US Pat. No. 9,504,183

HYBRID THERMAL MANAGEMENT OF ELECTRONIC DEVICE

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. An enclosure with hybrid thermal management for a heat-generating electronic device, said enclosure comprising
a passive heat sink, comprising multiple thermally conductive fins adjacent to said electronic device and extending rearwardly
from said intake ports, said fins being spaced apart from each other for conducting heat away from said electronic device,

a cold skin adapted to slide over the top of said passive heat sink and having a front wall forming a plurality of air intake
ports,

a plurality of blowers mounted inside said cold skin for drawing air into said cold skin though said air intake ports and
then directing said air through said passive heat sink; and

wherein said thermally conductive fins extend vertically along said air intake ports and above said intake ports, the portions
of said fins above said air intake ports being spaced rearwardly away from said intake ports to form a space for receiving
said blowers inside said cold skin.

US Pat. No. 9,544,210

METHOD, A COMPUTER PROGRAM PRODUCT, AND A CARRIER FOR INDICATING ONE-WAY LATENCY IN A DATA NETWORK

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method for determining one-way latency in a network comprising:
a requester node running a first process to transmit a first plurality of synchronization requests over a network to a responder
node, the requester node comprising a first clock, the responder node comprising a second clock;

the requester node running a second process to receive a first plurality of synchronization responses from the responder node,
each of the first plurality of synchronization responses being generated by the responder node in response to the responder
node receiving one of the first plurality of synchronization requests, the first plurality of synchronization responses being
used to determine a first smallest difference between the first clock and the second clock;

the requester node transmitting a plurality of measurement requests over the network to the responder node, the requester
node storing latency data, the latency data comprising the transmit time for each of the plurality of measurement requests;

the requester node running a third process to transmit a second plurality of synchronization requests over a network to the
responder node;

the requester node running a fourth process to receive a second plurality of synchronization responses from the responder
node, each of the second plurality of synchronization responses being generated by the responder node in response to the responder
node receiving one of the second plurality of synchronization requests, the second plurality of synchronization responses
being used to determine a second smallest difference between the first clock and the second clock;

a processing node utilizing the first smallest difference between the first clock and the second clock, the latency data,
and the second smallest difference between the first clock and the second clock to determine a rate of change in the difference
between the clock rate of the first clock and the clock rate of the second clock, the processing node utilizing the rate of
change to correct for clock latency in the latency data.

US Pat. No. 9,094,427

METHOD, A COMPUTER PROGRAM PRODUCT, AND A CARRIER FOR INDICATING ONE-WAY LATENCY IN A DATA NETWORK

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A system for determining one-way latency between a first computer node (A) having a first clock and a second computer node
(B) having a second clock, comprising:
a network module running on said first computer node (A) to
pre-synchronize said first clock of said first computer node (A) with said second clock of said second computer node (B),
said pre-synchronizing further comprising obtaining a first clock difference value and a first absolute clock value;
measure a sending time and a receiving time associated with each measurement message within a plurality of measurement messages;
post-synchronize said first clock of said first computer node (A) with said second clock of said second computer node (B),
said post-synchronizing further comprising obtaining a second clock difference value and a second absolute clock value;
perform interpolating, comprising
adjusting the sending time associated with each measurement message, said adjusting based on
the sending time,
the said first and second clock difference values, and
the said first and second absolute clock values,
further wherein said adjusting comprises calculating a ratebias, and
 said calculating of ratebias comprising calculating a denominator; and
calculate the one-way latency associated with a measurement message in the data network between said first computer node (A)
and said second computer node (B) as the difference between

the receiving time associated with the measurement message, and
the adjusted sending time associated with the measurement message; and
generate a latency profile.

US Pat. No. 9,888,609

HYBRID THERMAL MANAGEMENT OF ELECTRONIC DEVICE

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. An enclosure with hybrid thermal management for a heat-generating electronic device, said enclosure comprising
a passive heat sink for conducting heat away from said electronic device, wherein said passive heat sink has a removed section
that forms a step,

a cold skin adapted to slide over the top of said passive heat sink and having a front wall forming a plurality of air intake
ports, and

a plurality of blowers mounted inside said step of said passive heat sink for drawing air into said cold skin though said
air intake ports and then directing said air through said passive heat sink.

US Pat. No. 9,225,634

MODIFIED ETHERNET PREAMBLE FOR INTER LINE CARD COMMUNICATIONS IN A MODULAR COMMUNICATION CHASSIS

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of providing information regarding an Ethernet frame, within an Ethernet preamble of the Ethernet frame, said
method comprising:
inserting into the Ethernet preamble an inter-line-card header that includes at least one information element selected from
the group consisting of a start control character, a version number, a parity bit, a source port, a destination port, and
a forwarding domain entry; and

preserving said inter-line-card header, inside of said Ethernet preamble, in a Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer in said
Ethernet frame, to create a modified Ethernet preamble.

US Pat. No. 9,166,900

AUTOMATIC SETUP OF REFLECTOR INSTANCES

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of establishing a service operations administration and maintenance (OAM) session between an originator and a
reflector in a communication network, comprising:
continuously monitoring, by the reflector, any test protocol data units transmitted by the originator;
receiving a test protocol data unit by the reflector;
generating, by the reflector, a unique flow identifier which identifies the reflector;
relaying the test protocol data unit to the originator by the reflector; and
assigning, by the reflector, a sequence number to the test protocol data unit relayed by the reflector, and
if the reflector does not receive a subsequent test packet from the originator for a predetermined time period, discarding,
by the reflector, the unique flow identifier.

US Pat. No. 9,306,830

LAYER-3 PERFORMANCE MONITORING SECTIONALIZATION

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of establishing service operations administration and maintenance (OAM) sessions in a communication network, the
method comprising:
monitoring, by a first reflector and a second reflector, any test packets transmitted by an actuator which contain a predetermined
identifier;

transmitting by the actuator a test packet configured with the predetermined identifier to the first reflector, the predetermined
identifier comprising a layer 2 actuator address;

forwarding, by the first reflector, the test packet the second reflector downstream along a test path with respect to the
first reflector;

generating, by the first and second reflectors, a test reply to the actuator, each of the test replies generated back to the
actuator incorporating a unique reflector identifier, the unique reflector identifier comprising a layer 2 reflector address
and a repurposed uplink sequence number and using bits of an uplink sequence number to encode a unique reflector identifier,

the unique reflector identifier defined by the first reflector and the second reflector via a signaling exchange including
a Two-Way Active Measurement Protocol (TWAMP) control plane or via a configuration method, including at least one of

Command Line Interface (CLI),
web-based configuration, and
Extensible Markup Language (XML);
the actuator generating a plurality of TWAMP requests, the plurality of TWAMP requests encapsulated as UDP packets, each UDP
packet having a port number, the port number of each of the plurality of TWAMP requests being set to a unique pre-agreed value
for the first reflector and the second reflector, the actuator transmitting the plurality of TWAMP requests in order to minimize
the delay between the plurality of TWAMP requests; and

using the test replies to sectionalize the communication network to isolate faults and performance problems.

US Pat. No. 9,130,703

SYSTEM FOR ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING A CLOCK REFERENCE INDICATING ONE-WAY LATENCY IN A DATA NETWORK

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method for indicating one-way latency in a data network, with continuous clock synchronization, between first and second
nodes having clocks that are not synchronized with each other, comprising:
executing a continuous synchronisation session by repetitively
sending predetermined synchronization messages from the first node to the second node and from the second node to the first
node,

calculating a round trip time for each message at the first node,
updating a synchronization point if the calculated round trip time is smaller than a previously calculated round trip time,
and

calculating a virtual clock from the updated synchronization points of a synchronization window; and
executing a measurement session to determine the one-way latency of said network between said first node and said second node
by

collecting multiple measurements of one-way latency between said first and second nodes using the virtual clock, and
generating a latency profile by interpolating said multiple measurements.

US Pat. No. 9,294,358

SYSTEMS AND METHODS OF DISCOVERING AND CONTROLLING DEVICES WITHOUT EXPLICIT ADDRESSING

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of discovering a device in a communication network having multiple interconnected nodes, the method comprising:
continuously monitoring, by a device to be discovered, any IP packets sent by a discoverer;
transmitting, by the discoverer, an IP packet destined for a downstream device;
receiving, by the device to be discovered, the IP packet; and
determining, by the device to be discovered, whether the IP packet is intended for the device to be discovered.

US Pat. No. 9,419,883

AUTOMATIC SETUP OF REFLECTOR INSTANCES

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of establishing a service operations administration and maintenance (OAM) session between an originator and a
reflector in a communication network, comprising:
transmitting a test packet from the originator to the reflector;
the reflector generating a flow identifier which identifies the reflector;
the reflector assigning a sequence number to the test packet;
transmitting the test packet from the reflector to the originator; and
wherein the reflector is monitored for a restart of the reflector during the session.

