US Pat. No. 9,743,484

LINEAR SOLID-STATE LIGHTING WITH ELECTRIC SHOCK AND ARC PREVENTION MECHANISMS FREE OF FIRE AND SHOCK HAZARDS

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A linear light-emitting diode (LED) tube lamp, comprising:
a housing having two ends;
a light-emitting diode printed circuit board (LED PCB), the LED PCB comprising one or more LED arrays disposed thereon;
two lamp bases each connected to a respective end of the two ends of the housing, each lamp base comprising a bi-pin each
with two pins protruding outwards and configured to connect to an external fixture lamp socket, each lamp base further comprising
an input module comprising a shock prevention switch and at least one thermal protection device electrically connected to
the bi-pin; and

an LED driving circuit configured to convert an input alternating current (AC) voltage from an external power supply into
regulated direct current (DC) voltage and current provided to power the one or more LED arrays,

wherein, for each lamp base, when either the respective shock prevention switch or the respective at least one thermal protection
device is shut off, the input AC voltage is decoupled from the linear LED tube lamp, and

wherein, for each lamp base, when the bi-pin is installed in the external fixture lamp socket, and when an electric arc starts
between the bi-pin and the external fixture lamp socket and generates heat, the at least one thermal protection device is
automatically shut off.

US Pat. No. 9,420,663

LINEAR SOLID-STATE LIGHTING WITH AN ARC PREVENTION SWITCH MECHANISM FREE OF FIRE AND SHOCK HAZARDS

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A linear light-emitting diode (LED) tube lamp, comprising:
a housing having two ends;
a light-emitting diode printed circuit board (LED PCB), the LED PCB comprising one or more LED arrays disposed thereon;
two lamp bases each connected to a respective end of the two ends of the housing, each lamp base comprising a bi-pin each
with two pins protruding outwards, each lamp base further comprising an input module comprising a shock prevention switch
and an arc prevention mechanism; and

an LED driving circuit configured to convert an input alternating current (AC) voltage from an external power supply into
regulated direct current (DC) voltage and current provided to power the one or more LED arrays;

wherein, for each lamp base, when the respective shock prevention switch is off, the arc prevention mechanism functions to
decouple the input AC voltage from the linear LED tube lamp;

wherein, for each lamp base, when the bi-pin is installed in a lamp socket, the arc prevention mechanism functions to couple
the input AC voltage to the linear LED tube lamp; and

wherein the arc prevention mechanism comprises at least one arc extinguisher configured to control turning on and off of the
shock prevention switch.

US Pat. No. 9,699,855

ADD-ON IPS CONTROLLER FOR LED LIGHTING DEVICE

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A light-source-less add-on indoor positioning system (IPS) controller for a light-emitting diode (LED) lighting device,
comprising:
a power input port;
a power output port;
a housing;
a control unit disposed in the housing, the control unit comprising a two-way wireless module; and
at least one data signal receiver disposed in the control unit,
wherein:
a power input of the control unit is connected to the power input port,
a power output of the control unit is connected to the power output port,
the at least one data signal receiver is configured to receive external data signals,
the control unit is configured to activate the power output port to supply output voltage when the control unit receives an
“ON” signal, and

the control unit is configured to deactivate the power output port when the control unit receives an “OFF” signal.

US Pat. No. 9,559,773

ADD-ON VLC CONTROLLER FOR LED LIGHTING DEVICE

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A light-source-less add-on visible light communication (VLC) controller for a light-emitting diode (LED) lighting device,
comprising:
a power input port;
a power output port;
a housing;
a control unit disposed in the housing, the control unit comprising a VLC protocol engine and a VLC transceiver; and
at least one data signal receiver disposed in the control unit,
wherein:
a power input of the control unit is connected to the power input port,
a power output of the control unit is connected to the power output port,
the data signal receiver is configured to receive data from an external data source and provide the received data to the VLC
protocol engine,

the VLC protocol engine is configured to interpret the received data according to a VLC protocol,
the VLC transceiver is configured to convert the received data into one or more light intensity baseband modulation (LIBM)-modulated
signals by varying a frequency at which one or more LEDs of the LED lighting device are turned on and off and by varying a
light intensity of the one or more LEDs, the VLC transceiver is further configured to activate and deactivate the power output
port to supply an output voltage responsive to the one or more LIBM-modulated signals, and

the control unit is configured to activate the power output port to supply the output voltage in response to receiving an
“ON” signal, and deactivate the power output port in response to receiving an “OFF” signal, independent of the one or more
LIBM-modulated signals.

US Pat. No. 9,854,640

SOLID-STATE LIGHTING CONTROL WITH DIMMABILITY AND COLOR TEMPERATURE TUNABILITY USING LOW VOLTAGE CONTROLLER

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A dimming and correlated color temperature (CCT) tuning lighting system, comprising:
a low voltage dimming input;
a low voltage CCT tuning input; and
at least one light-emitting diode (LED)-based lighting device, comprising:
at least two types of LED-based light sources; and
a dimming and CCT tuning controllable driver, comprising:
a power supply section configured to receive an alternating current (AC) power to generate a direct current (DC) power;
a dimming and CCT tuning control section configured to receive and to mix a dimming signal and a CCT tuning signal from the
low voltage dimming input and the low voltage CCT tuning input and to generate at least two pulse-width modulated (PWM) control
signals; and

an LED driving section connected to the power supply section and configured to receive the DC power and the at least two PWM
control signals to drive the at least two type of LED-based light sources to emit a light with a dimming level and a CCT,

wherein, in response to the dimming signal and CCT tuning signal from the low voltage dimming input and the low voltage CCT
tuning input, the dimming and CCT tuning control section performing operations comprising:

determining a ratio related to extreme CCTs of the LED-based light sources from the low voltage CCT tuning input and the dimming
level from the low voltage dimming input;

integrating the ratio related to the extreme CCTs of the LED-based light sources with the dimming level to obtain factors
relevant to a target dimming level and CCT; and

generating PWM signals based on the factors relevant to the target dimming level and CCT.

