associated with the building, the image including information representative
of one or more occupants in the space;

at a first processor coupled with a memory storing the image, determining, from the image, a presence of one or more occupants
within the space;

associating the image with a matrix that defines a dimensional representation of the space, wherein the matrix subdivides
the space into a plurality of regions each with one or more cells within each region; and

assigning an occupant value for each of the one or more cells based on a determination of a relative position of any detected
occupants within the space with respect to a position of a registered feature appearing within the image; and

providing a control signal to one or more controllable building elements within a first cell of a first region based on the
occupant value assigned to the first cell.

US Pat. No. 9,341,678

FAIL-SAFE DESIGNS FOR LARGE CAPACITY BATTERY SYSTEMS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A battery pack, comprising:
a plurality of cells arranged between a positive and a negative terminal;
a plurality of power lines that interconnect the plurality of cells in an array of parallel branches;
a plurality of balancing lines between the parallel branches, each balancing line configured to carry a balancing current
between adjacent branches and each having a resistance that is calibrated to force the balancing current onto the power lines
when the balancing current increases due to an internal short circuit in a cell to which that balancing line is connected;

a plurality of current meters connected to the power lines, the plurality of current meters configured to output a plurality
of fault signals at least one of which departs from a reference value when the resistance of the balancing lines forces the
balancing current onto the power lines;

a plurality of switches, each of which is connected to one of the parallel branches of cells and is configured to open if
the fault signal for the branch to which the switch is connected departs from the reference value; and

a plurality of fuses, each of which is connected to one of the balancing lines and is configured to open when the balancing
current in the balancing line to which the fuse is attached exceeds a predetermined threshold, wherein:

when a particular switch opens, the particular switch disconnects the corresponding positive terminal or the corresponding
negative terminal from the parallel branch of cells to which it is connected.

US Pat. No. 9,293,615

LOW-BANDGAP, MONOLITHIC, MULTI-BANDGAP, OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICES

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A monolithic, integrated, module (MIM), comprising:
a plurality of monolithic, multi-bandgap, photovoltaic converters, each of which comprises: (i) a first subcell with a first
bandgap and a first lattice constant; (ii) a second subcell with a second bandgap and a second lattice constant, wherein the
second bandgap is less than the first bandgap and the second lattice constant is greater than the first lattice constant;
and (iii) a lattice constant transition material positioned between the first subcell and the second subcell, said lattice
constant transition material having a bandgap at least as large as the first bandgap and a lattice constant that changes from
the first lattice constant to the second lattice constant; and

a common substrate with a substrate bandgap and a substrate lattice constant, said common substrate being positioned between
the lattice constant transition material and the second subcell of each of the monolithic, multi-bandgap, photovoltaic converters,
wherein the substrate bandgap is at least as large as the first bandgap and the substrate lattice constant is equal to the
second lattice constant.

US Pat. No. 9,142,408

LIQUID PRECURSOR FOR DEPOSITION OF INDIUM SELENIDE AND METHOD OF PREPARING THE SAME

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method of preparing a liquid indium selenide precursor, the method comprising:
reducing elemental selenium with a stoichiometric amount of hydrazine in the presence of a first solvent to yield a first
solution comprising Se22?; and

combining the first solution with a second solution comprising an indium salt and a second solvent to yield the liquid indium
selenide precursor comprising a suspension of indium selenide particles,

wherein the liquid indium selenide precursor is substantially hydrazine-free.

US Pat. No. 9,136,708

SIMULTANEOUS DISTRIBUTION OF AC AND DC POWER

Alliance For Sustainable ...

1. A method for simultaneous distribution of AC and DC power, the method comprising:
receiving a source AC power signal and chopping the source AC power signal resulting in a chopped AC power signal;
receiving a separate source DC power signal and chopping the source DC power signal resulting in a chopped DC power signal;
combining the chopped AC power signal and the chopped DC power signal resulting in a combined AC and DC power signal;
distributing the combined AC and DC power signal over a single power signal carrying medium; and
separating the combined AC and DC power signal into a first signal comprising the chopped DC power signal and a second signal
comprising the chopped AC power signal.

US Pat. No. 9,075,012

PHOTOLUMINESCENCE-BASED QUALITY CONTROL FOR THIN FILM ABSORBER LAYERS OF PHOTOVOLTAIC DEVICES

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A system for in-situ photoluminescence, comprising:
a low-power, pulsed diode laser;
a single optical fiber for both transmitting light from the laser to a sample and also for simultaneously collecting and transmitting
a photoluminescence (PL) response signal from the sample, wherein the collecting from the sample is for about 10 nanoseconds
after the transmitting of the light from the laser;

a filter for receiving the collected PL signal from the optical fiber and removing scattered light;
a broad band detector for detecting a time-resolved photoluminescence of the filtered PL signal for band widths ranging from
about 800 nm to about 1300 nm and, in response, forming a signal representative of the time-resolved photoluminescence;

a digitizing component for receiving the time-resolved photoluminescence signal and measuring up to 1 million measurements
or more per second of the time-resolved photoluminescence signal; and

a signal processor processing an output of the digitizing component to determine a lifetime correlation of the sample.

US Pat. No. 9,068,271

ELECTROCHEMICAL NITRIDATION OF METAL SURFACES

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method of electrochemical nitridation of a metal, the method comprising:
providing a potentiostat system comprising a potentiostat, a counter electrode, a reference electrode, and a working electrode
comprising the metal;

immersing the working electrode, the counter electrode, and the reference electrode in a solution, wherein the solution consists
of nitric acid and at least one nitrate; and

applying a cathodic potential, whereby the metal is nitrided with a nitride surface layer.

US Pat. No. 9,583,667

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR FORMING SOLAR CELLS WITH CUINSE2 AND CU(IN,GA)SE2 FILMS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method for fabricating a thin film device, the method comprising:
during a first stage, performing a mass transport of indium through vapor transport of an indium chloride vapor concurrently
with a selenium vapor to deposit a semiconductor film upon a substrate, while injecting an inert gas between the selenium
vapor and the indium chloride vapor;

heating the substrate and the semiconductor film to a desired temperature; and
during a second stage, performing a mass transport of copper through vapor transport of a copper chloride vapor concurrently
with the selenium vapor to the semiconductor film, while injecting the inert gas between the selenium vapor and the copper
chloride vapor.

US Pat. No. 9,343,378

OPTICAL CONTROL OF MULTI-STAGE THIN FILM SOLAR CELL PRODUCTION

ALLIANCE FOR SUSTAINABLE ...

1. A method comprising:
depositing, during a first deposition stage, a first material on a surface associated with a substrate, thereby forming a
deposition matrix;

depositing, during a second deposition stage, a second material on the deposition matrix;
monitoring, using an optical probe, the deposition matrix during the second deposition stage;
determining, based on the monitoring during the second deposition stage, a first time when a first transition point occurs;
and

modifying, based on the first time, at least one deposition parameter of the second deposition stage.

US Pat. No. 9,236,511

FABRICATION OF IONIC LIQUID ELECTRODEPOSITED CU—SN—ZN—S—SE THIN FILMS AND METHOD OF MAKING

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method for producing a semiconductor thin-film comprising:
(a) electrodepositing, onto a substrate, from an aqueous bath into which a first metallic salt has been dissolved, a first
layer comprising a first metal;

(b) electrodepositing, onto the first layer, a second layer comprising a second metal;
(c) electrodepositing, onto the second layer, from a non-aqueous ionic liquid into which a second metallic salt has been dissolved,
a third layer comprising a third metal; and

(d) annealing the first, second and third layers in chalcogen.