US Pat. No. 9,191,286

ADAPTIVE CENTRALIZED COLLECTION OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT DATA USING A METAMODEL

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of obtaining performance measurements via metamodels and metadata streamed from multiple types, models, and firmware
versions of network devices connected to a network, comprising
installing a generic collection agent on a server connected to said network, wherein byte code enhancement in real-time is
used to add support to said generic collection agent to implement said metamodels for at least one of a new performance measurement
and a redefined performance measurement;

retrieving said metamodels from said network devices by said collection agent, wherein said metamodels define information
used by said collection agent to decode and interpret said metadata streamed from said network devices;

storing said metamodels in a collection of metamodels on said server to be accessed by said collection agent;
streaming said performance measurements as metadata defined by said metamodels from said network devices to said collection
agent; and

analyzing and storing said performance measurements by said collection agent for later use,
wherein said collection agent uses real-time parsing routines to create any missing or incomplete methods, objects, or tools
necessary to handle said performance measurements according to instructions defined in said metamodels.

US Pat. No. 9,300,565

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR OUT-OF-LINE REAL-TIME IN-SERVICE PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A system for out-of-line testing of performance of a network, comprising:
a multiplexer at an input to the network;
a demultiplexer at an output from the network;
said multiplexer further comprising
a traffic generator to insert synthetic traffic stream out-of-line, and
a first switch to accept an incoming customer traffic stream comprising a plurality of customer packets and determine the
presence of one or more inter-packet gaps between said customer packets and inserting said synthetic traffic stream into said
one or more inter-packet gaps when the inter-packet gap is longer than a threshold duration to form a total traffic stream,
said total traffic stream fed to said input to said network;

and said demultiplexer comprising a second switch to receive said total traffic stream from said output of said network, and
separate said total traffic stream into the synthetic traffic stream and the customer traffic stream, and

a traffic analyzer to analyze said separated synthetic traffic stream.

US Pat. No. 9,413,555

POWER OVER ETHERNET MANAGEMENT DEVICES AND CONNECTION BETWEEN ETHERNET DEVICES

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. An ethernet network comprising:
a physical ethernet segment shared by at least two protected private networks coupled to a carrier network, comprising;
a first special client coupled to the interface between said ethernet segment and one of said protected private networks;
a second special client coupled to the interface between said ethernet segment and the other of said protected private networks;
and

a network resolver between said ethernet segment and said carrier network;
each of said special clients and said resolver having a unique MAC address and being programmed to find the MAC address corresponding
to an IP address, each of said special clients being programmed to send an ARP request to said network resolver using a unicast
destination address, and said network resolver being programmed to respond to said request using a unicast ARP reply.

US Pat. No. 9,246,871

SYSTEMS AND METHODS OF DETECTING AND ASSIGNING IP ADDRESSES TO DEVICES WITH ARP REQUESTS

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of discovering and assigning an IP address to a device to be discovered in a communication network having multiple
interconnected nodes, the method comprising:
continuously monitoring, by the device to be discovered, the network for address resolution protocol (ARP) requests;
transmitting, by a discoverer node to the network, a plurality of ARP requests associated with a selected first IP address;
receiving, by the device to be discovered, the plurality of ARP requests;
counting, by the device to be discovered, a number of received ARP requests;
determining, by the device to be discovered, whether the plurality of ARP requests are unanswered by other devices in the
network;

answering, by the device to be discovered, the plurality of ARP Requests with an ARP reply to claim the selected first IP
address associated with the plurality of ARP Requests; and

exchanging a pair of User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets between the discoverer node and the device to be discovered.

US Pat. No. 9,419,780

SYSTEM FOR ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING A CLOCK REFERENCE INDICATING ONE-WAY LATENCY IN A DATA NETWORK

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method for measuring one-way latency in a data network, between a first node and a second node, each node coupled with
a first and second clock respectively and where the first and second clocks are not synchronized, comprising:
sending predetermined synchronization messages from the first node to the second node and from the second node to the first
node;

calculating a round trip time for each synchronisation message at the first node;
updating a synchronization point if the calculated round trip time is smaller than a previously calculated round trip time;
calculating a virtual clock from the updated synchronization point of a synchronization window;
collecting multiple measurements of one-way latency between said first and second nodes using the virtual clock; and
generating a latency profile based on said multiple measurements.

US Pat. No. 9,300,556

METHOD, A COMPUTER PROGRAM PRODUCT, AND A CARRIER FOR INDICATING ONE-WAY LATENCY IN A DATA NETWORK

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A system for determining one-way latency between a first computer node (A) having a first clock and a second computer node
(B) having a second clock, comprising:
a network module running on said first computer node (A) to
pre-synchronize said first clock of said first computer node (A) with said second clock of said second computer node (B),
to determine a first clock difference and a first absolute clock value;

measure a sending time and a receiving time associated with each measurement message within a plurality of measurement messages;
post-synchronize said first clock of said first computer node (A) with said second clock of said second computer node (B),
to determine a second clock difference and a second absolute clock value;

perform interpolating, comprising
adjusting the sending time associated with each measurement message by an additive adjustment value, the adjustment value
calculated with use of an interpolation between the first clock difference and the second clock difference, the interpolation
performed with use of the first clock difference and the sending time of the measurement message and a calculation of a ratebias
as a rate of change in clock difference over time; and

calculate the one-way latency associated with a measurement message in the data network between said first computer node (A)
and said second computer node (B); and

generate a latency profile.

US Pat. No. 9,524,197

MULTICASTING OF EVENT NOTIFICATIONS USING EXTENDED SOCKET FOR INTER-PROCESS COMMUNICATION

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of multicasting an event notification to a plurality of event listeners in a computer system, the method comprising:
registering said plurality of event listeners with an events protocol handler through the use of an event management Application
Program Interface (API), wherein said event management API is executing within said protocol handler, wherein said events
protocol handler located in a kernel space, wherein said event protocol handler interfacing with an extended socket, wherein
said extended socket comprising a first portion residing in a user space, wherein said first portion includes event notification
application programming interface (API) and a second portion residing in a kernel space, wherein said second portion includes
event notification program and wherein said extended socket also comprising a socket buffer;

subscribing at least one of said plurality of event listeners for at least one event group via the event management API;
creating via an event producer residing in said user space an event indication from an event producer in said events protocol
handler using an extended socket API;

interfacing said extended socket API with said events protocol handler using said socket buffers, wherein said event notification
is mapped from an event queue of said event protocol handler to said socket buffers; and

multicasting said event notification to said plurality of event listeners via said events protocol handler and said event
management API, wherein said event notification is asynchronous to avoid potential deadlock or blocked processes or threads,
wherein when said event notification is sent from the user space using said socket buffers the extended socket API is used
and wherein when said event notification is sent from the kernel space or the device space said event notification is handled
directly by said events protocol handler.

US Pat. No. 9,509,810

MODIFIED ETHERNET PREAMBLE FOR INTER LINE CARD COMMUNICATIONS IN A MODULAR COMMUNICATION CHASSIS

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of providing information regarding an Ethernet frame for transmission within a communication chassis with a plurality
of line cards interconnected via an Ethernet backplane and via point to point links, said method comprising:
modifying, at one of said plurality of line cards, an Ethernet preamble of the Ethernet frame to include the information regarding
the Ethernet frame, creating a modified Ethernet preamble;

preserving by a Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer module said modified Ethernet preamble; and
transmitting said modified Ethernet frame to another one of said plurality of line cards located within said communication
chassis.

US Pat. No. 9,491,053

TRANSPARENT AUTO-NEGOTIATION OF ETHERNET

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

4. An intermediate device for negotiating Ethernet link settings in a network, said intermediate device having a protocol
stack that includes a physical coding sub-layer with a function that acts as a switch, said intermediate device comprising:
a first network interface and a second network interface, said first network interface and said second network interface both
comprising an Ethernet protocol stack;

said switch coupled between said first network interface, said second network interface, and a management module;
said management module receiving auto-configuration codes from said first network interface and said second network interface,
said management module monitoring said auto-configuration codes to determine an auto-configuration status of a first device
coupled to said first network interface and a second device coupled to said second network interface, said first and second
devices each having an Ethernet protocol stack that includes a physical coding sub-layer with an auto-negotiation function;

said management module, upon detecting that said auto-configuration status is incomplete, programming a mode of said switch
in a configuration mode;

wherein said intermediate device communicates via said switch, while said switch is in said configuration mode, said auto-configuration
codes received from said first device back to said second device and said auto-configuration codes received from said second
device to said first device without modification of the auto-configuration codes and bypassing an auto-negotiation function
of the physical coding sub-layer of said intermediate device; and

wherein said management module, upon detecting that said auto-configuration status is complete, programming a mode of said
switch into a data mode and configuring said protocol stack of the intermediate device to be compatible with said auto-configuration
codes; and

wherein said intermediate device couples, while said switch is in said data mode, said first network interface and said second
network interface with a MAC layer of said Ethernet protocol stack of said intermediate device via said switch.