US Pat. No. 10,021,753

LINEAR SOLID-STATE LIGHTING WITH FRONT END ELECTRIC SHOCK DETECTION

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A linear light-emitting diode (LED) tube lamp, comprising:a housing having two ends;
one or more LED arrays disposed between the two ends of the housing;
two lamp bases respectively connected to the two ends of the housing, each lamp base comprising at least one electrical conductor configured to insert into a respective lamp fixture socket;
a front-end electric shock detection and control module comprising at least one full-wave rectifier, at least one half-wave rectifier, a first set of voltage dividers and regulators, a second set of voltage dividers and regulators, a constant current sink connected to the at least one half-wave rectifier, a signal extraction unit controlled by the second set of voltage dividers and regulators, a switch control unit connected to the signal extraction unit, and at least one switch, wherein the at least one full-wave rectifier and the at least one half-wave rectifier are configured to respectively convert an input alternate current (AC) line voltage to a first direct current (DC) voltage and a second DC voltage, and wherein the first set of voltage dividers and regulators and the second set of voltage dividers and regulators are respectively configured to convert the first DC voltage and the second DC voltage to a third DC voltage and a fourth DC voltage, respectively; and
an LED driving circuit configured to receive the first DC voltage via the at least one switch and to drive and to light up the one or more LED arrays;
wherein:
the switch control unit is capable of independently detecting, based on the third DC voltage and the fourth DC voltage, whether an electric shock occurred at the at least one electrical conductor without receiving any signal from the LED driving circuit;
responsive to a detection of the electric shock by the switch control unit, the at least one switch disables an electric current flow from the LED driving circuit, thereby disconnecting an electric current return from the one or more LED arrays to reach the at least one full-wave rectifier; and
when the at least one electrical conductor in each lamp base is inserted into the respective lamp fixture socket, the front-end electric shock detection and control module enables the LED driving circuit to deliver electrical power to the one or more LED arrays.

US Pat. No. 9,826,595

LINEAR SOLID-STATE LIGHTING WITH ELECTRIC SHOCK CURRENT SENSING

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A linear light-emitting diode (LED) tube lamp, comprising:
a housing having two ends;
a plurality of LED arrays disposed between the two ends of the housing;
an LED driving circuit comprising a current sensing device coupling to the LED arrays;
two lamp bases respectively connected to the two ends of the housing, each lamp base comprising at least one electrical conductor
configured to insert into a respective lamp fixture socket;

at least one rectifier configured to convert an alternate current (AC) voltage to a direct current (DC) voltage; and
an operation monitoring module receiving a signal from the current sensing device in the LED driving circuit,
wherein:
when a through-lamp electric shock current is detected by the current sensing device, the operation monitoring module disconnects
an electric current return from the LED arrays from reaching the at least one rectifier; and

when the at least one electrical conductor in each lamp base is inserted into the respective lamp fixture socket, the operation
monitoring module enables the LED driving circuit to deliver electrical power to the LED arrays.

US Pat. No. 9,857,053

SOLID-STATE LIGHTING LUMINAIRE WITH A UNIFORM ILLUMINATION OUTPUT

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A light-emitting diode (LED) luminaire, comprising:
a body having an internal surface comprising two side surface portions, two end surface portions, and a central flat mount
surface portion connected to the two side surface portions and the two end surface portions;

a reflector on the internal surface of the body, the reflector comprising two side reflectors on the two side surface portions
of the internal surface of the body, an upper reflector on the central flat mount surface portion connected between the two
side reflectors, and two end reflectors on the two end surface portions of the internal surface of the body, wherein the upper
reflector is at an angle in a range from 90° to 180° relative to the two side reflectors;

at least one LED light strip mounted on the central flat mount surface portion, the at least one LED light strip having a
plurality of LEDs thereon; and

a light exit window between the two side surface portions of the internal surface of the body, the light exit window comprising
long, narrow cuts aligned in a lengthwise direction of the at least one LED light strip,

wherein the internal surface of the body and the light exit window define an interior cavity symmetric with respect to a vertical
plane passing through a center line of the internal surface;

wherein the long, narrow cuts comprise a corrugated structure; and
wherein the plurality of LEDs emit light rays onto the light exit window with light images overlapping one another so as to
smooth out hot spots with dark spots.

