US Pat. No. 10,507,829

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR HAZARD MITIGATION

AUTONOMOUS ROADWAY INTELL...

1. A system for avoiding or minimizing the harm of a collision between a subject vehicle and a second vehicle, comprising:a first processor configured to determine whether the subject vehicle will collide with the second vehicle when no evasive actions are taken;
a second processor configured to calculate future trajectories of the subject and second vehicles according to respective sequences of actions, each action comprising an acceleration or a deceleration or a steering action or a waiting time;
a third processor configured to implement one of the respective sequences of actions based on the future trajectories calculated by the second processor, the implemented sequence of actions projected to avoid the collision;
a fourth processor configured to calculate the expected harm associated with the collision according to one or more of the sequences of actions based on the future trajectories calculated by the second processor; and
a fifth processor configured to implement a particular one of the sequences of actions, calculated by the fourth processor, that is projected to minimize the harm of the collision;
wherein the first through fifth processors are implemented on a single processing element or on multiple processing elements; and
wherein the sequences of actions are determined and calculated by the second processor and the expected harm is calculated by the fourth processor before the sequences of actions are implemented by the third or fifth processor.

US Pat. No. 10,694,548

WIRELESS MESSAGE COLLISION AVOIDANCE WITH HIGH THROUGHPUT

AUTONOMOUS ROADWAY INTELL...

1. A system for wireless communication, comprising:a transmitter configured to transmit wireless messages;
a receiver configured to receive wireless messages;
a processor operably connected to the transmitter and the receiver; and
non-transient computer-readable media operably connected to the processor, containing instructions for causing the processor to perform a method comprising:
transmitting a wireless message while no interfering signals are detected;
then, if a confirmatory reply is not received within a predetermined interval, waiting a time period equal to the sum of a predetermined initial waiting interval plus a randomly selected delay within a predetermined initial contention window and then re-transmitting the wireless message;
then, if a confirmatory reply to the re-transmitted message is not received within a predetermined interval, waiting a predetermined second waiting interval plus a randomly selected delay within a predetermined second contention window, wherein the second waiting interval is shorter than the initial waiting interval, or the second contention window is shorter than the initial contention window; and
then, transmitting the wireless message.

US Pat. No. 10,736,146

WIRELESS MESSAGE COLLISION AVOIDANCE WITH HIGH THROUGHPUT

AUTONOMOUS ROADWAY INTELL...

1. A system for wireless communication, comprising:a transmitter configured to transmit wireless messages;
a receiver configured to receive wireless messages;
a processor operably connected to the transmitter and the receiver; and
non-transient computer-readable media operably connected to the processor, containing instructions for causing the processor to perform a method comprising:
transmitting a wireless message while no interfering signals are detected;
then, if a confirmatory reply is not received within a predetermined interval, waiting a time period equal to the sum of a predetermined initial waiting interval plus a randomly selected delay within a predetermined initial contention window and then re-transmitting the wireless message;
then, if a confirmatory reply to the re-transmitted message is not received within a predetermined interval, waiting a predetermined second waiting interval plus a randomly selected delay within a predetermined second contention window, wherein the second waiting interval is shorter than the initial waiting interval, or the second contention window is shorter than the initial contention window; and
then, transmitting the wireless message.

US Pat. No. 10,713,950

RAPID WIRELESS COMMUNICATION FOR VEHICLE COLLISION MITIGATION

AUTONOMOUS ROADWAY INTELL...