US Pat. No. 9,344,400

SYSTEM AND METHODS OF INSTALLING AND OPERATING DEVICES WITHOUT EXPLICIT NETWORK ADDRESSES

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of discovering addressing information of one or more first devices to respond to specific messages by a second
device on behalf of the one or more first devices in a network, the method comprising:
acquiring, by a second device not having a network address, addressing information in an upstream direction from one or more
third devices to the one or more first devices;

acquiring, by the second device, addressing information in a downstream direction from the one or more first devices to the
one or more third devices; and

responding, by the second device on behalf of the one or more first devices, to specific messages that include requests for
functions that the one or more first devices are unable to perform.

US Pat. No. 9,503,328

SYSTEMS AND METHODS OF DISCOVERING AND CONTROLLING DEVICES WITHOUT EXPLICIT ADDRESSING

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of configuring a management device in a communication network, the management device comprising an upstream port
and a downstream port, the method comprising:
continuously monitoring IP packets received at the upstream port;
receiving at the upstream port an IP packet transmitted by a discoverer, the IP packet destined for a downstream device accessible
by the management device through the downstream port, the IP packet comprising an identifier;

examining the identifier and determining that the IP packet is intended for the management device; and
transmitting through the upstream port an advertisement packet to the discoverer.

US Pat. No. 9,491,137

METHODS OF USING BEACON MESSAGES TO DISCOVER DEVICES ACROSS SUBNETS

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of discovering an undetected device to be discovered in a communication network having multiple interconnected
nodes, comprising:
transmitting, by a discoverer to the device to be discovered, at least one unsolicited beacon signal including an IP address
to the network and forwarding instructions, said transmitting based on Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP);

receiving, by the device to be discovered, the at least one unsolicited beacon signal;
configuring the device to be discovered with forwarding instructions located in the at least one unsolicited beacon signal,
to forward the beacon signal to one or more undetected devices downstream; and

transmitting, by the device to be discovered, an advertisement to a server specified by the discoverer,
wherein the device to be discovered will only take steps to be discovered if it is prompted to do so by the at least one unsolicited
beacon signal.

US Pat. No. 9,106,706

SYSTEMS AND METHODS OF USING BEACON MESSAGES TO DISCOVER DEVICES ACROSS SUBNETS

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of discovering an undetected device to be discovered in a communication network having multiple interconnected
nodes, comprising:
transmitting, by a discoverer to the device to be discovered, at least one beacon signal including an IP address to the network
and forwarding instructions,

said transmitting based on Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP);
receiving, by the device to be discovered, the at least one beacon signal;
configuring the device to be discovered with the IP addressing information located in the at least one beacon signal; and
configuring the device to be discovered with forwarding instructions located in the at least one beacon signal, to forward
the beacon signal to one or more undetected devices downstream; and

transmitting, by the device to be discovered, an advertisement to a server specified by the discoverer.

US Pat. No. 10,135,537

PROGRAMMABLE SMALL FORM-FACTOR PLUGGABLE MODULE

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A system to perform one or more service assurance and management functionalities on a network, the system comprising:remotely programmable small form factor pluggable (SFP) optical transceiver located at a network node including an optical transmitter and an optical receiver;a programmable signal processor coupled with the SFP optical transceiver;the SFP optical transceiver, the programmable signal processor, a discoverer and a remote station coupled to the network;the discoverer discovering the programmable signal processor in the network;the remote station programming the programmable signal processor, with a selected subset of one or more service and assurance functionalities transmitted by the remote station to said programmable signal processor, wherein the selected subset is based on power limitations of the SFP optical transceiver.

US Pat. No. 9,692,712

SERVICE OAM VIRTUALIZATION

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of operating a Service, Operation, Administration and Maintenance (SOAM) virtualization system for a network,
said method comprising
a network controller, coupled to a first maintenance entity through a tunnel, generating a tunnel packet comprising a tunnel
header, a SOAM frame and metadata specifying one or more operations to perform on a parameter of said SOAM frame, wherein
the network controller configures said SOAM frame as to have been generated by said first maintenance entity;

said first maintenance entity receiving said tunnel packet over said tunnel and modifying said parameter of said SOAM frame
by performing said one or more operations to produce a modified SOAM frame, said first maintenance entity forwarding said
tunnel packet comprising said modified SOAM frame to a second maintenance entity over said network;

said second maintenance entity, in response to receiving said tunnel packet comprising said modified SOAM frame, transmitting
a second tunnel packet comprising a reply SOAM frame to said first maintenance entity;

said first maintenance entity receiving said second tunnel packet comprising said reply SOAM frame and forwarding said reply
SOAM frame to said network controller through said tunnel; and

said network controller processing results of said tunnel packet comprising said reply SOAM frame.

US Pat. No. 10,038,620

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR LOOPBACK AND NETWORK LOOP DETECTION AND ANALYSIS

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of determining the presence of a tunnel loopback in one or more networks at a port, the method comprising:storing a protocol data unit (PDU) that includes a Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) signature;
sending a loopback detection beacon (LPDB) containing said protocol data unit and a time stamp;
determining whether a detected LPDB arriving at said port contains information corresponding to said stored PDU, to detect the presence of a loopback; and
determining that said detected loopback is a tunnel loopback if said detected LPDB contains said VLAN signature and whether said detected loopback is a hard cable loopback or a remote facility loopback based on a difference between said time stamp and the arrival time of said detected LPDB.

US Pat. No. 9,660,927

PREEMPTIVE PACKET TRANSMISSION

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method to reduce latency of frames through a network device supporting a plurality of frame priorities, the method comprising:
configuring said plurality of frame priorities, wherein each frame priority of said plurality of priorities specifies a preemptive
right, a priority right or no right over each of the other frame priorities of said plurality of priorities;

receiving frames in a sequence, wherein each of the frames is associated with a frame priority comprising of one of said plurality
of frame priorities;

queuing each of the received frames in a predetermined order based on a frame arrival time and the frame priority associated
with the received frame;

transmitting a current frame;
stopping transmission of the current frame when a later frame in the sequence is received that is associated with a frame
priority specifying a preemptive right over the frame priority associated with the current frame;

transmitting an invalid frame check sequence;
transmitting the later frame; and
restarting the transmission of the current frame after transmitting the later frame.

US Pat. No. 9,641,484

SYSTEM AND METHODS OF INSTALLING AND OPERATING DEVICES WITHOUT EXPLICIT NETWORK ADDRESSES

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of discovering addressing information of one or more first devices to respond to specific messages by a second
device on behalf of the one or more first devices in a network, the method comprising:
acquiring, by a second device, addressing information in an upstream direction from one or more third devices to the one or
more first devices;

acquiring, by the second device, addressing information in a downstream direction from the one or more first devices to the
one or more third devices; and

responding, by the second device on behalf of the one or more first devices, to specific messages that include requests for
functions from the one or more first devices.

US Pat. No. 9,608,751

SIMPLIFIED SYNCHRONIZED ETHERNET IMPLEMENTATION

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method to simplify the implementation of Synchronous Ethernet on an Ethernet device having a first port and a second
port using a predetermined protocol and signaling, said method comprising:
when a master clock is delivered from a Synchronous Ethernet system to the first port of said Ethernet device:
transmitting the delivered master clock to the second port of said Ethernet device independently of the protocol and signaling
of said Ethernet device, and

transmitting said master clock from said second port of said Ethernet device to a downstream device that supports Synchronous
Ethernet; and

when the master clock is delivered from the Synchronous Ethernet system to the second port of said Ethernet device:
transmitting the delivered master clock to the first port of said Ethernet device independently of the protocol and signaling
of said Ethernet device, and

transmitting said master clock from said first port of said Ethernet device to a downstream device that supports Synchronous
Ethernet.

US Pat. No. 10,110,715

PROVIDING EFFICIENT ROUTING OF AN OPERATIONS, ADMINISTRATION AND MAINTENANCE (OAM) FRAME RECEIVED AT A PORT OF AN ETHERNET SWITCH

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method for efficient routing of an Operations, Administration and Maintenance (OAM) frame received at a first port and terminating on a second port of an Ethernet switch in a network, said method comprising:receiving the OAM frame at the first port;
storing the OAM frame in a temporary buffer;
classifying the OAM frame in a context of the first port to create a first classification key;
sending said first classification key to an OAM engine coupled to the Ethernet switch;
modifying said first classification key at said OAM engine to create a final classification key;
sending said final classification key from the OAM engine to said first port;
retrieving said OAM frame from said temporary buffer;
modifying said header of said OAM frame based on said final classification key;
transmitting said modified OAM frame to said network via said second port; and
determining that the received OAM frame is destined for the second port and modifying the first classification key to create the second classification key prior to sending to said OAM engine, wherein the second classification key appears to have been created by the output function of the second port.