US Pat. No. 10,123,388

SOLID-STATE LIGHTING WITH MULTIPLE DRIVERS

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A light-emitting diode (LED) luminaire, comprising:at least two electrical conductors configured to connect to alternate-current (AC) mains;
one or more LED arrays;
a rechargeable battery;
a full-wave rectifier connected to the at least two electrical conductors and configured to convert a line voltage from the AC mains into a first direct-current (DC) voltage;
an input filter configured to suppress electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise;
a first driver comprising a first power sustaining device, a first ground reference, and a second ground reference electrically isolated from the first ground reference and coupled to the full-wave rectifier via the input filter, the first driver configured to convert the first DC voltage into a second DC voltage that charges the rechargeable battery to reach a third DC voltage;
a second driver comprising a second power sustaining device, the second driver configured to receive the third DC voltage from the rechargeable battery and convert the third DC voltage into a fourth DC voltage to light up the one or more LED arrays when the line voltage from the AC mains is unavailable;
a third driver comprising a third power sustaining device and coupled to the full-wave rectifier via the input filter, the third driver configured to convert the first DC voltage into a fifth DC voltage that powers up the one or more LED arrays at full power and to meet LED luminaire efficacy requirements when the line voltage from the AC mains is available; and
a control circuit comprising an optocoupler, the control circuit configured to disable the second driver by controlling the second power sustaining device when the line voltage from the AC mains is available and to disable the third driver by controlling the third power sustaining device when a rechargeable battery test is performed,
wherein:
the optocoupler comprises an infrared LED and a phototransistor, respectively coupled to the second ground reference and the first ground reference, the optocoupler configured to disable the first driver when disabled;
the first driver, the second driver, the third driver, and the control circuit are configured to auto-select the line voltage from the AC mains or the third DC voltage from the rechargeable battery to operate the one or more LED arrays; and
the rechargeable battery test is performed to ensure that the rechargeable battery is in a working condition.

US Pat. No. 9,980,340

LINEAR SOLID-STATE LIGHTING WITH ELECTRIC ARC DETECTION AND PREVENTION FREE OF FIRE HAZARD

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A linear light-emitting diode (LED) tube lamp, comprising:a housing having two ends;
one or more LED arrays disposed between the two ends of the housing;
an LED driving circuit;
two lamp bases respectively connected to the two ends of the housing, each lamp base comprising at least one electrical conductor configured to insert into a respective lamp fixture socket;
at least one rectifier configured to convert an alternate current (AC) voltage to a direct current (DC) voltage; and
an electric arc detection and current control circuit comprising a first derivative circuit coupling the DC voltage from the at least one rectifier, a comparator circuit, a switch control device, and at least one switch controlled by the switch control device to connect or disconnect the electric current return from the LED driving circuit and the one or more LED arrays,
wherein:
when an electric arc is detected, the electric arc detection and current control circuit disconnects an electric current return from the LED driving circuit and the one or more LED arrays to prevent the electric current return from reaching the at least one rectifier; and
when the at least one electrical conductor in each lamp base is inserted into the respective lamp fixture socket without the electric arc, the electric arc detection and current control circuit enables the LED driving circuit to drive the one or more LED arrays to light up.

US Pat. No. 10,136,483

SOLID-STATE LIGHTING WITH AUTO-SELECT SETTINGS FOR LINE VOLTAGE AND BALLAST VOLTAGE

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A light-emitting diode (LED) lamp, comprising:at least two electrical conductors configured to connect to lamp fixture sockets wired to connect to either alternate current (AC) mains or a ballast;
one or more LED arrays;
a first full-wave rectifier connected to the at least two electrical conductors and configured to convert an input AC voltage from the AC mains into a first direct current (DC) voltage;
a ballast operation circuit comprising a second full-wave rectifier coupled in parallel with the first full-wave rectifier receiving the input AC voltage, the second full-wave rectifier configured to convert an input AC voltage from the ballast into a second DC voltage and to power the one or more LED arrays;
an LED driving circuit comprising an input filter, a power sustaining device, a driver comprising a voltage feedback module and a low voltage input, and one or more start-up resistors connected in parallel with the voltage feedback module, the one or more start-up resistors and the voltage feedback module configured to provide a low DC voltage to couple to the power sustaining device and to sustain operation of the LED driving circuit, wherein the LED driving circuit is configured to operate in response to the first DC voltage and to power the one or more LED arrays; and
an optocoupler comprising an infrared emitting diode and a phototransistor, the optocoupler configured to operate in response to the second DC voltage and to disable the LED driving circuit when enabled,
wherein:
the ballast operation circuit, the optocoupler, and the LED driving circuit are configured to auto-select the input AC voltage from either the AC mains or the ballast to operate the one or more LED arrays without ambiguity and risk of internal fire.

US Pat. No. 10,036,515

LINEAR SOLID-STATE LIGHTING WITH LOW VOLTAGE CONTROL FREE OF ELECTRIC SHOCK AND FIRE HAZARD

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A linear light-emitting diode (LED) tube lamp, comprising:a housing having two ends;
at least one LED printed circuit board (LED PCB) disposed between the two ends of the housing, the at least one LED PCB comprising one or more LED arrays disposed thereon;
two lamp bases respectively connected to the two ends of the housing, each lamp base comprising a magnetic proximity sensor pair and at least one electrical conductor configured to connect to a lamp fixture socket that is wired to connect to either alternate current (AC) mains or ballasts;
a controller comprising a first full-wave rectifier configured to convert an input AC voltage into a direct current (DC) voltage, a set of voltage dividers and regulators configured to convert the DC voltage into a low DC voltage, a switch control unit coupled to receive signals from the magnetic proximity sensor pair in each lamp base, and at least one switch controlled by the switch control unit; and
an LED driving circuit configured to receive the DC voltage and to return an electric current via the at least one switch enabled by the controller so as to drive and to light up the one or more LED arrays;
wherein:
the low DC voltage is configured to operate the magnetic proximity sensor pair in each lamp base;
when either one of the two lamp bases is out of the lamp fixture socket, the at least one switch disables an electric current flow from the LED driving circuit, thereby disconnecting an electric shock current returned from the one or more LED arrays to reach the at least one full-wave rectifier; and
when the at least one electrical conductor in each lamp base is inserted into the respective lamp fixture socket, the controller enables the LED driving circuit to deliver electrical power to the one or more LED arrays.