1. A system for mitigating an imminent collision, comprising a subject vehicle, a land-based receiver, a land-based transmitter, and a land-based supercomputer, wherein:the subject vehicle is configured to detect, with sensors mounted in or on the subject vehicle, an imminent collision with a second vehicle, and to transmit a wireless request message specifying imminent collision data;
the land-based receiver is configured to receive the wireless request message and to transmit the imminent collision data to the land-based supercomputer;
the land-based supercomputer is configured to calculate a recommended sequence of actions for mitigating the collision, the calculation including calculation of a plurality of sequences of actions and is further configured to select from the calculated sequences of actions, a recommended sequence of actions that avoids the collision or minimizes the harm of the collision;
the land-based supercomputer is further configured to transmit the recommended sequence of actions to the land-based transmitter;
the land-based transmitter is configured to transmit a wireless response message specifying the recommended sequence of actions to the subject vehicle; and
the subject vehicle is configured to receive the wireless response message and implement the recommended sequence of actions in time to avoid or mitigate the collision, wherein the land-based supercomputer is configured to determine whether the collision is avoidable or unavoidable, and wherein the land-based supercomputer is configured to find a sequence of actions that avoids the collision when the collision is avoidable, and a sequence of actions that minimizes the harm of the collision when the collision is unavoidable, and wherein the land-based supercomputer is configured to calculate the harm of the collision by calculating a number of expected fatalities times a predetermined fatality weighting factor, plus a number of expected injuries times a predetermined injury weighting factor, plus an expected amount of property damage times a predetermined property damage weighting factor.

US Pat. No. 10,486,694

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR HAZARD MITIGATION

AUTONOMOUS ROADWAY INTELL...

1. A system for avoiding or minimizing the harm of a collision between a subject vehicle and a second vehicle, comprising:a first processor configured to determine whether the subject vehicle will collide with the second vehicle when no evasive actions are taken;
a second processor configured to calculate future trajectories of the subject and second vehicles according to respective sequences of actions, each action comprising an acceleration or a deceleration or a steering action or a waiting time;
a third processor configured to implement one of the respective sequences of actions based on the future trajectories calculated by the second processor, the implemented sequence of actions projected to avoid the collision;
a fourth processor configured to calculate the expected harm associated with the collision according to one or more of the sequences of actions based on the future trajectories calculated by the second processor; and
a fifth processor configured to implement a particular one of the sequences of actions, calculated by the fourth processor, that is projected to minimize the harm of the collision;
wherein the first through fifth processors are implemented on a single processing element or on multiple processing elements; and
wherein the sequences of actions are determined and calculated by the second processor and the expected harm is calculated by the fourth processor before the sequences of actions are implemented by the third or fifth processor.

US Pat. No. 10,641,860

AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE LOCALIZATION SYSTEM

AUTONOMOUS ROADWAY INTELL...

1. A system, mounted on a first vehicle, for localizing a second vehicle, comprising:a wireless transmitter configured to transmit a first wireless message;
a localization signal emitter configured to emit a first localization signal comprising pulsed energy synchronized with the first wireless message;
a wireless receiver configured to receive a second wireless message from the second vehicle;
a localization signal detector configured to detect a second localization signal from the second vehicle, the second localization signal comprising pulsed energy synchronized with the second wireless message; and
a processor configured to cause the localization signal emitter to emit the first localization signal synchronously with the first wireless message, to determine a direction of the second vehicle according to the second localization signal, and to associate the second localization signal with the second wireless message;wherein the processor is further configured to perform one or more of the following steps:determine which particular vehicle, among a plurality of other vehicles, is the second vehicle according to the direction determined from the second localization signal;
decode the second identification code by analyzing the second localization signal;
identify the second vehicle by comparing an image of the second vehicle and the direction toward the second vehicle;
form a plurality of successive images of the second vehicle at successive times, and to calculate an updated direction toward the second vehicle according to each of the plurality of images;
communicate with the second vehicle after determining both a direction toward the second vehicle and an identification code associated with the second vehicle;
avoid, in cooperation with the second vehicle, an imminent collision;
cause the second vehicle to avoid an imminent collision, at least in part by communicating with the second vehicle;
determine, based at least in part on one or more communications with the second vehicle, whether an imminent collision is avoidable or unavoidable;
mitigate a traffic collision by communicating wirelessly with the second vehicle after detecting the second localization signal and determining which vehicle, among a plurality of vehicles proximate to the first vehicle, is the second vehicle;
determine the second identification code, and then to transmit, specifically to the second vehicle, a wireless message that includes both the first and second identification codes;
determine whether the second vehicle is an autonomous vehicle;
prepare, in cooperation with the second vehicle, a first sequence of actions comprising a plurality of sequential positive accelerations, active or passive decelerations, waiting times, or steering actions of the first vehicle, and a second sequence of actions comprising a plurality of sequential positive accelerations, active or passive decelerations, waiting times, or steering actions of the second vehicle;
avoid a collision, at least in part by communicating with the second vehicle after determining a direction toward the second vehicle and an identification code associated with the second vehicle;
communicate with the second vehicle, and to prepare, at least in part based on communications with the second vehicle, one or more sequences of actions configured to avoid the collision or to minimize the harm of an unavoidable collision, and to implement a selected one of the sequences of actions;
determine, at least in part based on communications with the second vehicle, whether an imminent collision is avoidable or unavoidable;
wait, after receiving a wireless message from the second vehicle, for a predetermined waiting interval, and then to prepare a gate interval, and to emit the first localization signal at a randomly selected time during the gate interval; and
delay emitting the first localization message while another wireless message is in progress.