US Pat. No. 9,407,515

AUTOMATIC DISCOVERY AND ENFORCEMENT OF SERVICE LEVEL AGREEMENT SETTINGS

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of automatically detecting service level agreement (SLA) settings comprising committed information rate (CIR)
and excess information rate (EIR) settings for a data path originating at a data source and terminating at a data sink, said
data path carrying user packets and comprising traffic shaping devices configured with said CIR and EIR settings in accordance
with said SLA, said method comprising
generating synthetic packets, different from the user packets, on a said data path at a level that exceeds the CIR and EIR
settings configured for the traffic shaping devices in said data path, said generating used to accelerate detection of actual
values for CIR and EIR by triggering the traffic shaping devices in said data path to enforce, in accordance with said SLA,
the CIR and EIR settings configured for said traffic shaping devices;

collecting a plurality of traffic samples from said data path during a sampling period that is long enough to allow the collection
of at least two valid traffic samples, wherein each a valid traffic sample corresponds to an amount of user packets measured
between two consecutive losses of synthetic packets; and

determining from the collected traffic samples the actual CIR and EIR values enforced by said traffic shaping devices, wherein
said determining comprises

setting the value of a CIR associated with said sampling period to zero,
setting the value of an EIR associated with said sampling period to zero, and
analyzing the collected valid traffic samples obtained for said sampling period.

US Pat. No. 9,367,352

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR INTELLIGENT TIMER SERVICES

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A system for efficiently scheduling timer events within an operating system by allocating a plurality of timers to a set
of available timer slots, each of said timers having an expiry time, the system comprising:
one or more processors; and
one or more modules stored on a memory and executable by the one or more processors, the one or more modules configured to:
define a timer spread value which is a measure of the allowed variance of the expiry times of each of said timers;
calculate a set of available timer slots for each of said timers based on said timer spread value; and
adjust said expiry times of said timers so as to insert and spread said timers across said set of available timer slots, by
analyzing the distribution of timer expirations in the set of available slots and selecting the slot with the least timer
expirations, and adjusting the expiry time so that the timer expires during the selected slot;

wherein said system performs said spreading to reduce at least one of peaks of processing activity and overhead due to processing
activity.

US Pat. No. 9,088,492

METHOD FOR DEVICES IN A NETWORK TO PARTICIPATE IN AN END-TO-END MEASUREMENT OF LATENCY

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of determining a round trip latency of a network path in a communication network having at least two path segments,
that uses multi-bit data packets, said method comprising;
generating a test packet for use in determining the latency of each of said at least 2 path segments in said network path;
transmitting said test packet between first and second devices coupled to said network at opposite ends of a first path segment,
and then between said second device and a third device coupled to opposite ends of a second path segment; and

returning said test packet to said first device by transmitting said test packet between said third and second devices and
then between said second and first device;

storing in said test packet a transmit time when a first preselected bit in said test packet is transmitted from said first
device;

when said test packet is received by said second device coupled to said network, storing in said second device the difference
between (i) the transmit time when said first preselected bit in said test packet is transmitted from said first device and
(ii) a receipt time when a second preselected bit in said test packet is received by said second device; and

when said test packet is received by said third device coupled to said network, storing in said third device the difference
between (i) the transmit time when said preselected bit in said test packet is transmitted from said first device and (ii)
a receipt time when a second preselected bit in said test packet is received by said third device; and

determining the round trip latency of the network path when said test packet is returned from the third device to said first
device via the same devices traversed by said test packet during transmission from said first device to said third device.

US Pat. No. 9,742,579

SYSTEM FOR TESTING ETHERNET PATHS AND LINKS WITHOUT IMPACTING NON-TEST TRAFFIC

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A system for testing Ethernet paths or links without adversely impacting non-test traffic, comprising:
at least one pair of Ethernet devices coupled to opposite ends of an Ethernet path or link for transmitting non-test packets
on said Ethernet path or link within a predetermined bandwidth limit,

at least one test packet generator coupled to said Ethernet path or link for transmitting test packets on said Ethernet path
or link to test the transmission characteristics of said Ethernet path or link, said at least one test packet generator including
a scheduler that determines when a new test packet is to be created and a packet creator responsive to requests sent by said
scheduler to build new test packets to be transmitted on said Ethernet path or link;

a transmit credit block for storing an amount of credits representing a number of bytes that are available to transmit to
be within said predetermined bandwidth limit, and decrementing said number of bytes available to transmit each time a test
or non-test packet is transmitted via said Ethernet path or link; and

a transmit block coupled to said packet creator and said transmit credit block for transmitting said new test packet on said
Ethernet path or link when said amount of credits stored in said transmit credit block is sufficient to permit said new test
packet to be transmitted without having said non-test packets exceed said predetermined bandwidth limit.

US Pat. No. 9,736,044

ADAPTIVE CENTRALIZED COLLECTION OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT DATA USING A METAMODEL

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of obtaining performance measurements via metamodels and metadata streamed from multiple types, models, and firmware
versions of network devices coupled to a network, said method comprising:
installing a generic collection agent on a server coupled to said network;
retrieving, by said generic collection agent, said metamodels from said network devices;
storing, by said server, said metamodels for access by said generic collection agent;
streaming said performance measurements as metadata from said network devices to said generic collection agent,
said metadata defined by said metamodels; and
analyzing, by said generic collection agent, said performance measurements using said stored metamodels, wherein real-time
parsing routines are used to create any missing or incomplete methods, objects or tools necessary to handle said performance
measurements according to instructions defined in said metamodels.

US Pat. No. 10,116,551

SINGLE QUEUE LINK AGGREGATION

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method for transmitting a packet of a class of service from a device comprising several physical ports wherein two or more physical ports are coupled to at least one logical port said method comprising:maintaining a metadata lookup table that associates two or more identifiers with one or more physical ports coupled with the at least one logical port, said metadata lookup table identifying a working port one of said two or more physical ports used to transmit each packet;
receiving the packet on one of said physical ports and processed to determine the class of service and on which at least one logical port to transmit the packet;
storing said packet in a memory regardless of said class of service;
adding a pointer to said packet in a pointer list associated to said class of service along with a port identifier selected from the metadata lookup table;
selecting a next pointer at a head of the pointer list associated to the class of service, selection based on identifying the at least one of said two or more physical ports associated with the identifier based on a first associated metadata identifier and the metadata lookup table;
transmitting a next packet corresponding to the next pointer to one or more of said physical ports based on the port identifier.

US Pat. No. 9,735,874

PROGRAMMABLE SMALL FORM-FACTOR PLUGGABLE MODULE

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A system to perform one or more service assurance and management functionalities in a network comprising:
a small form factor pluggable (SFP) optical transceiver located at a network node, the SFP optical transceiver comprising
an optical transmitter and an optical receiver;

a programmable signal processing module coupled with the SFP optical transceiver;
the SFP optical transceiver, the programmable signal processing module, a discoverer and a remote station coupled to the network;
the SFP optical transceiver further comprising a power converter to power the programmable signal processing module;
the discoverer discovering the programmable signal processing module in the network;
the remote station programming the programmable signal processing module, after the programmable signal processing module
is discovered without requiring changes to the software on the network node, to perform the one or more service assurance
and management functionalities in the network; and

the programmable signal processing module enabling the programming by the remote station by:
collecting and assembling a plurality of configuration packets sent by the remote station into binary files;
checking the integrity of the binary files; and
reprogramming the programmable signal processing module with a subset of the one or more service and assurance functionalities
selected based on a configuration of the programmable signal processing module, the configuration selected to require no more
than a predetermined power consumption of the SFP optical transceiver and increase load efficiency.

US Pat. No. 9,660,896

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR LOOPBACK AND NETWORK LOOP DETECTION AND ANALYSIS

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of determining the presence of a loopback in one or more networks, comprising:
storing information related to a test instance, wherein said stored information related to said test instance is in a protocol
data unit (PDU) that includes a Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) signature;

sending a loopback detection beacon (LPDB) containing said stored information related to said test instance from a port on
an originating device;

monitoring said port for a predetermined time period to detect LPDBs arriving at said port during said predetermined time
period;

determining whether a detected LPDB contains information corresponding to said stored information related to said test instance,
to detect the presence of a loopback; and

determining that said detected loopback is a tunnel loopback if said detected LPDB contains information including said VLAN
signature.