US Pat. No. 9,234,843

ON-LINE, CONTINUOUS MONITORING IN SOLAR CELL AND FUEL CELL MANUFACTURING USING SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE IMAGING

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A monitoring system comprising:
a material transport system configured to transport a substantially planar material through a monitoring zone of the monitoring
system;

an illumination source positioned to illuminate the material with light that spans across a width of the material, wherein
the light has substantially uniform intensity across the width of the material;

a line camera configured to obtain a plurality of consecutive line images, each comprising a respective linear array of pixels,
wherein each consecutive line image captures non-specular reflections of the light from a respective section of the material,
each respective section spanning the width of the material; and

a data processing system in digital communication with the line camera configured to:
receive, from the line camera, data representing each consecutive line image,
determine, based on the data representing each consecutive line image and for each of at least two pixels from the respective
linear array of pixels, a respective value of a quality parameter of the material, and

output the respective value of the quality parameter of the material for each of the at least two pixels.
US Pat. No. 9,175,397

MULTILAYER HETEROSTRUCTURES AND THEIR MANUFACTURE

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method comprising:
providing an organometallic solution, the organometallic solution including an organometallic compound dissolved in a complexing
solvent;

distributing the organometallic solution on a solid substrate, wherein the solid substrate comprises an organic polymer and
the distributing is by a first liquid coating process;

removing the complexing solvent; and
curing the organometallic compound to form a metallic oxide from the organometallic compound, wherein the metallic oxide produces
a first metal oxide layer on the solid substrate.

wherein the distributing is by a liquid coating process.

US Pat. No. 9,859,515

METHODS FOR PRODUCING THIN FILM CHARGE SELECTIVE TRANSPORT LAYERS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method comprising:
forming a first charge selective transport layer that is electrically coupled to a first conductor layer, wherein the first
charge selective transport layer is configured to selectively conduct charge carriers between a semiconductor layer and the
first conductor layer; and

forming, above the first charge selective transport layer, the semiconductor layer, wherein the first charge selective transport
layer is electrically coupled to the semiconductor layer, and

wherein forming the first charge selective transport layer comprises:
depositing, in an ambient atmosphere, a first precursor solution comprising a first metal-containing reactive precursor material
dissolved into a first complexing solvent, wherein molecules of the first complexing solvent are bonded to molecules of the
first metal-containing reactive precursor material, preventing the first metal-containing reactive precursor material from
reacting with water and oxygen;

evaporating the first complexing solvent, thereby allowing the first metal-containing reactive precursor material to react
with at least one of water or oxygen in the ambient atmosphere to form a first film; and

annealing the first film, thereby chemically altering the first film to form the first charge selective transport layer.

US Pat. No. 9,590,131

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR ADVANCED ULTRA-HIGH-PERFORMANCE INP SOLAR CELLS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A photovoltaic device comprising:
a High-Low (HL) doping architecture comprising a front surface confinement layer and an emitter layer; and
a heterointerface system architecture comprising a back surface confinement layer and a base layer, wherein:
the emitter layer and the base layer form a p-n junction absorber layer,
at least one of the emitter layer or the base layer comprises InP, and
the front surface confinement layer comprises n-type InP and has a thickness of 7 nm or less.

US Pat. No. 9,366,689

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR THERMAL IMAGING TECHNIQUE FOR MEASURING MIXING OF FLUIDS

ALLIANCE FOR SUSTAINABLE ...

1. A method for measuring mixing of gaseous fluids using thermal imaging, the method comprising:
positioning a thermal test medium parallel to a direction of primary flow of a gaseous fluid from an outlet vent of a momentum
source, wherein when the momentum source is operating, the gaseous fluid flows across a surface of the thermal test medium;

obtaining an ambient temperature value from a baseline thermal image of the surface when no gaseous fluid is flowing from
the outlet vent;

obtaining at least one operational thermal image of the surface when the gaseous fluid is flowing from the outlet vent across
the surface, wherein the gaseous fluid has a temperature different than the ambient temperature; and

calculating at least one temperature-difference fraction associated with at least a first position on the surface based on
a difference between temperature measurements obtained from the at least one operational thermal image and the ambient temperature
value.

US Pat. No. 9,140,460

CONTROL METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR INDIRECT EVAPORATIVE COOLERS

Alliance For Sustainable ...

1. A control method for operating a cooling system with an indirect evaporative cooler to maintain a temperature of an enclosed
space, comprising:
operating an airflow control device to provide supply air at a flow rate to a liquid desiccant dehumidifier, wherein the supply
air flows through the liquid desiccant dehumidifier and an indirect evaporative cooler prior to being ejected from an outlet
of the indirect evaporative cooler in fluid communication with a space;

operating a pump to provide liquid desiccant at a flow rate to the liquid desiccant dehumidifier;
sensing a temperature of an airstream at the outlet of the indirect evaporative cooler;
comparing the temperature of the airstream at the outlet to a setpoint temperature at the outlet; and
controlling the operating of the pump to set the flow rate of the liquid desiccant based on the comparing step.

US Pat. No. 9,140,471

INDIRECT EVAPORATIVE COOLERS WITH ENHANCED HEAT TRANSFER

Alliance For Sustainable ...

1. A separator plate assembly for use in an indirect evaporative cooler (IEC), comprising:
a separator plate with a body having a first surface for use in defining and contacting a dry channel in the IEC and a second
surface opposite the first surface for use in defining a wet channel in the IEC; and

heat transfer enhancements provided on the first surface, whereby the heat transfer enhancements comprise a pattern of features
structured to at least periodically disrupt airflow traveling across the first surface within the dry channel.

US Pat. No. 9,076,903

FORMING HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR CELLS USING DENSITY-GRADED ANTI-REFLECTION SURFACES

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method of processing a silicon surface to provide surface passivation for high-efficiency silicon-based devices, comprising:
positioning a substrate with a silicon surface in a chamber, wherein the silicon surface comprises graded-density silicon
to provide an anti-reflection surface;

heating the chamber to a temperature within a high-temperature processing range;
forming an emitter junction proximate the silicon surface by doping the substrate, wherein a dopant-containing precursor is
in communication with the chamber or was previously formed on the silicon surface;

forming a passivation layer on the graded-density silicon antireflection surface, wherein the chamber is maintained at a temperature
within the high-temperature processing range, wherein a dopant-containing layer is formed on the silicon surface during or
prior to the emitter junction forming and wherein the formation of the passivation layer is performed with the dopant-containing
layer in place on the substrate; and

forming a contact on the substrate after forming the passivation layer without removing dopant materials.

US Pat. No. 9,054,264

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR SOLAR CELLS WITH CIS AND CIGS FILMS MADE BY REACTING EVAPORATED COPPER CHLORIDES WITH SELENIUM

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method for fabricating a thin film device, the method comprising:
providing a semiconductor film comprising Indium (In) and Selenium (Se) upon a substrate;
heating the substrate and the semiconductor film to a desired temperature; and
performing a mass transport through vapor transport of a copper chloride vapor and a Se vapor to the semiconductor film within
a reaction chamber, wherein:

the semiconductor film comprises one of InxSe or (In,Ga)xSe, and

performing the mass transport comprises injecting the copper chloride vapor and the Se vapor into the reaction chamber until
the semiconductor film includes a copper-rich region.

US Pat. No. 9,862,841

GROUP IV NANOCRYSTALS WITH ION-EXCHANGEABLE SURFACE LIGANDS AND METHODS OF MAKING THE SAME

Alliance for Sustainable ...

15. A nanoparticle comprising:
a core comprising a group IV element and an outer surface having a surface charge; and
a first ligand comprising a charge opposite of the surface charge, wherein:
the first ligand is ionically bound to the core, and
at least a portion of the first ligand is capable of being reversibly exchanged with a second ligand.
US Pat. No. 9,636,664

METAL PHOSPHIDE CATALYSTS AND METHODS FOR MAKING THE SAME AND USES THEREOF

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method comprising:
heating a first mixture comprising:
Ni(PPh3)2(CO)2;

a phosphine;
oleylamine; and
a solvent, wherein:
the heating is to a first temperature to form a first heated mixture containing a nickel phosphide nanoparticle that is not
hollow;

adding to the first heated mixture a metal phenylphosphine-containing precursor comprising at least one of Rh(PPh3)(CO)Cl, Mo(PPh3)2(CO)4, Pd(PPh3)4, Ru(PPh3)3Cl2, Ru(PPh3)2(CO)2Cl2, or Co(PPh3)(CO)2(NO) resulting in a second mixture, and

heating the second mixture to a second temperature to form a second heated mixture containing a bimetallic phosphide nanoparticle
comprising at least one of (NixRhy)2Pz, (NixMoy)2Pz, (NixRuy)2Pz, (NixCoy)2Pz, or (NixPdy)2Pz, wherein:

z is equal to 1.0,
both x and y are greater than zero
x+y is equal to 1.0, and
the bimetallic phosphide nanoparticle is not hollow.