US Pat. No. 9,986,619

LINEAR SOLID-STATE LIGHTING WITH ELECTRIC SHOCK PREVENTION

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A linear light-emitting diode (LED) tube lamp, comprising:a housing having two ends;
one or more LED arrays disposed between the two ends of the housing;
an LED driving circuit comprising a control loop compensation device;
two lamp bases respectively connected to the two ends of the housing, each lamp base comprising at least one electrical conductor configured to insert into a respective lamp fixture socket;
at least one rectifier configured to convert an alternate current (AC) voltage to a direct current (DC) voltage; and
an electric current flow control module receiving a control loop correction voltage signal from the control loop compensation device in the LED driving circuit,
wherein:
when a through-lamp electric shock is detected in a power-up period, the electric current flow control module disconnects an electric current return from the one or more LED arrays to prevent the electric current return from reaching the at least one rectifier; and
when the at least one electrical conductor in each lamp base is inserted into the respective lamp fixture socket, the electric current flow control module enables the LED driving circuit to deliver electrical power to the one or more LED arrays.

US Pat. No. 9,967,927

LINEAR SOLID-STATE LIGHTING WITH GALVANIC ISOLATION

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A linear light-emitting diode (LED) tube lamp, comprising:a housing having two ends;
at least one light-emitting diode printed circuit board (LED PCB) disposed between the two ends of the housing, the at least one LED PCB having LED arrays fixed thereon, the LED arrays having two inputs;
an LED driving circuit connecting to the LED arrays on the at least one LED PCB, the LED driving circuit having two inputs;
two lamp bases respectively connected to the two ends of the housing, each lamp base comprising at least one electrical conductor connecting to a lamp fixture socket;
at least one pair of electrical contacts; and
a controller receiving power from a rectified direct current (DC) voltage, the controller comprising an isolation module configured to perform galvanic isolation between the controller and the LED driving circuit connecting to the LED arrays,
wherein:
when the at least one pair of electrical contacts are not electrically connected, a through-lamp electric shock current does not flow through the LED arrays; and
when the at least one electrical conductor in each lamp base is inserted into the lamp fixture socket, the at least one pair of electrical contacts are actuated to deliver electrical power from the at least one electrical conductor in each lamp base to the LED arrays.

US Pat. No. 10,139,093

LINEAR SOLID-STATE LIGHTING WITH A PULSE AMPLITUDE CONTROL SCHEME

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A linear light-emitting diode (LED) tube lamp, comprising:a housing having two ends;
one or more LED arrays disposed between the two ends of the housing;
two lamp bases respectively connected to the two ends of the housing, each lamp base comprising at least one electrical conductor configured to insert into a respective lamp fixture socket;
a direct-current (DC) voltage module comprising at least one full-wave rectifier connected to an input alternate-current (AC) line voltage via the at least one electrical conductor in each lamp base, the DC voltage module configured to convert the input AC line voltage to a full-wave DC voltage and a half-wave DC voltage;
an LED driving circuit comprising a power factor correction (PFC) and control device, a power sustaining device, an electronic switch controlled by the PFC and control device, and a voltage feedback module, the LED driving circuit configured to receive the full-wave DC voltage, to generate an LED voltage and current, and to power up the one or more LED arrays; and
a pulse amplitude control module comprising an input connected to the at least one electrical conductor of each lamp base in a way that the half-wave DC voltage appears at the input, the pulse amplitude control module configured to generate one or more voltage pulses when the half-wave DC voltage drops to a few tens of volts in each AC cycle and to control a DC voltage in the power sustaining device,
wherein:
when an electric shock occurs, the pulse amplitude control module generates the one or more voltage pulses with a relatively low amplitude such that the DC voltage in the power sustaining device fails to reach an operating voltage of the PFC and control device, thereby disabling the PFC and control device and the LED driving circuit without an electric shock current leaking into the at least one electrical conductor of at least one of the two lamp bases that is exposed to the electric shock; and
when the at least one electrical conductor of each lamp base is inserted into the respective lamp fixture socket and receives the input AC line voltage, the pulse amplitude control module generates the one or more voltage pulses with a relatively high amplitude such that the DC voltage in the power sustaining device reaches the operating voltage of the PFC and control device, thereby enabling the LED driving circuit to deliver electrical power to the one or more LED arrays.

US Pat. No. 10,118,170

ANTI-BACTERIAL LIGHTING APPARATUS

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A lighting apparatus, comprising of:at least one light source;
at least one lens that is transparent or translucent; and
at least one anti-bacterial composite film,
wherein:
the at least one light source is enclosed at least partially by the at least one lens,
the at least one anti-bacterial composite film comprises photocatalytic particles and nano silver particles,
the at least one anti-bacterial composite film is formed on at least a part of an outer surface of the at least one lens, and
at least 95%, of a spectral power distribution (SPD) of the at least one light source is in a visible light wavelength range greater than 400 nm.