US Pat. No. 9,391,948

METHODS OF DETECTING AND ASSIGNING IP ADDRESSES TO DEVICES WITH ARP REQUESTS

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of assigning an IP address to a first device in a communication network having multiple interconnected nodes,
at least one discoverer node and a plurality of other devices, comprising:
transmitting, by the discoverer node to the network, a plurality of address resolution protocol (ARP) requests associated
with a selected first IP address;

monitoring, by the first device, the network for ARP requests;
receiving, by the first device , the plurality of ARP requests;
determining, by the first device, whether the plurality of ARP requests are unanswered by the other devices and claiming,
by the first device, via an ARP reply, the selected IP address associated with the plurality of unanswered ARP requests; and

exchanging a pair of packets between the discoverer node and the first device to assign the selected IP address.

US Pat. No. 10,091,081

METHOD FOR DEVICES IN A NETWORK TO PARTICIPATE IN AN END-TO-END MEASUREMENT OF LATENCY

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of determining a round trip latency of a network path in a communication network having at least a first and a second paths, the method comprising;generating, at a first communication device, a test packet including a timestamp indicative of a time the test packet is transmitted to a second communication device at end of the first path;
computing a first path latency at the second communication device upon reception of the test packet based on the time of reception of the test packet and the timestamp;
storing the first path latency in a memory at the second communication device;
forwarding the test packet to a third communication device at end of the second path;
computing the one-way latency at the third communication device upon reception of the test packet based on the time of reception of the packet and the timestamp;
storing one-way latency in a memory at the third communication device;
storing a second timestamp in the test packet indicative of the time the test packet is transmitted from the second communication device to the third communication device; and
computing and storing, at the third device, a path latency, indicative of a latency on the path between the second and third devices based on the second timestamp; and
determining the round trip latency of the network path after the test packet is returned to the first communication device.

US Pat. No. 9,860,207

METHODS OF USING BEACON MESSAGES TO DISCOVER DEVICES ACROSS SUBNETS

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of enabling a device to communicate with a remote management entity in a communication network, the method comprising:
transmitting, by a discoverer, a beacon signal including an IP address to the network, wherein the device and the discoverer
are on different IP subnets;

receiving the beacon signal by the device;
notifying the discoverer by the device sending an advertisement message to a server in the communication network, wherein
the server is specified by the IP address; and

receiving the advertisement message by the discoverer.

US Pat. No. 9,762,469

METHOD FOR DEVICES IN A NETWORK TO PARTICIPATE IN AN END-TO-END MEASUREMENT OF LATENCY

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of determining a round trip latency of a network path in a communication network having at least two path segments,
that uses multi-bit data packets, said method comprising;
generating a test packet;
transmitting said test packet between first and second devices coupled to said network at opposite ends of a first path segment,
and then between said second device and a third device coupled to opposite ends of a second path segment;

returning said test packet to said first device by transmitting said test packet between said third and second devices and
then between said second and first device;

storing, in said test packet a first time corresponding to a transmission of a first preselected bit in said test packet from
said first device;

when said test packet is received by said second device coupled to said network, storing in said second device a second time
when the preselected bit in said test packet is received by said second device;

when said test packet is received by said third device coupled to said network, storing in said third device a third time
when the preselected hit in said test packet is received by said third device; and

determining the round trip latency of the network path after said test packet is returned to said first device; wherein the
pre-selected bit is a first bit of the test packet used by each device along the path to compute the delay on each path segment
while determining the round trip latency.

US Pat. No. 9,960,982

MULTI-HOP REFLECTOR SESSIONS

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method for measuring a performance parameter relating to a test path of a network, said test path comprising an originator and multiple reflectors comprising:generating by the originator a test protocol data unit without explicit setup of the performance measurement session, said test protocol data unit comprising a plurality of data structures, said plurality of data structures corresponding to a subset of said multiple reflectors and configured to store performance parameters for each of said multiple reflectors, wherein said performance parameters correspond to a standard and at least one of said performance parameters is selected from the group consisting of:
duplication of packets, and
reordering of packets;
transmitting said test protocol data unit along the test path;
generating a unique flow identifier uniquely identifying each reflector in the test path;
confirming by one of said multiple reflectors that said test protocol data unit does not contain a corresponding data structure for said one of said multiple reflectors and creating an additional data structure in said test protocol data unit, said additional data structure being configured to store said performance parameters for said one of said multiple reflectors;
relaying by each reflector said test protocol data unit to the subsequent reflector along said test path while inserting a timestamp in one of said plurality of data structures said test protocol data unit associated with said unique flow identifier of the reflector;
collecting measurements of said performance parameters at each of said multiple reflectors;
inserting said collected measurements of said performance parameters in said plurality of data structures and said additional data structure, with each collected measurement of said performance parameters associated with said unique flow identifier corresponding to the reflector in which that measurement was collected; and
correlating the collected measurements relative to said test protocol data unit to measure the performance of said test path wherein the measurements collected by each reflector in said test path are included in the same test protocol data unit.

US Pat. No. 9,722,718

SYSTEM FOR ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING A CLOCK REFERENCE INDICATING ONE-WAY LATENCY IN A DATA NETWORK

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of adapting to clock offsets in a network, the method comprising:
establishing a plurality of virtual clocks at a responding node, each of the plurality of virtual clocks associated with one
of a plurality of requesting nodes;

transmitting a plurality of synchronization requests from the responding node to each of the plurality of requesting nodes;
responding to each of the plurality of synchronization requests received by each of the plurality of requesting nodes by transmitting
a synchronization response back to the responding node;

for each of the plurality of synchronization responses received by the responding node, calculating a plurality of round trip
delay measurements at the responding node, utilizing the plurality of round trip delay measurements to produce a plurality
of synchronization points for each of the plurality of requesting nodes; and

and utilizing the round trip delay to determine a latency profile for each of the plurality of requesting nodes.

US Pat. No. 10,135,713

LAYER-3 PERFORMANCE MONITORING SECTIONALIZATION

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method for improving isolation of faults in a communication network using an Operations Administration and Maintenance (OAM) framework, the method comprising:establishing a service operations administration and maintenance session between actuator and a plurality of reflectors in a sequence along a path for collecting one or more performance metrics specific to each reflector, wherein said actuator is coupled to a first of said plurality of reflector;
transmitting by the actuator a single test packet to the first reflector;
transmitting by the first reflector the single test packet to a next reflector in the sequence, wherein the test packet comprises a layer 3 address and a layer 2 address, and the first reflector modifies the layer 2 address prior to forwarding the test packet to the next reflector;
transmitting by the next reflector, the single test packet to another next reflector in the sequence until a last reflector is reached, wherein the next reflector modifies the layer 2 address prior to forwarding the test packet to another next reflector;
transmitting, by each reflector in the test path, a test reply to the actuator, each of the test replies incorporating a unique reflector identifier and performance metrics specific to each reflector;
and
sectionalizing the communication network using said performance metrics specific to each reflector and wherein the faults are isolated via Two-Way Active Measurement Protocol (TWAMP) requests and replies between the actuator and the plurality of reflectors.

US Pat. No. 9,887,883

SYSTEMS AND METHODS OF DISCOVERING AND CONTROLLING DEVICES WITHOUT EXPLICIT ADDRESSING

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of discovering a device in a communication network having multiple interconnected nodes, the method comprising:
continuously monitoring, by a first device to be discovered, any IP packets sent by a discoverer;
transmitting, by the discoverer, a first IP packet to a downstream device;
receiving, by the first device to be discovered, the first IP packet;
determining, by the first device to be discovered, whether the first IP packet has a User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port number
that matches an internet assigned numbers authority (IANA) assigned UDP port number;

processing, by the first device to be discovered, the first IP packet to verify that the packet is a discovery type packet.

US Pat. No. 9,819,553

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR OUT-OF-LINE REAL-TIME IN-SERVICE PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. An apparatus for testing the performance of a virtual network configured between a source and a destination, the apparatus
comprising:
an input port configured to receive a plurality of customer packets originating from said source, said input port producing
a copy of said plurality of customer packets;

a traffic generator for receiving said copy of said plurality of customer packets and analyzing said copy of said plurality
of customer packets to identify a number of gaps in said copy of said plurality of customer packets and generate a number
of synthetic packets based on said number of gaps, said number of synthetic packets determined such that a combined rate of
said copy of said plurality of customer packets and said number of synthetic packets reaches an intended test rate, wherein
said gaps are selected from the group consisting of: 1) inter-frame gaps and 2) inter-packet gaps; and

an output port for receiving said number of synthetic packets from said traffic generator and said plurality of customer packets
from said input port, said output port inserting said number of synthetic packets into said gaps in said plurality of customer
packets to produce a combined stream of packets, said combined stream of packets being transmitted towards said destination.