US Pat. No. 9,476,780

CALORIMETERS FOR TESTING ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS AND POWER ELECTRONICS METHODS OF MAKING THE SAME AND METHODS OF USE

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A large volume calorimeter, comprising:
a test chamber comprising an inner box nested inside of an outer box and a plurality of heat flux sensors in contact with
the exterior sidewalls of the inner box;

at least one thermally insulative device between the floor of the inner box and the floor of the outer box;
a thermally conductive device between each exterior sidewall of the inner box and each corresponding interior sidewall of
the outer box, the at least one thermally conductive device comprising a first wedge and second wedge;

at least one busbar in contact with an interior wall of the inner box; and
a test chamber lid;
wherein the test chamber is configured to be fully submerged in an isothermal bath during operation of the calorimeter.

US Pat. No. 9,347,690

METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER

ALLIANCE FOR SUSTAINABLE ...

1. A concentrating solar power system comprising:
a solar flux receiver to heat solid particles dropped therethrough using energy from concentrated solar flux incident on the
solar flux receiver; and

a fluidized-bed heat exchanger to receive solid particles heated by the solar flux receiver, fluidize the solid particles
to form a gas-solid fluid, and transfer heat from the gas-solid fluid to a working fluid, wherein:

the fluidized-bed heat exchanger includes a stackup hybrid boiler having a stationary bed super heater with a turbulent bed
evaporator on top of the stationary bed super heater, and a fast bed preheater on top of the turbulent bed evaporator, and

a gas-solid separator to separate the solid particles from gas in the gas-solid fluid after the gas-solid fluid has passed
through the fast bed preheater.

US Pat. No. 9,142,829

PASSIVE SAFETY DEVICE AND INTERNAL SHORT TESTED METHOD FOR ENERGY STORAGE CELLS AND SYSTEMS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A passive safety device for an energy storage cell for positioning between two electrically conductive layers of the energy
storage cell, the device comprising:
a separator;
a non-conductive layer;
a first electrically conductive material provided on the non-conductive layer;
a first opening formed through the separator between the first electrically conductive material and one of the electrically
conductive layers of the energy storage cell;

a second electrically conductive material provided adjacent the first electrically conductive material on the non-conductive
layer, wherein a space is formed on the non-conductive layer between the first and second electrically conductive materials;

a second opening formed through the non-conductive layer between the second electrically conductive material and another of
the electrically conductive layers of the energy storage cell; and

wherein the first and second electrically conductive materials combine and exit at least partially through the first and second
openings to connect the two electrically conductive layers of the energy storage cell at a predetermined temperature.

US Pat. No. 9,985,159

PASSIVATED CONTACT FORMATION USING ION IMPLANTATION

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method comprising, in order:by ion-implantation, implanting a first element as a first ion into a first region of a substrate at a first depth below a surface of the substrate;
by ion-implantation, implanting a second element as a second ion into a second region of the substrate at a second depth below the surface, the second depth being between the surface and the first depth; and
annealing the substrate, wherein:
the substrate comprises a semiconductor,
the first ion is different from the second ion,
the annealing converts the second region to a second layer comprising the second element and the semiconductor,
the annealing converts the first region to a first layer comprising the first element and the semiconductor,
a first unconverted layer of the substrate remains after the annealing, such that the first layer is between the second layer and the first unconverted layer, and
the annealing forms at least one pinhole area through the first layer such that at least a portion of the second element is capable of diffusing through the at least one pinhole area from the second layer to the first unconverted layer.

US Pat. No. 9,496,426

THIN FILM PHOTOVOLTAIC DEVICES WITH A MINIMALLY CONDUCTIVE BUFFER LAYER

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method comprising:
determining, based on a desired electrical characteristic of an alloyed thin film buffer layer, an amount of an additive oxide
precursor;

injecting a host oxide precursor and the amount of the additive oxide precursor into a deposition chamber that contains a
substrate coated with a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer; and

forming the alloyed thin film buffer layer on the TCO layer by reacting the host oxide precursor to form a host oxide and
reacting the additive oxide precursor to form an additive oxide,

wherein the additive oxide has a bandgap higher than approximately 3.5 eV, and
wherein a molar ratio of additive oxide to host oxide in the alloyed thin film buffer layer is between about 0.2 and about
0.7.

US Pat. No. 9,105,797

LIQUID PRECURSOR INKS FOR DEPOSITION OF IN—SE, GA—SE AND IN—GA—SE

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method for preparing a gallium selenide ink, the method comprising:
mixing a first hydrazine-free and lithium-free solution comprising elemental selenium and ethylene diamine with a second solution
comprising a gallium salt and a solvent comprising at least one of an organic amide or N-methylpyrrolidone.

US Pat. No. 9,518,784

INDIRECT EVAPORATIVE COOLER USING MEMBRANE-CONTAINED, LIQUID DESICCANT FOR DEHUMIDIFICATION

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method of conditioning a supply air stream, comprising:
dehumidifying the supply air stream to provide a dehumidified air stream, wherein the dehumidifying includes directing the
supply air stream through a channel defined by a surface of a vapor permeable membrane containing liquid desiccant; and

cooling the dehumidified air stream from a first temperature to a lower second temperature using indirect evaporative cooling.

US Pat. No. 9,484,480

HIGH PERFORMANCE, HIGH BANDGAP, LATTICE-MISMATCHED, GAINP SOLAR CELLS

Alliance For Sustainable ...

1. A photovoltaic converter comprising:
a photovoltaic cell comprising GaInP having a bandgap greater than about 1.9 eV, wherein the photovoltaic cell has a junction
and is lattice-mismatched to a parent substrate; and

a graded layer positioned between the parent substrate and the photovoltaic cell, wherein:
the parent substrate comprises GaAs,
the graded layer has a lattice constant that changes from a first lattice constant in a first portion closest to the parent
substrate to a second lattice constant in a second portion closest to the photovoltaic cell, such that the second lattice
constant matches a relaxed lattice constant of the photovoltaic cell,

the photovoltaic cell includes an emitter on a front side of the junction and a base on a back side of the junction, and
the photovoltaic converter further comprises: (i) a double heterostructure comprising a back surface confinement layer on
the base and a passivation/window layer on the emitter; (ii) a front contact layer comprising doped GaAsP between a metal
grid and the passivation/window layer; (iii) an anti-reflection coating on the passivation/window layer between contacts of
the front contact layer; and (iv) a back contact layer comprising doped GaAsP on the back surface confinement layer.

US Pat. No. 9,631,146

HYDROXIDE CATALYSTS FOR LIGNIN DEPOLYMERIZATION

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method for degrading lignin, comprising:
contacting a stream consisting essentially of lignin with a layered double hydroxide (LDH) catalyst in the presence of a liquid
solvent to produce a lignin degradation product; and

isolating the lignin degradation product, wherein:
the LDH catalyst comprises hydrotalcite (HTC) and nickel (Ni),
an amount of the Ni combined with the HTC is between 5 wt % Ni/HTC and 15 wt % Ni/HTC, and
the lignin degradation product comprises at least one of an aromatic or an alkane.