US Pat. No. 10,161,616

LINEAR SOLID-STATE LIGHTING WITH RELIABLE ELECTRIC SHOCK CURRENT CONTROL FREE OF FIRE HAZARD

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A linear light-emitting diode (LED) tube lamp, comprising:a housing having two ends;
two lamp bases respectively connected to the two ends of the housing, each lamp base comprising a displacement sensor, at least one pair of electrical contacts controlled by the displacement sensor, and at least one electrical conductor configured to connect to a lamp fixture socket that is wired to connect to either alternate current (AC) mains or ballasts;
a full-wave rectifier connected to the at least one electrical conductor in each lamp base and configured to convert an input AC voltage of either the AC mains or the ballasts into a direct current (DC) voltage;
at least one LED printed circuit board (LED PCB) disposed between the two ends of the housing;
one or more LED arrays disposed on the at least one LED PCB; and
an LED driving circuit comprising an input filter, a power sustaining device, a driver comprising a voltage feedback module and a low voltage input, one or more start-up resistors connected with the voltage feedback module, and an electrical jumper pair, the one or more start-up resistors and the voltage feedback module configured to provide a low DC voltage to couple to the power sustaining device via the electrical jumper pair and to sustain operation of the LED driving circuit;
wherein:
the at least one pair of electrical contacts in each of the two lamp bases are connected in series and further connected to the electrical jumper pair so as to loop between the power sustaining device and the low voltage input of the driver;
when either one of the at least one pair of electrical contacts is not electrically connected, a through-lamp electric shock current does not flow out of the one or more LED arrays;
when one of the at least one electrical conductor in one of the two lamp bases is inserted into the respective lamp fixture socket while the other one of the at least one electrical conductor in the other one of the two lamp bases is removed from the respective lamp fixture socket and touches an electrically-conductive object, the LED driving circuit stops to operate without delay, free of electric shock current flowing to the electrically-conductive object, and free of electric arc generated on the respective one pair of electrical contacts; and
when the at least one electrical conductor in each of the two lamp bases is inserted into the lamp fixture socket, the at least one pair of electrical contacts are actuated by the displacement sensor in each lamp base to deliver the low DC voltage from the power sustaining device to the driver, thereby operating the driver and powering the one or more LED arrays.

US Pat. No. 10,237,946

SOLID-STATE LIGHTING WITH STAND-ALONE TEST CAPABILITY FREE OF ELECTRIC SHOCK HAZARD

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A light-emitting diode (LED) luminaire, comprising:at least four electrical conductors configured to couple to alternate-current (AC) mains;
one or more LED arrays with a forward voltage across the one or more LED arrays;
a rechargeable battery;
a first full-wave rectifier and at least one second full-wave rectifier coupled to the at least four electrical conductors and configured to respectively convert a line voltage from the AC mains into a first direct-current (DC) voltage and a second DC voltage;
a first input filter and a second input filter respectively coupled to the first full-wave rectifier and the at least one second full-wave rectifier, the first input filter and the second input filter configured to suppress an electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise;
a charging circuit comprising a first transformer and a first ground reference, the charging circuit coupled to the first full-wave rectifier via the first input filter and configured to convert the first DC voltage into a third DC voltage that charges the rechargeable battery to reach a fourth DC voltage;
a first driver comprising a switch, a dimming controllable device, the first ground reference, an input inductor, at least one diode connected in series with the input inductor, an output resistor, and an output capacitor connected in parallel with the output resistor and connected between the at least one diode and the first ground reference, the first driver configured to convert the fourth DC voltage into a fifth DC voltage to power the one or more LED arrays when the line voltage from the AC mains is unavailable;
a second driver comprising a second transformer, a power sustaining device, and a second ground reference, the second driver coupled to the at least one second full-wave rectifier via the second input filter, the second driver configured to convert the second DC voltage into a sixth DC voltage that powers the one or more LED arrays at full power to meet LED luminaire efficacy requirements when the power sustaining device is enabled to reach an operating voltage to operate the second driver; and
a test and voltage pull-down circuit comprising a voltage pull-down circuit comprising a first voltage pull-down circuit and a second voltage pull-down circuit, the first voltage pull-down circuit configured to either pull down a dimming voltage coupled to the dimming controllable device to disable the first driver when the line voltage from the AC mains is available or to pull up the dimming voltage coupled to the dimming controllable device to enable the first driver when the line voltage from the AC mains is unavailable,
wherein:
the charging circuit, the first driver, the second driver, and the test and voltage pull-down circuit are configured to auto-select either the fifth DC voltage or the sixth DC voltage to operate the one or more LED arrays; and
when a rechargeable battery test is performed, the first driver is enabled to operate the one or more LED arrays, whereas the second driver is inactivated.

US Pat. No. 10,390,396

LINEAR SOLID-STATE LIGHTING WITH MULTIPLE SWITCHES

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A linear light-emitting diode (LED) lamp, comprising:a front end and a rear end;
one or more LED arrays with a forward voltage across thereon;
a first bi-pin and a second bi-pin respectively coupled to the front end and the rear end, each of the first bi-pin and the second bi-pin protruding outwards to receive an input alternating current (AC) voltage;
an anti-electric-shock module comprising a first ground reference, the anti-electric-shock module configured to detect an electric shock and to prevent a shock current, if occurred, from flowing into either the first bi-pin or the second bi-pin when the input AC voltage is a line voltage from AC mains;
a front-end module and a rear-end module, wherein the front-end module comprises four front-end diodes and is coupled to the first bi-pin and the first ground reference, wherein the rear-end module comprises two rear-end diodes, coupled to the second bi-pin, and two voltage reduction circuits coupled between the first bi-pin and the second bi-pin, and wherein the four front-end diodes and the two rear-end diodes are configured to manage electric current flows and to convert the input AC voltage into a first direct current (DC) voltage;
an LED driving circuit, wherein the LED driving circuit comprises a second ground reference, an input filter, a power factor correction (PFC) and control device, a first at least one electronic switch controlled by the PFC and control device, a current sensing resistor, a diode, a transformer with current charging and discharging thereof controlled by the first at least one electronic switch, a resistor, an output capacitor coupled in parallel with the resistor and connected to the transformer to build up a DC output voltage, and an alternate power unit, and wherein the LED driving circuit is configured to receive and convert the first DC voltage into the DC output voltage greater than the forward voltage across the one or more LED arrays to operate thereon; and
at least one switch control module coupled between the second ground reference and the first ground reference, the at least one switch control module configured to receive an AC signal voltage from the second bi-pin and to control the second ground reference to connect to the first ground reference when the input AC voltage is from a ballast, wherein, responsive to detecting zero current in the transformer within each AC cycle of the input AC voltage, the PFC and control device generates control signals to turn the first at least one electronic switch “on” and “off”, producing an LED current to drive the one or more LED arrays;
wherein, when applied to the first bi-pin, the line voltage from the AC mains is electrically coupled to the four front-end diodes;
wherein, when applied across the first bi-pin and the second bi-pin, the line voltage from the AC mains is electrically coupled to two of the four front-end diodes and the two rear-end diodes with the anti-electric-shock module operated to prevent a leakage current flowing into either the first bi-pin or the second bi-pin, whichever exposed to an installer;
wherein, when applied across the first bi-pin and the second bi-pin, the input AC voltage from the ballast is electrically coupled to two of the four front-end diodes and the two rear-end diodes with a first return current flowing through the at least one switch control module; and
wherein, when applied across the first bi-pin and the second bi-pin, an input AC voltage from a low-frequency reference ballast for testing the electric shock is electrically coupled to two of the four front-end diodes and the two rear-end diodes with a second return current prevented from flowing through the at least one switch control module.