US Pat. No. 9,755,955

SINGLE QUEUE LINK AGGREGATION

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method for transmitting a packet on a logical port comprising at least two physical ports, the method comprising:
receiving the packet of a class of service;
storing the packet in a memory;
maintaining a metadata lookup table that associates each metadata identifier of a plurality of metadata identifiers with one
or more physical ports of the at least two physical ports, the maintaining comprising:

identifying a failed port of the at least two physical ports and a first metadata identifier associated with the failed port,
and

modifying the metadata lookup table to associate the first metadata identifier with a working port of the at least two physical
ports;

storing a pointer to the stored packet in the memory in a single pointer list for the class of service along with the first
metadata identifier, wherein the single pointer list is associated with a head pointer and a safety pointer;

committing the stored packet to at least one of the at least two physical ports based on the metadata lookup table, the first
metadata identifier, the header pointer and the safety pointer;

copying the stored packet to one or more of the one or more physical ports associated with the metadata identifier; and
transmitting the copy of the stored packet to the working port.

US Pat. No. 9,736,049

METHOD, A COMPUTER PROGRAM PRODUCT, AND A CARRIER FOR INDICATING ONE-WAY LATENCY IN A DATA NETWORK

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

16. A system to calculate a one-way latency profile between a requester node coupled to a first clock and a responder node
coupled to a second clock, comprising:
a first network module executing on a first processor on said responder node to calculate a pre-synchronization offset value
between said first clock and second clock based on one or more of a plurality of pre-synchronization messages transmitted
by a second network module executing on a second processor on said requester node to said first module;

said second network module transmitting a plurality of measuring messages comprising a sending time to said first network
module;

said first network module recording the sending time and a receiving time of the measuring messages;
said first network module calculating a post-synchronization offset value between said first clock and second clock based
on a plurality of post-synchronization messages transmitted between said requester node and a second network module executing
on a second processor on said responder node; and

said first network module interpolating said sending and receiving times with said pre-synchronization offset value and post-synchronization
offset value to create a plurality of latency measurements, and generating said one-way latency profile from said plurality
of latency measurements.

US Pat. No. 9,577,913

LAYER-3 PERFORMANCE MONITORING SECTIONALIZATION

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of establishing service operations administration and maintenance (OAM) sessions in a communication network, the
method comprising:
monitoring, by a first reflector and a second reflector, any test packets transmitted by an actuator which contain a predetermined
identifier, the predetermined identifier comprising a layer 2 actuator address, the first reflector being located downstream
along a test path with respect to the actuator, the second reflector being located downstream along a test path with respect
to the first reflector;

transmitting by the actuator a first test packet and a second test packet, the first test packet configured with the predetermined
identifier and a first unique reflector identifier, the second test packet configured with the predetermined identifier and
a second unique reflector identifier;

generating, by the first reflector, a first test reply to the actuator, the first test reply transmitted back to the actuator
incorporating the first unique reflector identifier;

generating, by the second reflector, a second test reply to the actuator, the second test reply transmitted back to the actuator
incorporating the second unique reflector identifier; and

using the first test reply and the second test reply to determine network performance metrics,
wherein the first and second unique reflector identifiers are defined by the first reflector and the second reflector via
a signaling exchange including a Two-Way Active Measurement Protocol (TWAMP) control plane or via a configuration method,
including at least one of Command Line Interface (CLP, web-based configuration, and Extensible Markup Language (XML): the
actuator generating a plurality of TWAMP requests, the plurality of TWAMP requests encapsulated as UDP packets, each UDP packet
having a port number, the port number of each of the plurality of TWAMP requests being set to a unique pre-agreed value for
the first reflector and the second reflector, the actuator transmitting the plurality of TWAMP requests in order to minimize
the delay between the plurality of TWAMP requests.

US Pat. No. 9,699,033

TRANSPARENT AUTO-NEGOTIATION OF ETHERNET

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A system for negotiating Ethernet settings in a network, the system comprising:
a first network device and a second network device, both comprising an Ethernet protocol stack comprising physical coding
sub-layer with an auto-negotiation function;

an intermediate device connected to the first network device and the second network device, the intermediate device comprising:
a first network interface coupled to the first network device and a second network interface coupled to said second network
device, said first network interface and said second network interface both comprising an Ethernet protocol stack comprising
a physical coding sub-layer with a function that acts as a switch;

said switch coupled between said first network interface and said second network interface for communication of the intermediate
device; and

a management module, coupled to said switch, for:
receiving auto-configuration codes from said first network interface and said second network interface;
monitoring said auto-configuration codes to determine an auto-configuration status of said first network device and said second
network device; and,

upon detecting that said auto-configuration status is incomplete, programming said switch into a configuration mode; and,
upon detecting that said auto-configuration status is complete, programming said switch into a data mode and configuring said
protocol stack of the intermediate device to be compatible with said auto-configuration codes; wherein:

while said switch is in said configuration mode, said auto-configuration codes are received from said first network device
to said second network device and said auto-configuration codes are received from said second network device to said first
network device without modification of the received auto-configuration codes and bypassing an auto-negotiation function of
the physical coding sub-layer of said intermediate device; and

when said intermediate device couples while said switch is in said data mode, said first network interface and said second
network interface couple with a media access control (MAC) layer of said Ethernet protocol stack of said intermediate device
via said switch.

US Pat. No. 9,910,703

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR INTELLIGENT TIMER SERVICES

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of efficiently scheduling timer events within an operating system by allocating a plurality of timers to a set
of available timer slots located in a timer wheel existing within the operating system, the timer wheel using a plurality
of timer vectors arranged into successively increasing levels, beginning with level zero, each of the plurality of timers
having an expiry time, the method comprising:
defining a timer spread value for each of the plurality of timers which is a measure of an allowed variance of the expiry
times of each of the plurality of timers;

specifying a timer interval for each of the plurality of timers;
calculating a set of available timer slots for each of the plurality of timers based on the timer spread value;
comparing the timer interval for each of the plurality of timers to each slot in the plurality of timer vectors; and
adjusting the expiry times of each of the plurality of timers so as to insert and spread the plurality of timers across the
set of available timer slots.

US Pat. No. 10,003,506

AUTOMATIC DISCOVERY AND ENFORCEMENT OF SERVICE LEVEL AGREEMENT SETTINGS

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of automatically detecting service level agreement (SLA) settings for a network path between a data source device sending user packets to a data sink device comprising:generating, at a traffic generator device, synthetic packets and inserting said synthetic packets on said network path along with said user packets at a level that exceeds a committed information rate (CIR) setting of said network path;
collecting, at a discovery device, at least two valid traffic samples from said network path, wherein said valid traffic sample comprises a sum of number of bytes of user packets and synthetic packets measured between two consecutive losses of synthetic packets; and
determining, at said discovery device, from the collected traffic samples the CIR enforced by said network.

US Pat. No. 9,887,794

SIMPLIFIED SYNCHRONIZED ETHERNET IMPLEMENTATION

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A synchronous ethernet device comprising:
a first port comprising a first state machine; and
a second port comprising a second state machine;
the first port and the second port using a predetermined signaling protocol;
wherein,
when a master clock is received from the synchronous ethernet system to the first port:
the master clock is transmitted to the second port independently of the predetermined signaling protocol, and
the master clock is transmitted from the second port to a downstream device that supports synchronous ethernet; and
when the master clock is received from the synchronous ethernet system to the second port:
the master clock is transmitted to the first port independently of the predetermined signaling protocol, and
the master clock is transmitted from the first port to a downstream device that supports synchronous ethernet.

US Pat. No. 9,954,983

PROVIDING EFFICIENT ROUTING OF AN OPERATIONS, ADMINISTRATION AND MAINTENANCE (OAM) FRAME RECEIVED AT A PORT OF AN ETHERNET SWITCH

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method for efficient routing of an Operations, Administration and Maintenance (OAM) frame received at a first port and terminating on a second port of an Ethernet switch, said method comprising:receiving the OAM frame at the first port;
building a first classification key dependent on an OAM frame header of the received OAM frame;
classifying the OAM frame in a context of the first port to create a first classification;
determining whether the received OAM frame is to be discarded after the creation of said first classification, and if an answer is negative, determining whether a loopback of the received OAM frame is required on said first port, and if the loopback is required, sending said first classification key to an OAM engine coupled to the Ethernet switch; and
responsive to determining that a loopback of the received OAM frame is not required, determining whether the received OAM frame is destined for another port, and if the received OAM frame is destined for another port, modifying the first classification key to create a second classification key.

US Pat. No. 9,979,663

TCP PERFORMANCE PREDICTOR

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method for periodically monitoring a throughput of a network path having a circuit information rate (CIR), the method comprising:determining during a monitoring period a burst capacity of the network path by transmitting a number of test packets over the network path, the number of test packets based on the CIR and the last determined burst capacity of the network path;
determining during the monitoring period, a round trip time of the network path;
determining during the monitoring period, the throughput of the network path based on a lesser value of:
the determined burst capacity of the network path divided by the determined roundtrip time of the network path, and
the (CIR) for the network path; and
modifying the CIR based on determined throughput for the network path.