US Pat. No. 9,824,890

HIGH THROUGHPUT SEMICONDUCTOR DEPOSITION SYSTEM

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method of performing hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) deposition, the method comprising:
providing at least one first source material and at least one first carrier gas flow to a first HVPE mixing zone coupled to
a first deposition zone;

providing at least one second source material and at least one second carrier gas flow to a second HVPE mixing zone coupled
to a second deposition zone, wherein a separation is established between the first deposition zone and the second deposition
zone;

heating the first deposition zone to a first temperature;
heating the first HVPE mixing zone to a second temperature, wherein the second temperature is higher than the first temperature;
heating the second deposition zone to a third temperature, wherein the third temperature is different from the first temperature;
heating the second HVPE mixing zone to a fourth temperature;
outputting, from the first HVPE mixing zone into the first deposition zone, first reactant gases produced from the at least
one first source material and the at least one first carrier gas flow;

outputting, from the second HVPE mixing zone into the second deposition zone, second reactant gases produced from the at least
one second source material and the at least one second carrier gas flow;

placing a wafer into the first deposition zone to grow a first layer of a semiconductor device from the first reactant gases;
and

placing the wafer into the second deposition zone to grow a second layer of the semiconductor device from the second reactant
gases,

wherein the heating of the first deposition zone to the first temperature and the heating of the second deposition zone to
the third temperature are performed concurrently.

US Pat. No. 9,722,111

SURFACE PASSIVATION FOR CDTE DEVICES

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method for surface passivation, the method comprising:
adjusting a stoichiometry of a surface of a CdTe material layer such that the surface becomes Cd-rich; and
reconstructing a crystalline lattice at the surface of the CdTe material layer by annealing the adjusted surface.

US Pat. No. 9,714,387

CATALYSTS AND METHODS FOR CONVERTING CARBONACEOUS MATERIALS TO FUELS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

9. A method comprising:
converting a carbonaceous material to a mixture comprising syngas;
converting at least a portion of the syngas to at least one of dimethyl ether (DME) or methanol; and
contacting at least one of the DME or the methanol with hydrogen (H2) and a solid catalyst, to produce a first product mixture comprising at least one of 2,2,3-trimethylbutane or 2,3,3-trimethyl-1-butene;

wherein the solid catalyst comprises:
a beta zeolite;
metallic copper deposited on a surface of the beta zeolite;
a total acid content between about 1000 ?mol/g and about 2500 ?mol/g; and
a ratio of Brønsted acid sites to Lewis acid sites between about 0.5 and about 2.5.
US Pat. No. 9,683,248

ENHANCED PROCESSIVE CELLULASES

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. An isolated nucleic acid molecule encoding a chimeric fungal CeI7A polypeptide that has a cellulase activity at least 1.5-fold
greater than the wild-type CeI7A polypeptide, wherein the chimeric CeI7A polypeptide comprises the following domains: a catalytic
domain (CD), a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) and a linker domain, and wherein at least one of the domains is from a Penicillium funiculosum CeI7A polypeptide and at least one of the domains is from a Trichoderma reesei CeI7A polypeptide; and wherein each domain is from the Penicillium funiculosum or Trichoderma reesei CeI7A polypeptides.
US Pat. No. 10,087,425

CHIMERIC ENZYMES FOR CONVERSION OF LIGNIN-DERIVED CHEMICALS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. An isolated DNA molecule encoding a chimeric enzyme comprising a cytochrome P450 polypeptide and a catechol 1,2-dioxygenase polypeptide, wherein the chimeric enzyme comprises at least 90% of the amino acids of SEQ ID NO: 4.

US Pat. No. 9,796,931

CATALYSTS AND METHODS FOR CONVERTING CARBONACEOUS MATERIALS TO FUELS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A liquid fuel comprising:
2,2,3,5,5,6,6-heptamethyl-3-heptene, wherein:
the liquid fuel has a density between 0.7 g/cm3 and 0.85 g/cm3;

the liquid fuel has a boiling point between 180° C. and 400° C.;
the liquid fuel has a heat of combustion between 40 MJ/kg and 50 MJ/kg; and
the liquid fuel has a cloud point of less than ?50° C.

US Pat. No. 9,768,015

METHODS OF FORMING CIGS FILMS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method of forming a CIGS film, the method comprising:
a precursor step comprising simultaneously evaporating Cu, In, Ga, Se, and Sb onto a substrate, wherein the Se is incident
on the substrate at a rate of at least 20 Å/s and the Sb is incident on the substrate at a rate of at least 0.2 Å/s; and

a selenization step comprising evaporating Se over the substrate after the precursor step.

US Pat. No. 9,543,537

SOLUTION PROCESSED METAL OXIDE THIN FILM HOLE TRANSPORT LAYERS FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method comprising:
forming an indium tin oxide (ITO) layer on a substrate;
depositing a hole transport layer (HTL) on the ITO layer, wherein the HTL comprises an amorphous, p-type NiO;
annealing the HTL;
forming an active layer on the annealed HTL, wherein the active layer comprises a donor region and an acceptor region; and
forming a contact on the active layer, wherein:
the contact comprises a cathode, and
the depositing is performed by spin-coating a diluted nickel ink on the ITO layer.

US Pat. No. 9,543,054

METHOD OF FABRICATING ELECTRODES INCLUDING HIGH-CAPACITY, BINDER-FREE ANODES FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method of making a binderless electrode material, the method comprising:
combining an electrochemically active precursor material comprising iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles and an electrically conductive
material comprising carbon nanoparticles to form a material;

mixing the material with a sodium dodecyl sulfate solution to form a mixed material;
filtering the mixed material to form a mixed electrode material;
transferring the mixed electrode material to a conductive substrate; and
heating the transferred mixed electrode material and the conductive substrate in an inert atmosphere, such that at least a
portion of the iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles is converted to iron oxide nanoparticles suspended within the electrically
conductive material.

US Pat. No. 9,843,080

MAGNESIUM-BASED METHODS, SYSTEMS, AND DEVICES

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. An electrical device comprising:
a current collector;
a liquid electrolyte comprising magnesium tetrahydroborate; and
an active layer electrically connected to the current collector to form an anode, wherein:
the active layer comprises a plurality of particles, a conductive additive, and a binder additive,
the plurality of particles are present at a first amount between 50 wt % and 70 wt %, the conductive additive is at a second
amount between 10 wt % and 30 wt %, and the binder additive is at a third amount of less than or equal to 40 wt %,

the plurality of particles, the conductive additive, and the binder additive form a plurality of interstitial spaces within
the active layer,

a portion of the liquid electrolyte is positioned within and fills at least a portion of the plurality of interstitial spaces,
the plurality of particles have a first state comprising at least two boron sheets with a plurality of magnesium atoms intercalated
between the boron sheets resulting in a first composition MgB2,

the plurality of particles have a second state comprising the at least two boron sheets and a fraction, 1?y, of the plurality
of magnesium atoms intercalated between the boron sheets resulting in a second composition Mg(1-y)B2, where 0
while in the second state, the liquid electrolyte contains at least y Mg2+ cations, and

the electrical device is capable of reversibly switching between the first state and the second state.

US Pat. No. 9,722,122

BORON, BISMUTH CO-DOPING OF GALLIUM ARSENIDE AND OTHER COMPOUNDS FOR PHOTONIC AND HETEROJUNCTION BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR DEVICES

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A two-junction tandem solar cell comprising:
a monolithic first cell comprising a substrate with a bandgap of about 1.1 eV and a first charge-doped p-n junction between
a GaP window layer and a BSR layer of GaP:B:Bi; and

a monolithic second cell adjacent to the first cell, the second cell comprising GaP that is isoelectronically co-doped with
an acceptor element and a deep donor element to have an effective bandgap of about 1.75 eV and a second charge-doped p-n junction.