US Pat. No. 10,314,123

SOLID-STATE LIGHTING WITH MULTIPLE CONTROL VOLTAGES

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A light-emitting diode (LED) luminaire, comprising:one or more LED arrays;
a full-wave rectifier configured to convert a line voltage from alternate-current (AC) mains into a first direct-current (DC) voltage;
an input filter configured to suppress an electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise;
a power switching driver comprising a power factor correction (PFC) and control circuit and a transformer having a primary side relative to a first ground reference and a secondary side relative to a second ground reference, the power switching driver coupled to the full-wave rectifier via the input filter and configured to convert the first DC voltage into a second DC voltage;
an electric current controller comprising at least one current sensing resistor and an enable input, the electric current controller configured to convert the second DC voltage into a third DC voltage with an output current driving the one or more LED arrays; and
a detection and control circuit comprising a voltage regulator, a voltage comparator circuit, and a pair of low-voltage input/output ports receiving an external voltage, the detection and control circuit configured to extract a controllable feedback signal voltage from the external voltage and to couple the controllable feedback signal voltage to the electric current controller to change the output current driving the one or more LED arrays;
wherein:
the voltage regulator comprises at least one transistor and a first voltage divider circuit coupled to the at least one transistor, the at least one transistor and the first voltage divider circuit configured to regulate the second DC voltage into a fourth DC voltage to operate the voltage comparator circuit;
the voltage comparator circuit comprises a first comparator circuit comprising a second voltage divider circuit, the first comparator circuit configured to compare a fifth DC voltage developed from the fourth DC voltage by the second voltage divider circuit with the external voltage, partially controlling the controllable feedback signal voltage; and
the enable input is configured to receive the controllable feedback signal voltage for the electric current controller to provide the output current driving the one or more LED arrays in response to the controllable feedback signal voltage.

US Pat. No. 10,327,298

SOLID-STATE LIGHTING WITH AN ADAPTED CONTROL VOLTAGE

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A light-emitting diode (LED) luminaire, comprising:one or more LED arrays;
a full-wave rectifier configured to convert a line voltage from alternate-current (AC) mains into a first direct-current (DC) voltage;
an input filter configured to suppress an electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise;
a power switching driver comprising a transformer having a primary side and a secondary side, which is separated from the primary side, and a power factor correction (PFC) and control circuit, the power switching driver coupled to the full-wave rectifier, via the input filter, and configured to convert the first DC voltage into a second DC voltage with an output current driving the one or more LED arrays; and
a detection and control circuit comprising a voltage sensing circuit, a current sensing circuit, a voltage regulator circuit, an optocoupler circuit, and a pair of low-voltage input/output ports receiving an external voltage, the detection and control circuit configured to extract an electrical signal from the second DC voltage, the output current driving the one or more LED arrays, and the external voltage and to couple an optical feedback signal to the power switching driver;
wherein:
the optocoupler circuit comprises an LED and a first photo-detector;
the LED is configured to receive the electrical signal from both the voltage sensing circuit and the current sensing circuit and to illuminate the first photo-detector;
the first photo-detector is configured to receive the optical feedback signal and to control the power switching driver;
a combination of the LED and the first photo-detector is configured to prevent the detection and control circuit from electrically affecting an operation in the primary side of the transformer; and
the power switching driver is further configured to dynamically adjust the output current driving the one or more LED arrays in response to the optical feedback signal.

US Pat. No. 10,390,394

SOLID-STATE LIGHTING WITH AN INTERFACE BETWEEN AN INTERNAL CONTROL VOLTAGE AND AN EXTERNAL VOLTAGE

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A light-emitting diode (LED) luminaire, comprising:one or more LED arrays;
a power converter configured to convert a line voltage from alternate-current (AC) mains into a first direct-current (DC) voltage;
a power switching driver comprising a transformer having a primary side relative to a first ground reference and a secondary side relative to a second ground reference, a power factor correction (PFC) and control circuit, and a flyback control input, the power switching driver coupled to the power converter and configured to convert the first DC voltage into a second DC voltage with an output current driving the one or more LED arrays; and
a voltage detection circuit comprising a first voltage detection circuit, a second voltage detection circuit, a voltage regulator circuit, an optocoupler circuit, and a pair of low-voltage input/output ports receiving an external voltage, the first voltage detection circuit and the second voltage detection circuit respectively configured to extract a flyback signal from the second DC voltage and the external voltage and to couple to the power switching driver;
wherein:
the optocoupler circuit comprises an LED and a photo-detector;
the LED is configured to receive the flyback signal from both the first voltage detection circuit and the second voltage detection circuit and to illuminate the photo-detector;
the photo-detector is configured to receive the flyback signal in an optical form, to convert the flyback signal from the optical form to an electric signal, and to control the power switching driver;
a combination of the LED and the photo-detector is configured to electrically isolate the second ground reference from the first ground reference; and
the flyback control input is configured to receive the electric signal from the photo-detector for the power switching driver to provide the output current driving the one or more LED arrays in response to the flyback signal.