US Pat. No. 10,027,568

METHOD, A COMPUTER PROGRAM PRODUCT, AND A CARRIER FOR INDICATING ONE-WAY LATENCY IN A DATA NETWORK

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method for generating a one-way latency profile in a network comprising:transmitting a plurality of pre-synchronization messages between a requester node comprising a first clock and a responder node comprising a second clock;
calculating, a pre-synchronization offset value between said first clock and said second clock, using data in one of said pre-synchronization messages;
transmitting a plurality of measuring messages comprising a sending time between said requester node and said responder node;
recording, by said responder node, said sending time and a receiving time of each of said measuring messages;
transmitting a plurality of post-synchronization messages between said requester node and said responder node;
calculating, using a post-synchronization data set contained in one of said post-synchronization messages, a post-synchronization offset value between said first clock and said second clock;
interpolating said sending and receiving times of said measuring messages with said pre-synchronization offset value and said post-synchronization offset value to generate said one-way latency profile from said plurality of latency measurements.

US Pat. No. 10,110,448

AUTOMATIC SETUP OF REFLECTOR INSTANCES

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of performing a bi-directional test measurement in a network, the method comprising:receiving a test packet by an unmanaged reflector, the test packet transmitted by an originator, the test packet used to implement the test measurement;
the reflector generating a state session, the state session storing the state of the test measurement; and
transmitting the test packet from the reflector to the originator.

US Pat. No. 9,935,917

METHODS OF DETECTING AND ASSIGNING IP ADDRESSES TO DEVICES WITH ARP REQUESTS

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of assigning an IP address in a network, the method being implemented by a discoverer node, the method comprising:selecting an IP address, at the time of selection the IP address being unused in the network;
transmitting a plurality of address resolution protocol (ARP) requests associated with the IP address;
receiving an ARP message associated with the IP address, the ARP message having been transmitted by a detected device responsive to the detected device receiving all of the plurality of ARP requests;
transmitting a user datagram protocol (UDP) packet addressed to the detected device; and
receiving a UDP reply, the UDP reply having been transmitted by the detected device, the IP address then being assigned to the detected device.

US Pat. No. 10,097,512

SYSTEM AND METHODS OF INSTALLING AND OPERATING DEVICES WITHOUT EXPLICIT NETWORK ADDRESSES

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of discovering addressing information of one or more first devices to respond to specific messages by a second device on behalf of the one or more first devices in a network, the method comprising:acquiring, by a second device, addressing information in a downstream direction from one or more first devices to the one or more third devices; and
responding, by the second device on behalf of the one or more first devices, to specific messages that include requests for functions from the one or more first devices.

US Pat. No. 10,178,009

METHOD, A COMPUTER PROGRAM PRODUCT, AND A CARRIER FOR INDICATING ONE-WAY LATENCY IN A DATA NETWORK

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method for generating a one-way latency profile in a network comprising:transmitting a plurality of pre-synchronization messages between a requester node comprising a first clock and a responder node comprising a second clock;
calculating, a pre-synchronization offset value between said first clock and said second clock, using data in one of said pre-synchronization messages;
transmitting a plurality of measuring messages comprising a sending time between said requester node and said responder node;
recording, by said responder node, said sending time and a receiving time of each of said measuring messages;
transmitting a plurality of post-synchronization messages between said requester node and said responder node;
calculating, using a post-synchronization data set contained in one of said post-synchronization messages, a post-synchronization offset value between said first clock and said second clock;
interpolating said sending and receiving times of said measuring messages with said pre-synchronization offset value and said post-synchronization offset value to generate said one-way latency profile.

US Pat. No. 10,320,506

SYSTEM FOR ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING A CLOCK REFERENCE INDICATING ONE-WAY LATENCY IN A DATA NETWORK

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A system for adapting to clock offsets between a responding node and one or more requesting nodes in a network, the system comprising:a requesting node;
said responding node coupled to the requesting node over the network, the responding node maintaining a virtual clock associated with the requesting nodes, the responding node transmitting a plurality of synchronization requests to said requesting nodes;
wherein, in response to each of the plurality of synchronization requests, the requesting nodes transmits one of a plurality of corresponding synchronization responses to the responding node; and
wherein responding node further comprises a module for calculating a plurality of round trip delay measurements at the responding node based on the plurality of corresponding synchronization responses, in response to calculating the plurality of round trip delay measurements, the module producing a latency profile for the requesting nodes.

US Pat. No. 10,291,484

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR OUT-OF-LINE REAL-TIME IN-SERVICE PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A system for testing the performance of a network between a source and a destination, comprising:an input port configured to receive a plurality of original customer packets originating from said source, said input port producing a copy of each of said plurality of original customer packets and routing said copy of customer packets to a second port; and
a traffic generator coupled to said second port, to determine the rate of said copy of customer packets and generate synthetic packets at a synthetic packet rate such as to bring a total traffic rate to a testing rate;
said traffic generator inserts said synthetic packets when detecting gaps in the copy of customer packets and removes said copy of customer packets before merging the synthetic packets with the original customer packets and transmitted towards said destination.

US Pat. No. 10,305,737

SYSTEM FOR TESTING ETHERNET PATHS AND LINKS WITHOUT IMPACTING NON-TEST TRAFFIC

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A system for testing Ethernet paths in a network without impacting non-test traffic, comprising:at least one pair of Ethernet devices coupled to opposite ends of an Ethernet path for transmitting non-test packets on said Ethernet;
at least one test packet generator coupled to said Ethernet path for transmitting test packets to test the transmission characteristics of said Ethernet path, said test packet generator comprising:
a transmit credit block for storing an amount of credits representing a number of bytes that are available to transmit to be within a predetermined bandwidth limit;
a scheduler responsive to said transmit credit block to determine when one or more new test packet is to be created, and
a packet creator responsive to a request sent by said scheduler to build one or more new test packet to be transmitted on said Ethernet path.

US Pat. No. 10,250,464

AREA EFFICIENT TRAFFIC GENERATOR

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A packet generation and inspection system to monitor the performance of one or more flows on a packet network, said system comprising:a processor and memory coupled to each other and to a bus of the packet network, said memory storing operating codes corresponding to commands to be executed by said processor in association with data to be modified by the execution of said commands, said commands and data comprising information to build and manage packet generation of said one or more flows, wherein said commands corresponding to said operating codes are pre-programmed in said processor;
a processor-controlled arbiter coupled with said processor and said bus, said arbiter controlling access to said memory, said arbiter requesting execution, upon reception of a packet on the bus or prior to transmission of a packet on the bus for one of said flows, by said processor of selected operating codes stored in said memory by providing said processor with the address of said selected operating codes in said memory, and
wherein said memory provides said processor with data associated with the selected operating codes, and said processor modifies said data upon execution of commands corresponding to the selected operating codes.

US Pat. No. 10,365,957

MULTICASTING OF EVENT NOTIFICATIONS USING EXTENDED SOCKET FOR INTER-PROCESS COMMUNICATION

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A system for multicasting an event notification from an event producer to multiple event listeners, the system comprising:a computer execute an operating system, said operating system comprising said event producer and said multiple event listeners, said computer operating system comprising a user space, a kernel space comprising an event protocol handler, and a device space;
an extended socket allow non-blocking communication between said user space, kernel space and said device space;
an extended socket application programming interface (API) execute in said user space, wherein said extended socket application programming interface (API) includes an event notification application programming interface (API);
an extended socket family software execute in said kernel space, wherein said extended socket family software includes an event notification software, and wherein said extended socket application programming interface (API) and said extended socket family software execute in said extended socket;
said event producer generate an event indication;
said event protocol handler receive said event indication and generate an event notification;
said event producer and said multiple event listeners interfacing with said event protocol handler to send said event indication and receive said event notification, wherein if said event indication is from said user space use said extended socket application programming interface (API) to send said event indication and receive said event notification, otherwise, send said event indication and receive said event notification directly through said event protocol handler; and
wherein if said event producer is located in said kernel space, at least one of said multiple even listeners are located in either said kernel space or said device space.

US Pat. No. 10,341,470

MODIFIED ETHERNET PREAMBLE FOR INTER LINE CARD COMMUNICATIONS IN A MODULAR COMMUNICATION CHASSIS

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

13. A method for redefining a standard Ethernet preamble of Ethernet frame to create an inter-line-card header used for switching said Ethernet frame across an Ethernet backplane of a communication chassis, within an Ethernet preamble of the Ethernet frame, said method comprisingmodifying an Ethernet preamble comprised in the Ethernet frame to include an inter-line-card header that comprises at least one information element;
preserving said inter-line-card header, inside of said modified Ethernet preamble, in a Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer in said Ethernet frame; and
wherein said inter-line-card header further includes an action and action parameters.