US Pat. No. 9,701,696

METHODS FOR PRODUCING SINGLE CRYSTAL MIXED HALIDE PEROVSKITES

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method comprising:
contacting a lead halide, a first alkylammonium halide (AAH), and a second AAH in a solvent to form a solution; and
maintaining the solution at a first temperature above 21° C., resulting in the formation of an alkylammonium dihalide perovskite
crystal, wherein:

the lead halide comprises a first halogen,
the first AAH comprises the first halogen,
the second AAH comprises a second halogen that is different from the first halogen,
the solution has a first molar amount of the first AAH, a second molar amount of the second AAH, and a third molar amount
of the lead halide,

the first molar amount and the second molar amount are present at a first molar ratio of the first molar amount divided by
second molar amount defined by (1?y)/y with 0
the first molar amount, the second molar amount, and the third molar amount are present at a second molar ratio defined by
the sum of the first molar amount and the second molar amount divided by the third molar amount where the second molar ratio
is between 0.8 and 1.2 inclusively, and

the alkylammonium dihalide perovskite crystal comprises lead, the first halogen, and the second halogen.
US Pat. No. 9,701,991

METHODS FOR CELLOBIOSAN UTILIZATION

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method for degrading cellobiosan, comprising contacting a cellobiosan containing material with a microbial ?-glucosidase
enzyme selected from Aspergillus niger ?-glucosidase 1 (bgl1), Phanerochaete chrysosporium ?-glucosidase 1A (bgl1A), Agrobacterium sp. ?-glucosidase (abg) or Thermotoga maritima ?-glucosidase (bglA).

US Pat. No. 9,641,125

LUMINESCENCE IMAGING SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR EVALUATING PHOTOVOLTAIC DEVICES

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method comprising:
illuminating, using a non-solar light source, a first portion of a surface of a photovoltaic (PV) device;
collecting, using a detector, a first set of measurements relating to at least one of the presence or absence of luminescence
from a second portion of the surface that is not illuminated by the non-solar light source; and

analyzing the first set of measurements to produce a first representation of the surface, wherein:
the first representation identifies at least one of a first luminescing region or a first non-luminescing region within the
second portion of the surface, and

the first portion of the surface and the second portion of the surface are electrically connected.

US Pat. No. 9,790,249

HYDROXIDE CATALYSTS FOR LIGNIN DEPOLYMERIZATION

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method for treating lignin, the method comprising contacting the lignin with a layered double hydroxide (LDH) catalyst
comprising a nitrate anion, wherein the contacting depolymerizes the lignin resulting in a mixture comprising an aromatic
compound.

US Pat. No. 9,789,751

THERMAL BARRIERS FOR COMPARTMENTS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A barrier comprising:
a core layer comprising a first surface, a second surface, and a first edge; and
a first outer layer comprising a third surface and a second edge, wherein:
the third surface substantially contacts the first surface,
the core layer is configured to minimize conductive heat transfer through the barrier, and
the first outer layer is configured to maximize reflection of light away from the barrier.

US Pat. No. 9,880,440

ELECTROCHROMIC DEVICES AND RELATED PRODUCTS AND METHODS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. An electrochromic device, comprising:
a stack of film layers that is switchable between a reflective state and a transparent state through application of electrical
potential across the stack, the stack comprising at least the following layers listed in relative order within the stack:

lithium ion storage layer;
ion conductor layer;
electrically conductive transparent metallic layer; and
a second electrically conductive transparent layer disposed on a side of the lithium ion storage layer opposite the ion conductor
layer;

wherein, when the stack is switched from the transparent state to the reflective state, lithium ions move from the lithium
ion storage layer into the ion conductor layer and a reflective feature forms adjacent the electrically conductive transparent
metallic layer; and

when the stack is switched from the reflective state to the transparent state, the reflective feature is removed and lithium
ions move from the ion conductor layer into the lithium ion storage layer;

when the stack is in the transparent state, the stack consists essentially of only the following layers disposed between the
electrically conductive transparent metallic layer and the second electrically conductive transparent layer: the lithium ion
storage layer and the ion conductor layer;

the electrically conductive transparent metallic layer has transmissivity to visible light at a wavelength of 550 nm of at
least 50 percent;

when the stack is in the transparent state, the stack has transmissivity to visible light at a wavelength of 550 nm of at
least 40 percent through a portion of the stack including the electrically conductive transparent metallic layer, the second
electrically conductive transparent layer and all layers of the stack disposed between the electrically conductive transparent
metallic layer and the second electrically conductive transparent layer; and

when the stack is in the reflective state, the stack has transmissivity of visible light at a wavelength of 550 nm of no greater
than 20 percent through the said portion of the stack.

US Pat. No. 9,823,177

CALIBRATED PERMEATION STANDARDS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A permeation standard comprising:
a first substrate that is impermeable to an analyte;
a first orifice disposed in the first substrate; and
a first permeable material filling the first orifice;
wherein the first permeable material comprises a material other than a gas, and
wherein the first orifice and the first permeable material are configured to provide a predetermined transmission rate of
the analyte through the permeation standard.

US Pat. No. 9,543,468

HIGH BANDGAP III-V ALLOYS FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY OPTOELECTRONICS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. An optoelectronic device comprising:
a first device layer comprising an alloy consisting essentially of Al1-xInxP, wherein:

0.54?x<1.0,
the first device layer is at least partially ordered, and
the first device layer is configured to emit light;
a substrate comprising at least one of GaAs, Si, Ge, InP, or GaP; and
a first compositionally-graded buffer layer comprising:
a first step-grade buffer layer in contact with the substrate;
a second step-grade buffer layer in contact with the first device layer, and
between one and six additional step-grade buffer layers positioned between the substrate and the first device layer, wherein:
the first step-grade buffer layer is substantially lattice-matched with the substrate,
the second step-grade buffer layer is substantially lattice-matched with the first device layer, and
each additional step-grade buffer layer has a lattice constant that is between the lattice constants of its two immediate
closest neighboring step-grade buffer layers.

US Pat. No. 9,914,947

BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method for producing ethylene glycol, comprising:
culturing a Synechocystis cell that is genetically engineered to produce ethylene glycol and is not capable of expressing an active S111908 enzyme and
expresses a nucleic acid molecule with a sequence at least 90% identical to SEQ ID NO:3, under conditions that allow for the
production of ethylene and ethylene glycol;

converting the ethylene to ethylene oxide;
converting the ethylene oxide to ethylene glycol; and
isolating the ethylene glycol.

US Pat. No. 9,803,142

CATALYSTS AND METHODS FOR CONVERTING CARBONACEOUS MATERIALS TO FUELS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method comprising:
contacting at least one of dimethyl ether (DME) or methanol with hydrogen (H2) and a solid catalyst to produce a mixture comprising at least one of 2,2,3-trimethylbutane or 2,3,3-trimethyl-1-butene,
wherein the solid catalyst comprises:

a beta zeolite;
metallic copper deposited on a surface of the beta zeolite;
a total acid content between about 1900 ?mol/g and about 2100 ?mol/g; and
a ratio of Brønsted acid sites to Lewis acid sites between about 0.5 and about 2.5.

US Pat. No. 10,042,094

WEATHERABLE SOLAR REFLECTOR WITH HIGH ABRASION RESISTANCE

SkyFuel, Inc., Lakewood,...

1. A solar reflector comprising:an abrasion-resistant coating;
a reflective metal layer below the abrasion-resistant coating;
an adhesive layer below the reflective metal layer; and
a polymer film layer;
wherein the polymer film layer is provided between the abrasion-resistant coating and the reflective metal layer, or wherein the polymer film layer is provided between the reflective metal layer and the adhesive layer; and
wherein a hemispherical reflectance of the solar reflector is above 80% for wavelengths between 400 nm and 2200 nm.
US Pat. No. 10,036,051

ENHANCED PROCESSIVE CELLULASES

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. An isolated chimeric fungal Cel7A polypeptide that has a cellulase activity at least 1.5-fold greater than the wild-type Cel7A polypeptide, comprising a catalytic domain (CD), a carbohydrate-binding molecule (CBM) and a linker domain, wherein at least one of the domains is from a Penicillium funiculosum Cel7A polypeptide and at least one of the domains is from a Trichoderma reesei Cel7A polypeptide; and wherein each domain is from the Penicillium funiculosum or Trichoderma reesei Cel7A polypeptides.
US Pat. No. 10,017,792

BIOMASS CONVERSION TO FUELS AND CHEMICALS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A genetically modified prokaryotic microorganism comprising:an exogenous genetic addition encoding at least a 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase and a phenol monoxygenase, wherein said genetically modified prokaryotic microorganism is capable of producing cis, cis-muconic acid.