US Pat. No. 10,585,158

AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE LOCALIZATION SYSTEM

AUTONOMOUS ROADWAY INTELL...

1. A system, mounted on a first vehicle, for localizing a second vehicle, comprising:a wireless transmitter configured to transmit a first wireless message;
a localization signal emitter configured to emit a first localization signal comprising pulsed energy synchronized with the first wireless message;
a wireless receiver configured to receive a second wireless message from the second vehicle;
a localization signal detector configured to detect a second localization signal from the second vehicle, the second localization signal comprising pulsed energy synchronized with the second wireless message; and
a processor configured to cause the localization signal emitter to emit the first localization signal synchronously with the first wireless message, to determine a direction of the second vehicle according to the second localization signal, and to associate the second localization signal with the second wireless message;wherein the processor is further configured to perform one or more of the following steps:determine which particular vehicle, among a plurality of other vehicles, is the second vehicle according to the direction determined from the second localization signal;
decode the second identification code by analyzing the second localization signal;
identify the second vehicle by comparing an image of the second vehicle and the direction toward the second vehicle;
form a plurality of successive images of the second vehicle at successive times, and to calculate an updated direction toward the second vehicle according to each of the plurality of images;
communicate with the second vehicle after determining both a direction toward the second vehicle and an identification code associated with the second vehicle;
avoid, in cooperation with the second vehicle, an imminent collision;
cause the second vehicle to avoid an imminent collision, at least in part by communicating with the second vehicle;
determine, based at least in part on one or more communications with the second vehicle, whether an imminent collision is avoidable or unavoidable;
mitigate a traffic collision by communicating wirelessly with the second vehicle after detecting the second localization signal and determining which vehicle, among a plurality of vehicles proximate to the first vehicle, is the second vehicle;
determine the second identification code, and then to transmit, specifically to the second vehicle, a wireless message that includes both the first and second identification codes;
determine whether the second vehicle is an autonomous vehicle;
prepare, in cooperation with the second vehicle, a first sequence of actions comprising a plurality of sequential positive accelerations, active or passive decelerations, waiting times, or steering actions of the first vehicle, and a second sequence of actions comprising a plurality of sequential positive accelerations, active or passive decelerations, waiting times, or steering actions of the second vehicle;
avoid a collision, at least in part by communicating with the second vehicle after determining a direction toward the second vehicle and an identification code associated with the second vehicle;
communicate with the second vehicle, and to prepare, at least in part based on communications with the second vehicle, one or more sequences of actions configured to avoid the collision or to minimize the harm of an unavoidable collision, and to implement a selected one of the sequences of actions;
determine, at least in part based on communications with the second vehicle, whether an imminent collision is avoidable or unavoidable;
wait, after receiving a wireless message from the second vehicle, for a predetermined waiting interval, and then to prepare a gate interval, and to emit the first localization signal at a randomly selected time during the gate interval; and
delay emitting the first localization message while another wireless message is in progress.

US Pat. No. 10,732,256

AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE LOCALIZATION SYSTEM

AUTONOMOUS ROADWAY INTELL...