US Pat. No. 10,218,218

SOLID-STATE LIGHTING SYSTEM OPERATED WITH A HIGH DC VOLTAGE

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A light-emitting diode (LED) lighting system, comprising:a luminaire, comprising:
at least two electrical conductors configured to couple to a line voltage from alternate-current (AC) mains or a direct-current (DC) voltage from a DC power source;
one or more LED arrays;
a first full-wave rectifier connected to the at least two electrical conductors and configured to convert the line voltage from the AC mains into a first DC voltage or to receive and to pass the DC voltage from the DC power source;
an input filter configured to suppress a radio-frequency interference (RFI) noise; and
a Buck circuit coupled to the first full-wave rectifier via the input filter, the Buck circuit configured to provide a power factor correction and to convert the first DC voltage into a second DC voltage that powers up the one or more LED arrays and to meet LED luminaire efficacy and power factor requirements when the line voltage from the AC mains is available;
a rechargeable battery;
a second full-wave rectifier connected to unswitched AC mains and configured to convert a line voltage from the unswitched AC mains into a third DC voltage;
a first driver comprising an isolated step-down converter, a first ground reference, and a second ground reference electrically isolated from the first ground reference, wherein the first driver is coupled to the second full-wave rectifier and configured to convert the third DC voltage into a fourth DC voltage that charges the rechargeable battery to reach a fifth DC voltage;
a second driver comprising a step-up converter comprising a first electronic switch, a second electronic switch, and a center-tapped transformer, the second driver configured to receive the fifth DC voltage from the rechargeable battery and to convert the fifth DC voltage into a sixth DC voltage when the line voltage from the unswitched AC mains is unavailable; and
a voltage sensing and control circuit comprising a first voltage sensing circuit and a relay switch configured to connect either the line voltage from the unswitched AC mains or the sixth DC voltage to the at least two electrical conductors to operate the luminaire, the voltage sensing and control circuit configured to enable the second driver when a rechargeable battery test is performed,
wherein:
the first voltage sensing circuit is configured to detect whether the line voltage from the unswitched AC mains is available and to control the relay switch to couple the sixth DC voltage to the at least two electrical conductors when the line voltage from the unswitched AC mains is unavailable or when the rechargeable battery test is performed, and
the rechargeable battery test is performed to ensure that the rechargeable battery is in a working condition.

US Pat. No. 10,390,395

SOLID-STATE LIGHTING WITH A BATTERY BACKUP CONTROL

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A light-emitting diode (LED) luminaire, comprising:one or more LED arrays;
a rechargeable battery;
a full-wave rectifier configured to convert a line voltage from alternate-current (AC) mains into a first direct-current (DC) voltage;
an input filter configured to suppress an electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise;
a power switching driver comprising a transformer having a primary side and a secondary side, a first rectifier and a second rectifier on the secondary side of the transformer, and a power factor correction (PFC) and control circuit, the power switching driver coupled to the full-wave rectifier via the input filter and configured to convert the first DC voltage into a second DC voltage and a third DC voltage, respectively, via the first rectifier and the second rectifier;
a battery charging circuit comprising a voltage control circuit, a current control circuit, and a first transistor circuit, the battery charging circuit configured to receive and regulate the third DC voltage into a fourth DC voltage to charge the rechargeable battery to a battery terminal voltage;
a battery-operated driver comprising an input transistor and a constant current driver, the constant current driver configured to convert the battery terminal voltage into a fifth DC voltage; and
a detection and control circuit comprising multiple transistor circuits, the detection and control circuit configured to control the input transistor and to enable or disable the constant current driver,
wherein:
the second DC voltage is utilized to operate the one or more LED arrays with a full lumen output when the line voltage from the AC mains is available; and
the fifth DC voltage is utilized to operate the one or more LED arrays with a reduced lumen output relative to the full lumen output when the battery-operated driver is enabled.

US Pat. No. 10,492,265

SOLID-STATE LIGHTING WITH A CONTROL GEAR CASCADED BY A LUMINAIRE

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A light-emitting diode (LED) luminaire control gear, comprising:a rechargeable battery;
a full-wave rectifier configured to be coupled to alternate-current (AC) mains to convert a line voltage from the AC mains into a first direct-current (DC) voltage;
a charging circuit comprising a first transformer, a feedback control circuit, a control device, a first electronic switch, a diode, a first ground reference, and a second ground reference electrically isolated from the first ground reference, wherein the charging circuit is configured to be coupled to the full-wave rectifier to convert the first DC voltage into a second DC voltage that charges the rechargeable battery to reach a third DC voltage, and wherein the feedback control circuit is configured to monitor the second DC voltage and to regulate the control device in response to various charging voltage and current requirements;
a current-fed inverter comprising a second transformer having a primary side and a secondary side, wherein the secondary side comprises at least two windings, wherein the current-fed inverter is configured to receive the third DC voltage from the rechargeable battery and to convert the third DC voltage into at least one high output voltage compatible to a voltage in an input operating voltage range of a power supply unit and at least one low DC output voltage compatible to a voltage in a range of 0-to-10 volts when the line voltage from the AC mains is unavailable; and
a line voltage detection and control circuit comprising a relay switch, wherein the line voltage detection and control circuit is configured to enable or disable the current-fed inverter according to availability of the AC mains, and wherein the relay switch comprises a power sensing coil with a pick-up voltage and a drop-out voltage and is configured to couple either the at least one high output voltage or the line voltage from the AC mains to an external power supply unit to operate thereon, subsequently powering up external one or more LED arrays connected with the external power supply unit,wherein:the relay switch further comprises a first pair of input electrical terminals, a second pair of input electrical terminals, and a third pair of input electrical terminals, wherein the first pair of input electrical terminals are configured to couple to the line voltage from the AC mains, wherein the second pair of input electrical terminals are configured to receive the at least one high output voltage, and wherein the third pair of input electrical terminals are configured to receive the pick-up voltage to operate the power sensing coil; and
the relay switch further comprises a pair of output electrical terminals configured to relay either the line voltage from the AC mains or the at least one high output voltage to the external power supply unit to operate thereon.