US Pat. No. 9,945,585

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR DIRECT THERMAL RECEIVERS USING NEAR BLACKBODY CONFIGURATIONS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A receiver comprising:a first tube comprising a first outer surface;
a second tube comprising a second outer surface;
a third tube comprising a third outer surface; and
a fourth tube comprising a fourth outer surface, wherein:
a first portion of the first tube, a first portion of the second tube, a first portion of the third tube, and a first portion of the fourth tube are aligned substantially parallel to a first axis,
the first tube and the second tube are adjacent to each other such that the first outer surface and the second outer surface form a first planar structure,
the third tube and the fourth tube are adjacent to each other such that the third outer surface and the fourth outer surface form a second planar structure,
each tube is configured to receive and discharge a heat transfer fluid,
at least one of the first outer surface, the second outer surface, the third outer surface, or the fourth outer surface has a surface specularity between 4 mrad and 1500 mrad,
at least one of the first outer surface, the second outer surface, the third outer surface, or the fourth outer surface comprises a ceramic, and
at least one of the first planar structure or the second planar structure is configured to receive radiation such that at least a fraction of the radiation transfers heat to the heat transfer fluid.

US Pat. No. 9,911,873

HYDROGENATION OF PASSIVATED CONTACTS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method comprising:
applying, to a passivated contact, a layer of a material, the material containing hydrogen impurities;
subsequently annealing the layer of the material; and
subsequently removing the layer of the material from the passivated contact.
US Pat. No. 10,253,338

CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO USEFUL INTERMEDIATES

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A non-naturally occurring Pseudomonas not capable of expressing 3-oxoadipate CoA-transferase, and capable of producing 3-oxohexanedioic acid,wherein the Pseudomonas is capable of growing on at least one of a cellulose decomposition molecule or a lignin decomposition molecule, and
wherein the Pseudomonas lacks genes encoding for PcaI and/or PcaJ.

US Pat. No. 10,151,607

SHIELD DEVICES, SYSTEMS, AND METHODS FOR IMPROVED MEASUREMENTS AND DETECTION

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A device for shielding a temperature measuring element from direct exposure to radiation, the device comprising:a first wall comprising a first opening having a first edge; anda first aperture through the first wall, wherein:the first edge is positioned at least partially within a first plane,
the first wall and the first plane define a first space positioned within the first wall,
the first aperture has a second edge with at least a portion of the second edge positioned outside of the first plane, and
the space is configured to contain the temperature measuring element.

US Pat. No. 10,118,124

INTEGRATED MEMBRANE-PYROLYSIS SYSTEMS AND METHODS

UT-BATTELLE, LLC, Oak Ri...

1. A method of processing a mixture of heated vapors, at least two of which substantially differ in polarity from each other, the method comprising directing said mixture of heated vapors at a temperature of at least 150° C. through a hydrophobic or hydrophilic mesoporous membrane comprising a mesoporous coating of hydrophobized or hydrophilized metal oxide nanoparticles, respectively, wherein the hydrophobic mesoporous membrane permits passage of one or more hydrophobic heated vapors in said mixture of heated vapors and blocks passage of one or more hydrophilic heated vapors in said mixture of heated vapors, and wherein the hydrophilic mesoporous membrane permits passage of one or more hydrophilic heated vapors in said mixture of heated vapors and blocks passage of one or more hydrophobic heated vapors in said mixture of heated vapors.

US Pat. No. 10,066,595

WAVE ENERGY CONVERSION INCORPORATING ACTUATED GEOMETRY

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A system comprising:a body comprising an approximately planar frame having a front surface and at least one opening extending through the body, wherein the body is configured to:
connect to a power take off device; and
during operation, transfer wave energy to the power take off device via movement of the body relative to the power take off device; and
at least one fin disposed within the at least one opening and coupled to the body, the at least one fin operable to modify at least one of a size of the at least one opening or a shape of the at least one opening by rotating to modify an angle between the surface of the at least one fin and the front surface of the frame.

US Pat. No. 10,367,222

MATERIALS FOR FLOW BATTERY ENERGY STORAGE AND METHODS OF USING

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A catholyte mixture comprising:a mediator having a first redox potential;
an cathode material having a second redox potential that is less than the first redox potential; and
a cation, wherein:
the cathode material is in a form comprising a solid particulate,
the cathode material has a first condition comprising a first oxidation state, where the cation is intercalated within the cathode material,
the cathode material has a second condition comprising a second oxidation state that is higher than the first oxidation state, where the cathode material is substantially free of the cation,
the mediator has a first condition comprising a third oxidation state and a second condition comprising a fourth oxidation state that is higher than the third oxidation state,
the cathode material is capable of being reversibly cycled between the first condition of the cathode material and the second condition of the cathode material, and
the mediator is capable of being reversibly cycled between its first condition and its second condition.

US Pat. No. 10,087,535

DEVICES AND METHODS FOR PHOTOELECTROCHEMICAL WATER SPLITTING

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A photoelectrochemical device comprising:a first electrode comprising, in order:
a hydrogen generating catalyst
a first absorber layer comprising a first n-type layer in contact with the hydrogen generating catalyst, and a first p-type layer;
a graded buffer layer comprising at least one of aluminum or phosphorous and having a bandgap of greater than 1.2 eV;
a second absorber layer comprising a second n-type layer in contact with the graded buffer layer, and a second p-type layer; and
a contact layer comprising at least one reflective metal in contact with the second p-type layer, wherein:
the first n-type layer and the first p-type layer comprise GaxInyP,
the second n-type layer and the second p-type layer comprise GatInuAs,
the first absorber layer has a first bandgap between 1.6 eV and 1.8 eV, inclusively,
the second absorber layer has a second bandgap between 0.9 eV and 1.2 eV, inclusively,
x, y, t, and u are each between greater than 0.0 and 1.0, and
x+y=t+u=1.0.

US Pat. No. 10,026,856

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR ADVANCED ULTRA-HIGH-PERFORMANCE INP SOLAR CELLS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A photovoltaic device comprising:a heterointerface system architecture comprising a front surface confinement layer and an emitter layer; and
a High-Low (HL) doping architecture comprising a back surface confinement layer and a base layer, wherein:
the emitter layer and the base layer form a p-n junction absorber layer,
at least one of the emitter layer or the base layer comprises InP, and
the back surface confinement layer comprises n-type InP and has a thickness of 7 nm or less.
US Pat. No. 10,364,322

NAPHTHALENE-CONTAINING POLYMERS AND METHODS OF MAKING THE SAME

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A dimer comprising:a first hydroxyl-functionalized naphthalene group; and
a second hydroxyl-functionalized naphthalene group, wherein:
the first hydroxyl-functionalized naphthalene group and the second hydroxyl-functionalized naphthalene group are connected by a bridging group.
US Pat. No. 10,329,548

FUNGAL CELLOBIOHYDROLASES

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A non-naturally occurring, mutated Cel7A polypeptide having increased hydrolase activity when compared to the naturally occurring Cel7A polypeptide from which the non-naturally occurring mutated Cel7A polypeptide was derived; andwherein said mutated Cel7A polypeptide has an amino acid sequence identity of at least 85% of SEQ ID NO: 2.

US Pat. No. 10,332,688

METHODS FOR MAKING PEROVSKITE SOLAR CELLS HAVING IMPROVED HOLE-TRANSPORT LAYERS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A photovoltaic device comprising:a hole-transport layer comprising 2,2?,7,7?-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9?-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) and an acid; and
a perovskite layer, wherein:
the perovskite layer is in physical contact with the first hole-transport layer, and
the acid is selected from the group consisting of citric acid, formic acid, lactic acid, oxalic acid, cinnamic acid, a sulfonic acid, a phosphonic acid, a carboxylic acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, hydroiodic acid, nitric acid, phosphoric acid, phosphorous acid, sulfuric acid, and selenic acid.