1. A system, mounted on a first vehicle, for localizing a second vehicle, comprising:a wireless transmitter configured to transmit a first wireless message;
a localization signal emitter configured to emit a first localization signal comprising pulsed energy synchronized with the first wireless message;
a wireless receiver configured to receive a second wireless message from the second vehicle;
a localization signal detector configured to detect a second localization signal from the second vehicle, the second localization signal comprising pulsed energy synchronized with the second wireless message; and
a processor configured to cause the localization signal emitter to emit the first localization signal synchronously with the first wireless message, to determine a direction of the second vehicle according to the second localization signal, and to associate the second localization signal with the second wireless message;wherein the processor is further configured to perform one or more of the following steps:determine which particular vehicle, among a plurality of other vehicles, is the second vehicle according to the direction determined from the second localization signal;
decode the second identification code by analyzing the second localization signal;
identify the second vehicle by comparing an image of the second vehicle and the direction toward the second vehicle;
form a plurality of successive images of the second vehicle at successive times, and to calculate an updated direction toward the second vehicle according to each of the plurality of images;
communicate with the second vehicle after determining both a direction toward the second vehicle and an identification code associated with the second vehicle;
avoid, in cooperation with the second vehicle, an imminent collision;
cause the second vehicle to avoid an imminent collision, at least in part by communicating with the second vehicle;
determine, based at least in part on one or more communications with the second vehicle, whether an imminent collision is avoidable or unavoidable;
mitigate a traffic collision by communicating wirelessly with the second vehicle after detecting the second localization signal and determining which vehicle, among a plurality of vehicles proximate to the first vehicle, is the second vehicle;
determine the second identification code, and then to transmit, specifically to the second vehicle, a wireless message that includes both the first and second identification codes;
determine whether the second vehicle is an autonomous vehicle;
prepare, in cooperation with the second vehicle, a first sequence of actions comprising a plurality of sequential positive accelerations, active or passive decelerations, waiting times, or steering actions of the first vehicle, and a second sequence of actions comprising a plurality of sequential positive accelerations, active or passive decelerations, waiting times, or steering actions of the second vehicle;
avoid a collision, at least in part by communicating with the second vehicle after determining a direction toward the second vehicle and an identification code associated with the second vehicle;
communicate with the second vehicle, and to prepare, at least in part based on communications with the second vehicle, one or more sequences of actions configured to avoid the collision or to minimize the harm of an unavoidable collision, and to implement a selected one of the sequences of actions;
determine, at least in part based on communications with the second vehicle, whether an imminent collision is avoidable or unavoidable;
wait, after receiving a wireless message from the second vehicle, for a predetermined waiting interval, and then to prepare a gate interval, and to emit the first localization signal at a randomly selected time during the gate interval; and
delay emitting the first localization message while another wireless message is in progress.

US Pat. No. 10,773,378

IDENTIFICATION AND LOCALIZATION OF MOBILE ROBOTS

AUTONOMOUS ROADWAY INTELL...

1. A system, mounted on a first robot, for localizing a second robot, comprising:a wireless transmitter configured to transmit a first wireless message;
a localization signal emitter configured to emit a first localization signal comprising pulsed visible or infrared light synchronized with the first wireless message;
a wireless receiver configured to receive a second wireless message from the second robot;
a localization signal detector configured to detect, and to determine an arrival direction of, a second localization signal from the second robot, the second localization signal comprising pulsed visible or infrared light synchronized with the second wireless message; and
a processor configured to cause the localization signal emitter to emit the first localization signal synchronously with the first wireless message, to determine a direction toward the second robot based at least in part on the arrival direction of the second localization signal, and to associate the second localization signal and the direction toward the second robot with the second wireless message.

US Pat. No. 10,816,635

AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE LOCALIZATION SYSTEM

AUTONOMOUS ROADWAY INTELL...