US Pat. No. 10,485,073

SOLID-STATE LIGHTING WITH DUAL MODE OPERATIONS

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. A luminaire power pack, comprising:at least two electrical conductors configured to couple to alternate-current (AC) mains;
a rechargeable battery;
at least one full-wave rectifier coupled to the at least two electrical conductors and configured to convert a line voltage from the AC mains into a first direct-current (DC) voltage;
at least one input filter coupled to the at least one full-wave rectifier, the at least one input filter configured to suppress an electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise;
a charging circuit comprising a control device, a first transformer, a first ground reference, and a second ground reference electrically isolated from the first ground reference, the charging circuit coupled to the at least one full-wave rectifier via the at least one input filter and configured to convert the first DC voltage into a second DC voltage that charges a voltage level of the rechargeable battery to reach a third DC voltage;
a light-emitting diode (LED) driving circuit comprising a step-up converter and the second ground reference, the LED driving circuit configured to receive the third DC voltage from the rechargeable battery and to convert the third DC voltage into a fourth AC or DC voltage when the line voltage from the AC mains is unavailable; and
a line voltage detection and control circuit comprising a self-diagnostic circuit and a relay switch, the line voltage detection and control circuit configured to enable or disable the LED driving circuit according to availability of the AC mains, and the relay switch comprising a power sensing coil with a pick-up voltage,
wherein:
the self-diagnostic circuit comprises multiple timers, wherein each of the multiple timers respectively comprises a first time delay and a second time delay, wherein upon application of the third DC voltage to the self-diagnostic circuit, the first time delay in each of the multiple timers begins, wherein at an end of the first time delay an output of the self-diagnostic circuit is energized and remains energized so as to activate the LED driving circuit for the second time delay in each of the multiple timers, wherein at an end of the second time delay in each of the multiple timers the output of the self-diagnostic circuit is de-energized, wherein the first time delay and the second time delay in each of the multiple timers form a sequence, and wherein the sequence repeats until the third DC voltage is removed from the self-diagnostic circuit;
the relay switch further comprises a first pair of input electrical terminals, a second pair of input electrical terminals, and a third pair of input electrical terminals, and wherein the third pair of input electrical terminals are configured to receive the pick-up voltage to operate the power sensing coil; and
the relay switch further comprises a pair of output electrical terminals configured to relay either a first input voltage appeared at the first pair of input electrical terminals or the fourth AC or DC voltage appeared at the second pair of input electrical terminals to the pair of output electrical terminals when the relay switch is activated.

US Pat. No. 10,485,065

SOLID-STATE LIGHTING WITH A LUMINAIRE CONTROL GEAR

ALEDDRA INC., Renton, WA...

1. An add-on luminaire control gear, comprising:a rechargeable battery;
a full-wave rectifier coupled to alternating current (AC) mains and configured to convert a line voltage from the AC mains into a first direct current (DC) voltage;
a charging circuit comprising a transformer, a feedback control circuit, a control device, a first electronic switch, a diode, a first ground reference, and a second ground reference electrically isolated from the first ground reference, wherein the charging circuit is coupled to the full-wave rectifier and configured to convert the first DC voltage into a second DC voltage that charges the rechargeable battery to reach a third DC voltage, and wherein the feedback control circuit is configured to monitor the second DC voltage and to regulate the control device according to charging voltage and current requirements;
at least one DC-to-DC converter comprising a step-up converter comprising an input inductor, a second electronic switch, a logic control device, at least one diode rectifier, and an error amplifier, the at least one DC-to-DC converter configured to couple to the third DC voltage from the rechargeable battery and to convert the third DC voltage into a fourth DC voltage when the line voltage from the AC mains is unavailable; and
a power detection and control circuit comprising a transistor circuit and a relay switch, wherein the transistor circuit is configured to enable and disable the at least one DC-to-DC converter according to availability of the AC mains, and wherein the relay switch comprises a power sensing coil with a pick-up voltage and a drop-out voltage and is configured to couple either the fourth DC voltage or an external DC voltage to an external one or more light-emitting diode (LED) arrays to operate thereon,
wherein:
the relay switch further comprises a first pair of input electrical terminals, a second pair of input electrical terminals, and a third pair of input electrical terminals, wherein the first pair of input electrical terminals are configured to couple to the fourth DC voltage with respect to the second ground reference, wherein the second pair of input electrical terminals are configured to couple to the external DC voltage with respect to a ground reference thereof, and wherein the third pair of input electrical terminals are configured to receive the pick-up voltage to operate the power sensing coil;
the relay switch further comprises a pair of output electrical terminals configured to relay either the fourth DC voltage or the external DC voltage to the external one or more LED arrays to operate thereon; and
the transistor circuit is further configured to disable the relay switch when required.