US Pat. No. 10,304,989

FABRICATION AND USE OF LARGE-GRAIN TEMPLATES FOR EPITAXIAL DEPOSITION OF SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method comprising:depositing a small-grain layer of a semiconductor material;
treating the small-grain layer such that the small-grain layer becomes a large-grain layer; and
growing an epitaxial layer of the semiconductor material on the large-grain layer;
wherein a ratio of an average grain size of the small-grain layer to a thickness of the small-grain layer is less than 1.0, and a ratio of an average grain size of the large-grain layer to a thickness of the large-grain layer is greater than 1.5.

US Pat. No. 10,256,093

SELECTIVE AREA GROWTH OF SEMICONDUCTORS USING PATTERNED SOL-GEL MATERIALS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method comprising:first forming a protective layer on a first region and a second region of a substrate; and further comprising the additional steps of forming a pattern of a sol-gel material on the first region of the substrate; and
then removing the protective layer from the second region of the substrate; and
then depositing a semiconductor material on the second region of the substrate by selective area growth comprising nucleating the semiconductor material at a growth rate between 0.5 and 2.0 microns per hour and a V/III ratio between 10 and 250, wherein the second region is adjacent to the first region; and
wherein the semiconductor material and the substrate are lattice mismatched.

US Pat. No. 10,253,559

ENERGY-HARVESTING CHROMOGENIC DEVICES

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A device comprising:a switchable perovskite material; and
an intercalating species, wherein:
when a first condition is met, the intercalating species is associated with the switchable perovskite material and the switchable perovskite material is substantially transparent and substantially colorless,
when a second condition is met, at least a portion of the intercalating species is transferred from the switchable perovskite material and the switchable perovskite material is substantially opaque and substantially colored,
the intercalating species comprises at least one of RNH2, RR?NH, ROH, CO, or CO2, and
R and R? are organic functional groups.

US Pat. No. 10,203,164

SOLAR THERMOELECTRICITY VIA ADVANCED LATENT HEAT STORAGE

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A system comprising:a thermal valve having a first position and a second position; a heat transfer fluid;
a receiver configured to receive thermal energy; a phase change material (PCM);
a heat pipe comprising a first internal volume at least partially defined by a first wall and a second wall; and
an energy converter, wherein:
the heat transfer fluid is positioned within the first internal volume, the PCM is in thermal communication with the heat transfer fluid through the first wall, the energy converter is configured to be in thermal communication with the heat transfer
fluid through the second wall,
when in the first position, the thermal valve prevents the transfer of the thermal energy from the PCM to the energy converter, and enables the transfer of the thermal energy from the receiver to the PCM, and
when in the second position, the thermal valve enables the transfer of the thermal energy from the PCM to the heat transfer fluid and the energy converter, such that the energy converter converts at least a portion of the thermal energy to electricity.

US Pat. No. 10,192,740

HIGH THROUGHPUT SEMICONDUCTOR DEPOSITION SYSTEM

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method of performing hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) deposition, the method comprising:providing at least one first source material and at least one first carrier gas flow to a first HVPE mixing zone coupled to a first deposition zone;
providing at least one second source material and at least one second carrier gas flow to a second HVPE mixing zone coupled to a second deposition zone;
heating the first deposition zone to a first temperature;
heating the first HVPE mixing zone to a second temperature;
heating the second deposition zone to a third temperature, wherein the third temperature is different from the first temperature;
heating the second HVPE mixing zone to a fourth temperature;
outputting, from the first HVPE mixing zone into the first deposition zone, first reactant gases produced from the at least one first source material and the at least one first carrier gas flow;
outputting, from the second HVPE mixing zone into the second deposition zone, second reactant gases produced from the at least one second source material and the at least one second carrier gas flow;
placing a substrate into the first deposition zone to grow a first layer from the first reactant gases; and
placing the substrate into the second deposition zone to grow a second layer from the second reactant gases,
wherein the heating of the first deposition zone to the first temperature and the heating of the second deposition zone to the third temperature are performed concurrently.

US Pat. No. 10,134,590

METHODS OF GROWING CDTE-BASED MATERIALS AT HIGH RATES

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method comprising:depositing a first CdTe-based layer on a CdTe-based template at a rate of between 1 ?m/min to 8 ?m/min, wherein:
each of the first CdTe-based layer and the CdTe-based template has at least one of a single-crystal structure or a large-grain polycrystalline structure, and
the depositing is performed by physical vapor deposition while maintaining a temperature of a substrate on which the first CdTe-based layer is deposited between 400° C. and 650° C. during the depositing.

US Pat. No. 10,107,696

METHODS AND DEVICES FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEM ANALYSIS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A device comprising:a first thermo-electric gauge (TEG);
a first conductor thermally coupled to the first TEG, first conductor comprising a first surface and a first electrical connection;
a second conductor comprising a second surface and a second electrical connection, wherein the second surface is facing the first surface, the first surface and the second surface forming a gap;
a second TEG thermally coupled to the second conductor; and
an adjustment mechanism attached to the second TEG, operable to modify a size of the gap between the first surface and the second surface, wherein:
the first conductor further comprises:
a third surface, different from the first surface,
a first busbar having a surface that is flush with the third surface, wherein the first electrical connection comprises an end of the first busbar, and wherein the first TEG is thermally coupled to the third surface and to the surface of the first busbar, and
one or more recesses disposed between at least a portion of the first busbar and the rest of the first conductor; and
the second conductor further comprises:
a fourth surface, different from the second surface,
a second busbar having a surface that is flush with the fourth surface, wherein the second electrical connection comprises an end of the second busbar, and wherein the second TEG is thermally coupled to the fourth surface and to the surface of the second busbar, and
one or more recesses disposed between at least a portion of the second busbar and the rest of the second conductor.

US Pat. No. 10,061,176

ELECTROCHROMIC DEVICES AND RELATED PRODUCTS AND METHODS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. An electrochromic product, comprising:a rigid transparent window sheet; and
an electrochromic device, comprising:
a stack of film layers that is switchable between a reflective state and a transparent state through application of an electrical potential across the stack, the stack comprising at least the following:
a lithium ion storage layer;
an ion conductor layer;
an electrically conductive transparent metallic layer; and
a second electrically conductive transparent layer disposed on a side of the lithium ion storage layer opposite the ion conductor layer;
wherein:
when the stack is switched from the transparent state to the reflective state, lithium ions move from the lithium ion storage layer into the ion conductor layer and a reflective feature forms adjacent the electrically conductive transparent metallic layer;
when the stack is switched from the reflective state to the transparent state, the reflective feature is removed and lithium ions move from the ion conductor layer into the lithium ion storage layer;
when the stack is in the transparent state, the stack consists essentially of only the following layers disposed between the electrically conductive transparent metallic layer and the second electrically conductive transparent layer: the lithium ion storage layer and the ion conductor layer;
the electrically conductive transparent metallic layer has transmissivity to visible light at a wavelength of 550 nm of at least 50 percent;
when the stack is in the transparent state, the stack has transmissivity to visible light at a wavelength of 550 nm of at least 40 percent through a portion of the stack including the electrically conductive transparent metallic layer, the second electrically conductive transparent layer and all layers of the stack disposed between the electrically conductive transparent metallic layer and the second electrically conductive transparent layer; and
when the stack is in the reflective state, the stack has transmissivity of visible light at a wavelength of 550 nm of no greater than 20 percent through the said portion of the stack;
wherein, the electrochromic device is disposed to cover at least a portion of a side of the rigid transparent window sheet.

US Pat. No. 10,392,567

CATALYSTS AND METHODS FOR CONVERTING BIOMASS TO LIQUID FUELS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method comprising:contacting an oxygenated compound and hydrogen (H2) with a solid catalyst, wherein:
the solid catalyst comprises a metal carbide comprising a transition metal and a hydrogen-activating site,
the hydrogen-activating site has a concentration between 8 ?mol/g and 132 ?mol/g, and
the contacting converts at least a portion of the oxygenated compound to a deoxygenated compound.