1. A system, mounted on a first vehicle, for localizing a second vehicle, comprising:a wireless transmitter configured to transmit a first wireless message;
a localization signal emitter configured to emit a first localization signal comprising pulsed energy synchronized with the first wireless message;
a wireless receiver configured to receive a second wireless message from the second vehicle;
a localization signal detector configured to detect a second localization signal from the second vehicle, the second localization signal comprising pulsed energy synchronized with the second wireless message; and
a processor configured to cause the localization signal emitter to emit the first localization signal synchronously with the first wireless message, to determine a direction of the second vehicle according to the second localization signal, and to associate the second localization signal with the second wireless message;wherein the processor is further configured to perform one or more of the following steps:determine which particular vehicle, among a plurality of other vehicles, is the second vehicle according to the direction determined from the second localization signal;
decode the second identification code by analyzing the second localization signal;
identify the second vehicle by comparing an image of the second vehicle and the direction toward the second vehicle;
form a plurality of successive images of the second vehicle at successive times, and to calculate an updated direction toward the second vehicle according to each of the plurality of images;
communicate with the second vehicle after determining both a direction toward the second vehicle and an identification code associated with the second vehicle;
avoid, in cooperation with the second vehicle, an imminent collision;
cause the second vehicle to avoid an imminent collision, at least in part by communicating with the second vehicle;
determine, based at least in part on one or more communications with the second vehicle, whether an imminent collision is avoidable or unavoidable;
mitigate a traffic collision by communicating wirelessly with the second vehicle after detecting the second localization signal and determining which vehicle, among a plurality of vehicles proximate to the first vehicle, is the second vehicle;
determine the second identification code, and then to transmit, specifically to the second vehicle, a wireless message that includes both the first and second identification codes;
determine whether the second vehicle is an autonomous vehicle;
prepare, in cooperation with the second vehicle, a first sequence of actions comprising a plurality of sequential positive accelerations, active or passive decelerations, waiting times, or steering actions of the first vehicle, and a second sequence of actions comprising a plurality of sequential positive accelerations, active or passive decelerations, waiting times, or steering actions of the second vehicle;
avoid a collision, at least in part by communicating with the second vehicle after determining a direction toward the second vehicle and an identification code associated with the second vehicle;
communicate with the second vehicle, and to prepare, at least in part based on communications with the second vehicle, one or more sequences of actions configured to avoid the collision or to minimize the harm of an unavoidable collision, and to implement a selected one of the sequences of actions;
determine, at least in part based on communications with the second vehicle, whether an imminent collision is avoidable or unavoidable;
wait, after receiving a wireless message from the second vehicle, for a predetermined waiting interval, and then to prepare a gate interval, and to emit the first localization signal at a randomly selected time during the gate interval; and
delay emitting the first localization message while another wireless message is in progress.

US Pat. No. 10,816,636

AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE LOCALIZATION SYSTEM

AUTONOMOUS ROADWAY INTELL...

1. A system, mounted on a first vehicle, for localizing a second vehicle, comprising:a wireless transmitter configured to transmit a first wireless message;
a localization signal emitter configured to emit a first localization signal comprising pulsed visible or infrared light synchronized with the first wireless message;
a wireless receiver configured to receive a second wireless message from the second vehicle;
a localization signal detector configured to detect a second localization signal from the second vehicle and to measure an arrival direction of the second localization signal, wherein the second localization signal comprises pulsed visible or infrared light synchronized with the second wireless message; and
a processor configured to cause the localization signal emitter to emit the first localization signal synchronously with the first wireless message, to determine a direction of the second vehicle according to the arrival direction of the second localization signal, and to associate the second localization signal and the second wireless message with the second vehicle, wherein the processor is configured to avoid interfering with ongoing wireless messages by;
determining whether a first interfering wireless message is present;
responsive to determining that the first interfering message is present, waiting until the first interfering message has completed being received;
waiting, after the first interfering message has completed being received, for a first waiting interval;
preparing and commencing a first gate interval following the first waiting interval; and
determining, at a random time within the first gate interval, whether a second interfering wireless message is present.

US Pat. No. 10,814,474

IDENTIFICATION AND LOCALIZATION OF MOBILE ROBOTS

AUTONOMOUS ROADWAY INTELL...

1. A system, mounted on a first robot, for localizing a second robot, comprising:a wireless transmitter configured to transmit a first wireless message;
a localization signal emitter configured to emit a first localization signal comprising pulsed visible or infrared light synchronized with the first wireless message;
a wireless receiver configured to receive a second wireless message from the second robot;
a localization signal detector configured to detect, and to determine an arrival direction of, a second localization signal from the second robot, the second localization signal comprising pulsed visible or infrared light synchronized with the second wireless message; and
a processor configured to cause the localization signal emitter to emit the first localization signal synchronously with the first wireless message, to determine a direction toward the second robot based at least in part on the arrival direction of the second localization signal, and to associate the second localization signal and the direction toward the second robot with the second wireless message.