US Pat. No. 10,382,347

TCP PERFORMANCE PREDICTOR

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method for predicting a throughput of a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) path between a sender and a receiver over a network path, the method comprising: transmitting, by a first TCP predictor on a first device, a number of test packets over the network path;receiving, by a second TCP predictor on a second device, said number of test packets and sending reply packets to the first TCP predictor on said first device, said reply packets including a timestamp;
determining, by said first TCP predictor on said first device, a round trip time and a burst capacity of the network path based on said reply packets; and
predicting, by said first TCP predictor on said first device, the throughput of said network path based on said burst capacity divided by said roundtrip time of said network path, wherein a Circuit Information Rate (CIR) is modified based on said predicted throughput to improve a TCP performance.

US Pat. No. 10,419,144

SIMPLIFIED SYNCHRONIZED ETHERNET IMPLEMENTATION

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A synchronous ethernet device comprising:a first port comprising a first state machine; and
a second port comprising a second state machine;
wherein,
when a master clock is received from the synchronous ethernet system to the first port:
the master clock is transmitted to the second port, and
the master clock is transmitted from the second port to a downstream device that supports synchronous ethernet; and
when the master clock is received from the synchronous ethernet system to the second port:
the master clock is transmitted to the first port, and
the master clock is transmitted from the first port to a downstream device that supports synchronous ethernet.

US Pat. No. 10,419,325

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR LOOPBACK AND NETWORK LOOP DETECTION AND ANALYSIS

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method of determining the presence of a tunnel loopback a multi-section network at a port, the method comprising:assigning a section level to each section of said multi-section network;
assigning a unique domain number to one or more domains wherein one domain comprises one or more sections at the same section level and zero or more section at a lower section level;
storing a protocol data unit (PDU) that includes a Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) signature;
sending a loopback detection beacon (LPDB) containing said PDU, a domain number and a time stamp;
restricting said LPDB to one or more sections related to the domain number in the LPDB;
determining whether a detected LPDB arriving at said port contains information corresponding to said stored PDU, to detect the presence of a loopback; and
determining that said detected loopback is a tunnel loopback if said detected LPDB contains said VLAN signature and whether said detected loopback is a hard cable loopback or a remote facility loopback based on a difference between said time stamp and the arrival time of said detected LPDB.

US Pat. No. 10,404,522

SERVICE OAM VIRTUALIZATION

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A system for operating a Service, Operation, Administration and Maintenance (SOAM) virtualization system for a network, said system comprisinga network controller, coupled to a first maintenance entity through a first tunnel;
said network controller generates a first tunnel packet comprising a tunnel header, a first SOAM frame and metadata specifying one or more operations to perform on one or more parameters of said SOAM frame;
said first maintenance entity receives said first tunnel packet over said first tunnel and modifies said parameter of said first SOAM frame by performing said one or more operations to produce a modified SOAM frame, said first maintenance entity forwards said first tunnel packet comprising said modified SOAM frame to a second maintenance entity over said network;
said second maintenance entity, in response to receiving said first tunnel packet comprising said modified SOAM frame, transmits a second tunnel packet comprising a reply SOAM frame to said first maintenance entity;
said first maintenance entity receiving said second tunnel packet comprising said reply SOAM frame and forwarding said reply SOAM frame to said network controller through said first tunnel; and
said network controller processing results of said second tunnel packet comprising said reply SOAM frame.

US Pat. No. 10,484,291

USING BANDWIDTH MEASUREMENTS TO ADJUST CIR AND EIR ON A SUB-RATE LINK

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A system in which bandwidth in both directions of a network segment is asymmetric, said system comprising:a synthetic traffic generator device, said synthetic traffic generator device configured to:
generate a plurality of synthetic packets and mark each of said plurality of synthetic packets with a transmission timestamp indicative of a first clock time at which each synthetic packet is generated; and;
transmit each of said plurality of synthetic packets over said network;
a bandwidth measurement function device configured to:
measure said bandwidth in both directions of said network segment;
receive said plurality of synthetic packets and mark each received synthetic packet with a reception timestamp indicative of a second clock time at which said each received synthetic packet is received;
calculate an inter-packet delay variation by said bandwidth measurement function of said network segment based on said transmission timestamp and said reception timestamp of said generated plurality of synthetic packets;
calculate an available bandwidth of said network segment based on said calculated inter-packet delay variation; and
discard said generated plurality of synthetic packets after calculating said available bandwidth; and
a traffic shaper and scheduler device in communication with said synthetic traffic generator device, said traffic shaper and scheduler device configured to allocate said available bandwidth between a plurality of classes of service to achieve a best overall available bandwidth in both directions of said network segment, wherein when said available bandwidth falls below a predetermined level, bandwidth allocated to a lowest priority class of service of said plurality of classes of service is reduced.

US Pat. No. 10,447,609

PREEMPTIVE PACKET TRANSMISSION

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method to reduce latency of frames transiting through a network device with a plurality of input and output ports supporting at least two frame priorities, the method comprising:receiving a sequence of frames for transmission from one of the plurality of input ports for transmission at one of the output ports, wherein each of the frames is configured with an associated frame priority, wherein the associated frame priority of each of the frames specifies a preemptive right, a priority right or a no right over each of other frame priorities;
queuing each of the received frames in a predetermined order based on a frame arrival time and the associated frame priority;
selecting a first frame to transmit on the output port;
stopping transmission of the first frame in response to receiving a second frame with an associated frame priority specifying a preemptive right over the associated frame priority of the first frame;
transmitting an invalid frame check sequence within the first frame;
transmitting the second frame;
retransmitting the first frame after the transmission of the second frame is completed; and
deleting each of the received frames after transmitting the frame.

US Pat. No. 10,425,309

METHOD, A COMPUTER PROGRAM PRODUCT, AND A CARRIER FOR INDICATING ONE-WAY LATENCY IN A DATA NETWORK

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A system to determine a one-way latency between nodes in a network, comprising:a first node, wherein the first node is configured to send a first message and determine a first value indicative of a time the first message is sent, and wherein the first node is configured to receive a second message and determine a second value indicative of a time the second message is received;
a second node, wherein the second node is configured to receive the first message from the first node and determine a third value indicative of a time the first message is received, and wherein the second node is configured to send the second message to the first node and determine a fourth value of a time the second message is sent;
a first clock, wherein the first clock determines the first value and the second value; and
a second clock, wherein the second clock determines the third value and the fourth value;
wherein the first node configured to generating the one-way latency profile based on a combination of the first value, the second value, the third value, and the fourth value;
wherein the first clock and the second clock are not synchronized and are linear with respect to each other over a period required to determine the one-way latency.

US Pat. No. 10,225,161

PRECISE STATISTICS COMPUTATION FOR COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method for accurately measuring one or more network performance statistics during one or more sampling periods, comprising:receiving a data packet at a network interface via a transmission link of a network device;
processing said data packet to identify a flow information and a time of arrival;
transmitting over a databus said data packet, along with a metadata comprising said flow information and said time of arrival, to a sample processing module;
replaying the reception of said data packet at said network interface based on the relative speed of the transmission link and the databus and said time of arrival;
incrementing a number of bytes received for said data packet for a first sampling period;
starting a second sampling period at a predetermined time and incrementing a number of bytes received for said data packet for said second sampling period, if said replaying is not completed;
processing said number of bytes received for said data packet for said first sampling period into a first sampling period statistics; and
processing said number of bytes received for said data packet for said second sampling period into a second sampling period statistics.

US Pat. No. 10,530,904

PROVIDING EFFICIENT ROUTING OF AN OPERATIONS, ADMINISTRATION AND MAINTENANCE (OAM) FRAME RECEIVED AT A PORT OF AN ETHERNET SWITCH

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A method for efficient routing of an Operations, Administration and Maintenance (OAM) frame received at a first port and terminating on a second port of an Ethernet switch in a network, said method comprising:receiving the OAM frame at the first port;
classifying the OAM frame in a context of the first port to create a first classification key;
modifying said first classification key to create a final classification key;
modifying said header of said OAM frame based on said final classification key;
transmitting said modified OAM frame to said network via said second port.

US Pat. No. 10,514,739

POWER OVER ETHERNET MANAGEMENT DEVICES AND CONNECTION BETWEEN ETHERNET DEVICES

Accedian Networks Inc., ...

1. A network powered device comprising:a first network interface receiving power over the first network interface;
a second network interface;
a switch coupled between the first network interface and the second network interface, the switch having a bypass mode that couples power between the first interface to the second interface and a non-bypass mode that decouples power between the first interface from the second interface;
a circuit implementing functions of the device; and
a CPU coupled to the switch and controlling the state of the switch, the CPU executing diagnostic software to monitor for a fault condition in the operation of the circuit, the CPU in response to detecting a no-fault condition configuring the switch into the non-bypass mode, the CPU in response to detecting a fault condition in the operation of the circuit configuring the switch into the bypass mode, wherein the CPU is separate from the second network interface.