US Pat. No. 10,378,805

MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL FOR HEAT TRANSFER TO FLUIDS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method for controlling a temperature of a fluid, the method comprising:an minimizing energy required to heat the fluid, wherein the method includes a model predictive controller configured to achieve the minimizing using a objective function defined by
Ropt?Crate[P1(R(i))+P2(R(i))], wherein:
Ropt is an optimized fluid temperature set-point,
P1 is the first power consumed by a first heating element to achieve a fluid temperature set-point (R(i)),
P2 is the second power consumed by a second heating element to achieve the fluid temperature set-point (R(i)), and
Crate is an electricity rate;
changing the fluid temperature set-point; and heating the fluid utilizing the first heating element and the second heating element to the optimized fluid temperature set-point;
solving the objective function for the optimized fluid temperature set-point with the changed fluid temperature set-point;
repeating the changing and the solving until the minimizing is achieved;
adjusting at least one of the first power consumed by a first heating element or the second power consumed by a second heating element so that the fluid attains the optimized fluid temperature set-point; and heating the fluid utilizing the first heating element and the second heating element to the optimized fluid temperature set-point.

US Pat. No. 10,340,801

DECENTRALIZED OSCILLATOR-BASED CONVERTER CONTROL

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A device comprising:a control unit comprising an oscillator circuit comprising a negative conductance element, an inductor, and a capacitor connected in parallel, the control unit configured to generate, based on the oscillator circuit, at least one switching signal; and
a direct current (DC)-to-DC conversion circuit comprising at least one electronic switch that is operatively coupled to the control unit, wherein the DC-to-DC conversion circuit is configured to convert, based on the at least one switching signal, a DC input voltage to a DC output voltage,
wherein the control unit is further configured to input, to the oscillator circuit, a current signal that is generated based on a measured output current of the DC-to-DC conversion circuit.
US Pat. No. 10,337,034

BIOMASS CONVERSION TO FUELS AND CHEMICALS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A process for producing adipic acid, the process comprising:contacting a culture broth comprising a lignin depolymerization compound with a genetically modified prokaryotic microorganism comprising a first exogenous genetic addition encoding at least a 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase and a phenol monooxygenase, wherein the genetically modified prokaryotic microorganism converts at least a portion of the lignin depolymerization compound to cis, cis-muconic acid;
separating the cis, cis-muconic acid from the culture broth;
purifying the separated cis, cis-muconic acid; and
hydrogenating at least a portion of the purified cis, cis-muconic acid to produce the adipic acid.

US Pat. No. 10,277,041

AUTONOMOUS BATTERY CONTROL AND OPTIMIZATION

UTAH STATE UNIVERSITY, L...

1. An apparatus comprising:a battery state module that determines a battery state of each battery cell of a plurality of battery cells forming a battery unit, a battery state of a battery cell comprising a health of the battery cell, wherein a battery state of at least one battery cell of the battery unit differs from a battery state of one or more other battery cells of the battery unit, each battery cell is connected in parallel to a shared bus through a bypass converter, each bypass converter comprising a direct current (“DC”)-to-DC converter, each bypass converter providing power from the battery cell to the shared bus;
a charge/discharge modification module that determines, based on the determined battery state of each battery cell of the battery unit, an amount to vary a charging characteristic for each battery cell of the battery unit with respect to a reference charging characteristic, wherein the charging characteristic for each battery cell varies as a function of a reference state; and
a charge/discharge module that adjusts charging and discharging of a battery cell of the battery unit based on the charging characteristic of the battery cell by controlling the bypass converter connected to the battery cell, wherein the charge/discharge modification module populates an objective map for each battery cell of the battery unit, the objective map of a battery cell comprising a target state-of-charge for each value of the reference state between at least a maximum value of the reference state and a minimum value of the reference state.
US Pat. No. 10,196,656

ENZYMES AND METHODS FOR DEALKYLATION OF SUBSTRATES

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. An isolated polynucleotide comprising a nucleic acid encoding a first polypeptide, a nucleic acid encoding a second polypeptide, and a promoter that is heterologous to the nucleic acid encoding said first or second polypeptide;wherein the promoter is operably linked to the nucleic acid encoding the first or second polypeptide,
the first polypeptide has dealkylase activity and comprises the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 2, and
the second polypeptide has reductase activity and comprises an amino acid sequence that has at least 99% sequence identity to the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 4.

US Pat. No. 10,411,209

METHODS FOR PRODUCING PEROVSKITE HALIDE FILMS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method comprising:exposing a first perovskite comprising a first cation, lead, and iodine to a gas comprising at least one of formylimidamide, guanidine, acetamidine, ethylamine, or methylammonia, wherein:
the exposing is performed at a temperature between 100° C. and 300° C.,
the exposing results in an exchange of the first cation with a second cation comprising at least one of methylammonium, formamidinium, guanidinium, acetamidinium, or ethylammonium, and
the exchange converts the first perovskite to a second perovskite comprising lead, iodine, and the second cation.
US Pat. No. 10,350,583

METAL PHOSPHIDE CATALYSTS AND METHODS FOR MAKING THE SAME AND USES THEREOF

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method comprising:heating to a target temperature a mixture comprising:
a metal phenylphosphine- and carbonyl-containing precursor comprising at least one of Mo(PPh3)2(CO)4, Ru(PPh3)2(CO)2Cl2, Co(PPh3)(CO)2(NO), or Rh(PPh3)2(CO)Cl;
oleylamine; and
1-octadecene, wherein:
the heating results in a mixture containing a metal phosphide nanoparticle comprising at least one of MoP, Ru2P, Co2P, or Rh2P, and
the target temperature is between 250° C. and 320° C.

US Pat. No. 10,280,255

RENEWABLE RESINS AND UNSATURATED POLYESTERS AND METHODS OF MAKING THE SAME

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A polymer comprising:wherein:the polymer includes a first amount (n) of a first repeat unit where n is an integer between 1 and 1000,
the polymer includes a second amount (m) of a second repeat unit where m is an integer between 1 and 100,
R1 is a first hydrocarbon group, and
R2 is a second hydrocarbon group.

US Pat. No. 10,273,403

NANOPARTICLES FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC AND LED DEVICES AND METHODS OF MAKING THE SAME

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A composition comprising:a plurality of perovskite particles having a cubic crystalline structure, wherein:
each perovskite particle is electronically coupled to its neighboring perovskite particles,
each particle has a characteristic length between greater than zero nanometers (nm) and 100 nm inclusively, and
the perovskite particles remain electronically coupled and maintain the cubic crystalline structure when exposed to a temperature between ?180° C. and 150° C.
US Pat. No. 10,266,852

LIGNIN CONVERSION TO FUELS, CHEMICALS AND MATERIALS

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. A method comprising:treating a solid lignocellulosic biomass with an alkaline compound to produce a lignin liquor phase and a residual solid polysaccharide phase,
wherein the lignin liquor phase comprises lignin with aromatic components; and
a first culturing of the lignin liquor phase with a bacterium from the genus Pseudomonas that converts at least a portion of the aromatic components to produce a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA).

US Pat. No. 10,263,277

FLEXIBLE THIN FILM SOLID STATE LITHIUM ION BATTERIES

Alliance for Sustainable ...

1. An electrochemical device comprising:a flexible anode layer;
a flexible cathode layer comprising a spinel material;
a solid flexible electrolyte layer comprising lithium iodide; and
a flexible insulating layer positioned in direct physical contact with the flexible cathode layer, wherein:
the solid flexible electrolyte layer is positioned between the flexible anode layer and the flexible cathode layer,
the flexible anode layer and the flexible cathode layer are both in direct physical contact with the solid flexible electrolyte layer,
the flexible anode layer, the flexible cathode layer, the solid flexible electrolyte layer, and the flexible insulating layer form a flexible structure,
the flexible structure has at least one of a bend or a fold,
the flexible anode layer, the flexible cathode layer, and the solid flexible electrolyte layer each have electrical and mechanical integrity at the at least one of the bend or the fold, and
the flexible insulating layer prevents the flexible cathode layer from bending or folding onto itself at the bend or the fold.